Carbonates - Science topic
Carbonates are in chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, CO2− 3. The name may also means an ester of carbonic acid, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2.
Questions related to Carbonates
it is assumed that interpreting 4D seismic data shot over hydrocarbon reservoirs made of carbonates is more challenging than for clastic reservoirs. Then what could improve the value of 4D seismic for carbonates?
Please forgive my curiosity and interest. Does deep-sea and shallow-sea sedimentation always correspond exactly to the sequence stratigraphy we currently know? Let's take carbonate sequence stratigraphy as an example, reef formers are shaped by both hrm sea level change and relief as far as we know. So, if we encounter a contradictory sequence of this in the field, how should we interpret it? What we really want to ask is, could there be time intervals where the sequence does not depend on sea level or relief? thanks for your attention.
I have a medium with added Na2CO3 for algal growth...after somedays algal cells will utilize the Carbonate for its growth...i need to find out how much carbonate ion is consumed by algae after 15 days of growth...Any one kindly tell me the titration procedure for this...
I need the CIF file of Na2CO3 having space group C2/m with cell parameters (a=9.0107, b=5.2443, c=6.3053, alpha=90, beta=97.3490 and gamma=90) and cell volume of 295.50. This file is present in COD and AMCSD but it has incomplete information i.e. scattering coefficient of C is missing, which is causing problem in Rietveld refinement. Does anyone can provide the CIF file or the source from where I can find the complete detail of this system.
I ask about a very strange case that not very common but maybe some body faced it or suggest a reliable interpretation. Is it possible to find diagenetic unmetamorphosed phanerozoic carbonate sandwiched between old assemblage of precambrian volcanics that underwent metamorphism ? and there is no conglomerate or breccia lies at the contact between the basement and the sediments ? noteworthy is the presence of faults is a familiar case in that area.
i attach a simplification sketch cross-section for the case
I would like to hear from you all
In order to perform Michaelis-Menten plot to calculate Km for oxa beta lactamase , I used nitrocefin as substrate , 100mM sodium phosphate di basic and 25mM sodium carbonate as buffer pH 7.3
Enzyme concentration 20nM
Wavelength 490 nm
In order to calculate Vo ,
I plotted the absorbance values of each concentration vs time. The problem is , the slope for all the concentrations are same which means that Vo of all substrate concentrations are same.
Where is my mistake?
concentrations of the enzyme?
Concentration of the substrate?
I am trying to measure Fe (II) with the 1-10-Phenanthroline method in my water samples that will come from hydrothermal experiments containing CO2. Preliminary testing show that carbonate interferes with the measurement. Does anyone know of a work around to this?
When I do the PPC-PC reverse dry transfer method, PPC and the sample fall on the PC, and then I melt the PC/ sample /PC onto the silicon chip, how do I remove both PPC and PC to get the sample?
As against ‘sandstone reservoirs’, ‘carbonate reservoirs’ are usually characterized by ‘extreme’ and more often ‘random’ variations of porosity, permeability and rock-type within a field (associated with the highly-soluble nature of carbonate rocks). Since, the original character of the sedimentary sequence – in a carbonate reservoir - gets ‘greatly’ altered by either solution; cementation; fracturing; or, by mineral replacement; would it remain feasible by ML/AI to deduce any sensible correlation of logical patterns of porosity and permeability distribution of various carbonate reservoirs?
Whether the knowledge of ‘original sedimentary patterns’ (recognition of specific depositional events in a carbonate reservoir that could possibly lead to the major flow paths and to deduce the effect of various types of reservoir energies on ultimate oil recovery) could be of any help – while using ML/AI - towards deducing fruitful insights on characterizing fluid flow through a carbonate reservoir?
Electrochemical cell. Sandwich-like structure: Conductive FTO electrode 1, Tungsten oxide layer 2, LiClO4 propylene carbonate solution electrolite 3, and FTO counterelectrode 4. Isolated system with no contact with air. Li+ intercalation into Tungsten oxide gives electrochemical reaction on applied direct current.
So the question is: EIS gives such unordinary result (watch Aftermath project below, or xls file). How on Earth could this be? What could explain low frequency small semicircles or inductive loops? What equivalent circuit could you suggest?
P.S. I suppose some of intercalated ions could deintercalate (or vice versa) during one way low frequency AC, otherwise the reaction goes slower. Let me know your suggestion
Effective Porosity: Feasible to measure?
Since, most of a 'petroleum reservoir cross section' remains occupied ‘by rock’ and ‘by oil and water’ that remains securely attached to the rock surfaces by molecular attraction, the ‘actual’ area through which ‘the water and oil keeps flowing’ is definitely going to be lesser than the ‘total’ reservoir cross sectional area of the oil and water bearing petroleum reservoir. In this context, would it remain feasible to deduce this ‘reduced cross-sectional area’ through the fluid (oil and water) keeps flowing?
Is there a way to grab the details on the effects of ‘attached water and oil’ that would probably help us to deduce the extent by which the ‘effective-porosity’ has been reduced from its actual value?
To what extent, this effective porosity would influence the resulting migration of ‘water flow’ and ‘oil flow’?
To what extent, the 'reservoir pressure' would influence the resulting 'effective porosity' associated with a sandstone and a carbonate reservoir?
Is there 'a straight-forward method' to determine the effective-porosity of a petroleum reservoir? If any such direct method exists, then, what exactly (which force) is supposed to drain ‘water and oil’ from those inter-connected pore-spaces?
Feasible to precisely estimate the volume of water and oil that remains retained by the petroleum reservoir as ‘specific retention’ (volume of oil and water that cannot easily drained by free gravity)?
In the absence of precise value on effective porosity, how do we deduce the ‘oil flow rate’ and ‘water flow rate’ exactly?
How do we have a control over the details on
(a) the degree of compaction encountered by matrix-porosity (microscopic porosities); and on
(b) the degree of intensity of fracturing – resulting from overlying rock mass – as a function of depth - towards estimating 'effective porosity'?
To what extent, the extent of ‘effective porosity’ associated with the matrix (primary) and fracture (secondary porosity) in soluble carbonate reservoirs 'gets modified' by 'the process of karstification or dissolution of carbonate minerals' by 'flowing brine containing weak carbonic acid' (assuming major oil fields around the globe remain hosted in limestone and dolomite reservoirs, which keep encountering various depositional environments and processes of its diagenesis)?
When the diameter and throat size, in general, have no relation to sedimentary particle size or sorting in a carbonate reservoir, how do we then deduce the ‘average pore sizes’ in a carbonate reservoir associated with low-permeable rock-matrix; and how exactly, we deduce the 'average fracture aperture thickness' associated with the high-permeable fracture-network?
1. What exactly dictates the economic viability of a surfactant-aided chemical EOR - despite it's retention of surfactants through adsorption, precipitation, degradation & phase-trapping?
2. How exactly are we able to upscale - the observed physical/chemical processes associated with the ‘surfactant adsorption’ (van der Waals interactions between non-polar surfactant chains, hydrogen bonding, chemisorption, surface precipitation, electrostatic interaction, ion exchange, hydrophobic tail-solid interactions) from ‘sub-pore-scale’ to Darcy-scale?
Feasible to bridge the gap, if the cores are aged with crude oil in the presence of connate-water?
3. Feasible to quantify the magnitude of adsorbed surfactants as a function of formation brine-composition, reservoir rock-type and its mineralogical composition, pH & salinity of in-situ and injected fluid phases, surface-redox potential and the fundamental chemical structure of the injected surfactants?
4. What is the fraction of ‘total adsorbed surfactants’ that tend to get desorbed as a function of time (sorption kinetics)?
Does it depend on ‘surface wettability’ and ‘redox state’ of the used cores?
5. How do we ensure whether the rate at which surfactants get adsorbed remain the same - throughout the surfactant-aided chemical EOR treatment?
6. How about the desorption of surfactants?
Whether, do we have a correlation between surfactant adsorption and desorption rates?
7. Under what circumstances, are we supposed to expect
(a) non-equilibrium adsorption?;
(b) non-linear adsorption?; &
(c) sorption kinetics of the surfactants
associated with the surfactant-aided chemical EOR?
8. To what extent, are we able to restore a sandstone core from an oxidized- to a reduced-state towards replicating anaerobic reservoir conditions @ lab-scale in the absence of impacting core-mineralogy and pore-structure?
Feasible to quantify the reduction in surfactant adsorption in cores under anaerobic conditions - resulting from oxide removal and calcite dissolution?
9. Considering reservoir surface hydrophobicity as a function of time, how about the natural correlation between ‘the oil or water-wet surfaces of a sandstone/carbonate reservoir rock’ and ‘the adsorption of surfactants’?
10. How about the rate of wettability alterations for a sandstone and a carbonate reservoir?
11. How exactly the ‘specific surface area’ and the ‘adsorption density per unit surface area’ gets altered in a typical sandstone and carbonate reservoirs – resulting from wettability treatment of cores at the laboratory-scale – before and after reaching CMC?
12. Whether the observed ‘arrival time of surfactant front’ @ lab-scale would match with the field-scale scenario?
13. To what extent, the observed results on the surfactant concentration @ lab-scale reflect the real field scenario, particularly, following the surfactant breakthrough?
Phosphate, carbonate, chloride, and phosphate ions can all be found in simulated body fluids. What chemical process may be used to remove the corrosion product?
My background is in geology/geochemistry so I have never dealt with preserved organic specimens before. I recently acquired some preserved modern crinoids that I would like to process and analyze for major/trace element concentrations (mainly Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn) and calcium isotopes. I will be analyzing the mineralized skeleton of the crinoids, which are composed of high-Mg calcite, and have an established procedure to eliminate the organic mater from the samples involving a multi-step treatment with HCl and hydrogen peroxide. However, this procedure was established for calcified algal mats that were stored in water in a fridge, and not alcohol/formaldehyde.
These crinoid samples were collected in the early 90s and have been sitting in alcohol/formaldehyde for the past ~30 years. While alive many crinoids are brilliant in colour (reds, oranges, yellows, etc); however the preserved samples I have are dull brown or pale white in colour. Does this mean the preservation solution has leached or broken down some of the organic pigments? If the preservation solution is leaching/breaking down the organic matter, would it also affect the mineralized skeleton? I will be analyzing the crinoid sample on an ICP-OES, so maybe it would be worth it to analyze some of the preservation solution?
Thanks for any help or insight!
I want the correct method to infiltrate the carbonate mixture into a ceramic hollow fibre membrane. Based on some of the publications stated that the carbonate mixture needs to be pre-heated at 600oC before the addition of membrane in a vertical furnace. Do I need to pre-heated the carbonate mixture, or can I just put the membrane in the carbonate mixture and heat at 600oC?
I also need to know how to put the mixture in a vertical furnace. How can a vertical furnace hold the sample?
I appreciate any help you can provide.
I am new to modeling, i am only familiar with Gaussian (quantum mechanics only)
And I want to model the adsorption mechanism of Dye Methylene blue on metal carbonate because therir are many psoible mechanisms like elecrostatic attraction force or Hydrogen bond. I don't know if it works with quantum mechanics or classical mechanics.
plz advice me
CARBONATE RESERVOIR CHARACTAERIZATION
1. As against primary porosity - either inter-granular or intra-particle porosity (which mostly remain insensitive to stresses and thereby not actively participating in dictating the resultant preferred orientation),
(a) if the spatial distribution and alignment of primary fractures and secondary fractures (micro-cracks) in a given direction could contribute to the anisotropic behavior of carbonate reservoirs – as a function of regional stress distribution; and
(b) if the presence of secondary pores such as vuggy/fenestral/moldic/inter-crystalline porosity could contribute the stiffness (leading to a significant difference between acoustic log porosity and neutron-density log porosity) and strength to the carbonate reservoirs; then,
to what extent, are we successful in characterizing the quality (and elasticity) of a carbonate reservoir by measuring the various in-situ secondary pore-types?
And, how easy/difficult would it remain, if the secondary porosity keeps varying as a function of (varying) effective stress?
Can we still manage to characterize the above system with the data from neutron-porosity and sonic-logs (albeit, their inability to directly measure the rock’s pore-types)
an averaging between HSW/Reuss lower bound and Voiget upper bound would sound better for a carbonate reservoir?
2. In the presence of a formation damage, will we be able to qualify fracture porosity when VDL remains negative;
Formation/Electrical micro-imagers would remain better (or a micro-CT)?
3. Leaving aside the micro-cracks associated with the fracture-porosity, which one of the following three:
(a) clay-related pores;
(b) inter-grain and inter-crystal pores; and
(c) stiff pores;
would predominantly aid
in migrating the mobility of oil
from low-permeable rock-matrix to high-permeable fractures?
Why do you use a coating buffer containing carbonate / b-carbonate for ELISA?
Do you use a combination of carbonate and bi-carbonate?
Or do you just use one of them? If yes, when do you use carbonate and when b-carbonate?
Although formed over thousands of years, carbonate ramps forming where ocean sediments accumulate multicellular algae may be affected by ocean chemistry in such a way as to have a unique morphology.
I am trying to prepare a bicarbonate buffer for TNBS analysis which requires a 0.1 M bicarbonate buffer of pH 8.5. Most of the chemical suppliers have a reagent of 1 M and of different pH. I have been told that I can use carbonate and bicarbonate to make the buffer using the Henderson-hasselbalch equation, but I am not sure how to calculate exactly how much concentration or volume must be added in order to obtain a specific pH buffer of the same. Can anyone point out the exact process to make the same? Thanks.
[I have also attached the protocol steps for reference.]
In many formulation of silicate paint they add 1% of 'white spirit'. Other main ingredients are K-silicate - about 25-30%
Carbonate filler - about 30%
Water - 15-20%
TIO2 or pigment - about 10%
Polymer - 8%
So what is the reason to add white spirit?
I have preserved my water samples with HNO3. The samples collected from field and brought to lab after 2 days. Now can I determine Carbonate and bicarbonate from HNO3 mixed sample?
I am working with polymer:salt aqueous two phase systems to purify a small organic chemical product. The distribution of the chemical depends on the pH of the solution, so I want to test different pH values and with different salts.
The first problem I have, is that the different salts (Potassium carbonate, Sodium sulfate, Potassium phosphate) will affect the pH due to their acidity/basicity. I thought I might formulate solutions with the desired pH values by mixing specific ratios of the acids and conjugate bases, but the desired pH values are sometimes far from the pKa values of the buffers (e.g. pH 10 in a potassium buffer). I am not sure if the Henderson Hasselbach equation can be used in such cases, and the predicted pH would still be off due to the high ionic strength (~1-2 M), beyond what the Debye Hückel theory can correct for.
Alternatively I thought I might just adjust the pH of the buffers with strong acid/base.
The second problem I have, is that I can't accurately measure the pH values of concentrated (~10-20% w/w) salt solutions with a standard glass electrode. I am considering using the specific salt as a filling solution in the electrode instead of KCl, or using a buffer with the salt for calibration. But I don't know how either approach will work in practice.
Any advice, input, or references would be welcomed!
I have nepheline syenite gneisses, consisting of grossular-andradite (grandite) series garnets. Other minerals of these rocks are nepheline (seldom altered), plagioclase, k-feldspar, calcite, amphibole (Ca-rich), titanate, sodalite, and cancrinite. Pyroxene is however absent and the amount of biotite is quite low. In the field, highly weathered carbonate veins are also noticed. Do these garnets indicate any carbonate activity (metasomatism) in the alteration of the original minerals of protolith nepheline syenite or any metamorphic effect? Answers and suggestions are welcome.
Does anyone know about a study where the concentrations of one or more redox-sensitive elements including uranium, molybdenum, and vanadium are reported for the silicates/carbonates rocks in the Himalayan regions?
Hai everyone...Can anyone help me how 1.3g/L of Na2CO3 is calculated for 5% CO2. from the below reference took from research article.
The values of sodium carbonate concentrations corresponding to 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% CO2 concentrations at pH 7 are 1.3 g/L, 2.6 g/L, 3.8 g/L, 5.1 g/L, and 7.6 g/L, respectively.
I would like to have the vdw force field parameters of different phosphate and carbonate ionic species (eg. PO4,3- / HPO4,2- / HCO3,-) for a molecular dynamics simulation.
I'm not well familiar with charmm and amber force fields. So, my question is if I can obtain the parameters from these FFs? and if yes, which one is more sound?
I would appreciate any specific articles and/or tutorials related to my question.
Thanks in advance,
From literature, I am aware that Ce anomaly in marine and carbonate sediments are good indicator of depositional setting, but this alone cannot be used for this purpose as it may be influenced by the detritus phase. I would like to know if there are other geochemical indicators which could be used to reliably predict depositional environments in carbonate sediments.
Seismic Inversion and Carbonate Reservoir Characterization
1. Feasible to precisely understand the rock properties – from the spatial variations in impedance contrasts – towards estimating the carbonate reservoir properties (away from production well) – using seismic amplitude data?
2. To what extent, the details on the fracture-size, fracture-shape distributions – could be deduced – using seismic responses (spatial variation of impedance contrasts) – towards identifying optimal drilling locations – in a carbonate reservoir?
3. To what extent, the details on the mineral composition and interaction among minerals – will influence – the fracability of a carbonate reservoir – using the approach of seismic acquisition, processing and pre-stack inversion?
If so, then, how exactly to relate the fracability of a carbonate reservoir to the seismic estimates – on the ratio of differential horizontal stresses; the pressure to initiate fractures; and the closure pressure?
4. Have any major limitations - associated with the ‘isotropic’ seismic inversion algorithm – towards estimating the continuous rock properties – of a carbonate reservoir - at the seismic-scale?
5. How sensitive will be – the coupling between ‘rock-physics modeling’ and ‘pre-stack seismic inversion’ – towards ‘value estimation from grid searching’ – in a carbonate reservoir?
6. Feasible to justify the assumptions of (a) linear approximation for reflectivity; and (b) the natural logarithms of P-impedance, S-impedance & density to have a linear correlation – in a carbonate reservoir – towards simultaneous inversion of pre-stack seismic data?
7. To what extent, the simultaneous investigation of rock properties of a carbonate reservoir – along with the interpretation of seismic attribute variations – would really mitigate the contradictions, if any – arising from – having both explicit and implicit relationships between rock and elastic properties of a carbonate reservoir?
8. To what extent, will we be able to achieve the ‘accuracy’ of ‘seismic inversion’ - in a carbonate reservoir?
What are the consequences of not inverting the elastic properties correctly – in a carbonate reservoir (apart from the difficulty of correlating the carbonate rock properties with the seismic attributes)?
Feasible to perform ‘anisotropic inversion’ – in a carbonate reservoir (in the absence of anisotropic measurements @ both log-scale and laboratory-scale, while the seismic data quality @ far offsets remaining poor)?
9. How easy/difficult will it remain - to capture the impedance contrast - at the fracture-matrix interface - in a carbonate reservoir?
Hi, I have a doubt about making an equivalent %co2 solution with sodium carbonate. I have attached the reference equation quoted in the research article. If anyone knows how to derive the equation kindly help me.
pH=6.30+log [ HCO3− ] −log [ CO2]
pH=10.09+log [ CO3 2- ] −log [ HCO3-]
The values of sodium carbonate concentrations corresponding to 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% CO2 concentrations at pH 7 are 1.3 g/L, 2.6 g/L, 3.8 g/L, 5.1 g/L, and 7.6 g/L, respectively.
I have seen in recent literature that LiOH is preferencialy used to synthesized NCM811 whereas we can either use Li2CO3 or LiOH to synthesize NCM111 and 622. Is there any parasitic reactions with carbonate when nickel content is high ?
I'm an undergraduate student performing HCN production of PGPR, and we cannot prepare 2% sodium carbonate in 0.5% picric acid solution because we don't have a procedure can you please help us. thank you so much
Everyone on the internet (almost) attributes Global Warming (GW) and Climate Change (CC) to CO2 in the atmosphere. It is like a mantra (or disclaimer :o/) applied to almost every study related to science, even those far removed from the subject of earth sciences.
As a Chemical Engineer I recognize that there is a strong correlation between earth's temperature and CO2 in the atmosphere. But Correlation does not prove cause and/or effect. And sometimes we tend to reverse cause and effect... A favorite poem of mine is this:
"I often pause to wonder at fates peculiar ways
So many very famous men were born on Holidays." (Author disputed)
The same correlation exists between the CO2 in a bottle of soda pop and the atmosphere captured above the liquid. In the Pop example the CO2 molecules constantly travels out-of and in-to the liquid, and the overall balance is based on the temperature. The same thing happens in the oceans (and even the carbonate rock of earth itself) and the atmosphere above both.
So I ask this: what if the earth was warming up (by some "unusual event" over several hundred years)? The CO2 in the atmosphere would increase... correct? So Heat would cause more CO2, rather than CO2 causing more heat. (Pause: I know the "greenhouse effect" has been shown in the Laboratory... but without the presence of the massive CO2 buffers, like the ocean, and rock. My pop bottle example suffers from the same limitations... I am just proposing an alternative to the mantra... that I would like someone to explore as a mental experiment.)
But what “unusual event” has occurred to warm the earth over recent centuries?
Could it be the magnetic pole shift that is now ongoing? I have searched for an explanation of how much energy would be generated (inside the earth) by a magnetic polar shift. I found only one article. And it said heat would be generated.
But it was just a guess as to how much heat is being produced and there was no attempt to correlate it with CO2 release. So little is known about the earth more than a few hundred feet down... if we knew more about the core of the earth we might even be able to predict earthquakes and volcanic eruptions... but so far we can't. If you can just imagine for a moment that 1/4 or 1/2 of the earths interior mass was rotating (or just moving a few microns) inside the earth, you can see the possibilities for friction and a huge amount of energy release.
The entire earth might only warn by a tiny fraction of a degree... but that would release massive amounts of CO2 from the rocks themselves. Then add the ocean's release of CO2 and/or its inability to absorb more CO2.
I think this is worth investigation by the Physicists and Geologists and Oceanographers, and Chemists of Research Gate. What do you think?
I am currently engaged in wastewater management-related work. Can carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in water be calculated using alkalinity and pH? Please offer any empirical equations relevant to this, if any exist.
I am trying to find a method for FTIR analysis of carbonized textile surfaces. I could not be able to analyze by FTIR-ATR. Is the spectrum obtained with a powdered sample with KBr meaningful for the entire non-homogeneous surface? Is there any method for FTIR analysis of 3D carbonized fabric?
Is there some kind of empirical formula or some outcrop characteristics you can use to assess the duration a sandstone outcrop was subject to weathering? How big is the influence of the cementation material (clay, ferritic cement, carbonate, silicate, gypsum)? Are there any publication on this topic?
I want to use orbitolinids for the biostratigraphy of a Barremiam/Aptian carbonate platform, to support my chemostratigraphy data. I have used related publications for descriptions and pictures trying to identify the different species, but I would like to have the opinion of an expert to confirm my classification.
We know Ooids from variety of environments when water is agitated and microbial activity exists, such as tidal environments, also in high salinities they better compete with other carbonate forming grains, they are also known from salt lakes, such as the one in Utah. However are they also reported from freshwater lakes?
In my lab, we measure clumped isotope on bioapatite carbonates. Our acid reaction is at 70deg.C. We are wondering if anyone knows the acid fractionation value that we need to use or can give me a ref? I only found for 90 and 110deg.C. Thank you!
Decreased carbonate ions with increased bicarbonate ions reduce pH. But while measuring water quality, we estimate carbonate and bicarbonate ions as one of the parameters and a higher concentration of these ions indicates alkalinity. But how ocean acidification happens when bicarbonate concentration increases.
The HR ESIMS of a compound we obtained from natural source seems to exhibit a carbonate adduct. If this has already been reported, please kindly send me the paper.
I am looking for an alternate method to measure percentage of carbonate impurity from sodium bicarbonate. The specification is <0.23% carbonate. There is a titration method using barium chloride to precipitate the carbonate and back titration for the bicarbonate. This will measure total carbonate/ bicarbonate and also bicarbonate only, in order to calculate the carbonate. I am not sure if this will be sensitive enough for small amount of carbonate, which is less than 0.23%. I try find other ideas or separation with different techniques, for example using ion chromatography, but it seemed that carbonate and bicarbonate not separable by IC by many articles. Any comment and suggested techniques or method for this quantitation. This was originally a project to find alternate method from the USP method using the carbonate apparatus (for sodium bicarbonate) since we have difficulty with the method.
I am looking for a lab methodology that would be suitable to arsenic sequential extraction in carbonates. Many of the papers I find are applied to siliciclastics and the strong acid reagents used can dissolve carbonates, hence yielding erroneous results.
Am making carbonized biomass value chain analysis and for such work, I am calculating carbon footprint.
I would therefore appreciate if anyone can share one (carbon footprint calculator e.g., spreadsheet) with me or direct me to a link/website where I can access one.
Recently there were published many “comment papers” in valid journals such as Palaeoworld, Geological Journal, Carbonates and Evaporites and ... regarding the larger benthic foraminifera where accurate identifications require a high level of experience and knowledge of their taxonomy, this is the main question who are really the cause of these mistakes and problems?
In anticline structure carbonate Reservoir of areal extension 31x10 km with 24 to26 degrees. no compartments. And no faces alteration (hydraulic continuty exist) multiple Downhole samples, MDT, and well testing samples were taken the bubble point ranging from 2140 psi in one flank to 2746 psi as average.
Can the inorganic carbon isotopes measured in a sequence of deep-water profiles dominated by black shale be used as a stratigraphic correlation? If the absolute values are affected (possibly more negatively than shallow-water carbonates), can the isotopic trends be correlated?
I'm looking for a laboratory that measures clumped isotopes - Δ47. My research interests are carbonate minerals occurring in ultramafic rocks. I plan to reconstruct the formation conditions of various carbonates from ultramafic massifs from the north-east part of the Bohemian Massif. The carbonates were probably formed in both supergene and hydrothermal conditions and I aim to distinguish how these conditions had changed in terms of time and space. I would like to reconstruct magnesite precipitation conditions using clumped Isotope palaeothermometry.
Please let me know if you are open to collaboration and what are possible costs involved. Long-time scientific cooperation is possible :)
Contact me on Researchgate or firstname.lastname@example.org
Dear, I need to prepare carbonate buffer for my ELISA work. It requires the pH of 9.6 to be used. In the ref. method, it is stated that bicarbonate/carbonate buffer is used. However, I ever done ELISA before this time, using just only bicarbonate dissolved in water and it has pH around 8.5. My advisor told me it is the same thinig between the two buffer system but somehow Im eager to know how the two is the same (or different). I already have tried to look for explanation anywhere but im not quite good at chemistry much.
Another question is that I see from "https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/TH/en/technical-documents/protocol/protein-biology/protein-concentration-and-buffer-exchange/buffer-reference-center" and I understand that 0.1 M of bicarbonate/carboante buffer has concentration of bicarbonate and carbonate both equal to 0.1 M. However, when I look into "https://www.aatbio.com/resources/buffer-preparations-and-recipes/carbonate-bicarbonate-buffer-ph-9-2-to-10-6" at pH 9.6 (which can be adjust), it shows that the concentration of those 2 chemicals are not equal but somehow give the summation into 0.1. I wonder which I am misunderstanding the concept. Thank you in advance for the reply ^^"
I am doing the synthesis of tert-butyl 6-(3-hydroxy-propyl-methy-lamino)quinoline-4-carboxylate, using Cesium carbonate, BINAP, and Pd2(dba)3 and N-methyl-1,3-propanolamine in Toulene.
TLC using different solvents and ratios didn't work out even using column chromatography, so does anyone know how to purify my compound ?
to get rid of Cesium Carbonate, BINAP and Pd2dba3 ?
I want to know about the carbonization process related to electrospun fiber.
Is there any effective way to reconstruct the thermal history of deep carbonate formations?
I know that there is a Δ47/(U-Pb) method, but is this method too harsh for the selection of carbonate samples?
I need to carbonize the NBR rubber sample. Can anyone explain the formation of graphitic structure from the carbonization of NBR? Is there any mechanism relevant for this formation?
Which method and which function is suitable to be used to get the target?
1. Productivity of single well at a different location in fractured cave carbonate reservoir
2. Productivity of multiple wells at a favorable location in fractured cave carbonate reservoir
Your help will be highly appreciated
Mass balance calculations require that carbonates with δ13-C < -5 (per mil) contain some carbon derived from the oxidation of organic matter. Given that several negative isotopic anomalies much smaller than that (< -10) are recorded, notably in the Neoproterozoic, is it possible that there is another source for depletion in 13C?
What kind of carbonate minerals depression is preferrable for Au-bearing sulfides flotation (may be reverse flotation?) for such an ore:
- quartz - 10-30%
- feldspar (orthoclase) - 5-40%
- clay&mica - 20-30%
- Fe-dolomite&ankerite - 5-60% (!)
- FeS2 - 1-8%
- FeAsS - 0,5-3%
- AsS - 0,2-2%
- ZnS - 0,1-4%
- PbS - 0,1-1%
Gold is mainly assotiated with Py and AsPy. There are also 0,5-5,0 mkm particles of electrum. Any advice for effective modern reagents?