Science topic

Carbon Sequestration - Science topic

Carbon Sequestration is an any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Questions related to Carbon Sequestration
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what is soil-based carbon sequestration? and how can I measure or estimate scientifically?
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You can consult this recent report under green India Mission
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Dear RG community members,
having in mind that I have really low rate of knowledge on carbon sequestration, I will need your help. My questaion is, which methodology and monitoring systems should be used for the calculation of carbon sequestration in wetlands?
Thank you,
regards from Croatia,
Zlatko
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Aquatic flora are to be collected and species wise biomass to be recorded and finally CHN analyser to be used
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I need to know which tree species can be beneficial to be planted close to date palm trees for better yield and soil improvement (with references).
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Thank you @Shuraik Kader for sharing this useful paper.
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What happens when soil is tilled and how does tillage affect soil carbon sequestration?
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Tillage can break up soil structure, speed the decomposition and loss of organic matter, increase the threat of erosion, destroy the habitat of helpful organisms and cause compaction. Each of these potential outcomes negatively impact soil quality.
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There is a lot of demand for information about the potential of different tree species (and also other types of crops) to capture and store carbon.
Such information is critical to designing farms with a better climate footprint.
This is particularly true for agroforestry farming systems relying on one or more tree species!
However, information on this topic seems completely scattered and not synthesized.
Does such a database exist?
Best regards,
Thomas Fungenzi
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I am going to calculate the carbon sequestration potential of some trees in arid and semi-arid regions using trunk diameter and tree height. Is there a way to calculate carbon sequestration potential without destroying trees?
What is the most suited reliable method?
Selected trees include apple, walnut, elm and almond.
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How to accurately calculate the terrestrial carbon sink at large and small watershed scales? Model stimulation or field work?
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Need to focus in individual species within the watershed, and test soil once a year to determine the increased in organic matter, because it will be different from species to species.
Another interesting test to do, is carbon date the soil carbon, and see how long each species sequesters the carbon in the soil. Testing Nevada desert grassland soils last year, it was a minimum of 300 years, which makes desert grasslands a very good place for long term carbon sequestration.
Saudi Arabia (KSA) started a project this year, to sequester carbon by planting one million trees a WEEK, for a total of 10 BILLION trees at the end of that project, that I got started with my website at https://www.ecoseeds.com/cool.html in 2002 when KSA set aside 175 million acres of preserves to do ecological restoration, to convert the barren deserts back to grasslands and forest.
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Hello,
I am working on the life cycle assessment of the manufacturing process of coconut-based activated carbon.
During this step, the carbonization process emits 6460kg of CO2 from the coconut combustion (electricity excluded).
The question I have is if it is legit to use a :
"Carbon monoxide, non-fossil" data instead of a fossil data. Because using the non-fossil data simply nullifies the CO2 eq with EF method calculation.
Although bio-based materials sequestrate carbon naturally, I was wondering what the right step was.
Regards,
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Hi Jeremy,
Maybe start first with composition of Coconut shell.
Coconut shell is a raw material containing:
pentose (27.7%);
cellulose (26.6%);
lignin (29.4%);
water (12.2%);
anhydrous uronate (3.5%);
and ash (0.6%).
The first three biochemical compounds are carbon based. Should check out carbon content of uronate!
I calculated the CO2 emission from the total combustion of 1 kg of Coconut shells to be: 344 g CO2, take or leave 5% confidence.
Check it out.
Cheers,
Frank
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If both are same, why we would use different words with same meaning?
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@Rudiger The key difference between carbon capture and storage and carbon sequestration is that carbon capture and storage involve capturing, transporting, and storing carbon dioxide, while carbon sequestration only involves storing carbon dioxide for a longer period of time.
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The idea is to have a list of different trees species from different biogeographical areas which have been tested as the best carbon sequestration species.
So if people are planning to make a plantation, they have a guide to using local species to create a mixed forest using the best species for co2 sequestration.
Similar soil, water requirements, seasons, etc will be considered
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Thank you for this data !! I will use it .
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Trees are known for their carbon sequestration ability (see the VDO attached)
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12 percent In the United States, forest and croplands currently sequester the equivalent of 12 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the energy, transportation and indus- trial sectors (EPA, 2008b).
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General perception is that a fast growing species are better carbon sequester if it holds than all CDM projects will have these species. What will be role of old species and other slow or moderate growth species vis a vis role of site quality with respect to fast growing species. How to determine carbon sequestration potential of and species mean ideal parameters for consideration eg.  age of tree, site factor / surrounds, tree associates/ allelopathy nature, nutrient cycle / physiology/ silvics of the species etc.
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Definitely because of high biomass, but lamina area also matters. Kindly consult this Govt. report
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Hello everyone,
I have a question about the carbon sequestration from less durable bio-based products (e.g., animal bedding from wood chips or straw). My goal is to measure the carbon footprint of a bio-based product.
Based on my understanding, since the carbon stored in the biomass of less durable products (i.e., bio-based products with less than one-year lifespan) is turned back (released) to the atmosphere as CO2 (if the end-of-life scenario is landfilling), the carbon sequestration of these products does not contribute to climate change mitigation.
However, I found that in the long-term (<100 years) 2%-16% of the carbon content of compost will remain in the soil (Ref: Martínez-Blanco et al., 2013).
My question is if my product will be used as compost, and it goes back into the soil, should I consider that part of its carbon content will be added to the soil carbon sink and contribute as sequestered carbon?
Any suggestions or sharing similar thoughts would be appreciated.
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Please guide me for calculation of carbon sequestration per year?
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EU institutions are currently revising climate and energy legislation to align with the new target of at least 55% net emissions reduction by 2030. As part of that work the European Commission proposes to increase the EU carbon sink removal capacity, with an annual target of 300 Million tonnes removal by 2030. How can that target best be shared amongst the 27 EU countries? They have very different areas of natural/semi-natural sinks, and also sinks with very different characteristics, from blanket bog, to estuaries, seagrass beds, agroforestry, pastures, croplands and, of course, highly diverse forest and scrub types and carbon absorption rates. In particular, I am interested in how these sinks will behave under predicted climate change impacts and especially, in vulnerable areas such as the Mediterranean (I work in Spain)
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Planting new trees and improving forest health through thinning and prescribed burning are some of the ways to increase forest carbon in the long run. Harvesting and regenerating forests can also result in net carbon sequestration in wood products and new forest growth.
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Jhargram is rich in tress like Eucalyptus, Sal and Akashmoni which can absorb carbon.
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Evidences can't tell until we go for soil organic carbon estimation. According to the information definitely there will be more carbon stocks.
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Rice- Wheat cropping system is the prominent cropping system of India. What are the best management practices of R-W cropping system that leads to soil carbon sequestration?
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Dear Arvind Singh sir,
Thank you so much. It would be more helpful if you kindly attach some recent reference.
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what do the global market look like currently for carbon sequestration
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Carbon financing to safeguard the planet
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Despite such great interests in greening our planet to compensate environmental damage of human activities, I have found very little on how we can meaningfully 'measure' the magnitude of carbon sequestrations by trees. Attached is one of the only publications that I could source which outlines how much carbon a year a number of tree varieties arrest and sequestrate as they mature.
Does anyone have any other referenceable sources that outlines carbon sequestration of plants?
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@ Mohammad, the attached files may be useful to you. In general, carbon sequestration by trees can be calculated by multiply the weight of carbon in the tree by 3.67 as the weight of CO2 in trees is determined by the ratio of CO2 to C is 44/12 = 3.67.
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Hi there,
Happy new year!
Thank you for taking time to look at my questions.
I have two questions regarding the use of biochar for synergistically sequestrating carbon and controlling soil heavy metal.
1. Do you know any references about the use of biochar for synergistically sequestrating carbon and controlling heavy metal in soil? (I could not find a good one)
2. Could this be an interesting topic to explore (in your opinion)? Why or why not?
I would appreciate any ideas or suggestions on these two questions.
Many thanks in advance!
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please just put these keywords on any search engine like google or yahoo , you will find hordes of literature pouring in.....since this is the most debated issue of biochar. Infact , biochars proved their worth through these issues only.
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Non-vegetation is widespread in arid/semi-arid areas, and non-vegetation plays a pivotal role in soil and water conservation and carbon sequestration. However, the current assessment of non-vegetation carbon sequestration has always been a bottleneck. Commonly used ecological models are mostly based on green vegetation, and the amount of carbon sequestration is further obtained through the utilization of light energy. However, how can non-vegetation use ecological models to assess their carbon sequestration?
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Litter and detritus sampling and subsequent analysis through CHN analyzer can give you an approximation
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Carbon sequestration (CS), hiding Cabon in soil, is considered a way by which the occurrence of global warming could be reduced. However, it would be somewhat difficult to quantify the net CS that happens for a given period. Adding C into soils promotes solid organic matter, microbial activities, development of soil structure, etc. in soils. Benchmarking and increasing C storage in soils over time would enable quantifying or generating a realistic value. Any experience and suggestions to quantify CS are appreciated.
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You can go through this paper and refer it --- My Best Wishes
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I'm researching on carbon sequestering potential of perennial plants and seek to connect with scientists/ subject matter experts who have conducted carbon sequestration studies on plants. The goal is understand how to plan, execute and accelerate such studies. Open to guidance and/ or collaboration.
Thank you for your consideration!
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How to estimate the potential carbon sequestration of an area that has been restored by one year or less?
Can I use functional traits of planted species to estimate it broadly?
I am very interested in any suggestions/articles about it.
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Quantification of carbon based on traits is important to know the contribution of each component.
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Please suggest if any specific software is used.
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I am in a holidays, away from the lab computer to check the options of origin, but anyane who have the experience in using it can provide help. Sorry for being unable to help at this time period.
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I have several crops which am investigating for carbon sequestration under different management scenarios such as residual removal, varying fertilizer treatments, and tillage practices, but am stuck with the way of calculating annual carbon sequestration in each crop.
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I do agree with Chris Smith.
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How can one effectively use remote sensed based techniques for estimating blue carbon stored in mangroves and/or sea grass? What is the latest in this research area??
Thanks
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When we do proximate analysis, we get four kind of information namely moisture, volatile, fixed carbon and ash content. My query is what is the role of this fixed carbon? Which one depicts good quality of feedstocks; a feedstock with high fixed carbon content or a feedstock with low low fixed carbon content? 
Thanks in advance. 
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Fixed carbon content gives information of the amount of char formation in the thermochemical conversion process. It is the solid combustible residue that remains after the volatiles matter drive off. Higher the fixed carbon, the higher the char production in the thermochemical conversion process as a product yield.
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Scientists present a method for measuring the opportunity cost of sequestering carbon on tropical farms. They derive the rates of carbon sequestration for timber and agroforestry systems and compute incentive compatible compensating payment schedules for farmers who sequester carbon.
Zelek, C. A., & Shively, G. E. (2003). Measuring the opportunity cost of carbon sequestration in tropical agriculture. Land Economics, 79(3), 342-354.
1. Are there any modern methods to calculate or evaluate the Carbon sequestration ?
2. How it apply to tropical lands?
3. how to evaluate the contribution of carbon income to the country's or the globe economy?
Open for the discussion,
Highly value your kind response
Thank you
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Interesting discussion !
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Bio char is a type of charcoal used as a soil ameliorant for both carbon sequestration and soil health benefits and also being used for the management of soil borne plant pathogens but I doubt whether it will be an economic and ecofriendly approach for the management of plant diseases.
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Good question , could a possibility , but right now , such reports are miniscule in number....
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Dear RG Members,
I've stumbled upon a report from the U.S. Department of Energy, with spreadsheets listing year by year carbon sequestration rate for individual trees, but it is specified for American suburban settings. I am searching for similar data for forest settings, preferably for boreal and temperate forests. Do you know where I could find similar data or some formula for such approximation?
I've asked in U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Energy Information Administration, and World Resources Institute, but it seems that none of them have such data. Most sources I found takes longer time spans, for example, the average for 20 years, and measurements per hectare. I would like to be able to estimate the sequestration rate for a specific point in the tree lifecycle, starting from a seedling. I am not sure if I could use that suburban data, especially, that it seems a bit high in comparison with forestry researches.
I've attached mentioned dataset for reference.
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Forestry, Agro-Forestry, Agronomy, Soil Science
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Thanks Dr. Craig for sharing experiences of grassland ecosystem of desert, USA. You have rightly said earning from grassland through carbon credit. Factually in the India desert, grassland is dwindling due to the rising population demand better livelihood, quality produce and the land for infrastructure and industry.
Therefore we have proposed site specific alternate land uses. It consists of energy plantations on the dunes together with horticulture and dry farming in the inter-dunal plains. It has the dual purpose. On one hand the system preserves the ecosystem services by restricting wind erosion and enriching soil through carbon sequestration.On the other hand it provides better income to the desert dwellers through horticulture and dry farming. It also supports animal husbandry and rearing of small ruminant. Additional earning could be possible through carbon credit from non-arable land. Thus articulating the land use depending upon the local socio-economic condition is the basic idea for conceptualizing sustainable agriculture consisting of selecting land uses and management practices suitable to a specific site. As it is pointed out in my previous reply in the present discussion.
Your second observation regarding carbon in the sub-soils also has the great merit. We also have the similar kind of experience in the Indian desert, concealing the impressions of episodes of climate change in the past. I have mentioned some of them while discussing the topic on climate change.
These are the few points perhaps, it will help you in articulating the study on carbon sequestration in future
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How can long-term carbon sinks best be created on farms (e.g. by soil management practices, perennial crops, trees, ponds, biochar)?
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Application of organic products
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My research site is in Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya. I am estimating above ground biomass of the forest in order to calculate the carbon stock of the forest. However, I could not get the allometric equations for certain species. I don't want to use volumetric equations for estimating biomass. Also, I have measured only the cbh of trees. Kindly, help me to get the allometric equations.
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Sir, I am unable to find the allometric equation for volume estimation in FSI Report. Please provide the allometric equation for Pyrus pashia, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Sapindus mukrosii,Pomegranate, Emblica officinalis, Apricot, Guava.
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Is there any software?
Because, I am very bored to read a lot of documents and synthesize them in a note.
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Read widely noting the methods and findings of various researches and them compile them to understand existent gaps of literature
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Since, TOFs are important natural resources that contribute significantly tothe national biomass and carbon stocks and also to the livelihood of people in many regions of the world.
Dear researchers,
Please recommend some of the best species with the facts and stats...
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There are several method for determining organic matter in soil such as black and walkley and Tyurin method. Among them which on gives the most reliable results?
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Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method (1934) is best method.
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Dear Author/Authors, Greetings!
The editors expect that this correspondence finds you healthy! Currently, we are in the process of editing our impending publication titled “Climate change Alleviation for Sustainable Progression: Floristic prospective and Arboreal avenues as a viable confiscation tool” to be published by Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA. And with profound gratitude, you are invited to contribute your manuscript for incorporation in the present bind. Your contribution on the below mentioned tentative chapter titles or other relevant research area would surely add to the eminence of this publication. 
The tentative chapter titles are as follows:
1. Role of physical factors in determining climate of earth
2. Historical background *Alloted to the author* 
3. Global warming and global cooling: Challenges and future prospects
4. Environmental upheaval: Challenges and management technologies
5. Climate change: Impact on land resources, concerns and management studies
6. Mechanism behind sources and sinks of major anthropogenic greenhouse gases
7. Carbon sequestration: Role of wetlands in carbon dynamics
8. Terrestrial ecosystems as carbon dioxide scrubbers
9. Role of forests in climate change mitigation *Alloted to the author* 
10. Role of conifers in carbon sequestration
11. Role of clean development mechanism towards sustainable development
12. Green business through carbon credits
13. Impact of climate change on Agricultural production *Allotted to the author* 
14. Natural resource management and economic stability
15. Climate change and phonological variability
16. REDD+ and climate change
17. Role of turf grasses and understory vegetation in climate change mitigation
18. Sociopolitical perspectives of climate change *Allotted to the author* 
19. Soil health and climate change *Allotted to the author* 
20. Carbon sequestration through organic farming vis a vis climate smart sustainable agriculture *Alloted to the author* 
Best wishes,
Editors 
"Climate change Alleviation for Sustainable Progression: Floristic prospective and Arboreal avenues as a viable confiscation tool"
For further correspondence, contact:
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Dear Akhlaq Amin Wani
I am interested in joining this project and want to write following chapter:
Mechanism behind sources and sinks of major anthropogenic greenhouse gases
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The SOC was obtained using the Walkley-Black method.
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You can convert by using this % × 10000 = ppm × 2.24 = kg/ha
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talking about carbon in tropical peatlands
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As MRT express the decay rate (average time that biochar can persist from decaying) and this rate decreases with time. Therefore, the incubation period becomes pivotal for the MRT calculation because shorter duration may lead to higher estimated mineralization rate and shorter MRT. So, can we consider other means of getting justifiable stability period?
please suggest a methodology for above.
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Dear Shiv,
you may check following publications to get some ideas on how to proceed:
Enders et al 2012 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.022
Spokas 2010 10.4155/cmt.10.32
Kuzyakov et al 2014 10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12
Wang et al 2016 10.1111/gcbb.12266
Harvey et al 2012 10.1021/es2040398
and more...
BR
Nils
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Northeast China has a cold climate, with average temperature of 4.5 degree. The typical soil here is Mollisol with a high C content (13g/kg) in cropland. The data of a experiment site shows that soil organic matter does not change after 30 years of residue addtion, but increased by 50% after manure addition with same design. Manure has lower C/N than residue. It is sure that 13g/kg does not reach carbon saturation, otherwise manure cannot increase soil C. I will sample the soils and try to find the reasons.
Could you suggest some potential hypothese that i can check? Thanks!
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If crop residues returned to the soil over 30 years have been consistent in quantity or type, then the C content of the soil would not likely change. The reason for this is that the soil C is in equilibrium with the biomass C inputs and the environmental conditions of the soil (temperature, moisture, nutrient inputs, etc.). Adding manure is essentially an importation of C which changes the equilibrium between the C sources and soil. Because the manure is of different quality, the equilibrium has to adjust to the manure source, nutrient load and other manure characteristics. If different rates of manure are applied, each manure rate would require a different set of equilibrium conditions. However, if the manure applications are consistent and of similar quantity and quality, over time you should see SOC attain a new level that will remain relatively constant until a new equilibrium is reached.
The key to changing the SOC levels in soil (both in a positive or negative direction) is to change equilibrium conditions (change residue/biomass inputs, temperature, moisture , season length, type of residue, nutrients, tillage, etc.). Changing any of these will generate equilibrium changes that will result in increase or decrease in SOC over time.
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Blue forests (seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes) are included in the so called "Blue carbon" ecosystems due to the capacity of those plants to sink Carbon in marine sediments, from dissolved CO2. Nevertheless, many species of corals, algae, mollusks, etc., incorporate Carbon as carbonate from aquatic media and remains for long time forming rocks or marine sediments. Could coral reefs be considered also as Blue forests?
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The source water is from drinks manufacturing and the CO2 percentage will be 15%. From the literature I have established that a draw and fill culturing regime may be the way to go over two-three cycles once growth patterns become similar to previous conditions, i.e CO2 % and wastewater dilutions. However should the algae be acclimated to CO2 or wastewater first?
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FYI, Cactus has greater water-use efficiency due to the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway that is several times more efficient in converting water and CO2 to dry matter plants than either C4 or C3 plants
Preferably under semi-arid condition
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Can anyone give me ideas on how am I going to quantify the effects of wind to certain characteristics like the Co2 absorption of a particular crop? 
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how to convert CO2 sequestration / Carbon stock into global energy market?
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In situ and ex situ sequestration of CO2 in ultramafic rocks being suggested to solve CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
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What are the indicators of biochars for possessing higher aromaticity produced by slow pyrolysis process? Generally at higher temperatures the pyrolyzed biochars show higher aromaticity. What are the ways to identify?
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as mentioned by Tamjid Us Sakib we can use FTIR to study the change (increase) in aromaticity. For example, you can plot the ratio of integrated areas at 3000–2800 cm-1 (aliphatic CHx stretching vibration) to 1650–1500 cm-1 (aromatic C=C ring stretching vibration) vs temperature to demonstrate the relative contents of aliphatic and aromatic functional groups of charcoal ( ). The ratios of integrated areas at 900–700 cm-1 (aromatic CH out-of-plane deformation) to 1650–1500 cm-1 you can be used as a measure of the degree of condensation of aromatic rings.
Raman spectroscopy (
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I am the student of Environmental Economics. I am searching on the ecosystem services of wetland. The purpose is to value the services provided by wetland ecosystem. Carbon storage is taken to value through contingent valuation method. So how far this method is suitable. what are the alternates for valuation for carbon storage service of wetland.
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Hi Alamzeb,
the world expert in this area and the developer of the LANCA (Land Use Indicator Value Calculation in Life Cycle Assessment) system is Dr. Ulrike Bos. She could answer your questions for sure. You can reach her at ulrike.bos@thinkstep.com.
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Which are the main agroforestry strategies for carbon sequestration? Are the crops yield and the farmers income affected by these strategies?
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Nice response Dr Dobriyal. How do you see a empirical relation between carbon footprint and net primary productivity vis- a- via plant biomass...
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Carbon sequestration
Agricultural Soils
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Almacenamiento de SOC = contenido de SOC x BD x profundidad del suelo... Lee mas
  • SOC (Kg/ha)= 4/100 * 1,200 Kg/m3* 0.8 m*10000m2/ha =96.000 Kg7ha= 26 Ton/ha
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For any non-linear equations, how can we estimate the asymptotic standard error for each of the parameters (say a, b, c, d) of that equation?
Let say an equation:
Y = a/[1+b exp (-c x X] (1/d)
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Thanks again Brunu Martin ..... I have removed the tag C++....
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I am doing research on wetland ecosystem services. For that I have to calculate carbon sequestration in wetland soil. Please inform which equation should be used to calculate carbon sequestration in wetland soil.
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I am trying to draft a methodology that will help me study the simultaneous impacts of any sustainable land management practice on crop yield and carbon sequestration (for mitigating and adapting to climate change). Specifically how to come up with a data set for such a study from literature reviews.
Thanks
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Dear Achankeng Etiendem, I can recommend this article.
Best regards.
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Need carbon stock/sequestration value in above-ground-biomass of mangrove at different mangrove site of Gujarat,Orissa,Maharashtra.
Gujarat : Pandey, C. N., and R. Pandey. "Carbon sequestration in mangroves of Gujarat, India." International Journal of Botany and Research 3.2 (2013): 57-70.
Maharashtra: Patil, Vikrant, et al. "Estimation of carbon stocks in Avicennia marina stand using allometry, CHN analysis, and GIS methods." Wetlands 34.2 (2014): 379-391.
Pachpande, Sheetal Chaudhari, and Madhuri Pejaver. "Natural carbon sequestration by dominant mangrove species Avicennia marina var. Accutissima ex Staf and Moldenke ex Moldenke found across Thane Creek, Maharashtra, India." International Journal od Scientific and Engineering Research 6 (2015): 1162-1165.
Kindly refer articles.
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Thank you to all of you for your kind reply.
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In forest carbon stock assessment, we usually use allometric equation to get AGB, times 0.5 to get carbon & times -44/12 to get CO2 emission (removal) value.
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Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon.
Carbon stock is the amount of carbon stored in a reservoir whether it may be in the form of vegetative biomass or
in earth or sea.
Carbon emission is the amount of carbon emitted in atmosphere by naturally or human activities.
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We are analyzing the soil organic matter (SOM) in cultivated soils in the Provence area under Mediterranean climate (500-800 mm/year) with my students in agroecology. Soils in the area are usually shallow soils Xerepts soils (USDA classifc.) sometimes with calcic / argillic horizons (Calcic/Alfs ).
I frequently find diagnosis by soil scientists or agronomists after soil sampling analysis of these soils saying 1%; 1,5% or 2,5% of organic matter is too low and it should be increased. However, in soils with a high turnover and low microbial activity during long and dry summer seasons (>4 months), it seems unclear if the soil can potentially increase their total SOM a lot more than their actual content. Frequently, these conclusions come along with recommendations to farmers, promoting the application of huge amounts of organic matter applications to soils, in order to reach a target threshold of minimum SOM percentage, ranging from 1 to 4 % of SOM depending of the cases.
Therefore, in your opinion, do you know references of acceptable thresholds of SOM% under these conditions? Or do you have any criteria to determine it?
Is 1% of SOM a good universal minimum threshold that any soil should reach to prevent desertification and sustain crop production ?
Recommendations by agronomist may vary depending on this threshold and may create confusion in the farming sector. In France, many soil labs and agronomists tend to consider a minimum 2-3% of SOM as a threshold to sustain crop production whereas in Spain the % will be much lower (1-1,5%). Your experience in this area is welcome.
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How to calculate Shrub biomass with harvest method and not harvest method, when you have data in below given parameters
1. Number of Bushes/5 m2
2. Number of tillers in a bush
a. thick (above 15cm CBH)
b. Medium (>7cm and <15cm CBH)
c. Thin (<7cm CBH)
3. Height of the tiller
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I am not quite clear on this question. But you might use allometric equations from the literature. But the best was is to harvest above and below ground, seperate into different components (leaves, roots, etc.) and then calulate relations hips with each comonent something easy to measure such a baseline diameter or height and then apply those regressions to the shrubs you want to sample.
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Dear All,
How the below ground biomass can be determined/calculated from the known above ground biomass of trees, shrubs and herbs? Is there is any specific ratio, % to find the BGB from the AGB?
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Be careful to use ratio around 20-30%, in many cases, especially in stress condition, the BGB can be higher than ABG.
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we have many samples has been taken from the field but we dont want to cut down trees so do you researchers have an equation that will escape us from this step
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Funny how I interpreted the question differently than the person above. I interpreted the question to be asking how to estimate the amount of carbon dioxide sequestered from the atmosphere by a growing forest, without having to do labwork.
Obviously the labwork will give a more accurate estimate, but you can get a rough estimate by the following procedure:
CO2 sequestered (kg / hectare / year) = (a) annual forest growth (m^3 / ha / yr) x (b) bone-dry wood density (kg / m^3) x (c) proportion of carbon in bone-dry wood (unitless or kg / kg) x (d) ratio of molecular mass of CO2 to C (unitless or Dalton / Dalton)
If the forest is a single-species, even-age plantation forest, any forester in your area can give you an estimate of (a), based on site class. Natural forests are tricker, but a good forester in your country should have an estimate.
(b) mostly depends on tree species, but may be somewhat variable within species. For many species you can look up an estimate of bone-dry density. Try google, or ask a forester/wood products person. Fonseca (2005) lists several. For mixed-species stands, this will get tricky.
(c) is about 0.5 (also variable, but that's a very rough rule-of-thumb)
(d) is 44/12 or 3.67
A slightly more accurate way to estimate (c), but still just a rough estimate, is described in IPCC (2003). We used this approach in Frey et al. (2010) to estimate carbon sequestered by hypothetical forest and agroforest plantations:
IPCC (2003) Equation 3.2.3 is the formula for estimating total forest biomass
from merchantable biomass. Annex 3A.1 gives international default conversion
factors based on scientific estimates. Adapted Equation 3.2.3: C = [MBM x
BEF2] x (1 + R) x CF, where C is total carbon in biomass (metric tons C), MBM
is merchantable bone-dry biomass (metric tons), BEF2 is biomass expansion
factor for conversion of merchantable volume to aboveground tree biomass (dimensionless), R is root-to-shoot ratio (dimensionless), and CF is carbon fraction.
The default values used for BEF2 (from IPCC 2003, Table 3A.1.10) are: hardwoods, 1.4; pine, 1.3. The default values used for R (from IPCC 2003, Table
3A.1.8) are: oak, 0.35; other hardwoods, 0.26; pine, 0.23. The default value used
for CF is 0.5 (from IPCC 2003, p. 3.25).
The mass of CO2 sequestered from the atmosphere is greater than the mass of the carbon (C) alone, because C is stored and oxygen (O2) is reemitted to the
atmosphere. The atomic mass of C is 12, and the molecular mass of CO2 is 44.
Therefore, for every 12 metric tons of C stored, 44 metric tons of CO2 have been
sequestered. The conversion factor from C to CO2 is 44/12 = 3.67.
References:
Fonseca, MA. 2005. The measurement of roundwood: Methodologies and conversion ratios. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA. 246 p.
Frey, GE, DE Mercer, FW Cubbage, RC Abt. 2010. Economic Potential of Agroforestry and Forestry in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley with Incentive
Programs and Carbon Payments. SOUTHERN JOURNAL OF APPLIED FORESTRY 34(4): 176-185.
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC). 2003. Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry. Penman, J., M. Gytarsky, T. Hiraishi, T. Krug, D. Kruger, R. Pipatti, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, K.
Tanabe, and F. Wagner, eds. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
contents.html; last accessed Jan. 23, 2010.
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Dear friends/Sir/Madam,
As we know plant respires during night time, but is ththere any instrument/device/procedures/methodology to measure how much CO2 is being emitted by a plant/tree in field condition over a specific period of time?
Please let me know!
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Is it enough to use a simple equation: " GHG reduction (kg/ton) = 3.67 x % of fixed carbon content x amount of biochar applied (kg / ton)"?
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Dear Ken and Francesco,
The issued to manufacture biochar is required energy not a problem anymore because when we produce biochar at the same time we can also produced energy. I have proved it using pyrolysis - gasificatio stove and semi-continuous biochar that could produce biochar and energy at the same time. What I did with those biochar and energy production were I feedback the volatile matter produced by pyrolysis proses as fuel to keep pyrolysis process and produced thermal energy surplus. What did I need to run these system just triggered once using burning chamber until the biomass produced pyrolysis process to produce autothermal. This method also environmentally friendly with minimum smoke (nearly smokeless) because this smoke (volatile matter) was burn to produced thermal energy. My research right now is producing biochar and energy (electical) continuous.
You can find my journal about my Gasification – Pyrolysis Stove that I attach. But I am sorry information you can get just in abstract and picture inside because others was written in Indonesian. I will translate it English. My semi-continuous biochar and energy production still in press for publication in the same journal.
So if biochar could become as carbon sequestration, this method to produce bochar and energy could become a method to produce energy with negative GHG emission for the future.
How much reduction could we get if we can produce biochar and energy from biomass using this method? My question: could we using simple GHG reduction (kg/ton) = 3.67 x % of fixed carbon content x amount of biochar applied (kg / ton)? I agree that LCA needed for more detail result.
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Interesting question & answers. Same situation happens to me often, as I am from the pre-digital era.
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Greetings researchers, I was wondering if anyone knew the C02e (C02 equivalent) of producing a kg of C02 gas compared to producing a kg of N gas?
My reason for asking is that (assuming no difference in output) it would be advantageous to use the inert gas with the lower C02e when making biochar to sequester C02e via pyrolysis.
Thanks,
-Steve
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Production of gases is usually inventoried in LCA databases, like ecoinvent. Running those datasets in a LCA software like SimaPro or Gabi will give you the CO2 eq.
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I am a teacher-researcher at the National Institute of Agaronomy and Biotechnology of the Masuku University of Science and Technology. I work on organic carbon in ferraltic soils.
I want to know if in your project you are interested in this aspect as these savannas can play a major role in carbon sequestration and thus mitigate global warming.
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I am interested too. We have some publications soil organic carbon in savannah of plateaux bateke. Please check my researchgate profil. We are working too to Know role of savannah of the north of republic of Congo in global change.
I will be happy to any kind of collaboration.
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What are the methods and Procedures for estimation of carbon sequestration potential in Agricultural (annual) crops?
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On approach can be to use the high frequency eddy covariance measurements to calculate the fluxes of CO2 and/or CH4 and upsclae for the entire vegetation canopy (here, the agricultural land of interest).
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Is there is any specific tool available to calculate it?
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Dear Mohit,
Yes there are a very important too named InVest (downlaod page https://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/invest/).
In this tool there are several models which you can run depending on the scenario. In your case if you want to estimate carbon sequestered according to the Land cover you can do that using carbon model. Even you can create different scenario (pessimistic and optimistic; current business and future ). You can use Landsat image to create Pre-harvest map and post- Harvest map and compare the quantity of sequestered carbons.
Best regards
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Dear Researchers,
I trapped soil CO2 in NaOH and analyzed on Analtik jena N/C 3100, Instrument gave reading in mg/L. How can I calculate the CO2-C in mg/kg soil or in any other units etc.
I used 3ml of NaOH and 12 ml of UPDW (D.F= 5).
Thanks
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Dear Nafees, I used 0.5 M NaOH (10 ml) to trap CO2 from scotch bottles (25 g soil oven dry basis), kindly give the detail calculation about:
CO2 (mgg-1d-1)= (sample reading - blank) then next.....??? dilution factor is 5,
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Ecosystem optimization for carbon sequestration
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I agree with Dr. Fraser. Grasses in the temperate steppe of China are much better than forbs to sequester soil carbon.
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Some people write the greatness of wetlands for soil carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. Others dictate the potential of wetlands for rice cultivation. Many countries in Asian continent uses rice (which is cultivated in wetlands) as their staple food. Thus, which use of wetlands is recommended? How to compromise these benefits?
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Dear Birhanu,
It is difficult to find a "fit all" rule to solve this problems. I would say......It depends! It depends on population growth and pressure to secure affordable and nutritious rice. It depends on the scale of rice production and methods (traditional/ecological versus conventional). The bottom line is that we need to protect wetlands around the world for a variety of reasons and ecological services they provide, as you mentioned in your question. It remains ultimately, the responsibility of specific governments and stakeholders to strive for a good balance between wetlands conservation and crop production.
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I want to calculate the C-sequestration rate at different cropping pattern.
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Is there any relation between soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration by plant..??
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Generally we see that carbon sequestration potential  in agroforestry system is considered with respect to trees but what about contribution of crops and other components. Most of the researcher mentioned carbon sequesrtaion of agroforestry  systembut mainly taking into account tree component which I think not of system but trees just like pure plantations.
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Respected sir also have a look at this important attachment.
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What is the impact of agroforestry systems on soil chemical properties, especially soil pH?
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Dear, soil biological activity and declining earthworm numbers are also associated with a fall in soil pH.
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what type of agroforestry system we have to chose where soil depth is low and vice versa?
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Dear friend, a fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is that different plant life forms such as trees and herbaceous crops or pastures occupy to some extent different soil strata with their root systems when grown in association, leading to a degree of complementarity in their use of soil resources. For this reason,rooting depth and the vertical distribution of root systems are of particular interest for agroforestry. Rooting depth determines to which extent plants (e.g. trees) can use subsoil water and nutrients which make them less dependent from the supply in the topsoil and may also be made available to associated plants (e.g. crops) with shallower root systems through nutrient pumping and hydraulic lift.
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What are regularly applied methods to estimate tree carbon sequestration in tropical dryland forest?
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If there are two or three different agroforestry system to be evaluated for efficiency of productivity in terms of carbon sequestration potential, then what are the parameters to be used for comparison
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Sir, my opinion said, these parameters will be components of Agroforestry, soil carbon stock, Biomass production, GHG emissions
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carbon sequestration 
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