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Carbon Capture - Science topic

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One technology, carbon capture and storage (CCS), stands tall for its ability to help energy-intensive sectors like power generation and heavy industry reduce their emissions. In fact, the International Energy Agency has said without CCS, achieving the world’s lower-emission targets will be virtually impossible. While the technology isn’t new, it is increasingly coming to the forefront of the climate conversation. But what is carbon capture and storage?
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CO2 emissions are rising globally in a nearly monotonic way. The only significant changes in emission rates have been associated with global economic downturns, with no evidence that they will peak any time soon. While everyone should support the development of rational renewables, they have not and probably cannot substantially replace fossil fuels in many industries. Carbon capture is essential to the success of any realistic climate mitigation technology. Also, the term carbon capture is nearly universal, but what it really means is carbon dioxide capture (separation of CO2 from other gases, most commonly in fossil energy exhaust streams). Storage is isolating this carbon in some location where it does not reenter the atmosphere either by converting it to useful, non-volatile products or by sequestering it in geologic storage locations such as sealed, underground aquifers. The current emission rates of CO2 exceed the sum of non-fuel use of carbon by very large margins, so while CO2 conversion to products in rational ways has many advantages, it is hard to see how such activities could contribute at the same level as sequestration.
Full disclosure here that we have developed a much cheaper and energy efficient process (Cryogenic Carbon Capture(TM)), though this response is not specific to that or any other technology.
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If both are same, why we would use different words with same meaning?
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@Rudiger The key difference between carbon capture and storage and carbon sequestration is that carbon capture and storage involve capturing, transporting, and storing carbon dioxide, while carbon sequestration only involves storing carbon dioxide for a longer period of time.
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I am trying to do the simulations at high pressure (gas absorption and stripping case). The absorption is going on normally. However, the results of stripping or desorption are quite uncertain.
For example:
Case 1: The reboiler duty is 0.4 MW, it will converge and give the normal results.
Case 2: The reboiler duty is 0.41 MW, it will not converge, or converge with errors and totally different results.
Case 3: The reboiler duty is 0.39 MW, it will not converge, or converge with errors and totally different results.
This is very uncertain. A slight change in reboiler duty totally results in the deviation from normal results. What can be the reason for that. Need opinions/suggestions. Thanks!
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Shahin Kharaji Thanks. I will look in to that and post my results shortly.
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In my chemical engineering design course we have to calculate the height of an absorber tower for a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) Plant with a capacity of 240,000 tonCO2/yr(27777kg/h). I used McCabe method but the height must be realistic and i have no idea if its realistic.
What is the range or average height for the height of the absorber?
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it is depend on the flow rate of flue gases and CO2 concentration,
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I'm currently developing a Dynamic model of carbon capture plant using Aspen Plus dynamics. I was trying to see if there is a possibility to export the dynamics results into excel or any sort of tabular form for every time interval. The table forms are updated continuously as the model is running and no record is kept for each time interval separately.
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a software which can estimate or calculate costs of using carbon capturing technologies-materials and analyze the data and results in the form of charts or other graphic forms Especially in buildings or more completely in construction industry
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I don't know.
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I would be interested to know which universities do top research related to CCU/CCUS (carbon capture utilization&storage) technologies? Feel free to connect me with you or your colleagues work.
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This group (ttps://rccs.hw.ac.uk/) is working in Heriot-Watt University related CCUS.
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I am making a research about the use of supercritical CO2 as a green technology specifically in the production of 1,3-Propanediol or Succinic Acid through fermentation reactions (bacteria or fungus). Is there any specific information on this? Is it feasible to separate 1,3-propanediol from the other organic acids and salts? How much CO2 can I capture per year with this technology? Are carbon credits a possible revenue to compensate the excessive energy requirements?
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Technically yes but economically no
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The CO2 used in supercritical extractions can be recycled?
If yes, for how long can we use the same CO2?
If no, do we despose the same amount used in the beginning? Does it have the same chemical and physical structure?
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Dear Guilherme, Yes it is! But you need intelligent engineering and detailed productivity evaluations. Under certain constellations, it is the most productive technology. See https://chromatographyshop.com/instruments-tools/pic-solution-sfc-sfe-systems/
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Hello Everyone,
I am trying to simulate a rate based carbon capture model using MEA (35 wt%) and other mixed amines in Aspen plus for a syngas production unit after water gas shift reaction. I am having a problem with how to size absorber and stripper columns in order to avoid flooding and pressure losses. One can use Sherwood correlation if they had known all the parameters. Is there any simpler way to go and solve this problem in the Aspen Plus interface? I have already tried to use the design option in Aspen Plus but I am getting many errors. I would be grateful for any inputs/suggestions on how to tackle this problem. Thank you. The absorber is carried out 30 bar and stripper at 1 bar. As the sizing mainly depends on gas and liquid flow rates, the flue gas flow rate is 100 kg/h and the solvent flow rate is around 580 kg/h. The carbon capture rate aimed at 95%
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Mr. Saripalli,
CO2 has a critical temperature of ~304K and a critical pressure of 73.8 bar. Henry components are those which are supercritical. Your absorber conditions seem a little concerning to me.
Please look at the slides I've attached for a presentation I gave at AIChE. These might help you to understand the Murphree efficiency problem. many process simulators allow you to do what you're doing. The results are demonstrably wrong.
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Hello to the wonderful research community,
I am working on a post-combustion carbon capture project with chemical absorption by MEA and I am simulating a rate based MEA model in Aspen Plus. I am successful in converging the recycle stream with the make-up streams of water and MEA in a closed cycle.
I want to conduct some sensitivity analysis in open cycle simulation to optimize some process parameters such as reboiler duty, size of absorber (height and diameter, m) with the independent parameters carbon capture rate (%), lean loading, rich loading. May I know, How can I set up these independent variables like Carbon capture (%), lean and rich loading (mol CO2/mol MEA) in Aspen Plus for the sensitivity analysis as they are not pre-available in the sensitivity analysis parameter interface. Could anyone please enlighten me on this with their expertise in the process simulation? Thank you in advance.
With Regards,
Kesava Saripalli
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Why not make it easier by fixing the CO2 capture rate as design specification (for example 90%- for most of the industrial cases). Then fix the solvent (MEA) flowrate which is the lean amine. Stripper pressure might play a role in the reboiler size along with the heat exchange between lean/rich amine. We cannot determine the height of the column using aspen plus or aspen hysys unless we have HETP. Usually, the most important parameter to be optimized would be the reboiler heat duty/unit CO2 absorbed.
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Hello, I have modelled carbon capture modelling in Aspen Plus using MEA (25 wt/wt %) solvent and the model works well in the open cycle and for the convergence of recycling lean solvent stream, I have added the Make-up streams of water and MEA for the steady-state and also included balance blocks to calculate and update the Make-up streams of MEA and water but still, I am facing issues in the convergence of Absorber and Stripper columns. I would be grateful for any inputs from the community on how to deal with this error. Thanks a lot in advance.
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I agree with Junior Lorenzo Llanes
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Hi,
I am currently looking for an industrial process that can use some intensification in the separation part of the process. I am very interested in intensified separation for biofuel processes (bioethanol/propanol/butanol), intensified methanol production using pressure swing to produce CO from CO2 from the revers WGS reaction, intensified carbon capture,...
If anyone has experience in these fields and can inform me if one of these could be a good dissertation, I would like to hear it! I am also curious for other processes that can use some intensification to reduce energy use/cost...
If you have any info you can also send me a message!
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Question intéressante
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We would like to estimate the carbon capture in endemic- threatened trees. Therefore, we need to sample the lowest number of trees to estimate allometric equations. Any suggestion is welcomed.
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Prendre des échantillons de tous types d'arbres
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Hello, im doing my thesis in my petroleum engineering program and i want to do my thesis on carbon capture, i have a lot of research on the process done but not sure the argument direction to go in. i need help with the topic for example "should carbon capture be mandatory by government to reduce pollution"
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@Dariusz Prokopowicz can you explain what you mean by specific products made of energy fossil fuels and the processes of energy production from fossil fuels.
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I would like to make a research about the financial aspect about the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Basically, my research will discuss about the cash flow in CCS project which contains of income and outcome. Therefore, I would like to get some suggestion about the specific income and outcome source. Also, it will be better if there is any references for the specific value for both income and outcome
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I think you should try to highlight the main drivers for CCS. On the cost side, you should evaluate the cost of the facility, plus the operating costs (mainly energy consumption, but also maintenance, etc.). On the revenue side, if you are focusing on CCS and non CCU, I think the only revenue you can consider is the potential revenue from carbon pricing schemes. You may find several review papers on those topics, but I think you need to consider sensitivity analyses giving the strong uncertainties that still exist for the future deployment of CCS in different markets worldwide.
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I am looking for not very expensive methods to determine how much CO2 could be trapped by coral reef species in the Caribbean. Also, I want to do the same thing in Coralline Algae.
Could you suggest something about this?
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I am modelling a carbon capture stage using Aspen Plus with MEA solvent. While attempting to export the model to Aspen Dynamics to study the dynamic behavior, I get several error messages mainly due to the reactions in the Absorber and Stripper stages. Aspen dynamics do not support rate based radfrac unit as well as equilibrium reactions that are included in both stages. Is there any solution to input the reactions in a way that can be supported by Aspen dynamics while still maintaining the results from the Aspen Plus simulation
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Dear Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi thank you for your reply. May I ask how did you deal with the equilibrium equations since Aspen Dynamics do not support them.
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Estimation of the below ground carbon stock using the DGGE and the genes of microorganisms responsible for the carbon capture in soils
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Rakesh Subramanian Srirangarayan DGGE is a fingerprint technique to evaluate microbial structure, which can result in measures of diversity. In order to have a indirect idea of genes related to carbon stocks you could search for primers related to carbon cycling and then quantify the number of copies from those genes (via qPCR, for example). Another way to indirect evaluate that, is to excise the bands, perform cloning and sequence to see the relationship between then and C cycling. You can also perform NGS sequencing (e.g meta genomics) with further search for genes related to carbon cycling. A third approach could be the GeoChip technology (developed by Professor Zhou, University of Oklahoma, which will give you an idea about carbon and other cycles, through hybridisation.
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Hi again, while working on the carbon capture methods from a renewable energy project, i realized that thermodynamics has somewhat of a huge role to play when discussing gaseous capture, what are some of the available methods such as OxyFuel where co2 and o2 can be captured however but aren't energy intensive or are very low energy requiring methods?
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Hai,
Carbon dioxide capture allows separation of CO2 from gas streams, allowing it to for post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) as it has lower regeneration energy and include post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxygen fuel or .Several methods, if not all, have been of interest to process intensification .. This is the thinking behind the oxygen approach, where instead of air, the power plant is fed approaches in use today requireclean-up of the NOx and SO2 prior to CO2
Best Wishes..
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Green field edges at the borders of agricultural fields have been promoted as a climate adaptation for dealing with erosion due to increased extreme precipitation events. Those green field edges will certainly have an impact on carbon capture, but the magnitud is still not clear.
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of course they can capture CO2 as they do photosynthesis. However I assume that their impact is rather small, even if we consider it on a global basis. I never saw any attempts to calculate or at least estimate this.....
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I am currently working on a project with other 2 other based on carbon capture based tech however as above stated i have run into a conundrum of sorts where we are trying to find a prevent heating up of batteries in a confined space eg. an automobile, any suggestions on how we could do that based on an engineering perspective?
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Dear Jaspreet Singh Paul
The solution is simply to use the battery in the front of the car, where the air inlets are directly in front of him, when driving the car will ensure that these air openings cooling your battery 100 per cent, and if this is difficult, you can put a tube from the front of the car to the location of the battery :).
In all cases the use of heat radiators can reduce the temperature of the battery
Greetings
Omar
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I d like to measure a level of acceptance of a new fertilizer which is carbon capturing (climate change) and Id like to use the TPB theory..
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I think you will need to undertake market research in two phases - exploratory phase to determine the variables that drive the selection, purchase and application for fertilizers (elements that define the value of a product) and the conclusive phase to identify the relationships between these variables and their relative importance for your fertilizer distributor and consumer. You will need to select respondents of two profiles - the retailers or business you intend to sell to (the push agents) and the consumers (the pull agents) whose demand you need to satisfy.
The results of this market research will help you validate your assumptions (whatever your hypothesis) and even help you to evolve your marketing strategy for the new improvised fertilizer product.
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- Carbon Capture,
- Biodiversity,
- Soil Erosion,
Advantages and constraints of the 2 options?
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If you ask me about my opinion I’ll say all of them right
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The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified carbon capture as a key component in reducing carbon dioxide emissions and maintaining the planet's average temperature within 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. To do that, it is estimated that by 2050, 5,000 to 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide need to be captured and stored each year......
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Thank you for your contributions.
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Any approach to do this, bar from cut gas emission and carbon capture?
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Of course, scientists are capable of making materials that can get rid of global warming like Ionic liquids in carbon capture
Ionic liquid have been proposed as a absorbent in carbon capture. They have different advantages compared to traditional sorbents, such as existing amines. 1-Butyl-3-Methydazolase Hexafluorphosphate is an example of a sorbent of carbon dioxide.
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Hello
I have a question about carbon capturing potential of Spirulina algae.
When I read the articles I see an initial carbon concentration which is expressed by % and then I see another % to express how much carbon has been captured. I do not understand percentage of what are these carbon. Okay for initial one I think it is lets say 5% of all the nutrients given to grow it then the last 73% which is captured carbon is 73% of what? Is there a formula for this or what is the logic?
Pleaaseee I need this and it is really urgent
Thank you in advance
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Nima Hajinajaf thank you so much for the answer. It s a clear explanation
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In activated carbon samples synthesized by KOH and NaOH as activation agents, KOH activated samples have higher rate of micropore area than NaOH activated samples.
Although NaOH provides higher surface area than KOH, but the pore size distribution is wider.
My question is why KOH can produce smaller pores rather than NaOH?
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Dear All,
Thank you so much for your helps. Your suggestions made a good case for my researches, but still there is no definite reason for this behavior of KOH and NaOH on activated carbons.
There is a wide range of possibilities. To find the final answer further researches and studies are required.
I believe it can be an interesting research subject, for pore size distribution is an important factor to produce effective adsorbent materials.
Wish you best of luck in your researches,
Sahand
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The research is about the relations of soils and vegetation to soil carbon captured. The quantification is divided into soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon and total soil carbon.
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How much carbon sequestration by plant?
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Dear, have a look at these pdf attachment of manual for non destructive method.
Good luck
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I am currently doing a study about the reclamation of amine-rich wastewater from post combustion carbon capture. I would need to do a laboratory experiment and I would like to know if there is a published paper regarding the preparation of synthetic amine-rich wastewater.
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Thank you so much Dr. Ahmad!
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If possible to analysis the carbon element on tree live or dead leaf?
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Carbon 'capture' is related to specific leaf area, light capture, nitrogen partitioning, stomatal conductance (which affects diffusion of CO2 from the atmosphere to the leaf interior), etc. Carbon 'content' is determined, as Alastair mentioned, by burning the leaf and weighing the ash
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If possible to analysis the carbon element on tree live or dead leaf?
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I am currently assigned to design a carbon capture plant from atmospheric air. Most of the paper that I have read suggested to use NaOH to capture CO2 via absorption. Whereas MEA is commonly used to capture CO2 from flue gas post combustion. I am curious is it possible to substitute NaOH with MEA to capture CO2 from direct air? What are the things that I need to consider?
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So how much of the energy produced by combustion process which yields the CO2 will have to be committed to sequestering it? And are you sure the process is sustainable in that it isn't producing anything except sequestered CO2 and isn't consuming anything that the process itself can't generate? I can't think of anything available on the scale required that could be used to sequester any significant amount of CO2 from the air.
The only process I can think of relies on cracking solar nitrogen fixation - you use that to generate ammonia and then form ammonium carbonate. But that's hard. Incidentally it might also help to increase the pH of the oceans.
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I want to know if this technology is appropriate to be implemented in Mexico.
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Carbon capture has made no significant commercial market entry in either the developed or the developing countries to date. However, if we are to mitigate climate change, it will need to do so in both. The most promising technology of which I am aware is at www.sesinnovation.com
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Can any one share the 10 Year Statistical Economical figures which support the communities and nation to build up this natural resource a new livelihood options and income in future?
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Dr Binoy, Internationally INBAR should have information as this only main agency for specific purpose. For Indian scenario you can see Forest statistics of ICFRE , Dehradun publication, FSI for area and MoEF. But to predict for future economics the demand and supply data will be required from industries or Forest corporations. 
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a
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Dear Ahmed
Can you pls be more specific? What do you mean by demanded algae?  
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Some references mention that the first gas injection project using CO2 was patented by Whorton, Brownscombe and Dyes from Atlantis Refining Company in 1952. However, this technology appears to be older. I am looking for information and documents on the history of gas injection.
Appreciate for your assistance 
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Dear Reza,
GI project should be older than 1952, as you can see in the attached papers.
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How to calculate the amount of CO2 sequestered by different plants basing on their leaf area and biomass.
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Dear Vincent,
You may go through the following document/weblink for easy understanding of the method of carbon sequestration measurement. 
Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Schoolyard Trees and Global Sustainability of Carbon Stores. Weblink: wupcenter.mtu.edu/education/energy_education/2009/C-Sequestration... · PDF file
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How to cost the benefits and amount of carbon sequestered?
What variables to consider when doing the cost benefit analysis?
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Two best opportunities for carbon sequestration are afforestation with tree  plants on wastelands or degraded lands and  establishing permanent grasses(grass lands) on waste or degraded lands .Possibly in these two cases one can compute and claim carbon credits.Small farmers can form groups or consortium to establish trees or grasses and claim carbon credits.Though conservation agriculture can also help to sequester some  amount of carbon depending on crop- soil-climate situations but accounting  for and claiming carbon credits may be difficult on smallholdings.
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In my study, I'm trying to calculate the amount of carbon footprint sequestered by vines. I've have seen row cropping as another source for carbon sequestration, I hope that someone can advise me regarding that. 
In addition, if you have any additional factors that I can add to my model?
Thanks in advance,
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In the recent past, erosion control was the only issue that drove the planting of perennial herbaceous plants and bunch grasses in California, to produce a permanent ground cover that does not need summer irrigation to survive.  
Whereas the old method of managing the rows between the vines was to plant an exotic annual ground cover to stop winter rain erosion, then till it in summer. However, that summer tilling in steep hilly areas could cause erosion problems in early winter, before the exotic annual seedlings had a chance to get established. 
It has only been in the last ten years, that California has been looking at agricultural processes to sequester carbon, in our vineyards and other farm lands, and you can read many articles if you Google, "California vineyard ground cover carbon sequestration"
I apologize for getting off the topic of your question in my original answers, and hope that all of our future answers will be able to help you with your question about vineyards in France.
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How can I calculate the rate of CO2 sequestration (t yr-1 ha-1) by combining the carbon storage values with the molecular weight of carbon dioxide?
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Divide the weight of carbon dioxide sequestered in the tree by the age of the tree.
Another way to estimate the amount of CO2 sequestered by a tree in a year is to estimate the amount sequestered in a hectare per year, and divide that amount by the number of trees per hectare. Scanning around on the Internet, it seems that the number of trees per hectare (in agroforestry and/or industrial plantations)
ranges from under 500 to over 2,000
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I want to know how to quantify carbon sequestration and emission for fibre crop production and what are the simplest and most recent models and equations?
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Hi.
You can use the following formula to perform a quick estimation of the CO2 balance.
Carbon balance = Carbon sequestered - Carbon emitted.
You can quickly estimate the amount of carbon sequestered by multiplying the amount of biomass produced by the carbon contained in the biomass and by 44/12. Use the following formula:
Carbon sequestered = Biomass produced * Carbon content * 44/12
The value of 44/12 is taken from stoichiometry (C + O2 --> CO2, 12 grams of C requires 44 grams of CO2). I understand that the average carbon content of the biomass is about 50% w/w on a dry basis.
The amount of carbon emitted is harder to estimate. You must specify wether or not you want to include the land use change emissions. You can estimate those emissions with the model developed in the attached excel file. Also, you must include the emissions derived from the use of the fossil fuels in the farm, and finally the emissions derived from the  crop residues. Check the information by the IPCC.
Notice that you must have information regarding the biomass yield, the carbon content of the biomass, and the inputs required for the biomass production.
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we know that amount of energy required for regeneration of carbon dioxide is much more in water amine solution. Can anybody tell me what is the exact amount of energy required per kg or per tonne CO2? If possible provide reference.
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I would recomend a lot of papers that can be found in International journal of greenhouse gas control. There are many studies for different types of amines. Most data u will found for monoethanolamine (MEA), while other are less investigated. Two things u must keep in mind. First, primary amines react fast but can have only 0.5 loading capacity (mol of CO2 per mol of amine). They require high energy for regeneration. On the other hand, ternery amines react much slower but have loading capacity of 1. They require less energy for regeneration but reaction is much slower. New research are showing that if u combine primary and ternery amines, u can have both positive effects of all amine groups. Other important thing is that that if u want to completly regenerate sorbent u need a lot of energy to return pure sorbent. On the other hand if u regenerate only small amount of sorbent for instance around 0,3. with increase of mass percent of amine amount of water is increased, thus more energy is used instead of sorbent regeneration, for evaporation of water. So optimum values for MEA are around 20 to 25 mas.%.
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Hi All,
I'm struggling to find a reference reporting a figure related to the CO2 capture capacity for MEA (moles of CO2/mole of MEA).
Could you please recommend any?
Thanks,
Antonio
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I am looking for publications dealing with carbon accumulation in natural montane Bamboo stands (in Taiwan). Any recommendations? (Preferably no plantations)
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this paper might be of interest
other species but it gives you a good idea how it works
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What is the carbon sequestration value of mangrove ecosystem in Sunderbans?
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Hi Subrata, Please also see the publications emerging from the SWAMP program: http://www1.cifor.org/swamp/publications.html
Lots of work on blue carbon around the world, including trainings, protocol developments, publications, etc. 
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We are working on enzyme engineering to convert methane to alcohols. As part of this process we wish to measure methane binding to various enzymes and would benefit from suggestions as to what has proved useful to others.
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Working with gasses can be quite complex and usually requires special equipment. The easiest way would be to use something that competes with methane binding. For example, in heme proteins you might measure the competition between O2 and CO, which can be measured spectroscopically and using solutions that are saturated with O2 and CO. None of the methods I can think of off the top of my head are high-throughput as such though when dealing with gasses - mostly because of outgassing from the solvent.
Maybe something using NMR? Deuterated methane would probably overlap with protein peaks so you could perhaps use protein peaks to measure the ratio of bound and unbound enzyme when mixing two buffers, one of which is saturated with methane, and then sealing the NMR tube.
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The goal of gasification/ steam reformation is the complete transformation of feedstock carbon content into gases (syngas) with high heating values. The Boudouard reaction is a very important process to achieve this goal by transforming solid residue carbon content and non-combustible carbon dioxide into a usable gas - carbon monoxide and increasing the heating value of the produced syngas.
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It seems to me that the generation of the intercalation compound include the modication of the graphite structure. If it is so, how the intercalation compounds are created should also be considered.
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See Carbon sequestration book
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Porteresia sp is called a pioneer species because it often acts as the first species to establish on a deltaic plain. As a consequence, it stabilizes and further enhances the process of sedimentation, thereby raising the deltaic plains.
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I want to try to determine what is the content of free carbon in metal carbides powders, like TiC, B4C. Could anyone suggest what will be the best method to do this? Total carbon analysis (TCA) is not suitable, because I get whole amount of C. Any hints will be welcome.
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You can find the full description of non-combined carbon contents analysis especially for TiCx in the book: Samsonov GV (1962) Analiz tugoplavkikh soedinenii (The analysis of refractory compounds). Metallurgizdat, Moscow (in Russian), pp. 146-147. If you need it I can e-mail it to you in the form of .djvu-file.
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Dear All,
Actually I am working on the biogeochemical cycling of the carbon, right now I am targeting plant assisted  as well as some soil practices for enhancing the carbon pool. But  I want to target the microbial mediated processes of carbon capture. I don't have much expertise in this field. So I am asking questions to know the some basic facts behind this idea from the concerned experts so that I can proceed further.
Thanks a lot for the cooperation.
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Methanotrophic bacteria would be the best to do that
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The weight percent increase is less than 0.05% after I pass CO2 for 2 hours. Has anyone experienced this issue?
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Do you use HPTGA or not?
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I would like to calculate the annual carbon fixed in a forest from my tree-rings measurements. But I don't know how close is the correlation between the radial growth and height growth. Can the allometric models calculate it?
My idea is to know how much carbon can be stored year per year in a tropical forest in different tree species. With the ring-with data I can calculate how the basal area is increasing year per year. But to calculate the volume I need the annual heigh too, since it is changing with the tree age. It is to understand the carbon storage over the history of a forest ecosystem, considering the differences between tree species.
I will be very grateful with some clue or idea to continue with this research.
Thanks
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An excellent comparison of methods on "correlation/inferring from measured radial stem growth between/on height growth" is given in: Kariuki, m. (2002): Height estimation in complete stem analysis using annual radial growth measurements. Forestry (UK) 75: 63-74. It includes references to Carmeans, Lenharts, Newberry and Fabbio et al. methods. Have fun reading!
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An implication of this modelling study is that the net export of carbon at intermediate depths to the open ocean increases as the shelf seas grow and in particular as the area of the stratified shelf seas increases.
Is there a proxy which could be used, possibly from the sediments across the shelf break to test this idea?  
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Many thanks for your prompt response. Excuse a Physical Oceanographers ignorance - but how well is the ratio preserved on glacial-interglacial timescales?
I'd guess a good test of the idea put forward in our GRL paper would be to look at ratios in cores at the shelf break and see if they change as the shelves flood, and so test the idea that carbon export to the ocean increases as region subject to seasonal stratification grows.
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The injection of acid gas into underground deep formations requires a compressor. However, the non-ideal behavior of these gases makes them more liquid like when pressurized. How does this behavior affect the compressor power requirements?
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Reza, its not clear all the objectives and parameters around your activity, you may need compression, refrigeration, and pumps to accomplish the task. Compression to get a significant portion of the increase in gas density, then refrigeration to complete the job of liquification, and pumping to make the final transition from above-ground to below-ground storage... Operating a compressor with the potential to get in to the liquid phase may be very problematic so depending on what density (phase) is required for storage, refrigeration could be a possible option.
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CO2 capture from flue gas has to be considered under stringent process conditions such as availability of flue gas (post combustion) at elevated temp and near atmospheric pressure, low CO2 partial pressure in flue gas, competitive adsorption by contaminants such as H2O, SOx/NOx . The CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity of known MOFs are not very promising at low pressure. Other important issues involved are questionable long term structural stability of MOF materials, high cost of even the most basic of organic linkers , challenges in robust formulations of MOF etc.
Despite tall claims in scientific literature close scrutiny suggests otherwise!
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Generally, MOF materials are not suitable for CO2 capturing from flue gas by using TSA. As others mentioned above, MOF science is still infant and is limited to laboratory-scale not industrial scale. there is no supplier (except sigma-Aldrich) that can provide MOF in large scale. most of the MOF's are not stable in water, therefore they are not suitable for CO2 capturing from flue gas which contains between 5-15% H2O. Heat of adsorption of CO2 is also another critical parameter for industrial usage of the adsorbent. Usually, MOFs show their extraordinary capacity of adsorption at higher pressures which is not suitable for low pressure flue gas feed. The cost of the linkers are extremely expensive. however, I hope in near future, we can find a solution how to scale upping the MOFs production in water media instead of expensive and toxic solvents like DMF.
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Thanks Everyone for very useful input
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To estimate carbon stock of the tree systems in agriculture fields or urban trees with direct remote sensing methodologies accurately.
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Here I would to bring your intention toward very high resolution WorldView-2 (8 spectral bands and 0.5m spatial resolution) data for biomass and ultimately carbon stock using selected field data collection, linking with satellite data.
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I am working on terrestrial carbon sequestration by traditional field based non-destructive methods. Is there any device through which we can directly and accurately measure the exact amount of carbon sequestered by plants on a monthly or annual basis? If there is, can anyone let me know where it is available from?
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The only way to measure what is sequestered by plants is measure the biomass of the plants. This can be done through estimating allometric relationships between something that is easily measured non-destructively (basal diameter of stem, etc.) and the biomass of the plant. You will need to destructively sample a few plants along a range of masses to do this. You can measure photosynthesis with and IRGA but this not sequestration, only net photosynthesis. Likewise, measuring net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE, aka net carbon balance of the ecosystem) is possible using eddy co-variance techniques BUT this includes soil decomposition, not just plant sequestration. I hope this helps, feel free to ask more if needed.
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Carbon capture question: I am looking to estimate how much energy is released when a a unit of fossil fuel is burned versus how much energy it would take to sequester the CO2 that was released. Obviously a range for both numbers, but it just seems at the end of the day, entropy ensures it will take more energy to recapture the carbon than the amount released when it was burned (oxidized), so not sure how carbon capture can work from an energetics perspective
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The entropy problem is solved by capturing the CO2 directly at the outlet of centralized CO2 emitters (e.g. power plants). Apparently, this would take 14-40% more energy per kWh produced. (see paper)
Especially for atmospheric carbon capture, you would need an energy source that does not itself cause CO2 emissions, such as solar. Instead of storing the carbon, it seems smarter to me to use it as a feedstock for synthesis / fuel production, using renewable energy. This would also increase the economic value of the CO2, because I think economic cost of carbon capture may be even more critical than energetic cost ...