Cancer Animal Models

Cancer Animal Models

  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer:
    Comparing mouse genes to human?


    I looking at some mutated genes in you CRC mouse model and would like to compare These mutations to human genes to see if they are significant in human genes.

    Does anyone know of any online tool which compares the mouse genes to human genes?

    Any suggestions would be helpful



    Saleh Alkarim


    what about this websites ?

    See the link

    Good Luck

    + 2 more attachments

  • Ranjith Ramachandran added an answer:
    How many cells (C6 glioma) should I inject to get an optimum subcutaneous glioma in Wistar Rats?
    I'm trying to develop a subcutaneous C6 glioma model in Wistar Rats. For that, how many cells should I inject to get an optimum tumor growth? What will be the suitable age of the animal? How many days will the tumor will grow without regression? How do you extend the time of tumor growth and prevent regression? What are the other important factors affecting tumor growth?
    Ranjith Ramachandran

    Thank you..Robert

  • Robert Kiss added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the more suitable route of inoculation of cancer cells in rats?
    I am planning to do an experimental trial of anticancer chemical.
    Robert Kiss

    I fully share Amr's response.

    Best regards


  • Jonathan E Ploski added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with inducible mouse lines with Crispr/Cas9 systems?

    Hi, we just planned to make a KO mouse line for a protein we're studying. The ideal would be a conditional and inducible one. Has anyone experience with that? Would that be feasible at all with Crispr/cas9 technology?

    Jonathan E Ploski

    We've generated an inducible system that is compatible with existing Cas9 mice. We've not published it yet, so email me if you want to learn more.

  • Dongsheng Gu added an answer:
    What is the best In Vitro assay? Alamar Blue, Presto Blue, XTT or MTT?
    The Assay for in vitro activity..
    Dongsheng Gu

    @Edita Aksamitiene

    Thank you for your home-made AB protocol. That's really money saving and I am going to try it. But I still have some Qs about the details. How long do you incubate the cells after adding AB? Will incubation of cells in PBS decrease their activity? Will be better if prepare 10X AB solution and add it directly into medium? Thank you!

  • Carsten Schmidt added an answer:
    What is a good antibody to stain mouse tumor tissue sections for CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells?
    I'm interested in identifying T-cell populations in mouse tumor sections. I can do IHC or IF and I have paraffin or frozen sections.
    Carsten Schmidt

    Hi Miriam,

    I don't know, if you still searching and also it is something like advertising, but we have developed a pair of guinea pig Anti-CD4 and rat Anti-CD8a antibodies witch work well in FFPE mouse samples,

    here is a link of a CD4 and CD8 co-straining in mouse spleen;

    and the links to the single antibodies;



    If you are interested, please contact me and I could arrange a free sample is send to you either from one antibody or from both.

    Best regards,


    What is the best commercially available antibody to detect CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ T-cells in FFPE sections? - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Jan 27, 2016].

  • Robert Kiss added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with intra-thoracic tumor injections for an orthotopic lung tumor model?
    Previous reports have shown the feasibility of generating an orthotopic primary lung tumor model in rats using an intra-thoracic injection of cells in matrigel.

    Reference for the rat model can be found here:
    Robert Kiss

    We used by the past the human A549 NSCLC xenografts as detailed in the attached articles.

    Best regards


    + 1 more attachment

  • Siddik Uzzaman; M.Sc., Ph.D., PDF. added an answer:
    How to induce lung cancer model in experimental animals?

    Please, I would like to get a protocol for chemically induction of lung cancer in Rats/Mice.

    Siddik Uzzaman; M.Sc., Ph.D., PDF.

    Hi Marwa....depending upon your interest which type lung cancer you want to develop like small cell or non small cell lung cancer. And another point is which animal model you want to develop lung cancer like immnunocompetent or immunosupressed animal model. In those two type several types of strains are available so you have to think what you want to in which model clearly so that you can use by chemical induced or cell line induce model. Chemical for example benzypyrene or cell line for eg. B16 cell line. So many other options are available but you have to go according to your objectives. 

    Hope it will help you.


  • Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul Rahman added an answer:
    Can we develop breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in swiss albino mice?
    Due to lack of nude mice we are interested to develop breast cancer in normal mice. does any one have the idea?
  • Mahesh Hegde added an answer:
    How to induce solid tumors in nude mice using leukemic cells along with matrigel?

    Is matrigel useful in induction of solid tumors in case of leukemic cells? or leukemic cells alone are good enough to induce tumor? Could anyone please suggest me the procedure for induction of solid tumor using leukemic cells if any? 

    Mahesh Hegde

    Thank you Prof. Robert Kiss.

  • Narayanan Bhattathiri added an answer:
    Does anybody know if there is a communication between tumor cells?

    I want to know whether tumor cells share their information by time passing. I were wondering if anybody could answer my question and introduce some good resources in this regard?

    Narayanan Bhattathiri

    Dear Negin

    Ahmed and Vikash have given you Scientific view points; I would like to be nonSCientific and say that Cancer cells are crazy, they will tell neighboring cells also to go crazy, for no purpose

    To be scientific again, I read long back (don't remember the reference) that even cell free filtrates from tumour cultures can turn other cells malignant, which means that even their word (contained in the solutions) harbour malignant potential


  • Finn von Eyben added an answer:
    How can I evaluate mouse tumor volume equivalents in human?

    Can someone help me about mice to human conversions in the field of chemotherapy? I observed approximately 14 cm3 prostate cancer tumors in my control group animals (mice). However I do not know how to compare this volumes with human tumors. Is there a calculation method for this purpose

    Finn von Eyben

    Sorry I commented on the comparison of tumor volume in humans and mice. We did the study many years ago where transplantation of human cancer to nude mice were seen as a exciting way to do cancer research. I collaborated with the founder Joergen Rygaard. So my reply reflects a technical problem and I did not comment on ethics for animal research. At that time Rygaard and Polsen made theses on the topic in Denmark. I took part on the defense for Rygaard. Noone of the opponents mentioned a ethical problem at that time.

    Yours sincerely

    Finn Edler von Eyben 

  • Robert Kiss added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me how to identify brain/cerebral tumorigenesis in mice?

    I want to know if there is a symptom that can suggest cerebral/brain tumorigenesis has occurred in mice.

    Maybe behavioral changes or an article that says when cerebral tumorigenesis occur in mice

    Robert Kiss

    Dear Ibrahim,

    There are several "clinical (behavioral) signs": loss of weight (as compared to controls; non-grafted), very slow and uncertain moving in the cage, moving round in the cages, etc...

    Best regards


  • Finn von Eyben added an answer:
    What is the best mouse strain for developing a xenograft metastatic model of melanoma followuing intracardiac injection? NOD-SCID or Nude mice?

    Actually we tried to develop a xenograft metastatic model of melanoma with NOD-SCID mice after ic injection of A375 metastatic melanoma cell line. After 4 wks by ic injection we only found oligometastatic disease, prevalently spread to bones or muscles. 

    Are NOD-SCID mice suitable for this model?

    Many other groups used Nude mice for the same purpose, however with different cell lines. We will soon repeat experiments with other cell lines.

    Does anyone have experience with both NOD-SCID and Nude mice xenograft models of metastatic melanoma?

    Finn von Eyben

    Claes Trope made a study of subfutanius ppliation of aa human cancer and I do not recall great difference between nude mice and the NOD mice

  • Fang Cheng added an answer:
    What is the recent, most reliable animal model for cervical caner?

    Availability of agent, practicability of model,

    Fang Cheng

    The common cervial cancer for compound screening is s.c. xenograft model (siHa cells or Hela cells) in nude mice. 

    However, if you want to study the mechnistic aspect of cervial cancer, other virus infected in vivo models have to been considered.

  • Bulent Uysal added an answer:
    Does anyone have a protocol for preparing NMU for initiating mammary tumors in rats?
    I am trying to find a complete protocol on preparing NMU for chemical carcinogenesis. I have basic notes indicating I should pH the saline to anywhere from 4.0-5.5 using acetic acid. The saline should be sterile and the techniques for doing so also vary (before adding NMU, after adding NMU, using a filter). Also, I read one article that states all injections should be completed within 20 minutes and another that says at the right pH and with protection from light it is stable.
    Bulent Uysal

    Sorry for previous mistaken dose. The dose is not 0,7 mg/kg.

    NMU dose should be 70-75 mg/kg single dose.

    And it is resoluble in distilled water. For example, you can solve 75 mg in 3 cc dH2O.

  • Gary Lee Gilmore added an answer:
    I need to create a mouse model of melanoma, then treat them with PD1 drugs. Would SCID mice be a good choice considering the T cell response needed?

    Anti-PD1 therapy works by activating cell immunity, therefore to what extent an SCID mouse would be able to respond to this therapy if they are immuno compromised to begin with?

    Gary Lee Gilmore

    Actually, most Antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity is dependent on NK activity, and not T cells. CD8+ T cells are directly cytotoxic, killing cells without antibody present. SCID mice have normal NK activity.

    Years ago, I generated a line of SCID-beige mice - the beige mutation inhibits NK activity. Those mice were NK deficient. I was hoping for a better host for xenogeneic grafts, but that was a marginal improvement at best..

    I personally have never grown melanomas in SCID mice, but I expect it has been done. I suggest checking the literature. 

  • Anne Goubier added an answer:
    Does anyone have an idea for syngeneic tumour models for testing human tumour targeting Ab (e.g. Cetuximab) in immune competent mice ?


    I am looking for syngenic tumor models for evaluating human-specific tumour targeting Ab in immune competent mice. More specifically, I am looking for models expressing either huHER2, huEGFR or huCD20 and which have already shown some therapeutic response to Trastuzumab, Cetuximab or Rituximab, respectively. I have identified potential models (TUBO-EGFR, BL3750), but they are not commercially available and I cannot get access to them. Do you have any suggestion? That would greatly help our research program!

    Anne Goubier

    Dear Beatrice, Thanks a lot, that is very helpful!


  • Shawn Lee added an answer:
    Is there any chemicals better than DHM to induce colorectal cancer ?

    I'm looking for a chemical that can reflect diet related colorectal cancer. DHM is not a bad choice,but it takes too long.I'm wandering is there something more effective and convenient than DHM.

    Shawn Lee

    Thank you very much!

  • Eileen Parkes added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a reliable mouse tumor model system for anti PD-1 studies?

    I am studying novel immuno therapeutic strategies in cancer and have had trouble in establishing a reliable system to study combination therapy with PD-1 blockade. I am wondering if anyone has had success with such a model. I have tried B16 tumors and EL4 tumors. Thank you.

    Eileen Parkes

    I realise this is an old thread - I'm having trouble getting hold of anti-mouse PD-1 (clone G4 ideally), would any one have access to this (and be willing to ship to Belfast, expenses paid!) or recommend a commercial alternative?

    Thanks in advance!

  • James Murray added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend the best software to use to plot a dose response curve and calculate IC50?
    I am analysing several drugs on tumour cell lines. I need a quick way to calculate IC50 based on data generated.
    James Murray

    Thank you for all the feedback. It was very helpful. In the end I went for Graphpad Prism and found the software very intuitive.

  • Mahitab Elsayed added an answer:
    Any advice on a liver metastasis experiment where mice were injected with pancreatic cancer cells but after three weeks no tumor was found?

    but after three weeks no tumor was found in the liver either in large number of cancer cell , anyone know what could be the problem?

    Mahitab Elsayed

    actually I am not sure yet about the  invasive of the two cells so I think I have to try one more time the cells that was not invasive to have more accurate data 

  • Joe Graymer added an answer:
    We need to induce cancer (leukemia and solid cancer) in mice, which method you would recommend?

    We need to induce cancer (leukemia and solid cancer) in mice, which method you would recommend? We need to test different compounds for cancer treatment?

    We need to induce it in Balb/c mice with immunocompetence, since we do not have SCID and NOD mice in our animal facility. 

    Many thanks


    Joe Graymer

    Leukemia-Lymphoma and Solid Tumors differ in its causative agents between humans and animals, a classical carcinogen was Dimethylbenzanthracene, and several chemicals in the Benzene ring family are known carcinogens, so does tobacco in any presentation, but some avian and rodent leukemias and solid tumors have known origins in viruses, that may or may not activate oncogenes or silence tumor supressants.

    Mutagenic agents are carcinogens, and some lists of it exist, for example, in 'Ca, a cancer journal for clinicians' information exists about 'Carcinogens in the workplace', and the NYAS published some years ago an Annals volume about: 'Living in a chemical world', perhaps also searching in MedLine for 'carcinogen induced 'malignancies' or 'cancer', or 'cancer/carcinogenicity animal models' may yield some practical results. Good academic year, + salut

  • Dnyaneshwar Gavhane added an answer:
    Can we use combination of NMU and DMBA to induce mammary tumors in rats to get better incidence?


    Dnyaneshwar Gavhane

    Ok thanks

  • Majid Mahdavi added an answer:
    What is the exact molecular mechanism behind DMBA induced breast cancer in SD female rats?
    Current project ongoing.
    Majid Mahdavi

    DMBA isn't a powerful carcinogen, but when it is metabolized by the liver generates much more mutagenic metabolites. You can refer to Huberman et al, PNAS 1979.

  • Padmavathi Lolla added an answer:
    Why are HO15.19 rat1a cells not forming tumors in female nude mice, 22 days after injection?

    Hello everyone,

    our problem is non formation of tumors in xenograft expt. We are using female nude mice.

    We injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing Myc as follows:

    1. First female nude mouse: we injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing WT Myc : 2 million cells+matrigel into one flank and 3 million cells in PBS into another flank.

    2. Second female mouse: we injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing mutant Myc : 1 million cells in matrigel into one flank and 5 million cells in PBS on another flank.

    It has been 22 days and we still see no trace of tumors. Can anyone help troubleshoot the problem. I am a novice in the field and had not done tumorigenesis studies before?

    Padmavathi Lolla

    Hi Amirali, thank you for the advice. We don't have NOD/SCID mice in our animal facility. We have to use NUDE mice. I mixed the cell pellet well before injection. However I will check the needle issue as suggested by you and Robert walter.

  • Vidya Ganapathy added an answer:
    Which mouse cancer cells overexpress HER2 receptors?

    I am working on HER2 receptors. can anybody suggest  which mouse cancer cells overexpress HER2 receptors?

    Vidya Ganapathy

    Please refer to the following publication:

    De Vries CR, Monken CE, Lattime EC. The Addition of Recombinant Vaccinia HER2/neu to Oncolytic Vaccinia-GMCSF Given into the Tumor Microenvironment Overcomes MDSC-Mediated Immune Escape and Systemic Anergy. Cancer gene therapy. 2015;22(3):154-162. doi:10.1038/cgt.2015.2.

  • Robert Kiss added an answer:
    What is the best animal model for studying colon cancer? Is Zebra fish a good model for studying colon cancer?

    Can we use zebrafish as an animal model for studying colon cancer? 

    Robert Kiss

    I fully share Bernard's and Ibrahim's opinions.

    I emit serious doubts about the fact that zebrafish "colon cancers" would respond to chemotherapeutics used in humans ... It is already very hard to predict this feature from genetically engineered rodents.

    As a "first" model syngeneic colon cancer in immunocompetent mice would be a rationale approach. The mouse CT26 model grows s.c. as well as orthotopically (caecum).

    The human HT29 orthotopic xenograft model (implanted in the caecum of immunocompromized (nude) mice) is also a "good" model.

    A model is a model and remains a model. It will never translate the actual clinical situation. You have to make a choice for a model that can help you to scientifically demonstrate your working hypothesis.

    Best regards


  • Denise Priolli added an answer:
    Does anybody has any experience with 786-O(RCC) induced xenograft nude mice models?
    Any suggestions about the optimum cell no. for inoculation as I had inoculated 786-O (5 *10 ^ 6 cells/animal, Subcutaneously in flank region) in CD1 nude mice. After one week I observed tumorous swellings up to 100 mm3 at the site of inoculation and then it disappeared after the 2nd week. What could be the reason?
    Denise Priolli

    The routine for renal adenocarcinoma/786 is the fast growth followed by disappearance of tumor due to NK response in nude mice. In a pilot that I conducted with three animals  I had successonly in one animal, but after re-inoculation of 4X10E6 cells. The literature reports that the xenograft works in BALB/c nu beige or SCID but I have no experience with these strains.

  • Bulent Uysal added an answer:
    How can I induce breast cancer in mouse?

    I want to study the effects of herbal drugs on breast cancer in animal models.

    Bulent Uysal

    I can suggest you to use NMU (N methyl nitrosourea), but for Srague Dawley Rat Model.

    Before all you have to consider some troubles.

    1. If you use inbred rat, you can obtain good results.

    2. With single dose (75 mg/kg) only, you can see first tumours within 3 mounths. 

    3. Together breast cancer, you can induce renal carcinoma and a kind of skin tumour with this method.

    4. İntraperitoneal single dose NMU is enough to induce mammary tumor.

    5. About 50-60% of animal will have mammary tumour.

    6. Another important issue, you have to induce the tumour at first estrous cycles within 4th week following to delivery of pubs. 

    take it easy

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