Science topic

Cadmium - Science topic

An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
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Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT)
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the advantage of using CZT ( CdZTe) compared to HPGe is that there is no need for extremely cool down the detector. Slight cooling via Peltier elements is enough for CZT...
Best regards
G.M.
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I want to study cadmium uptake in spinach using a Deep Water Culture hydroponic system. I would ideally be using a nutrient formula recommended by Cornell in the Cornell-CEA-baby-spinach-handbook which uses a 2 stock solution. Found here:
-What is the best cadmium salt to add to a hydroponic solution?
-What is the best method to add it to the nutrient mix so that it doesn't precipitate out?
I appreciate any guidance you have. This will be my first time using hydroponics.
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Hi Danyelle Forte,
I have gone through this link and found it as very interesting. My PhD was based on hydroponic method, so, I try to help you as per my knowledge.
I think Cadmium chloride i.e. CdCl2 would be the best cadmium salt to add a hydroponic solution and you can follow the Hoagland protocol for the preparation of nutrient mix.
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Heavy metal particles can be considered metallic chemical elements, toxic even at low concentrations. They have atomic weight ranges between 63.5 and 200.6, with a specific gravity of 4.5–5.0. Toxic heavy metals in wastewaters and in soil are copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium.
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Heavy metals are toxic metals having density five times greater than water. They are toxic for all living organisms. In humans they enter into body through various ways like ingestion, absorption etc. They become harmful when their accumulation rate is more than their dischargeAny toxic metal may be called heavy metal, irrespective of their atomic mass or density.[1] Heavy metals are a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. These include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. One source defines heavy metal as one of the common transition metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc. These metals are a cause of environmental pollution from sources such as leaded petrol, industrial effluents, and leaching of metal ions from the soil into lakes and rivers by acid rain.Three principal systems of medicine are practiced in India: Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani-Tibb. These systems utilize drugs of natural origin constituting plants, animals, and mineral preparations.
But some of the heavy metal are useful fo microorganismSome heavy metals such as nickel, iron, copper and zinc are essential to metabolic reactions and are required as trace elements by the organismsOn the one hand, heavy metals have a direct effect on soil enzyme activity, so that the spatial structure of the active groups of the enzyme is destroyed. On the other hand, the growth and reproduction of microorganisms are inhibited, thus reducing the synthesis and metabolism of the microbial enzymeHeavy metals can significantly affect the kinetics of substrate biodegradation and microbial growth, including lag times and specific growth rates. A model to describe microbial metabolic lag as a function of the history of substrate concentration.
Unlike organic contaminants, heavy metals are not biodegradable and tend to accumulate in living organisms. Many heavy metal ions, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium, are known to be very toxic or carcinogenic.
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Hi dears
The thermal vacuum evaporation method has been utilized to deposit cadmium oxide thin films. The X-ray diffraction data indicated diffraction peaks corresponding to cadmium and no diffraction peaks of cadmium oxide. Is there any help explaining why the cadmium oxide phase does not appear?
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With thermal evaporation you are not guaranteed crystal growth of thin films. A lot depends on the substrate you are depositing onto. To get epitaxial growth from thermal evaporation you generally need a crystalline substrate. If you do have a crystalline substrate then this may affect the diffraction data.
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There are several definitions and/or descriptions of metals/metalloids (e.g. Arsenic, Cadmium, & Lead) according to different authors. Authors mostly lend toward different academic backgrounds, for example, chemistry, ecotoxicology, environmental science, health, etc. yet they are discussing in a similar context. But what are the most appropriate terms that define/describe metals/metalloids in the environment and why should we use them uniformly in this context?
1. Heavy metals
2. Potentially toxic metals
3. Potentially toxic elements
4. Toxic metals/elements
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I would say potentially toxic metals.
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Dear colleagues! I am currently testing an antioxidant as a protector against the toxic effect of cadmium. However, I suspect that one of its mechanisms is through metal chelation. I would like to know if anyone knows a simple method to help me demonstrate that the antioxidant is chelating. Thank you very much for your expert advice.
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Dear Estefani Yaquelin Hernández-Cruz this is an interesting technical question and a very worthwhile research topic. Many antioxidants such as polyphenols or flavonoids have several donor atoms (mostly oxygen) so that they can potentally act as chelating ligands. As it is the case so often, RG is a highly useful source of inforation in this case too. For example, please have a look at the following very interesting review article:
On the effect of chelating agents and antioxidants on cadmium-induced organ toxicity. An overview
The good thing about this paper is that it has been posted as public full text on RG. Thus you can freely download it as ppdf file.
Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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Nowadays, many industries and activities discharge various types of heavy metal ions with their effluent including Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, etc.
Is there any industry in which copper and cadmium are the major constituents of its effluents?
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Tannery effluent have large amount of Cr. Iron also may be present in many type of wastewater due to treated systems and pipe. Cu I don't find it in most copper industries wastewat such as wire. Ni and Co in the military industries wastewater. In fact the presence of heavy metals depending on both industry effluent and regulation limits. I mean some regulations accepted high concentration of heavy metals in wastewater.
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Good day!
I have indefinite situation for me arose with gamma particle detection simulations.
My detector is a 10 * 10 pixel of cadmium_telluride.
pixel size 55 * 55 um, thickness 0.5 cm.
Beam gamma 80 keV.
When using G4EmStandardPhysics_option4, I get secondary gamma photons with energy ~ 23 keV.
The question arises with the LengthTracks for this secondary particle, in some cases it is over 300 micrometers.
This happens when there "CoupledTransportation" process takes place without any interactions along the path of the particle.
Tell me what caused this movement of the particle, or am I missing something when creating PhysicsList?
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see
The Geant4 Simulation Toolkit – Short Course, IEEE NSS-MIC 2013
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Hi, all,
We are studying the adsorption capacity of soils with different particle sizes for Cd. During the study, we are facing a difficulty that “The adsorption capacity should firstly be normalized to the SSA. Then, the size effect for adsorption should be discussed based on it. Otherwise, it is unclear whether the SSA or soil components should be responsible for better adsorption performance.”. We read many papers and ask some groupmates these days, but no one knows how to normalize it.
We would appreciate it if you guys could give us some suggestions. Sincerely, thank you.
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不知道啊
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I am conducting a research study that combines data from the 2013-2014, 2015-2016, and 2017-2018 NHANES cycles and looks at blood metal levels. I would like to merge the "Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, Selenium & Manganese - Blood" datasets for these years together (PBCD_H, PBCD_I, PBCD_J). For two cycles of data (2013-2016), a one-half sample from participants aged 12 years and older were eligible for blood metal measures. But for the 2017-2018 data, all participants were eligible. What weight variables should I use when combining the 2013-2018 data?
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That happens frequently in the state and federal data. One idea may be to separate "participants aged 12 years and older" and others.
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Most of the papers say it has a tetragonal lattice cell but, the crystallography database is showing an orthorhombic lattice cell. Which one to follow?
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Hi,
Hard to say, but it's an interesting question. The point is that almost any substance can, depending on the conditions, provide structural variants such as polymorphism, polytypism, polysomatism, modulations etc.
On the other hand, it must be said that for some phases, especially with a complex structure, the correct spatial group may not be known or it is possible to solve it in several variants. It is also a fact that some spatial groups are limited but substitutable (pseudosymmetry).
Ali et al. (2014) state that low-temperature Cd3As2 is tetragonal, group I41 / acd, and that it is an antifluorite superstructure. It's nothing primitive. However, the authors cite older works with other groups.
So to sum it up, we probably won't solve it so easily. It will be necessary to summarize the published structural data (lattice parameters, groups and coordinates of atoms, measurement conditions) and find out how and in what they differ. This will hopefully determine what polymorphs are possible and what the same structures are.
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I need construct a cadmium reduction colunm, and, some of technical references explained about this system made by volumetric pipette.
In my project, this colunm can constructed with volumetric pipette of 5 ml for 25 g of cadmium cupperized.
Somebody constructed cadmium reduction colunm with volumetric pipette?
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Please kindly read the following paper in pubmed
Simple, efficient reduction column for use in the automated determination of nitrate in water
M. P. Stainton
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Hello my fellow researchers here
I have a question. I want a researcher or scientist to explain. You know the concept of OK?
200 ml of cadmium solutions with known initial concentrations (20,30,35,40)
I am still a student and I want to understand the exact wording
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Can I request you to clarify your question? I mean can you please rephrase your question, at present for me difficult to get your point. TQ
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HI
I have tried nitrate adsorption by 2010 Hach spectrophotometry(based on cadmium reductin). But some results(adsorption capacity) have been negative.
I want to try cadmium reduction method by an usuall spectrophotometer. do yo know is it working?
thanks alot
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hi! may I know if you have learned the reason behind the negative result?
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Cadmium is a heavy metal which is toxic for plants and human at its excess content. However, how can be removed cadmium (Cd) easily from soil?
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Please have a look at enclosed PDFs...
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Hi, everyone. Which topic is best for PhD research. use of nanoparticles and modified biochar for the immobilization of cadmium form soil or removal and absorption of Carbon dioxide by modified biochar? highly need your suggestions . suggest me the novel work. Thank you.
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You need not compare them as both are vitally important depending upon the objective and situation. Carbon dioxide absorption may score a little over cadmium as the current global scenario demands carbon dioxide reduction. But, the potential of absorption (compare it with 1 hectare of new forest accounting for 6.24 tons of carbon dioxide) is what needs to be checked, please.
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Please, are there standards (or guidelines from known organizations such as WHO) that determine limit values for heavy metals in paints?
the majority of the data relate only to lead. I am interested in other metals such as Cadmium, Mercury, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Cadmium in combination with selenium, ...
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Dear Hassan El Abid I just found another potentially useful link entitled
Heavy Metals Regulations in the United States: An Overview
It contains a section about the ban of lead in paints.
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I have been working on bacterial assisted phytoremediation of heavy metals experiment. Briefly plants were subjected to different metal concentrations. For instance, plants were treated with 100mg/kg of cadmium in soil already having 0.4 mg/kg cadmium. After harvesting plant parts and soil were analyzed for final concentration of cadmium. The values obtained were; in root is 34, in shoot is 3.90 and in soil is 79 mg/kg which when sum up gives us 116.90mg/kg. 116.90 is maximum than 100.4 mg/kg. Do there exist any justification for this observation.
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yes, there are several reasons why this would occur. First, it is very possible that you did not pool soil samples for analysis properly. sometimes, researchers collect samples from only a few areas within the soil in a container; some also collect at specific depths only to miss out on that same depth and location when going for the next round of analysis. You must understand that metals in solution move horizontally as much as it does vertically, meaning that concentrations at specific spots may differ at every time. The only way out is to collect as many soils from the container from several random locations and depths and run descriptive statistics on the results. I am sure you'd obtain a very representative result.
the second issue is also because most times, the metals you might have analyzed may have been the ionic forms of the metal while excluding the chelated or organic forms. In most bacterial-assisted phytoremediation, the bacteria or bacterium may release metabolites that bind with the metal and thus sequester it (the process some researchers call biosequestration or biotransformation). By the time this metal becomes unavailable, you may not be able to account for the chelated or sequestered concentration particularly if the metal assessment methodology was specific for only bioavailable or ionic forms of the metal
in the other narrative, when such sequestered metals in soil (that you couldn't assess initially because of your methodology) become acted upon by other bacterial metabolites that bioconverts the ligand, the sequestered metal eventually becomes available again, thus "increasing" the soil concentration.
solution. Ensure that assessment of metal concentration is by methodologies that have capacities for ascertaining both ionic and organic concentrations of metals in soils
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I want to know about the different media used to check the growth and characterization of cadmium resistant bacteria to know the best media for its growth and also to aid identification of the bacterial species, what are the most commonly checked media for that?
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I recommend that you initially use minimal concentrations of cadmium in the culture media, and then you can increase it from 10 ppm to 300 or more depending on your microorganisms respond.
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I have encountered this question from a reviewer, anyone from pharmacological background can explain this, please..
Question: Period of Cadmium accumulation in positive control (Cd only) group compared to the reduction percentage of Cadmium accumulation will be beneficial to be included in order to calculate the timing of cadmium clearance from the organ
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In our Cd study with growing pigs (attachment) we had a group that received a rather high Cd load for a short period followed by a low one for the weeks after. The results did not indicate a clearance of the accumulated cadmium from the kidney (our primary interest) . The reduction in the kidney content could be explained by dilution due to (considerable) growth during the low exposure period.
Maybe our data can be of help to you in answering the questions for the reviewer.
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I had sent my samples for ICP-MS analysis to a private organization for the detection of Cadmium levels in uterine animal tissues, which I have given in my paper, now I have received a question from a reviewer regarding the ICP-MS technique which I cant understand, anyone could help, please.
Question: Consider the isobaric interference of cadmium isotopes, any measures to overcome the spectral interference during ICP-MS analysis
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Cadmium has 8 stable isotopes with mass:charge (also written m/z) of 106, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, and 116. Which m/z did you measure in your analyses? Other elements with these m/z include 106Pd, 108Pd, 112Sn, 114Sn, 116Sn.
Sometimes elements recombine in the plasma to form transient polyatomic molecules such as 39K2160 (m/z 110), 95Mo16O (m/z 111) etc ... (the first page of May and Wiedmeyer 1998: https://www.perkinelmer.com/CMSResources/Images/44-74379ATL_TableOfPolyatomicInterferences.pdf has a number of other polyatomics relevant to Cd).
Essentially, the reviewer is asking you to consider if there is another element or polyatomic that might be causing the Cd signal your ICPMS observed.
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Hello everyone, I was just wondering if anybody has pointers on choosing the best basis set for Cadmium? Unlike the other metals: Mg, Ca, Mn, Ni, Co; Cd is not included in the 6-31*G+. I've tried LANL2DZ and Def2DZVP - which did not converge successfully. Any advice is highly appreciated, thank you.
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ADF (actually nowadays AMS) uses Slater basis-sets, thus none of basis sets discussed above are available there.
The result of calculation should depend on the method(functional) and basis set and not on used software, thus with the same preferences, it has to be no difference in the result (but might be the difference in speed) between the packages. Although Gaussian wasn't mentioned by topicstarter - it is perfectly fine software for DFT calculations. AMS has its own great features (starting from amazing GUI and going over many approaches) but for the beginners - Gaussian is user-friendlier and easier to understand (to google) the problems, in my opinion. Finally, both are commercial and not everyone has both of them. It is pretty possible that topicstarter has just ORCA or any other free software, that for a particular task (that was also never announced) might be not worse than any commercial software.
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does any one know how much cadmium is toxic to plants?
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The critical toxicity level of cadmium in the soil is in the range of 6 to 10 mg/kg, which can be toxic to plants.
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I need some sort of plant material that is guaranteed to be free of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Every plant material I have tested has metals at a concentration above our LOQ (0.025 ppm)
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Almost all plant tissue contain metals. ICP technique is capable to detect the metals even in a lowest concentration.
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Hello everyone,
for quite a long time I have been trying to determine Pb in FAPAS test material, but to no avail. Calibration blank is always too high, ABS readings are sometimes low or even negative and when it comes to sample, it is impossible to get any results. Below, you can see print screen of the results I got. I did measurement on wavelength 283,3 nm and I didn't use modifiers; total volume of the sample was 25 micro-liters.
I also have some doubts when it comes to determination of Cd in the same material. Some of the results I got fit in the range for z<2. However, there is no consistency in results, because in two consecutive measurements done within 40 minutes, I get totally different results. First one was failure and the second and third one was good. Measurements for Cd were done on 228, 8 nm, again with no modifiers and the total sample volume was 20 micro-liters.
In general, I have problems with determination of Pb and Cd even when I try to measure the concentration in diluted standard solutions. There is just no repeatability and the same problems occur; calibration blank and sample blank are too high and ABS readings vary almost every time.
I am still beginner when it comes to AAS methods in general. I cannot ask for help from my colleagues as AAS is just getting introduced in the lab. And due to the pandemic, I cannot get proper external education. Thus I hope that someone on this platform will be able to help me out.
The instrument we have in the lab is GBC SavantAA Z enduro. I am also interested about the experiences others had with this brand.
Thank you
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Dear Amra Salkic,
I glad that I could help.
RSD seems quite high. It depends on the methodology you are using, but typically for standard solutions it should be less than 5% (excluding blank of course as RSD will almost always be high). The first what you should check if you have high RSD is your injection system.
And also it seems that 4 ppb for Cd is too high and the cal. curve is not linear anymore at this level of abs. So I suggest to exclude this standard and add 3 ppb instead. But in case of Pb analysis you need to add more concentrated standards to the calibration.
Best regards, Nikita
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I have  used MWCNT based nanoadsorbent in order to remove cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution, in isotherm analysis  for single component adsorption,freundlich had the highest consistency with the data while for Nickel langmuir fitted well. Is it possible to have this result? I am confused because the adsorbent is the same for both metal ions but the behavior predicted by isotherms is different. Would you please help me with that?
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Freundlich adsorption isotherm a complete guidance.....
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I am preparing a poster on one of your paper belongs to this project, "Indirect effects of climate changes on cadmium bioavailability and
biological effects in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis". I did not find any acknowledgement part. Can you help my by providing that?
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Dear Mirza,
I am very late in answering your request. I didn't get the notification. Let me know if I can still help in some manner.
Best,
Alessandro
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How is cadmium absorbed by the plant roots?
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Cadmium is transported into the root xylem via apoplastic and symplastic pathways.
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Cu2+ and Co2+ occupy only octahedral sites r tetrahedral sites when doped in cadmium ferrite ?Need suggestion
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I have synthesized CdSe with green emission but the shell of ZnS couldn't formed. The procedure is cadmium oxide and Se dissolved in oliec acid with heating in the presence of paraffin liquid, then I added zinc acetate-oliec acid mixture at high temperature and finally Na2S-oliec acid injected to the above group. There is no change in color or red emission. What is the problem?
thank you.
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Amar Nath Yadav
Thank you for your response. TOPO Unfortunately not availble, thus I have used oliec acid procedure.
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What is Cadmium toxicity?
How it binds Cadmium in human body?
What is the nature of Cadmium?
Which are the functional group of metallothionein?
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I would want if someone can give me the United State Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Reference (RfD) and Cancer Slope Factor (CSF) for heavy metals such as Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe ), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Manganese (Mn) in water for both children and adults in terms of both Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Contact.
Thanks.
Rilwan Usman.
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Thanks to Mr. William P. Eckel and Lawrence Olusegun Ajala
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We coated Magnisum Fluoride (1.5 Molar) solution and Spin coated on Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) glass plate.
Anealed (heated in oven) at 70*Celcius for 2 hours and then sent for XRD. But we got only single peak of CdTe, not of 2nd coat.
What steps should be taken in order to get 2nd coat peak of XRD ?
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The atomic numbers in MgF2 are considerably lower than those in CdTe and thus the intensity of scattering is going to be tiny in comparison. Plus the film is so thin (if indeed it exits at all) and the x-rays will penetrate through them to the underlying substrate. Calculate the depth of penetration. Grazing incidence XRD may be an option but I suspect you may have to increase the film thickness by a factor of 10 or 100 (and perhaps not by an attempted aqueous spin coat route but rather a sol-gel precursor).
BTW, your sentence does not make sense 'We coated Magnisum Fluoride (1.5 Molar) solution'. How do you coat a solution? It is usual in chemistry to have lower case letters for compounds - magnesium fluoride. Note the spelling of magnesium (not Magnisum)...
And how are you sure any MgF2 remained on the CdTe surface after spin coating? CdTe is hydrophobic and you're trying an aqueous spin coating route. Normally an evaporative route would be used for what (MgF2) is used as an AR coating.
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Heavy metals like lead and cadmium might present in chocolate. These heavy metals are deposited in the body when they are consumed. These are highly toxic and is carcinogenic. What is the permissible level of these heavy metals in chocolate?
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Check the FAO, FDA or EU websites for this information.
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What are the reasons for a significant negative correlation among heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) with fecal coliform, BOD, NO3, and PO4 during the wet period?
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NO3 and phosphorus are been used in fertilizers and some heavy metals act as catalysts for producing them So small amount of metals come through fertilizers and maybe cause contamination. The correlation matrix helps to verify the source of the contamination and its dependence.
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We see that Ni-Cd Batteries is still used in railways it is not replaced by Ni-Mh or LIB. What make Ni-Cd special for railways?
Thanks in advance
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There is inertia of using. In the absence of competition, it is often unprofitable to replace one product with another, even if it is more effective. (In Russia we say: “We do not seek best from good”). To be precise, we can calculate the effect of using the best batteries and compare it with the costs of acquiring new batteries, changing the design, etc. Surely it is unprofitable, how unprofitable to build a new plant, if the old has not yet paid off. Novelty appears on the market only if it is beneficial to the user and gives profit to the manufacturer.
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In my experiment, I have used 0.001 M, 0.01 M and 0.1 M NaNO3 for cadmium adsorption. But now I need to answer the following question. Could anyone please help me to find out the answer to what is the typical ionic strength of wastewaters?
Thanks in advance
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I agree with Esraa Abdalhafeez ,
in addition, Measurements of electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) are often used to represent the ionic strength of water. These measurements generally increase with increasing ion content.
Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations (positive charge) and anions (negative charge). Common salt ions include:
  • Cations:    sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+)
  • Anions:    chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate (CO32-), sulfate (SO42-)
  • according the people activities which discharge the wastewater the ionic strength will differ from place to another, as example in Saudi Arabia TDS for wastewater from 800-1200 mg/L.
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What factors can be controlled the availability of cadmium (as spiked such as 6, 12 and 24 mg/kg) in calcareous soil with pH 7.44 and available P 19.65 mg/kg? (other results of soil that used for pot experiment was attached)
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I had the desire to help you, my regards
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Hello,
What is the appropriate Ligand, for a complex formation, that can be used to determine lead Pb and cadmium Cd in some fish samples by UV-Visible spectrophotometer ?.
We need a certified method for the determination of lead, cadmium and other metals in fish samples by UV-Visible spectrophotometer ?.
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thank you for your answer
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How to make a solution of Cadmium with pH 4? Is it better to use cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2) or cadmium sulfate (CdSO4), thanks
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Anhidrous , monohydrate and octahydrate cadmium sulphate have almost the same solubility. I don't think there would be a great difference...
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i made a cadmium nitrate solution using a formulla
molecular weight of salt Cd(NO3)2/molar mass of cadmium which is 236.42/112.4 = 2.103g this is fo 1000 ppm and i needed 5000ppm for that i multyply 2.103 with 5 that is 10.51g/L. a make a dilutions of different ppm from this stock solution but i face some problem ,TOP-10 grow on cadmuim 50ppm . what is the reason? is top-10 not working or my cadmium solution is made wrong?
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Hi do you know how to make cadmium sulfat solution? thanks
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I have added Cadmium in the soil as three different concentration ranges (10, 50, 100 mg/kg) for my pot experiments. Can anyone suggest me the calculation for adding the chelating agents like EDTA, Citric Acid and Sodium sulphate to the contaminated soils?
Your help in this regards is highly appreciated.
Thank you.
Kind regards,
Anand.
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You need to use a chemical speciation model to predict the free ion activities for different concentrations of the complexing species. You can download a free copy of Geochem-EZ. It is easy to use.
I suggest that you may have started the wrong way by adding such huge Cd concentrations.
In addition, the organic chelating agents will be subject to microbial decomposition
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Soil contaminated by mining activities.
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I am not sure this is the best, but I would advise immediate liming of affected area to increase soil pH and help precipitate heavy metal contaminants and hold them in place, so you may have more time to figure this out what to do before groundwater gets contaminated. Rain is typically acidic, and the low pH helps to dissolve and mobilize heavy metals. Hopefully you might find or build toxic material containment site, where excavated contaminated soils can be deposited, contained, and managed for breakdown. There might be some ways to recover some types of contaminants, such as recovering lead from gun ranges. Hiring an individual or company trained in evaluating and handling hazardous materials as well as addressing the needs for monitoring is another option to address urgent issues. A proper mining plan should have been required, with performance bond, emergency spill plans when mining companies plan to use hazardous materials, build containment ponds (that fail sometimes), intend to use and store hazardous materials, etc.
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The procedure and the reaction would be helpful.
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Was unable to find any thing by the link. T. H. Al-Noor
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The paddy soil is acidic.
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https://pubs.rsc.org › content › articlelanding
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My work is on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles. Is there any issue in the storage of it before characterization? if yes, then what are the precautions should be taken?
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Sir, it is in the powder form (@ Alan F Rawle)
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Cadmium sulfide is said to be a carcinogen and said to cause serious life threatening diseases. However cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and quantum dots have been shown to be cytotoxic to some melanoma cells. As they are carcinogens by themselves, is it feasible to use them as apoptosis agents in cancer treatment?
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Please have a look at this useful RG link.
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Hi all, :
We are looking to grow Cadmium Sulfide with the humid technique of Chemical Bath Deposition (QBD),
It has n't been difficult to achieve thicknesses of about 200 nm with good adherence and uniform deposition, i.e. good expected results
But now, we need thin films of a few micrometers. From what I have read, is not straightforward to achieve more than 500 nm - 800 nm with this technique.
Does anyone have achieved these levels of thicknesses using this technique ?
Of course, if is possible to do it, the alternatives could be, either to conduct several baths in series on the same sample,
or to experiment with longer deposition times, i.e. 10-12 hrs
(or a combination of both ideas)
But I think the long deposition times idea isn't the most recommendable one.
btw, the precursors I am using are: CdCl2, Na3C6H5O7, KOH and CH4N2S
I'll appreciate any help !
Regards !
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I would like to thank Mr. Karim for his informative and useful answer.
I would like to point out that the reversibility of the reaction plays a great role in the ultimate thickness achieved by the CBD. As the starting concentrations increases the etch back rate will balance the deposition rate at a deposited film thickness.
I agree with Franklin that when one refresh the bath one can can achieve higher thickness.
Best wishes
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What precursor materials should I use for Cadmium and Sulphur and what are the optimal deposition conditions (i.e. concentration, time, temperature and pH level) for the synthesis of Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) via Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). I'm struggling to fabricate thin film CdS that is less than 100nm and is uniform and pinhole free. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks
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Dear Abul,
You can use the method described in the paper at the link:
Best wishes
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I am currently working on bio remediation of heavy metals and pesticides by using resistance bacterial strains. I need stock (1000 ppm) solution of lead and cadmium and also different conc. of these metals. Please help me by resolving this problem.
Thanks in advance.
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Bhavya G. I disagree that that 1 gr of metal salt in one l of water will yield 1000 ppm of the metal in the solution.
You have to take into account the counter ion of eg Pb and depending on the salt the amount of crystal water in the salt. So the calculation depends on the salt used.
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I am working on an experiment to determine the effects of Cadmium on Rice plant growth, the uptake of cadmium by rice roots and also the remediation effect and benefits of biochar.
I'm using a pot which holds 2kg soil of 18cm height and 15cm diameter I'm considering the experiment till maturity. I'm so far done with my calculations as to how much of each factor to add. Please my question is which of the factors do I add first. Should I add the biochar first or should I spike the soil with the cadmium first. Also with the spiking do I add the Cd to the soil directly or do I have to dissolve it in water.
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It is much better to use soil samples that already contain the Cd by natural accumulation, so that the results are more real and serve immediately. I do not know how difficult it would be to send soil samples from here, but we have some cocoa producers whose samples of both tissue and soil tested positive for Cd.
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Soil contaminated with Cadmium
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In soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants results obtained revealed that root growth of sorghum and cucumber appear to be the most sensitive to cadmium . For more details consult Environ Pollut 2004; 127 ( 1): 21 - 26.
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Now days world is looking for alternative medicines, and trace elements are required for alternative medicines,
trace b elements (or trace metals) are minerals present in living tissues in small amounts. Some of them are known to be nutritionally essential, others may be essential (although the evidence is only suggestive or incomplete), and the remainder are considered to be nonessential. Trace elements function primarily as catalysts in enzyme systems; some metallic ions, such as iron and copper, participate in oxidation-reduction reactions in energy metabolism. Iron, as a constituent of hemoglobin and myoglobin, also plays a vital role in the transport of oxygen.
All trace elements are toxic if consumed at sufficiently high levels for long enough periods. The difference between toxic intakes and optimal intakes to meet physiological needs for essential trace elements is great for some elements but is much smaller for others.
This chapter is a summary of the role of the following essential trace elements in the etiology and prevention of chronic diseases: iron, zinc, fluoride, selenium, copper, chromium, iodine, manganese, and molybdenum. Also discussed are aluminum, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, and lead; these elements have not been demonstrated to be essential for humans but were reviewed by the committee because they are frequently ingested as contaminants in food or water. Interactions between the various trace elements are also briefly considered.
Epidemiologic data on the relationship between many of the trace elements and the incidence of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are incomplete. Most such studies have focused on cadmium, chromium, and selenium. Furthermore, most of the evidence gives the role of trace element,so why most peoples dont care for trace elements?
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Dear Soad,thank you for your reply ,i agree with you that many peoples not recognize trace element and influence of health and disease,you raise good points ,but there are essential and less important ,
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Hello,
This are some crystals which i obtained from a classic screen(HEPES, sodium acetate, Cadmium sulfate). I have setup and expanded this same protein on different condition(HEPES,MgCl2,PEG3350) which showed needles but, expansion did not improve the dimensions, they diffracted but, to only about 5AO .So, i ahve sent them to the Microbeam focus syncrotron to see if i can salvage some good data sets. I am unsure if these hits are good or not(are they bad crystal forms?)?
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It is difficult to tell from these images . What is the scale . There MAY be some good candidates but that needs a closer look .
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I was looking for information on Cadmium accumulation in Peanuts and from the information available got to know that the important factor is the bioavailable cadmium in the soil.
Would be great if anyone could share some of the research on cadmium in Peanuts. Testing methods for bio-available cadmium in the soil etc.
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In general, Cd bioavailability in plants is influenced by soil (medium) pH, temperatures, organic acid secretion by roots, the presence of chelating substances and other cations.
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My Protein is Cadmium binding and around 25 KDa molecular weight. PI is 4. 76. Can anybody recommend me which column and chromatography should I use for protein purification. Its soluble protein. I have taken its expression in ammonium sulphate precipitation and Dialysis also. Kindly guide me about its purification.
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Engelbert Buxbaum Thank you so much for your kind suggestion.
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I haven't found any specific thing attributed only to cadmium or at least cadmium and one more metal.
Thank you in advance!
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Thank you both! I actually found out that cadmium does cause deformity even at low doses such as 250 ug/g.
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Lead and cadmium binds with which component of milk?
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Lead and cadmium binds with protein mostly casein in milk,
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Which of the following is carcinogen when present in water?
Boron
Nitrate
Cadmium
Chromium (both trivalent and hexavalent)
Lead
Arsenic
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Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium and chromium, Mercury, pesticides etc.
Regards
Krishna
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I want to do structural analysis of the protein after purification.
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I imagine it will depend upon how your protein interacts with cadmium. If the metal is deeply buried in the protein, the affinity chromatography probably will not work because the metal is chelated by the resin and not sufficiently accessible. But if the protein binds the cadmium superficially, and can do so with only partial coordination, then it might work. Of course, the assumption is that the protein binds cadmium as an ion, not in the zero oxidation state, since the resin only binds the ion.
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hi,i need molecular diffusion coefficient and distribution coefficient of cadmium in various soils for modeling,please help me,tanks
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Hi, I used to conduct some research on calculating the diffusive flux of heavy metal including Cd across the sediment-water interface. You know, the molecular diffusion coefficient (D) is a key parameter (Lei et al. 2016). Ds (cm2 s-1) is the sediment diffusion coefficient of the species derived from the diffusion coefficient D0 (cm2 s-1) of the species at infinite dilution (i.e., pure water). The values of D0 for heavy metals were adopted from the previous report (Li et al. 1974). For Cd, its D0 is about 6.3*10^-6 cm2 s-1. For different sediments, the values of Ds can be estimated by D0 and φ. Ds= φ*D0 (φ<0.7), Ds= φ^2*D0 (φ>0.7). φ (dimensionless) is the porosity of the surface sediment and can be approximately estimated by the water content (Avnimelech et al. 2001). While for distribution coefficient of Cd, frankly, this topic is not the field I am familiar with.
I wish these content will be helpful for you. Good luck!
References:
Li Y H . Diffusion of ions in seawater and deep sea sediments[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1974, 38:708.
Lei P , Zhang H , Shan B , et al. Distribution, diffusive fluxes, and toxicity of heavy metals and PAHs in pore water profiles from the northern bays of Taihu Lake[J]. Environment Science Pollution Research, 2016, 23(21):1-12.
Avnimelech Y , Ritvo G , Meijer L E , et al. Water content, organic carbon and dry bulk density in flooded sediments[J]. Aquacultural Engineering, 2001, 25(1):25-33.
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I have read with great interest this good paper and I have the following questions:
What is the main mechanism of cadmium removal in the electrocoagulation process using iron and aluminum electrodes? And what reactions do it take? Also, according to literature, which of these two electrodes has the highest removal efficiency of this heavy metal?
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we removed Cd by electrodeposition
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Heavy metals as Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Cobalt, Copper etc. how much Nitric acid is to be added for sample to prevent precipitation
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This paper contains a very straight forward protocol and goes through comparing the bottles. As a mercury scientist I will say that mercury is one of the most challenging elements to work with so if this protocol is sufficient for trace levels of Hg, it should also work for other metals. The only one to be wary of is arsenic as I know the standard practice is avoiding glass in that case.
Hope this helps!
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I am trying to plot a graph with R^2 > 0.8 with increasing values of Cadmium chelate from 0,2,4,6,8,10 mg/l . According to a paper I have read Cadmium-Alizarin Chelate is used in this method so that is what I will be using as well . They have used H2SO4 solution just like me. The values that they have got are uniformly increasing for 0,2,4,6,8,10. My values however show uniform increase from 2-10 mg/l but a steep increase from 0-2 mg/l ,,,...
What can i infer from this ? When I plot a graph for these values the R^2 value that I get is 0.66 which is not enough ? (needs at least 0.8)
My blank (0 mg/l) is without the Cadmium-Alizarin Chelate
0 ---- 0.015
2 ---- 0.304
4 ---- 0.371
6 ----0.38
8 ----0.39
10 ----0.42
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What I mean is that concentration cannot be measured as zero, because there is always uncertainty in concentration measurements. The absorbance at 0 mg/L could be extrapolated from the linear fitting equation assuming a linear relationship at low concentration.
Please verify if the experiments were performed correctly, that is, if the blank or background used to set the instrument software is the actual blank (solution without analyte). If yes, you can calculate the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method (somewhere between 0-2). You can expect a linear response after LOQ.
Some textbook material: Skoog (Principles of Instrumental Analysis).
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In last years various adsorbers invented for treatmnet water and sewage :as polyemers ,activated carbon ,classificated stones,etc..
in this field activated carbon modificated by various ways as imprinting polymers to better adsorbing heavy metals like chromium and cadmium (proved by my thesis project) but the econmical part is most important part for use it .
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That’s depending on what kind of metal and the level of pollution, I think this method only for lab researchs .
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CdS thin films are produced using thiourea and cadmium sulphate in an alkaline bath in the presence of a varied amount of ascorbic acid (AA) and this yielded in films with electrically improved thin films, also after a specific amount of AA, the electrical properties degraded. Can anyone explain the action of Ascorbic acid on the deposition mechanism and the quality of the films produced.
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The reasons other than Abdelhalim are the changes in the cluster size of CdS and changes in the flat band potential. Better do Mott-Schottky characterization check whether band edge has been altered.
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According to my teacher and research papers I have come to understand that UV spectroscopy requires Cadmium to be in a Chelating compound or a larger compound . What possible compounds can I add so that I can find out how much Cadmium is present/how much Cadmium absorbs
Note - I cannot use Atomic absorption spectroscopy
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Actually it depends on what you have in hands many compou can interact with Cd through uv vis
check your compounds first then google what the conditions for interactions
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Hello
I work on the purification of zinc sulfate from nickel and cadmium impurities by the method of cementation. According to studies, the particle size of zinc powder used in this method is very important. And if they are as small as a nanoscale, there is a significant reduction in powder consumption and reaction time.. But in Iran, particle sizes of less than 20 micrometres are not available. And particles of lesser size, react with oxygen in the air and greatly reduce the activity of the powder. If you can give me some brief information about the method and its advantages and disadvantages.I am very pleased that I finally managed to find people who work in this area after a lot of searches. And I'm very curious to get information about this and, if possible, to work together. I am very pleased to be able to interact with you continuously, since I am very looking for the production and use of nanoparticles. I will wait for your answer.I am very glad to be able to help in this important and scientific project, albeit small.
Thanks
pourya abbasi
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Here, we have synthesized ferric oxide, ZnO and various types of Nanomaterials at the nanoscale(Particle Size <100 nm) so you may contact me personally regarding further information at Kuldeepnano09@gmail.com
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I am searching for literature that contains half-value thicknesses for the capture of thermal neutrons. At least water and cadmium should be included, polyethylene would be nice. The publication should be appropriate for referencing it in a paper. By the way, a trustworthy online tool would also do.
I see that the values can easily be calculated from the microscopic cross-sections, for which publications are available in abundance, but I only need it for a side notice. Therefore, introducing the calculation would be too detailed. Thank you for your assistance.
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Ok Lee,
thanks for sharing more insight in your comment above.
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Cadmium is a heavy metal that is of great concern in the
environment, because of its toxicity to animals and humans.
Concentrations of Cd can accumulate in plants that are not toxic
to them, yet are toxic to the animals eating the plants. Cadmium
toxicity especially affects humans rather than animals, because
of their longevity and the accumulation of Cd in their organs by
eating Cd-contaminated food.
Cadmium accumulates in roots, shoots and grain of rice crop, Now to reduce cadmium content in soil, root, shoot, and grain.
Suggest me any fertilizer , chemical inhibitor, organic matter such as manure , soil amendments to reduces cadmium content in such parts.
What is the best way to deal with cadmium heavy metal?
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The effects of cadmium and zinc interactions on the concentration of cadmium and zinc in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) May 2011Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(3) 📷Nicolaos K. Moustakas📷Anastasia Akoumianaki-Ioannidou📷Barouchas Pantelis ArticleThe effects of cadmium and zinc interactions on the concentration of cadmium and zinc in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Overview Comments Citations (34) References (42) Related research (10+) ract and figures Experiments were conducted on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants grown under glasshouse conditions to study interactions between Cd and Zn and the effects of these on the respective concentrations of these metals in plant tissues (leaves and petals). A factorial experiment with two factors (Cd and Zn) at five concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 15 mg kg -1) was carried out. Cadmium was applied as CdSO 4 ·8/3H 2 O and Zn as ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O. Increasing Cd and Zn additions to the soil resulted in an increase in the concentration of Cd and Zn in plant tissues, as well as in the amounts of Cd and Zn extracted by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid–triethanol amine (DTPA–TEA). Significant inhibitory effects of Zn on Cd concentration in the leaves occurred at levels above 5 mg Zn kg -1 soil. Zinc concentrations in the leaves decreased, while those in the petals increased with increasing rates of applied Cd. Cd application increased the Cd/Zn ratio and Zn application reduced the Cd/Zn ratio of plant tissue. DTPA–TEA-extractable Cd and Zn significantly correlated with the Cd and Zn concentrations within the leaves and petals, indicating that such determinations could be used to predict Cd and Zn concentrations in the plant tissues of pot marigold.
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