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Business Process Modeling - Science topic

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Wich instruments shall we use to business process modeling, beyond PMBOK or allied to it?
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The answer to this question is not easy, because it depends on why are you modeling the processes.
BPMN provides great flexibility on the cost of complexity. The more you model, the more complex it gets and harder to comprehend. If you need a glimpse of what the administration is doing, it might do the work. However, if your goal is to simplify the operation of the organization, unify it, and make it clear for both employees and customers, then think twice.
In my experience, I've used many different tools to provide an understanding of organizations' processes and operations. I've always kept my goal clear and chose the tools accordingly. Sometimes it was BPMN, UPM, UML, or just a simple block diagram set.
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I am conducting a systematic literature review on process modelling languages (PMLs). I need your answers.
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ARIS
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I am looking for a database of similar business processes (or even better - a configurable processes) in BPMN format.
I need this to evaluate a recommendation algorithm for designing BP that uses machine learning approach and hence needs a lot of learning data.
That's why I am especially interested in a large database of similar processes, or configurable processes.
I would appreciate your help.
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BPM Academic Initiative (BPMAI) dataset : https://zenodo.org/record/3758705#.XrZDamgzbDc
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Hello! I am currently working on a project to bring automation into the legal field. As decisions must be based on various variables and be made in accordance with legal codes, information systems need to follow precise instructions in terms of when to do what. For this reason, we want to take a closer look on the Decision Model and Notation standard (DMN). Can you help me with finding practical sources on how to apply DMN in real case scenarios and how to approach the topic in general? Do you have any additional suggestions?
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A relevant paper is listed below for your ready reference:
SOA: a new way to design the decision in SOA—based on the new standard Decision Model and Notation (DMN)
‏F Boumahdi, R Chalal, A Guendouz… - … Oriented Computing and …, 2016‏ - Springer‏
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like hiring processes for example or account payable or receivable etc.. with examples of different process flow and how implemented it.
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Hi.,
business processes has include: Manufacturing – an product assembly process, a quality assurance process, a corrective/preventive maintenance process. Finance – an invoicing process, a billing process, a risk management process. Health – a medical assessment, a drug approval. Banking – customer on-boarding, credit check.
different types of business processes. ... System Overview Diagram
  • The most detailed.
  • Covers: software, integration points, data traffic (process and informational flow).
  • You need IT team support.
  • Core Business Processes
  • Customer Strategy & Relationships (Marketing)
  • Employee Development & Satisfaction (Human Resources)
  • Quality, Process Improvement & Change Management.
  • Financial Analysis, Reporting, & Capital Management.
  • Management Responsibility.
  • Customer Acquisition (Sales)
  • Product Development.
  • Product/Service Delivery.
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Cooking processes can be represented as Workflows. The characteristics, attributes, representation and visualization of a cooking recipe is similar to a Business process. Is there any research work which focuses on the applicability of BPM into cooking domain?
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Hello,
Thank you for your insight. Can you explain more precisely what do you mean by "BPM is applied primarily in non-creative art, restrictive, precision, and impersonal"? Benjamin Huynh
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I am looking for some research papers having interesting case studies on application of IoT in Supply Chain Management (SCM) for Retail\logistics in context of Industry 4.0. I found some literature, however apart from [1], most work provided quite simple use cases.
[1] Fiedler, M., & Meissner, S. (2013). IoT in Practice: Examples: IoT in Logistics and Health. In Enabling Things to Talk (pp. 27-36). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
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Simply check Amazon research papers and the KPMG report related to that
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After an extensive search in the documentation and many failed attempts: jBPM6 does not seem to support it, although jBPM 5 HAD a human task service that could be called remotely.
I also checked Camunda BPM and Activiti.
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Thanks a lot for your answer Johannes. This sounds like an interested topic for research. It would be great if you could post here the results of your further explorations on the subject as I'd be interested in following this.
Best of luck!
Adrian.
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I need a graphical modeling tool to represent VR BPMN models (BPMN models that support variability). My purpose is to generate an XML file from a VR BPMN graphical model.
I tried BPMN2 modeler (an Eclipse plugin) but it doesn't allow adding stereotypes  
Many thanks for your help
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Dear Loubna, I wuold suggest to take a look to the bpFM modelling tool (http://www.omilab.org/web/bpfm). Business Process Feature Model notation (BPFM) is an extended version of Feature Models named BPFM proposed to deal with Business Process Variability. The BPFM notation permits to model a family of business processes. Starting from a BPFM model using the tool you can generate a set of variant in BPMN. Let me know if you need more information. 
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i* is a diagram language that is originated in order to process engineering and analysis. In order to visually model the whole system, there is a need to understand (Baier et al., 2015):
• WHAT is done
• also WHY it is done
• as well as WHO is involved as stakeholders
• and HOW everybody's goal and intentions interact.
For modeling stakeholders relationships, i* was created to be an easily accessible modeling tool.
The software for drawing diagrams, which I downloaded form i* website, is not neat enough and the final graphic view is too messy. 
Does anyone know another software or maybe online interface, that can help me draw i* diagrams??
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Dear Elahe,
Many different types of models are used in various scientific and engineering fields, reflecting the subject matter and the kinds of understanding that is sought in each field. Conceptual modelling techniques in software and information systems engineering have in the past focused mainly on describing and analysing behaviours and structures that are implementable in software. As software systems become ever more complex and densely intertwined with the human social environment, we need models that reflect the social characteristics of complex systems. This chapter reviews the approach taken by the i* framework, highlights its application in several areas, and outlines some open research issues.
In the philosophy of language is any language which arises I* an unpremeditated fashion as the result of the innate facilities for language possessed by the human intellect. A natural language is typical used for communication and may be spoken, signed or written.
i* (pronounced "i star") or i* framework is a modelling language suitable for an early phase of system modelling in order to understand the problem domain. i* modelling language allows to model both as-is and to-be situations. The name i* refers to the notion of distributed intentionality which underlines the framework. It is an approach originally developed for modelling and reasoning about organizational environments and their information systems composed of heterogeneous actors with different, often competing, goals that depend on each other to undertake their tasks and achieve these goals. It covers both actor-oriented and Goal modelling. i* models answer the question WHO and WHY, not what.
i* provides the possibility to achieve information in an early phase of the software engineering process. In former days UML was used to make information visible, but as UML often focuses on organisational objects, which are not so important in the early phase, when the emphasis should be on helping stakeholders gain better understanding of the various possibilities for using information systems in their organizations.
i* provides the possibility to achieve information in an early phase of the software engineering process. In former days UML was used to make information visible, but as UML often focuses on organisational objects, which are not so important in the early phase, when the emphasis should be on helping stakeholders gain better understanding of the various possibilities for using information systems in their organizations.
i* provides an early understanding of the organizational relationships in a business domain. The Use Case development from organizational modelling using i* allows requirement engineers to establish a relationship between the functional requirements of the intended system and the organizational goals previously defined in the organization modelling.
i* is used for the early requirements and UML for late requirements. Thus you have to transform the i* model into a UML model. You can do this by using the following guidelines:
There has been a proliferation of various clones of stakeholder engagement in modelling, or, rather, of the use of modelling in support of a decision-making process that involves stakeholders. In many cases the differences are quite subtle and it may seem that various agencies or groups come up with a new term to serve as a recognised trademark for their efforts. In essence they tend to be doing more or less the same things.have recently proposed literature reviews on participatory modelling: below is a brief overview of various types of stakeholder-based modelling, as well as some stakeholder processes that do not rely on modelling.
regards,
Prem Baboo
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I'm trying to find any free or on-line business simulator or business game specialized in international trade.
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I don't know of about the business aspect, but there are a number of Excel-based models of international trade theory available at the link below.
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We're working on the verification of business process behavior and it would be useful to have a benchmark (a set of business process models with known behavioral properties, e.g.: deadlocks) to evaluate the proposal.
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Dear Emiliano,
I am not quite sure what is it that you want to know. BPV usually is conducted to see weather the set of processes meets the requirements. So there should be specific requirements before the design of the business processes within the organization, and then validation. On the other side, business process benchmarking (BPB), many times seen as a tool of TQM, can be very useful for verification process. Here are some articles that can help (http://www.orau.gov/pbm/pbmhandbook/articles.pdf). Hope you find it useful. 
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Can anyone explain this statement with some examples?
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SBVR is a landmark for the OMG, the first OMG specification to incorporate the formal use of natural language in modeling and the first to provide explicitly a model of formal logic. Based on a fusion of linguistics, logic, and computer science, and two years in preparation, SBVR provides a way to capture specifications in natural language and represent them in formal logic so they can be machine-processed.
Methodologies used in software development are typically applied only when a problem is already formulated and well described. The actual difficulty lies in the previous step, that is describing problems and expected functionalities. Stakeholders involved in software development can express their ideas using a language very close to them, but they usually are not able to formalize these concepts in a clear and unambiguous way. This implies a large effort in order to interpret and understand real meanings and concepts hidden among stakeholders' words. Special constraints on syntax or predefined linguistic structures can be used in order to overcome this problem, enabling natural language to well represent and formally define problems and requirements.
The main purpose of natural language modelling is hence to make natural language suitable for conceptual modelling. The focus is on semantic aspects and shared meanings, while syntax is thought in a perspective based on formal logic mapping.
Conceptualization and representation play fundamental roles in thinking, communicating, and modeling. For each concept there is a triad of 1) the concept in our minds, 2) the real-world things conceptualized by the concept, and 3) a representation of the concept that we can use to think and communicate about the concept and its corresponding real-world things. (Note that real-world things include both concrete things and representations of those concrete things as records and processes in operational information systems.)
A conceptual model is a formal structure representing a possible world, comprising a conceptual schema and a set of facts that instantiate the conceptual schema. The conceptual schema is a combination of concepts and facts of what is possible, necessary, permissible, and obligatory in each possible world. The set of facts instantiates the conceptual schema by assertion to describe one possible world. A rule is a fact that asserts either a logical necessity or an obligation. Obligations are not necessarily satisfied by the facts; necessities are always satisfied.
SBVR contains a vocabulary for conceptual modeling and captures expressions based on this vocabulary as formal logic structures. The SBVR vocabulary allows one to formally specify representations of concepts, definitions, instances, and rules of any knowledge domain in natural language, including tabular forms. These features make SBVR well suited for describing business domains and requirements for business processes and information systems to implement business models.
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Business process model represents an integration of different perspectives such as functional, behavioral, informational, organizational, and temporal. My interest is the "Organizational Perspective" of the business process model. So, I am looking for the different organizational aspects that affect the business process model.
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The reference below is not a direct answer to your question but can give you some ideas:
Text of the article: http://bit.ly/1ljSVX2 slides and recording of a presentation http://slidesha.re/1qEVcz1
Hope It helps
Cheers Ilia
P.S.: I guess you question "that affect the business process model." is not about business process model (as a piece of paper), but about how the process is actually run.
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We would like to apply BPMN in the socialization processes
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Giuseppe, just a thought, in my world the secret part of any information is how you got it but a "truth" is a truth and the results of the information which is the important aspect to begin with should always be available.  My rationale is that truths are universal and not owned by anyone, but processes can be owned and for various reasons are held close to the vest for some organizations.  Therefore what you want to share should be a truth statement, in my opinion.
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My model takes two inputs; new and old customers.I can not figure out how to incorporate NWBG & RTBG scheduling rules in the ARENA model. NWBG means that all the new customers are scheduled first, and RTBG means that all the old customers are scheduled first.
I also want to know what will be the default way; that is customers enter alternately i.e. new-old- new and so on. 
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Dear Bhawesh,
you can add an attribute to each entity (through the Attribute module). In this case you can create an attribute and assign the values 'new customer' or'old customers', or just '1' and '0'. Then when the entities are waiting in a queue, you can order the queue on the basis of the attribute value.
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What are Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) Models and what are Information System Models?  Does UML Business model or Information System model.
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There is a problem of terminology here: whereas meta-models are used to translate from one language to another, stereotypes are used within a language and therefore have nothing to do with meta-models.
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Validation of analysis models depends on what is known of the business domains, and such knowledge is by nature partial and specific, if not hypothetical. Nonetheless, even if general proofs are out of reach, the truth of models can still be disproved by counter examples found among the instances under consideration.
I would like some feedback on that approach.
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So you agree: whereas validation is out of reach counter examples can still be used to disprove models.
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While doing my research in Workflow I could hardly find any Indian academician working on same. Workflow has tremendous scope of research and invention both. Where there is a Business Process there can be a workflow. In every research area the scope of research in workflow is tremendous yet unexplored in Indian academics. Though a very technical topic Workflow have a vast scope in academics and scientific research.
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hi Shweta...i agree, but to an extent.... Workflow Management is well advanced in Developed Countries (USA etc), whilst still maturing in Developing Countries such as India, and perhaps even Africa etc....but yes, it does then allow for it to become fertile grounds for some good research ideas from a developing country perspective...
Sachin
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The use of workflow is not limited to only software applications. It should be included in every business process automation not limited to any domain. Even processes such as patent filing, PhD research thesis evaluation & submission, production, manufacturing, e-commerce, recruitment, cloud computing, embedded systems etc should facilitate the use of workflows.
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The workflow paradigm, early adopted in the business context is also useful for modeling scientific applications on multiple science domains and allowing flexible mappings between the application abstractions and the underlying computing infrastructures namely large distributed infrastructures such as big clusters, Grids and Clouds.
However, currently, most of the existing scientific workflows tools do not offer adequate support to facilitate the development of several challenging scenarios that are becoming more important for emerging large-scale, distributed, and dynamic applications. As examples of currently open issues, existing workflow approaches still exhibit critical dependencies on a centralized enactment engine, and they lack flexibility in supporting the execution of long-running workflows with multiple iterations or even infinite iterations and allowing their structural and behavioral dynamic reconfiguration.
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I personally see a process as a sequence of activities, so I go for the imperative paradigm. But in the last 5 years, I have come across a lot of work on declarative processes. I am still not convinced that declarative processes are intuitive. Can anyone please explain if I am wrong?
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That is a very interesting question, which we investigate for a while! In order to create a more clear terminology, we name two paradigms: 1) activity-based and 2) artifact-based processes (explanation in short words follows).
In the activity-based paradigm (this is what you call imperative), the focus of the process is the activities (the methods) to carry out certain tasks. A process is then defined by a sequence of activities (a workflow). Artifacts, which represent any piece of produced/consumed data in a project, are the inputs and outputs of activities. Dependencies between artifacts are expressed by the combination of activities in the workflow.
In the artifact-based paradigm (this is what you call declarative), the focus is the artifacts. Artifacts have type, structure, content, responsibilities, and dependencies among each other. For every artifact, there are several methods that can be used to create the artifact, e.g., a requirements spec can be created using plain text, structured text, diagrams and models, and so forth. That is, a process is defined by a set of artifacts to be created, and a context-specific selection of appropriate methods.
What we learned so far:
- There is no absolute distinction between these paradigms; you always have a mixture.
- Activity-based processes better reflect the way of work.
- Artifact-based processes provide better means to assess project outcomes.
- Artifact-based processes are more flexible, as one can select different methods to create an artifact.
However, in an experiment, we learned that artifact-based approaches are easier to analyze, design, and implement processes (which means: this paradigm seems to better support SPI projects), while process users do not care, and prefer more detailed guidance. Experience from practice also shows that artifact-based processes are more difficult to teach, as they require a certain level of abstract thinking.
So, are declarative more intuitive? It depends. For just enacting a process in a project, the imperative process is more intuitive as it contains more guidance. If you have to analyze and design processes, then the declarative approach is more intuitive as you can talk about process artifacts, their properties, and so on. In the end, neither is simple. It always depends on the users and their intention.
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I am looking for SOP's, Workflows, best practises and so on. This is to support several SME's and develop softwares for them accordingly.
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You can have a look at the (Open) process handbook developed by the MIT. The handbook database can be accessed through a dedicated tool, which is freely available from the project website http://ccs.mit.edu/ophi/index.htm.
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I would say that radical changes in the context could cause that an organisation looses a capability.
Let’s say that an organisation has a given capability. But then the context changes so much that the organisation cannot consider that they have such capability anymore, unless they undertake profound changes in their organisational structure, processes and/or technology.
But, in other cases, the organisation could simply anticipate certain contexts and define a different variant (organisational structure, processes and/or technology) for each of them. All variants achieve the desired capability but it is well suited for a given context. Whenever the context changes, if it is still within the considered situations, the organisation can adapt to the change, select the appropriate variant and maintain the capability. The issue is reacting quickly and within budget.
Does this make sense to you?
There are still many open challenges.
The problem is relevant to project "CaaS: Capability as a Service in digital enterprises", European Commission FP7 Collaborative Project Number 611351.
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Hi Sergio,
This is a highly relevant topic. In Software Engineering (my perspective), it is, however, under-researched. Nevertheless, we have some approaches. It started with Dieter Rombach's paper on integrated software product and process lines (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221421676_Integrated_Software_Process_and_Product_Lines), which is the basis for some research on process variability. Among other, process line approaches address organizational change and capability improvement (from the SE perspective, e.g., development, testing, and management).
Basically, we distinguish between two approaches:
1) variability analysis (of past projects/actual processes) to develop new/improved processes to better address company needs. Contributions on that topic were made, e.g., by the group around Jürgen Münch (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Juergen_Muench). For example:
2) pro-active and directed variability. This is closer to Dieter's proposal, i.e. variability instruments are part of a process metamodel. Variability instruments are then used to derive a particular process variant from a reference process. A good overview of variability instruments can be depicted from:
A concrete implementation and empirical study on the feasibility of such constructors can be found here:
If you are interested in this topic and how it is handled from the process perspective, hurry up and attend this year's ICSSP (http://www.icsp-conferences.org/icssp2014/). There will be a special panel on that topic (the introduction of the panel can be found here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261798570_Towards_Context-Specific_Software_Process_Selection_Tailoring_and_Composition?ev=prf_pub).
Hope this helps a bit.
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I am involved in a project in which we are engineering a methodology and tools for capability-driven development of information technology (IT). We have had plenty of discussions on the notion of capability and we are currently starting to create the first iteration of the methodology.
However, I am interested in knowing how you understand this concept. I am aware that the concept has been elaborated in many disciplines (e.g. welfare economics).
Also, I am interested in knowing how you conceive the role of capabilities in IT development. I am aware that the concept of capability plays an important role in many domains (e.g. military).
Project information: "CaaS: Capability as a Service in digital enterprises", European Commission FP7 Collaborative Project Number 611351.
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Peter, I will comment on how I understand and use the concepts
What I am about to say needs not be generally agreed :)
although it is aligned with the vision we have in project CaaS.
Capability can be understood as the combination of the ability and the capacity to achieve some goal. The ability is related to the knowhow (skill, knowledge...), and the capacity is related to the resources (people, time, money, tools...).
This already gives the relationship between both concepts.
As I understand it, the willingness comes with the fact that there is a goal. So, If we actually want to achieve the goal, we will indeed apply our abilities and use our capacities.
Of course, when used informally, the terms capacity ability and capability are often used indistinctly.
Any thoughts? other visions?
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To get information system flexibility, we have to decompose Business Processes (BP) to small units that can be replaced with other ones. These units are Business Services (BS). So how we can obtain these BS?
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LEGO (R) is a good comparison or metaphor:
Your process models are the LEGO sets (or individual LEGO constructions), each composed of different LEGO bricks (your business services). How did LEGO decompose to maximize reuse, replaceability and flexibility? The LEGO nops are the secret. We call it the business object model for the application domain. Without the nops you need many adapters and/or glue, which reduces flexibility and reuse.
The shapes of most bricks (their interfaces) need to be regular, but additionally you need special purpose bricks for special applications. For services of course their semantics is an additional dimension, not covered by the LEGO metaphor.
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As you may have noticed, inclusion of business vocabularies (also referred to as glossaries) into the project activities is trending, yet this process is often lacking objective feedback and consolidated opinion from the experts and industry. Do we really need specialized/additional solutions for that? If you are working in the field of business analysis, business modeling, requirements engineering, IS design or development, I would like to hear your opinion!
Or better yet, please consider filling out an anonymous five minute survey that is being conducted by the Center of Information Systems Design Technologies of Kaunas University of Technology and is available at
On the last page of the survey, there is an option to leave extended feedback, if you wish to do so. Each answer is extremely valuable to us!
We would appreciate your response by March 24th. Feel free to also forward it to your fellow colleagues, both academicians and practitioners. And big thanks to all of those who have already contributed!
I must also add that this survey is part of research that we plan to publish in the form of a paper, if we get enough feedback (which is harder to achieve than we thought). So you will be the first to know when it happens!
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It is important to have a glossary. However, in these days of agile, such artifacts are not valued by the client unfortunately.
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I am planning to model the business process quality. What are the main parameters to consider? Any interesting methods (I have genetic algorithms and process raw data in mind)? Any opensource tools for data collection?
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I read SoaML Specification that OMG released. I think SoaML doesn't pay attention enough to modeling of Orchestration and choreography. It just Consider a Sequence Diagram for expressing choreography of services and a service architecture diagram for expressing orchestration of services. I think BPMN 2.0 acted Stronger in modeling of Orchestration and choreography and modeled Service Composition with more details by using business process diagrams and define mappings to generate BPEL code from BPMN models.
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Hello Arash,
I think you are right about BPMN having a stronger focus on orchestration and choreography.
On the other hand SoaML is more detailed in the technical aspects of Services and SOAs.
Another great benefit is the independence of SoaML. While BPMN is targeting on business processes SoaML is free of any subject area. This is really fantastic when you try to model Services for domains outside of the Enterprise Software and Web Services domain. For example I was able to use it it for developing driver assistance systems. With BMPN I would have had to violate some of the semantics of the language in order to create the model I wanted to have.
I published a paper about how I used SoaML together with an adjusted version of the IBM SOMA process model. It's titled "Model-driven development of SOA-based Driver Assistance Systems" and freely available through my profile here on Research Gate.
Marco
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Are all business stakeholders called business practitioners or only some specific people?
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The person who practice business. This means that this practitioner is currently in business.
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Talking to Management Professionals in organizations we need concepts that are easier to use in BPM approaches. The concept is related to Macro Processes or Processes Area, but from a managerial perspective are easier to discuss and to adopt. This could facilitate the operationalization of the strategy, and at the same time allow for encapsulation of people, processes and technology, simplifying this way the initial analysis approach.
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My idea its to model a Business perspective and move to business processes and after that, to technological processes... In this approach I am trying to start with the vision, mission, capabilities, before going to processes areas, related to that capabilities - to have alignment and context. This initial assessment will be made with board members, using the concept of Capabilities instead of Macro Process or Process Area. Because I feel its easier to explain a Business Capability to a Board Member, than Macro Processes. Because of this, I am trying to support this decision in a more scientific way, than empirical....
Thanks for the tools suggested, I will try it! For the business layer assessment, I am using Excel and Powerpoint and I don't like it :-)
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It is not clear to me how to distinguish them. e.g. When should I talk about a workflow model vs. a process model?
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Business Processes are basically collection of activities cutting across various departments, producing a valuable output for the customers (e.g Sales Process, Procurement Process). Workflow is used to automate these repetitive activities and hence business processes. So workflow will bring automation and efficiency to the business process.
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Process improvement models like CMMI, ISO and IEEE provide a set of standards to help improve the business process into organizations. Organizations willing to follow one of these standards should go through apprisal evaluation. This process are based on measuring to what extent the organization business process adhere to the standards. For example the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) normally uses the Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) for this compliance check. What if we automate the whole process, so the compliance check itself is automated. This will require the business process to be formalized and the standards to be formalized too. I wonder if this can be of any benefit practically?! any ideas?
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Hi Pierre-Yves! You can have very nice processes on paper that do not reflect reality. A real assessment requires interviews and study or documents, tools used, etc. To compare, could you automate the assessment of your students ?