Science topic

Burns - Science topic

Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
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Good day colleagues! Can anyone share scripts or articles/guides with clear methodology for Mapping Burned Areas using Google Earth Engine with different algoritms and approuches? using different remote sensing data (Sentinel-2, Sentinel 1, Landsat-8, 9 etc). Thanks in advance!
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Thank you for shering! I start to modify their scripts).
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Dear Researchers,
I need dear researchers to introduce a plant extract for scar Debridement of wounds or burns
thanks a lots
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There is an approved drug for debridement of burn eschar: Nexobrid.
Enzyme mixture enriched with Bromelain derived from the pinapple.
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My research is looking at quantifying the response of lichen community dynamics to the prescribed burning and thinning of forests in the southeastern United States.
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I'm following the thermal method, as per literature, by putting 3g of melamine into a crucible and heating it at 550 C for 4 hours. Almost all of the crucibles give burnt black Ash while at times one of the crucibles gives pale coloured ash (which is the requirement). I've been doing hit and trial but nothing is working for me. If anyone has worked on a similar project, I'd be happy to have suggestions from them. Thanks
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I think keeping the crucible open may lead to oxidation of the sample in muffle furnace. If you want your material to be oxidised keep the crucible open.
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Post burn wound healing cosmotic appearance its relation direction of debridement of burned tissues and the the effect on body image of patient as well as quality if life so i am in need to understand the relation the debridement with post burn changes in cosmotic appearance of patient
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Thank you a lot for your valuable answer and so i mean that when we handle and manipulate the burned tissue and underneath in bizarre direction is this handling and removing the dead tissue affect positively on disfigurements of tissues post wound healing and thank you again
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Dear all,
I will be grateful for any advice regarding my problem. I need to find the components of a black polymer (or maybe composite). But any experience with laser 785nm in different intensities with various integration times and 10X, 50X, and 100X objectives failed. The sample gets burned even at 4 mW. The sample is labeled STANYL which is a commercial name and could be a composite of PA. Any thoughts?
Kind regards.
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Dear Sarah Hosseinzadegan, try simple separation tests first. Solubility I suggest. You may get the polyamide and the colorant (dye or pigment) separated. The same thing may be also done with soxhlet extraction. TLC also may give you an indication about the composition if it works. My Regards
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Hi folks,
I wonder if anyone update and can share with me the most effective method for mapping agricultural residue open burning from remote sensing data pls?
- Potential case study: Asia with typical rice cultivation as major food crop
- Scale: Region
- Data: Should active data overcome passive ones or not?
- Method: Spectral shareholding or machine learning???
Thank you very much
Bang
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Thank you Patrick for your source of information
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In general, the first step of silica extraction process from RH is by boiling RH with NaOH to extract it as sodium silicate. This process seems to require 100'C - 200 'C boiling temperature depending on the RH burning temperature. Is it possible to get a reasonable percentage of silica extracted as sodium silicate from RH while maintaining the extraction process at room temperature (i.e. at around 25'C - 28'C)?
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The answer of Mr. Sahoo is ok , but only for a silica sand, after you need reach with NaOH or KOH at boiling temp for 2 hours.
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P-xylene has been used to prepare a thin film coating for a polymeric substrate. It is well-known that this material is inflammable and may burn the sample if it is subjected to heat treatment in a furnace. The sample has been placed in an open petridish at room temperature to evaporate p-xylene but it gives a negative result. Some people advised me to put the sample in a desiccator with silica gel or paraffin as these desiccants absorb p-xylene?
Kindly your opinion.
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If the problem persist, try another thin film preparation technique. My Regards
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I am writing a review paper on shifting cultivation and its associated environmental impacts,economy and its alternatives of a particular region. Can you suggest me a good journal for publication?
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Get in Google and ask for that. Regards.
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I've read several articles lately claiming trees are being destroyed by forest fires but, if every part of a tree is made from indestructible fundamental particles, is anything 'destroyed' or is everything 'changed'. At a sub-atomic level: if the tree is destroyed, what is 'destroyed' and how. At an sub-atomic level: if the tree is changed, what is 'changed' and how.
I am seeking clarification as to what happens at a sub-atomic level to the fundamental particles making up physical material that is burned.
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From Linus Pauling's ( one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology. His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridization and the first accurate scale of electro-negativities of the elements. ), it's been known that the properties and arrangement of atoms in molecules is dictated by their sub-atomic structure, and thus influences the reactions with other atoms and molecules, ie. such aspects as if they are endothermic or exothermic.
So while, for example, the different isotopes (sub-atomic structure) an atom might have some effect on chemical reactions because of there slightly different masses, and certainly extreme things happen in plasma chemistry ( like the leading edges of a hyper-sonic vehicle ), the ordinary course of events, atoms in chemical reactions remain intact at the sub-atomic level, the basic effect s that gross properties like their kinetic energy ( movement ) or solubility is what changes. So once you get past easily ripping away the electrons and start breaking apart the nucleolus and breaking apart baryons like protons and baryons, it requires stellar energies.
So, 'No' a forest fire at a physical level has no effect at all at the sub-atomic fundamental particle level.
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Hello everyone! I have somehow silly question, but anyway:
I need to perform 2-point calibration for CO2 incubator, but professional tools currently unavailable due to administrative difficulties.
Is it possible to use "candle jar"-technique for 2-point calibration of CO2 level? For zero point I planning to get a room level of CO2 (which is near 0,03%vol), and for second point I'll try to use a point, at which candles would fade.
I heard that candles are stopping to burn at 7%vol of CO2, is that correct?
P.S. I know, that this is a very silly and very imprecise solution, but it is suitable for me.
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As Napoleon almost said " give me preferably lucky researchers"
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skin burn image dataset
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Kaggle's skin-burn dataset consisting of approx 1300 web-scraped images of different degrees of skin burn: https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/shubhambaid/skin-burn-dataset.
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I m getting this output:
IMU initialization unsuccessful
Check IMU wiring or try cycling power
Status: -5
How to initialize the IMU sensor.
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Battery explosion or burning of the electric bus was a new type of fire for the vehicles. How to put out this type of fire if there is any passenger in the vehicle?
Please see:
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The really sad part about this is that potentially dangerous equipment has been introduced with no warning, no preparation, no training, no consideration whatsoever of public safety--all because it's "green" and must therefore be proclaimed as "good". The FAA and TSA websites proudly proclaim such absurdities as fining a well-known movie production crew $150k for inadvertently shipping 3 Bic lighters air freight. I'm not suggesting we carelessly ship tanks of benzene air freight or ban EV busses, only that we be honest and reasonable about ALL things. We should have safety measures (controls, training, proven techniques, etc.) in place BEFORE introducing dangerous equipment and we must always be truthful--even when it's inconvenient.
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I am currently working on anode substrate for Protonic solid oxide fuel cells ( Nio-Bczy ). For making pores I am using starch 20 wt%. After ball milling the powder I use hydraulic pressing machine to make pellet and then follow by burning of startch at 400C and 600C for 2 hours each and in last sintering at 1400C. It is quite strange that starch is not completely burning at such higher temperatures instead of that it leaves black carbon contamination close to the surface and once I reduce Nickel oxide to nickel then all these carbon contamination appears on surface. Please share your experience
Regards
Umer
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I am absolutely not familiar with the application you are working at, so I address some issues that I guess might be of interest to you.
1. Cohesiveness of starch. When making powder mixes with starch you have to take into account that starch powder is cohesive: in your final powder mix and pellet the starch particles may stick together to aggregates that have irregular shape and are much larger than the size of the original granules. Cohesiveness can be much reduced by bringing the natural water content (typically 15 %) to (close to) 0 %, e.g. by oven drying at 130 Celsius and process the powder as dry as possible.
2. Particle size of starch. Starches of different botanical sources show a wide variation in particle size which may affect your final product: potato (40), tapioca and wheat (25), maize (15), quinoa and amaranth (1.5). Sizes are weight averages and in micrometers. The smaller the size the larger the cohesiveness.
3. Organic impurites: cereal starches like maize and wheat contain about 0.25 % protein and 0.8 % lipids. These levels are much lower (0.1 %) for tuber starches like potato and tapioca. Quinoa and amaranth starch are rather difficult to purify because of their small granule size.
4. Inorganic impurities: Potato starch contains 0.8 % P (as starch-bound P-ester) and wheat starch 0.6 % P (as phospholipid). Potato starch also contain minerals like K and Na as counter-ions to the P-ester. These impurities may withstand ashing and sintering temperatures.
5. Altogether, cassava starch is the purest starch.
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HI, Though my question is very simple. While doing High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope imaging there is a problem of grid burning is there at Higher Magnification, While focussing an area and trying to collect HR Image, the sample starts burning and this problem I am seeing in particular types of Grids(TED PELLA/EMSI make) but not with Agar Scintific.
So please help me clear my thoughts if the film on the grid is not stable enough to take the voltage of 200KV or 300KV.
Or is it the thickness of Carbon film is not thick enough to hold the higher KV.
Thanks
Akshey
CRYO HRTEM lab
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Hi Mumtaz
Students are preparing there samples in Ethanol and drying under vaccum oven for 5 to 6 hrs. So I think moisture will not be present at all.
I am seeing this burning with every sample that I am doing at higher magnification only. In case of DMF/Toluene I am sure sample remains unstable at higher voltages.
But question is 90 percent samples are prepared in ethanol and in such samples also problem of burning is coming.
Probably it is the film on the grid(might be very thin layer of carbon or Formvar).
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Some of the examples of exothermic reactions:
Making of an Ice Cube, Burning of a Candle, Rusting of Iron, Burning of Sugar, Reaction of Strong Acid and Water, Water and Calcium Chloride, Nuclear Fission, Combustion Reaction, Hydrogenation, Methanation
and many more.
But, how can it become "Highly" exothermic? In an exothermic reaction, by definition, the enthalpy change has a negative value.
So, my question is, is there any bar to differentiate between exothermic and "Highly" exothermic?
How much enthalpy change needs to be for it to be considered "Highly" exothermic? -50 kJ/mol? -100 kJ/mol? -150 kJ/mol?
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Abdul Hakim Hatta, "Highly exothermic reaction" is an ambiguous term. There is also no point in comparing the thermal effects of chemical reactions with nuclear decay, because this is a completely different scale. Moreover, in addition to the heat effect of a given reaction, the heat capacity of the system is important. Only these two factors allow us to assess the scale of the temperature increase in a given reactor system.
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Latanoprost is an effective drug but causes burning/itching, iris color effects and is costly
Beta blockers are not effective during night time in reducing IOP
Brimonidine causes hyperemia due to rebound vasodilation after its vasoconstriction effect
Dorzolamide cases burning/itching and systemic effects including headache
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Starting with one drug is an ideal situation particularly having to see behavior of the IOP towards medication during 24 hours. But it seems difficult, therefore a mild combination should be considered to start with.
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After applying Spearman's correlation, there was a strong correlation between two variables, but in the data there is no relation between the two.
In the dataset, there is no relationship between the variables in terms of accident cases, transportation (Industry) and Burn (Type of accident) recorded a strong correlation using spearman of 0.92.
How do you interpret that? any idea would be very helpful.
Thanks
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In these cases, it would be a spurious or illusory correlation.
However, to give a definitive answer to your case it is necessary to know the purpose of your analysis and the data matrix you used.
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Hello scientific community,
I am working on OBODM and wanted to know if a source that is made up of multiple fuels, eg. 20% Ground Illum. Signal, Red Star, M158 + 60% Propellant, M-9 + 20% Signal, Illum, Aircraft, Rd Str, AN-M43A2 can be inputted into OBODM. If yes, can you please provide me some guidance on how to do so? If not, then would you suggest that the source be user defined with a heat content calculated using the individual fuel fractions? The purpose of using OBODM is to obtain the release height for both OB and OD operations at the facility and therefore, it would be helpful to understand if such in depth detailing of the source composition is even necessary, as it is only a function of heat content, burn rate, wind speed and stability class.
Thank you!
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It has been established that as a result of the combustion of plant combustible materials during the experiment, the concentration of NO2, NO in the air increases by 2 orders of magnitude from the background values, SO2 is 20 times higher than the concentration of CO. the concentration of methane was also recorded, which is due to the fact that not all methane formed in the pyrolysis zone has time to enter into a chemical reaction in the fire front. An increase in CO2 concentration is quite expected and is one of the characteristic signs of a natural fire.
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Priority area are adolescent health and mental health.
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Quantifying mental health, with respect to mood science.
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Stubble burning is a serious problem in North West India. Specially in Punjab, Hariyana, Delhi. So if those left over after crop harvest can be co-fired in thermal power plant then can it reduce the stubble burning problem!! Suggestions please
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Absolutely true. This year in budget 2022-23 Govt. Of India has included this issue. Now i think more awareness campaign will be there.
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Hi all,
I am doing research on varietal screening of rice germplasm against brown plant hopper and white-backed plant hopper under field condition. According to IRRI standard evaluation system for rice, the screening of rice germplam against these pests based on its symptom i.e. hopper burn. Therefore, my question is how can differentiate the symptom "Hooper burn" whether it is caused by BPH or WBPH.
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BPH infested field = Circular patch is seen at severe infestation
WBPH infested field = Patch observed in the field is Spindle shaped
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This gentle man was well 4 months back. In July 2021 he developed multiple flaccid blisters located initially on the trunk and extremities and gradually became generalized. Blisters used to rupture spontaneously and gave rise to erosions. Erosions were studed with crusts, had no tendency to heal rather gradually increased in size by peripheral extension and coalescing with each other. He complained of severe burning of the lesional skin. He was non-diabetic and non-hypertensive. He was diagnosed as a case of Pemphigus vulgaris on the basis of clinical findings, skin histopathology and DIF findings. He was put on treatment with injectable Triamcinolone acetonide and P.O Azathioprine 100 mg/day by his 1st physician. A few months after beginning the treatment he stopped developing blisters but had no improvement of his burning and erosions and was referred to us. We started P.O Prednisolone 60 mg/day and continued Azathioprine 100 mg/day. A few days after starting the treatment he developed fever and deteriorated clinically. He was evaluated for fever and clinical deterioration. Swab from the erosions was tested by gram stain and C/S and revealed growth of staphylococcus aurius, S. electrolytes revealed hyperkalemia and hyponatraemia. Based on C/S reports oral ciprofloxacin was added. Hyperkalemia and hyponatraemia was corrected accordingly. Though more than 2 weeks have elapsed since the initiation of treatment, he has no improvement rather he deteriorated clinically. What might be the cause of this clinical deterioration?
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Despite a 14 (Fourteen) days twice daily course of oral ciprofloxacin his fever didn't subsided. We continued oral prednisolone 60 mg daily, started oral linezolid 600 mg bid and regular wound dressing with vaseline gauge and stopped oral azathioprine. Ten days after starting oral linezolid pt's fever subsided but he developed hyperglycemia (possibly steroid induced.). A endocrinologist was consulted and Inj. insulin (Actrapid) was initiated. Due to recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia Insulin was replaced by oral hypoglycemic agent (Vildagliptin). We started tapering of prednisolone after 4 weeks of it's initiation and we added 10 mg methotrexate per week as an adjuvant. Patient improved clinically and he was discharged.
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Is it better to create new factories to produce wind turbines, photovoltaic panels and other new technologies highly dependent on rare materials and other regions or to try to review existing production methods?
Coal is made up primarily of carbon. Burning carbon produces CO2, carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas. This CO2 is difficult to re-use and store, it is a very stable molecule which is not of great industrial value. In India, a power station uses this CO2 to produce baking soda.
Another way would be to achieve what is called incomplete combustion of coal, this combustion provides less energy but it produces carbon monoxide CO, it is a more easily storable molecule which has a high industrial value, in synthetic chemistry, in the steel industry, etc. In France, industry consumes more than 500,000 tonnes per year.
How to achieve incomplete combustion?
By limiting the reagent O2, by controlling the temperature and pressure.
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I thought there was far too much co2 in the atmosphere, far more than the plants can absorb. I thought everyone agreed with what the majority of climatologists show. This is the principle of science. Unless proven otherwise, a principle stated from experience and analyzes and confirmed by simulations is validated by the scientific community.
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I am dealing with the biochar enrichment with polystyrene plastic but the issue is that our laboratory has no proper system for capturing the obnoxious gasses. kindly guide me. can I release these gasses into water tub?
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What is the gas volume, cu m and cu m/sec? The gases may not be water soluble, but if you have identified the chemical analysis that would guide the potential for capturing the gasses in water. Another strategy would be to absorb the gases in organic matter, e.g. biofilter. The biofilter can be made from various organic matter sources, commonly shredded wood or shredded green waste. Granulated carbon could also be tried, and with the advantage that the sorbed chemical could be extracted by appropriate solvent. I can advise on the contact time common for biofilters. Good luck.
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For a buring droplet, the driving potential for concevtive heat transfer is defined as Eq. (6-153) in Kuo's book, I want to know how does Eq. (6-153) come from ?
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I T
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Hello, fellow researchers. I need help to understand the quality of biomass (bark - eucalyptus and pine), for burning in a BFB boiler, may main concern is about the size of particles in the biomass (large particles).
I need to know the standards for burning this kind of biomass in the boiler, concerning the handling fo this materials by screw conveyors. (Too large particles may cause breaks and failures in the system).
If someone have the CEN standards to share with me I will be forever grateful.
Thank you, fellows.
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Thank you
Rani P Ramachandran
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Glassware and metalware used for RNA exraction works are required to be incubated in an oven at 450°F (232.2°C) for 2 hours or more (don’t include tape, as it will burn).
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The maximum recommended temperature for this cap is 180 °C:
The heat-distortion temperature of the red PBT polymer is 220 °C so heating to 232.2 °C could change the shape of the cap (if it is under any loading)
The temperature resistance of the silicone in the cap liner is 200 °C so heating this product to 232.2 °C for 2 hours may cause decomposition of the silicone.
Therefore any heating above the recommended temperature is done at your own risk.
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Under the new circumstances of the Krona virus, organizational health has become one of the variables that organizations seek to be present in, and university faculty members have a high phenomenon of functional burn, can psychological immunity play the role of the median variable in this relationship?
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I believe that psych immune play the role as a mediator variable in the relationship between organizational health and job burnout. This issue can be conducted as a research.
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Description in attached figure :
Translated in English from Nepali Language
EPICENTER
Chungkang (Bhirkot) Information
Height: 2410m
Longitude: 28 DEG 11 MIN 22 SEC N
Latitude: 84 DEG 50 MIN 33 SEC E
EARTHQUAKE DATE: 2072, LOCAL TIME: 11:56 AM
80 meters hill collapsed, the whole hill was burned as volcano, during the earthquake, light transformed from Laprak and went to Barpak.
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It's unlikely as far as presence of an active volcano in Nepal's present geological setting is concerned. Further, no volcanic eruption was reported during M7.8 Gorkha Eq.
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Is clingfilm applied on superficial burns when skin isn't breached nor blistered in prehospital settings when patient is not conveyed to further care?
There are no specific information on what type of burns the clingfilm should be used, other than the recommendation of the use of cling film in all burns. Is it the patient is conveyed to hospital the clingfilm then should be used, or can be used when they are discharged at home in prehospital settings? Or it depends on if the skin barrier is compromised with a blister and breached.
Thank you
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Hello, thank you for your reply. But to me it is clear that there is no specific instruction on what type of burn cling film should be used, such as superficial or only partial or full thickness.
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I am writing a study paper on a topic E-cars crash and accidents, especially when they start to burn and how those crashes are handled. Any researches in English or German will be helpful.
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Very helpful Wikipedia page on electric vehicle fires https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_electric_vehicle_fire_incidents
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I'm trying to programmatically calculate the Burned Area Index (BAI) for photos that include the following 6 bands: Blue, Green, Red, NIR, RedEdge and Thermal.
After researching a bit, I noticed that, when it comes for fire remote sensing, the NBR index is more popular and preferred.
However, I cannot calculate the NBR, as it requires the SWIR band, which I do not have.
My questions are:
1) Why nobody talks about Burned Area Index ? I haven't found a single programmatic example that calculates it. I've also didn't find many studies that talk about it or any examples of people calculating it with a software. Most people go with the NBR for some reason. Is there something I'm missing?
2) Is there any other index (or a combination) that could be used to remote sense fire, other than BAI or NBR (which I cannot calculate) ? For example, could the NDVI provide a fairly accurate indication of burned scars on an area?
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For a way to measure a burned area/fire scar with RS imagery without a SWIR band see our 2010 paper "From monospecific to mixed forest after fire? An early forecast for the montane belt of Majella, Italy." in FORECO and on this site.
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My research group and I are analyzing a case study in which excavated waste from a landfill (landfill mining) is directed to a pyrolysis plant already in use for municipal solid waste. Is it better to burn just excavated waste or is there an optimal proportion of fresh waste and excavated?
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Benedetta Scalzotto interesting question and would love to see experts commenting on the same
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I'm having problem with the oxygen output whether it's the unreacted oxygen that I'm going to calculate.
Meanwhile, outlining the components, and the number of the input, and output of each of the gases will help give me gain clarity on each of the components. The document attached to this question showed exactly what I needed .Thanks.
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Essayer de faire le bilan
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I am working on my thesis and am trying to find a suitable way to analyze plant phenology data. I want to analyze the effect of different long term treatments on the average flowering time of tallgrass prairie angiosperms. Specifically I am analyzing the effect of frequency of treatment and season of treatment on plant flowering times. My treatments are annual burn, quadrennial burn, annual mow, and quadrennial mow. Each of these treatments were carried out in either spring, summer, or fall in different plots with three replicate plots for each season. Including the three control treatments where no burning or mowing was carried out I sampled a total of 39 plots. I recorded data roughly twice a week through the entire growing season in 2020 where I recorded the species flowering in each plot and a rough estimate of the number of flowers for each species within each plot. I would also like to find a way to compare the biodiversity between different treatment groups. I can calculate the Shannon Weiner index based on the maximum number of flowers for each species that appear in the plots but I am unsure as to how I can do a comparison between all of the treatments at once to provide a clearer picture. I will attach a copy of my excel spreadsheet containing my sampling data for the year, hopefully that will provide a clearer understanding of what I am attempting to accomplish with this study. If anybody on this site has experience analyzing plant phenology samples I welcome your input. Thank you for taking the time to answer my question.
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I took a look at your data. You have many zeros and your data were measured over time in the same sampling units; thus, you have correlated observations and problems with zeros. I believe that, as suggested by Bodgan, you should test for differences between treatments performing a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). GLMM accounts for repeated measures and non-normal distributions. You will probably fit your data using a Poisson distribution because you have a number of occurrences in a fixed period of time and many zeros.
To compare the biodiversity between treatments you should first calculate a diversity index (e.g., Shannon) and then run an analysis of variance or other tests (the choice will depend if the assumptions for ANOVA are meet). Another option is to compare diversities through Diversity profiles.
Hope I have helped you. Good luck.
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I'm preparing graphene oxide using sugarcane bagasse powder. Method of preparation is: take 0.5g sugarcane bagasse in china dish and add 0.1g of ferrocene as an oxidizing agent. Mixed them and then put into muffle furnace at 300 °C for 10 mint.
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Do a TG analysis of the starting reagent in temperature rande 0-700 C and see for yourself. Maybe you even slightly specify the annealing temperature (there should be a "shelf" on the temperature dependence of the mass before start the oxidation of graphite oxide).
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i need answers as soon as possible, articles i found needed requests and it takes lots of time. i was hoping anyone could help me.
thanks.
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The use of tannins such as picric acid and tannic acid in burn care is mostly a historic remnant. Picric acid has been used since the 19th century and the use of tannic acid was first propagated by Davidson in the 1920s. Back then, burns were treated differently. Effective topical antimicrobial agents were rare and surgical burn care was much less refined than it is today. Thus, tannins were a way to control larger wounds and the associated pain and risk of infection. Today those aspects can be treated much more effective and with less risk in other ways. Surgical burn care has come a long way as has specialized intensive care for burn patients to control sepsis and wound care. Today, PA and TA are rarely used in modern burn care, though some studies have tried to reevaluate their potential throughout recent years.
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There are two types of hydrogen "burning" nuclear fusion processes in stars, namely proton-proton chain and CNO cycle. Has anyone looked at the feasibility of using the CNO cycle process in a tokamak to achieve nuclear fusion?
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In time: Fusion figure.
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Open-field paddy straw burning has increased excessively over the last few years. Sustainable paddy straw management can help to reduce the environmental hazards and increase income from rice production. We need to develop a sustainable agronomic management strategies to mitigate this problems.
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I burn Corn husks Sunflower husks after take analysis chemical the summation of AL2o3 with Sio2 become less than 60 .... CAN I PUT IN GEO POLYMER BRICK ?
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You can use, Make a sample and test for strength. Then even you can use any other secondary filler along with that, like minimum % of fly ash
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To maintain the proper crop plan most of the times there is not enough time to make the field ready for the next crop.
In this particular context , can bio-decompser be a solution? What about time management? How long it takes to decompose the materials? What about the economics?
Kindly highlight your views.
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Yes definitely, decomposition will be helpful under farm waste management, residues can be converted to value products such as vermicompost, enriched compost etc. which are beneficial for crop as well as increases the productivity of soil by increasing soil microflora. Burning the residues will only contribute to green house emission and decrease in soil microflora as well as soil pH imbalance.
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We know that the ash of rice husk is produced after burning of rice husk which contains the important element silicon (Si). Rice is of different types, high yielding or indigenous variety those are cultivating throughout the world. However, the rice husk ash of which variety contains the maximum silicon?
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I think indigenous cultivars have more content as it resistance to rice stem borer, and also depends upon cultivars and climatic condition including edaphic factors
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dear scholars,
I want to do a research about coating on wood or fiberglass samples by cathodic arc PVD instrument. Does anyone have a suggestion about how I could do this process? I have done this process only on metals and I have no sense about how it could be applied on wood without burning.
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This can be done by using nano-fiber or micro-fiber and making it close to the cathode in a technological way so that the spacing is not more than 200 nm.
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Cultured skin technique
only the patients own cells used
no animal products
life-saving for severe burns
mortality with ABSI score about 60-80% without treatment
mortality 10% with treatment
Does one just stand and watch patients die while knowing you could have saved most of them?
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For what reasons is the hospital banning the skin cell therapy?
Is there a relevant regulatory framework (cf. the EU Cell and Tissue Directive and ATMP Regulation)?
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Hello all!
In the framework of our capstone project, we have a combustor burning primarily hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. We have to size the apparatus, ie find its precise dimensions (height x width x length for instance). We tried considering it a PFR but the very rapid rate of the reaction (combustion) produces a very small volume. Anyone has an idea how to size a burner? Or maybe a relation between the flowrate in the burner and its dimensions? Thanks in advance!
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Please give some numbers about the flow rate, and type of the burner.
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Most of us use tooth paste more times a day. The empty tube we throw away. I wondered how empty the tube really is. This does not sound being Research? I began to collect empty tubes systematically and I can tell you now: the residual mass of tooth paste in an empty tube is 5 to 20 %, depending on tube construction. The everage lies up to 8 %. Worldwide we consume about 15 Billion of tooth tubes annually. So we throw away 120 000 tonns of tooth paste which has a value of about 1, 2 Billion $. The environmental problem is: how do we neutralise this uge quantity of tooth paste ? Burning with emissions? Solve it in Oceans? Dig it in waste dumps?
Only one example of residual values of rest-products.
Do know further examples of resdiuel waste in packaged products with ernormous masses?
I would be very intrested in reading your experiences.
Thank you for answering!!
Peter
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I have examples with UHT 30% Cream packed in a carton (as in the photo enclosed) and similar greasy products. I discovered that fat usually is on the top of the carton and liquid flows but the solid fat fraction stays inside and I need to cut the box to take it out.
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Dear colleagues,
Can you recommend us the equipment to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire?
We are planning to buy LiDAR and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
The idea is using of the LiDAR to measure the remaining tree structures after a fire in a forest stand burned. We are planning to use high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire. This information will be crossed with fire severity levels based on the relativized burnt ratio (RBR) derived from Sentinel 2A images acquired a few months before and after fire.
1
Can you recommend us specific equipment based on your experience?
2
What could be budget estimation for such equipment? EUR 20,000?
Looking forward to your advice.
Dr. Sc. Velibor SPALEVIC
1, Novaka Miloseva, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Mobile/Viber/WhatsApp: +382 67 201 222
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I former colleague of mine is developing one sensor that should suit your needs at a German research institution: https://www.ipm.fraunhofer.de/en/about-Fraunhofer-IPM/departments/object-and-shape-detection/airborne-and-underwater-scanning.html I have flown it a couple of times and the results are relatively good. A big pro argument is that it is a multi-return system which is especially valuable in forests.
Another probably pricier, but very interesting solution can be purchased in Austria: http://www.riegl.com/products/unmanned-scanning/new-riegl-vux-120/ I am working every day with a TLS solution from that company which is absolutely outstanding.
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Hi everyone,
Where can I find some information regarding sterility requirements for topical dosage forms?
To the best of my knowledge sterile topical drugs are: ophtalmic drugs, for wound healing and burns, gels used in endoscopy (anesthetic mostly) and certain dermoscometics?
Are there other type of drugs that should be manufactured in sterile dosage forms? (only topical).
Thanks very much!
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EVERYONE!! Or, at least, antiseptics.
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As part of my master's thesis, i have to investigate the burning behavior of wood. For that i simulated a 2D-transient analysis in ansys apdl. With the EKILL command, i deactivated all elements that had a temperature greater than 300°C. Now i have a residual cross section and i don't know how i can determinate the area of this residual cross section.
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Hello
can i make any comparison in Ansys apdl in harmonic analysis by taking different cross-section like rectangular cross-section, T-section and I-section.
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Hi
I wrote the HDD monthly data (MCD6AA1) in hdf format in MATLAB, which calculates the burned areas, but I realized that the geographical coordinates of the burned areas that were taken out are not accurate, to use this data and determine the correct area, what conversion is needed What?
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thanks for your help
I read the relevant articles.
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We see a photos of solar array damage suffered by the ESA Eureca spacecraft that was recovered by the Space Shuttle. photo shows a sustained arc site on its solar arrays. In this case, the sustained arc eventually burned through the array substrate to the grounded backing, completely shorting the array string to ground. We want to know What is the cause of the problem?
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Very interesting question, Huixian Sun! Follow
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Hello, I am looking for some advice regarding choosing a direction for hypothesis/statistical testing for a multivariate analysis. I am interested in determining if there is relationship between cyanobacteria bloom frequency and wildfires. So, my dependent continuous variable is the amount of blooms detected, while I have both categorical (NLCD class) and quantitative (fire frequency, wind speed, temperature, etc) independent variables. I am now planning to do a PCA in order to reduce the dimensionality of all these variables, which may lead me to do a multiple regression.
I was wondering if there is another hypothesis test that I am missing regarding multivariate data that may have independent variables related to one another? (i.e fire frequency and area burned may be related). Someone has suggested me to look at a PERMANOVA, but I am not sure if that would be the other route I could take.
I am a novice in statistics, so I apologize if I said something incorrect and would appreciate any suggestions/advice.
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James R Knaub Thank you so much for the thorough answer, and I did look into the linked paper. Very informative and your help was much appreciated!
Austin Pearce Really cool link, will help a lot for any statistical analysis. Yeah when I did some simple regression relationships between fire freq. and burned area there appeared a limiting factor, which led to me having to integrate so many factors.
Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman Thank you for the suggestion! Yeah I felt that the regression seemed almost redundant at that point, but wanted an outside opinion, much appreciated :)
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I need a description of how tomodify convenal natural gas stove to burn biogas for domestic cooking and heating.
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Methane content is biogas varies from 55% to 75% .
Our conventional gas stove need larger gas jets when it is used for biogas combustion. These stoves can be used with biogas by modifying their burner for proper combustion.
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Hello!
I am interested in performing an experiment to make a lithium containing material using the Pechini/citrate gel synthesis method.
I've read over the method, and it seems relatively simple, however I am not sure on the appropriate experimental setup. No-one in my group has experience with this method, so I would like some advice prior to starting.
What is the experimental setup? Do you use a beaker and a hotplate or full reflux equipment (rb flask and condenser).
When you begin the polymerisation process, do you have issues with autoacceleration?
When you burn off the organic phases, do you use a furnace in a fume cupboard? Is smoke an issue?
Thank you in advance!!
AJL
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My answer comes very late, but I hope it's useful to other people in the future.
I have had a brief experience with the Pechinni/citrate method. Basically, precursor salts are dissolved in lots of citric acid and some ethylene glycol is added. This is usually performed at around 60 - 80 °C. Other additives/agents can also be added to control pH (like NH4OH). The method aims to produce a very viscous jelly-like substance that is later calcined in several steps to produce carbonaceous matter and, hopefully, your desired material (commonly metal oxides). If any refluxing wants to be introduced, it would only be to help with the dissolution of the precursor salts. However, and in general, water is used as solvent with very soluble salts (So, if you have trouble solubilizing in water, it's gonna make things a bit more complicated).
After dissolution of the salts, water will evaporate (usually heated at around 120 - 180 °C, reading on the hot plate) and a very viscous jelly will be produced (depending on the volume, it will take many hours). If everything goes well, this jelly will be homogeneous. However, some heterogeneity is still ok. Later, the remnant reagents will start decomposing (usually around 200 - 270 °C, reading of the hot plate), which will produce a dense fog and, most importantly, it will produce a fast volume increase of the jelly-like substance. Now, it's very important that the container is large and the jelly volume low. This will allow for the expansion of the gel structure. If the temperature has not been high enough, or if the time has been short, a thick, dark tar will be produced. If the free volume for expansion is not enough, then you will end up with a mess. Needless to say, this has to be done in a fume hood.
It's recommended that the further carbonization of the tar is done inside a furnace at around 300 °C for several hours (to avoid losing material, it can be done in the same beaker, although it will very difficult to clean afterwards). Yet, and again, do this in a furnace located inside a fume hood. If successful, you will have a charcoal-like, porous solid that can be grinded with a mortar. Cover every surface with aluminum or paper or, again, you will end up with a mess difficult to clean. This is your precursor powder, now you can anneal it in air atmosphere at or above 500 °C, afterwards you can grind it if desired (for this, a fume hood is no longer needed). If everything goes well, you will have your final material and further crystallization can be performed (higher temperatures).
By the way, the mortar can also become a bit darky, even after thoughtful cleaning. Sequences of soap, water, acetone, ethanol can help clean the mortar. If all fails, a bit of diluted sulfuric or nitric acid can help with the cleaning, again, using organic solvents to get rid of carbonaceous materials.
Good luck!
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Setting fire to straw stubble that remains after grain is stubble burning.
Is it a problem for environment, and humans?
How does it affect to soil ?
How can it be controlled?
Inviting participation in discussion.
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Kindly go through this useful RG link.
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Successive National Burn Repository (NBR) Annual Reports consistently show a mean of approximately 1 hospital day per %TBSA burn across all patient records. For example, analyzing data from Table 16 of the 2017 NBR report [https://ameriburn.site-ym.com/resource/collection/4C72F10C-24FD-401C-8608-417BFAB10138/2017_ABA_NBR_Annual_Report.pdf] (P34/134), which presents data on ‘Hospital Days: Lived/Died by Burn Size Group’ for 124,196 survivors, gives a mean of 1.03 days/%TBSA, consistent with the Summary of Findings (P11/134), which states: “9. For survivors, the average length of stay was slightly greater than approximately 1 day per percent TBSA burned”.
Table 19 of the same report ‘Days Per %TBSA and Charges Per Day by Age Groups and Survival’ (P36/134) shows days/%TBSA for a subset of 47,291 survivors (38%) with valid data hospital days, %TBSA, and hospital charges; however, the mean days/%TBSA is 2.07, double that of all survivors. This means that people with valid hospital charges data are hospitalized for longer than the overall population per extent of burn. What might explain this discrepancy? Furthermore, mean days/%TBSA in this subgroup has increased over the years, while overall length of hospital stay across all patients has steadily declined. Why might that be?
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For more detailed data and analyses, see Abstract here:
Or Letter to the Editor here:
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For example, on the Earth, thermonuclear fusion makes noise and so do atomic fission weaponry. Does hydrogen burning of a main sequence star make any sound?
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Dear all, I think all moving objects have sound. Noisy or quiet depends on the separation distance and the interval of resolution/sensitivity of the receptor (our ears for exemple). My Regards
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Hello, dears!
I am interested to conduct a test in cement replacement from a certain soil which I don't exactly know its type. but, before going deep through it, I wanna know its binding character roughly by burning the soil to its finest form. is there someone here to guide me on;
1. to what degree and
2. for how long should I calibrate the furnace? please...
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Dear Tadele,
soil is composite material made of several types of minerals. Before any calcining test you must know what is mineral composition of soil. This allows you to know in advance what mineral I’ll be interesting because can become more reactive if calcined. For example if you have calcium carbonate you can burn at 950°C and you can obtain CaO that can be easily transformed in lime. If you have clay or better kaolin clay you can burn at 750°C for certain hours (4 to 6, because I think you shouldn’t have an expensive flash kiln that can obtain in few seconds metakaolin) to obtain metakaolin that is pozzolanic material that can well react with the lime you had from carbonate before and so on.
Portland cement clinker isn’t a soil but a mixture of calcium carbonate (mainly) , clay and gypsum dihydrate but it must be calcined at 1450°C and micronized at about 45 microns to develop the well known characteristics.
I suggest to investigate about the mineralogy of your soil and during time to receive that analysis you have to study what are pozzolanic materials, what are hydraulic or aerial binders to know how and what looking for from your soil.
Best,
Alex Reggiani
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Hello, I am interested in tracking the decrease in initiation events of different wildland fuel combustion.
Apart from the experimental procedures, is there any simulation software that can help me model the suppression of a burning object through water or water mixed with chemical additives?
Thank you in advance.
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I have mostly worked on accessing the combustion of coal and its causes through various sensors. However, CFD (computational fluid dynamics) have sufficient space for tracking the status of the fire.
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Crop residue burning is a hot topic of discussion among researchers and policy makers. Crop residue burning in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh has been known, but nowadays it's spreading more frequently in other parts of country. According to a report, more than 500 million tonnes of parali (crop residues) is produced annually in the India, cereal crops (rice, wheat, maize and millets) account for 70 per cent of the total crop residue. Of this, 34 per cent comes from rice and 22 per cent from wheat crops, most of which is burnt on the farm. According to an estimate, 20 million tonnes of rice stubble is produced every year in Punjab alone, 80 per cent of which is burnt. This phenomena of residue burning is not only making the feed security of country at risk, but also creating various agro-ecological disturbances and environmental abberances. A study estimates that crop residue burning released 149.24 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2), over 9 million tonnes of carbon monoxide (CO), 0.25 million tonnes of oxides of sulphur (SOX), 1.28 million tonnes of particulate matter and 0.07 million tonnes of black carbon. These directly contribute to environmental pollution, and are also responsible for the haze in NCR and melting of Himalayan glaciers. A lot of researches has been done for combating to menace of residue burning which concluded that, Instead of burning of the stubble, it can be used in different ways like cattle feed, compost manure, roofing in rural areas, biomass energy, mushroom cultivation, packing materials, fuel, paper, bio-ethanol and industrial production, etc. Farmers can also manage crop residues effectively by employing agricultural machines like:
-Happy Seeder(used for sowing of crop in standing stubble)
-Rotavator (used for land preparation and incorporation of crop stubble in the soil)
-Zero till seed drill (used for land preparations directly sowing of seeds in the previous crop stubble)
-Baler (used for collection of straw and making bales of the paddy stubble)
-Paddy Straw Chopper (cutting of paddy stubble for easily mixing with the soil)
-Reaper Binder (used for harvesting paddy stubble and making into bundles).
Although, researchers and policy makers showed sincere efforts to manage the problem of residue burning through various plans, schemes, interventions, reules and regulations. However, the problem of residue burning is still a significant issue to be tackle at best.
In this regard, what could be the problem solving ways, innovations, ideas and actions for addessing the issue of residue burning.
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Though the Agricultural Engineering fraternity in India has given various alternatives as mentioned above for the said problem, the Majority of the farmer community is reluctant to adopt better practices owing to a lack of awareness of its global impact such as the well-known "Butterfly Effect". Also, there must be strict Government Policies and Strong actions against non-compliance with the recommended crop residue management practices. On other hand, the local and higher government bodies must recognize and promote the Good farmers on ground and through media who are implementing the new better techniques to tackle this issue.
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I would evaluate the profitability of the agro-forestry during two seasons ago. But some fields have the young woody plants or the palm oil trees burned with the slash-burn practice. This conduct to the miss of the yield of this component which must prove the agro-forestry system.
Yours answers are well come.
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You can combine methods, by plots, or by species / crop, or by stratum. Measurements are made preferably years in a row, between 2 to 8 years to get a better average.
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Hi, In our study we are going to evaluate the effect of 3 different treatments on burn wound using rat models. what should the P-value cutoff be For statistical analysis of our q-pcr output and collagen volume fraction results from image j?(0.01 or 0.05)
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Hello Sepideh,
If it were a matter of one size truly fitting all cases, then you obviously wouldn't have to ask this question!
The answer to the appropriate level of risk for type I ("alpha level") as well as the acceptable level of risk for type II ("beta level") errors in hypothesis testing really should depend on the consequences of being wrong.
One consequence that large scale replication projects have shown is that a lot of published studies that showed "statistical significance" in the original study fail to do so when a replication is attempted. That's part of the reasoning underlying Cristian Ramos-Vera 's suggestion of a more conservative alpha level. Is it possible to quantify the costs associated with a Type I and Type II error in the framework of your proposed study? That might help you to set realistic levels.
Good luck with your work.
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Let me begin by stating that statistics are unfortunately no strength of mine.
I have conducted a questionnaire assessing loss of smell/taste in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic for my MSc thesis. I have surveyed 254 HCWs of which 44 reported loss of their smell and taste. The first question asked whether the participant had experienced a loss of smell or taste within the last 6 months (yes/no). The next question enquired whether the participant had experienced a burning or tingling sensation within the 6 months (yes/no).
I would subsequently like to compare the results of these two questions in order to establish if participants who reported a loss of smell and taste were statistically more likely to experience a burning and tingling sensation than those who did not report a loss of smell or taste.
I have already run a Chi-square test using spss however my assumptions have been violated so I want to ensure I am using the correct statistical test.
Any suggestions/guidance would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance.
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Hello David,
I'm not sure why you conclude that a chi-square test of independence won't work for your analysis (was it a matter of one or more cells having too-low expected frequencies?). In addition to the chi-square, here are some other possible paths:
1. Fisher exact test.
2. Odds ratio (with CI), comparing odds of burning sensation reported for respondents with loss of smell/taste vs. those without loss of smell/taste.
3. Logistic regression, with IV of smell/taste status and DV of burning/tingling status (which should yield same result as #2).
Good luck with your work.
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Regarding ECBM (Enhanced coal bed methane recovery) technology to contain global warming, CO2 is sequestered by coal seams and consequently recovered CH4 for energy use. But CH4 will be burned as an energy source and emit CO2 back into the atmosphere. I would like to see a demonstration of this. There is a theory that if all recovered CH4 was burned, there would be net storage of CO2, but I would like more references on that.
I have couple of documents like that, but not strong references about it: https://static.berkeleyearth.org/memos/fugitive-methane-and-greenhouse-warming.pdf
If anyone can help me, I'd appreciate it!
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It is a complete cycle for sure, but specifically about ECBM technology it doest seem a very clear improvement. Maybe someone could help better if read my text, but it is missing some good references. IPCC didn't give the information I need:
" Negative CO2 balance
Another point of attention that may question the ECBM conception is whether, with the use of the technology, there would be actually a negative balance of CO2 in the atmosphere. The main economic objective of any CBM or ECBM project is the recovery of CH4. By producing more methane (CH4), this when burnt will emit more CO2 into the atmosphere, which is the exact opposite of the environmental goal.
It is estimated that burning 1 ton of CH4 can produce 2.27 tons of CO2, while burn 1 ton of C (the major constituent of coal) can produce 3.67 tons of CO2. In addition, new modern electric generator technologies transform 60% of the thermal energy produced into electricity while more efficient supercritical coal-fired power plants operate with 43% efficiency. Thus, the net result considering the same energy production, the carbon burned from coal produces 2.8 times more carbon dioxide than the methane burned. Although it is an important greenhouse gas, the methane is considered the “cleanest burning fossil fuel”. When compared with other types of hydrocarbon fuel, the combustion of methane is characterised by the release of less carbon dioxide and more heat (I don’t have serious reference about that – Richard Muller).
Ottiger et al. (2006) and Hansen et al. (2017) suggested that if all recovered CH4 were burned, there would be net storage of CO2, based on the CO2 balance and cycle. There would be a potential for a net reduction of greenhouse effect gas emissions from this storage option. The balance based on these calculations would still keep the technology as a CO2 negative emission solution.
Sampath et al. (2017) report that methane is the fuel that emits the least amount of CO2 per unit of energy released. The Global CCS Institute 2018 also refers to the environmental benefits through the burning of methane (considered by them the cleanest of fossil fuels) to meet energy demand, and not through the burning of carbon-rich fuels such as coal.
According to Sloss (2015), ECBM projects can be carried out before coal mining, sometimes as part of site safety requirements and sometimes as a means of harnessing this gaseous energy before moving to traditional coal mining methods.
CH4 is a powerful greenhouse gas in which its release should be avoided. However, according to Sloss (2015), at ECBM this gas would be collected under control. This would enable a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, together with an improvement in mine safety (US EPA 2015).
This is certainly one of the most important points of attention in the conception of the ECBM project in order not to generate an environmental contradiction."
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Probably the future of humanity depends on the next decade. If, over the next few years, renewable energy sources replacing traditional energy based on the burning of minerals are developed on a massive scale, it might be possible for humankind to avoid a climatic catastrophe in the 21st century. The international climate agreement that currently (December 2018) concluded in Katowice in Poland may be a late and insufficient agreement, because most countries do not intend to develop high-budget projects for the construction and development of power plants based on renewable energy sources. In addition, changes in the automotive industry, changes leading to the development of motorization in the direction of electromobility are too slow. The problem is serious because it concerns the future of all humanity in the perspective of the next two to three generations, yet the necessary changes and reforms in the implementation of economic principles of sustainable pro-ecological development are too slow. With the current pace of changes, there may be a shortage of time to implement the necessary pro-ecological undertakings, and then the problem of global warming will become an irreversible process and will constantly accelerate!
In view of the above, the current question is: Probably the future of humanity in the 21st century depends probably on the next dozen or so years?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Ammar A. Oglat, Sasa Bakrac, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Marwah Firas Abdullah Al-Rawe,
Afraa Ibrahim
, Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG, Thank you for the proposed interesting issues in the field Probably the future of humanity in the 21st century depends probably on the next dozen or so years?
Thank you very much for the sent suggestions of interesting topics, research issues, etc. related to this issue.The issue is indeed developmental. You described the problem very well. I fully agree with your opinion on this topic. Thank you very much for an inspiring, interesting and substantive answer. Your statements confirm that the above-mentioned issues are current and developing. In view of the above, in my opinion, in recent years the importance of issue Implementation of The Principles of Sustainable Economy Development as a key element of Pro-ecological transformation of The Economy towards Green Economy and Circular Economy.
Thank you very much and best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Sri Lankan Indigenous Medicine is an assert to Sri Lankan health sector. In addition to its healing effect, SLIM has social and cultural values which are worth studying, researching and surveying. SLIM has remedies for most of the current burning issues in health field such as cancer and other NCDs.
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I agree with Arvind Singh
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M= kTN+N
k= ic/b
Where
M= estimated amount waste
K= reduction constant
T= Period in days
N= number of waste generated per day
i=waste incremental ratio
c= nonbiodegradeable waste ratio
b= burning, buried and recycle ratio
We Consider the last three years
i= 0.02
c= 0.7
b=0.2
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It mainly assumption and using some statistical model
The assumptions procedures are follows
We got data from ministry of environment Lagos state on solid generated per
We check previous paper on solid waste generation
We tools samples of some dump site in Lagos and check their increment rate of a small portion of those dump site
We gather a minor solid waste and study it decrement under Lagos environment.
I think this procedure can be done elsewhere but our is for a portion of Lagos state.
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Since real life current flows from negative terminal to positive terminal of the DC source (unlike conventional current which flows from positive to negative terminal), it seems more logical for the wire at negative terminal to burn in case of a short circuit since it is at higher potential. It will be very helpful if a mathematical relation describing the phenomenon is also mentioned with the answer.
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I assume your observation is based on repeatedly creating the condition, using different types of wires with different types of power sources?
If it is based on random event experience, I suppose it is coincident.
I work with high-current, high-voltage devices a lot.
The wire will burn at the first point where thermal limits are exceeded or the thermal transfer coincidentally is the lowest.
In case you negative terminal is slightly larger or features the better thermal connection - maybe there is a fan nearby - the wire will fail in another location.
If you attach the wire to the positive DC-Terminal to trigger the event, contact resistance is larger which leads to higher local losses in the wire.
If you reverse the experiment, the result will reverse as well.
Cheers - Martin
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I am making porous carbon by carbonizing hydrochar at around 500-900oC under Ar atmosphere. Lately when I make my carbon, the moment I open the furnace at around 100oC, the carbon looks fine, then suddenly glows red and burns the moment it comes into contact with air. I checked the elemental composition with EDX and found that there is Al as a contaminant. Could Al be a pyrolysis catalyst?
Other things that changed in my setup before this happened are:
- the Ar tank was replaced (still 99.999>% purity)
- my crucibles were ashed from 900 to 800oC
Could these even affect the carbon?
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Strictly spoken, all forms of carbon burn in exothermal reactions at room temperature, the fact that it doen't happen is "just kinetical".*
I guess this is a question of porosity and distribution: if you have generated reaction centres and pores in your material, oxygen might attack easier and yes, fine distributed Al might help setting the material on fire, not as a catalyst, but as a reactant itself since it will surely end up as Al2O3.
Just out of curiosity: what happens when you let it cool down to room temperature or maybe introduce oxygen slowly?
*Random fact: this "just kinetical" factor allows all life on earth.
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What is the mechanism of action of “hydrochloric acid” ascending the human esophagus and “burning” the human throat?
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