Science topic

Building Technology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Building Technology, and find Building Technology experts.
Questions related to Building Technology
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
15 answers
How can an energy independent home be built?
How can a zero-energy (energy-neutral) house be built?
How can a zero-emission and energy- and climate-neutral house be built?
What combination of energy efficient building technologies and renewable energy sources should be used to build a fully energy independent home?
What are the key priors for sustainable, environmentally friendly construction?
Various solutions are being used in the construction industry to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. New building materials are being used, as well as insulation materials for facades to reduce heat loss. Various renewable and emission-free energy sources are used (windmills, photovoltaic panels, others). Thermal (in winter) and/or cooling (during hot weather) energy-generating devices based on heat pumps, air conditioners, etc. are used.
What are currently known to be the most convenient, sustainable, energy-efficient and cost-effective combinations of applied energy-efficient building technologies and various, especially renewable/zero-emission energy sources in fully energy-independent houses?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Thank you,
Greetings,
Dariusz
Relevant answer
Answer
Apartment buildings have advantages and disadvantages, most walls, ceilings and even floors, are not exposed to the outside but rather to other conditioned spaces, radically reducing heat loss or gain, which is generally the greatest source of energy consumption.
They also offer amazing opportunities for increased sharing of resources, again a massive potential saving. Not every house needs its own pool or garden, or BBQ area, , water filters, pumps, water storage, or even potentially heaters, boilers, etc there are just as many positives to be gained in sustainable apartment design as challenges.
Most environmental problems are best solved at the small village level rather than the individual house level. Each individual house trying to treat its own waste water is complex and expensive, but treating it at a village level, can include nutrient recovery for village level food farming, which is not feasible at a city level. the same can be true for water purification, treatment, heating etc. A cluster of apartments can be a very productive scale for sustainable solutions. Big enough for car pooling or shared vehicles, for food cooperatives and communal gardens that can afford to pay a worker and create sustainable livelihoods, A cluster of apartments could afford its own sustainable power engineer to maintain its own sustainable power plants, including wind, solar and other solutions. It could afford the gardening staff to maintain a shared outdoor edible landscaped garden with living swimming pools to harvested fish and fruits and nuts and herbs. Local small restaurants, bakers, etc can be more energy efficient than each house producing all of its own meals. Much can be done at this scale
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
2 answers
What can you say about building disassembly? For you, in you own opinion, is this method of construction in the present time effective and will it be develop through time?
Relevant answer
Answer
Many real cases and studies show the real advantage of disassembly construction methods, especially in steel and timber elements, as they have the typical characteristics of a circular process (cradle to cradle). There are several aspects to be evaluated including cost, time, labour, and the actual benefits in terms of reducing environmental impacts, but I believe that with a proper disassembly plan already planned in the design phase, the whole process would be very simple, practical and cost-effective.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
11 answers
I am an Architectural Engineering graduate student with a background in studying Building physics, Building materials, Building Services, and Building Technologies in sum. Remote sensing is not currently one of my strengths but I am shooting for an interdisciplinary topic to try to link the architectural engineering and remote sensing and widen the boundaries of building engineering.
Relevant answer
Answer
How about researching Smart Built Environments (SBEs), i.e. trying to understand issues around integration of building information modelling (BIM), CAFM (computer aided facilities management) and BMS (building management systems), in terms of intelligent decision making based on remote sensing data in buildings?
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
38 answers
Research in green building and smart building technologies is increasingly diversified and the limits between these practices are less and less defined. In this context I would like you to offer us your opinion. Thanks for your time and attention.
Relevant answer
Answer
future cities are the combination of both smart and sustainable buildings, transportation,infrastructure and urban spaces we can found it UAE ( Dubai )
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
I used a frame structure to represent a continuous shell plate and this frame structure was calibrated with a physical model in order to  have the same rigidity as the real one. However I was trying to identify how representative would if a change the thick of the frame elements to represent a shell plate.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good answer.. Nathan Madutujuh ... Following
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
8 answers
Where possible we use traditional technologies that can be easily replicated in neighbouring communities, or cheaper alternatives to conventional technologies that still offer protection in the event of an earthquake.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for this Hussam Ali Mohammed . This is likely to be the first actual reference that I will include in my research from Reseachgate. The exact costings might need more examination but I don't doubt the overall efficacy. This BRE link correlates:
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
4 answers
Where possible we use traditional technologies that can be easily replicated in neighbouring communities, or cheaper alternatives to conventional technologies that still offer protection in the event of an earthquake.
Relevant answer
Answer
The answer is yes and no. There are of course, engineering techniques that can be used to create a very sound structure that will endure a modest or even strong quake. However, during a very strong earthquake, even the best engineered building may suffer severe damage. Engineers design buildings to withstand as much sideways motion as possible in order to minimize damage to the structure and give the occupants time to get out safely.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
7 answers
I'm looking for further information on occupant-centric retrofitting scenarios of non-domestic existing buildings.
Relevant answer
Answer
you can find examples in these two papers:
"A satisfaction-range approach for achieving thermal comfort level in a shared office"
"Investigating Occupancy-Driven Air-Conditioning Control Based on Thermal Comfort Level"
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
Technical colleges are the institutions where craftsmen are trained to the craft level and awarded NABTEB certificate. The aim of technical college is to produce graduates with competent skills which could be put into practice to enable them become self reliant. In technical colleges, technical teachers give training on various disciplines such as electronics works, building technology, wood work technology, metal work technology, to mention a few.
Medical Equipment and tools are the machines, tools, equipment, testing instruments used for diagnosis of patient in the hospital
Relevant answer
Answer
Fixing broken equipment is the easy part - making sure that Electrical Product Safety and EMC Compliance has not be affected is the MAJOR issue.
Example I replace a blown PSU with another of similar rating - but the leakage current of the replacement is greater and kills a patient.
I replace a defective relay with a similar product but the CREEPAGE distance between HAZARDOUS and PATIENT CIRCUITS is inadequate and the patient dies.
To repair the equipment it should be returned to the manufacturer - they KNOW what parts of the hardware affect Product Safety - it is EXTREMELY unlikely (1,000,000 to 1) that a general repair technician will get it right.
I have spent 30+ Years in Electronics Design and never cease to be amazed at the way new graduate designers find new ways to kill customers and patients. 99.99% of all NEW product submission will FAIL product safety testing and assessment. Our blog contains some pointers https://phoenixtechnicalgroup.com/blog/
Some of the following books may also help with design detail http://tinyurl.com/LNqq44u
Best regards
Gregg Kervill
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
1 answer
Post to be removed
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
6 answers
I am working on the resuspension of a fluorescent tagged oligonucelotide. I came across few protocols carrying out the process with either Tris-HCl or TE Buffer. The only difference in composition is the presence of EDTA. Would using either these two make a difference?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you! That's good to know beforehand. Does mixing both forward and reverse primers with NEBuffer 3 (10 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM DTT, 100 mM NaCl) helps in creating a duplex oligo at the final stage? Or is there another option in creating a double stranded oligo?
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
6 answers
I´m looking for papers dealing with the Japanese prefab systems, particularly those based on steel framing and automated processes.
Relevant answer
Answer
Look at the research of Thomas Bock at Technical University of Munich; extensive research in automation and expert on Japanese construction.
Numerous papers, not everything might be listed on his page here https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Thomas_Bock2
Also, search for publications referencing Sekisui House http://www.sekisuihouse.co.jp/english/index.html
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
2 answers
How to install over 1.8m colorbond wall?
Dear Sir/Madam,
I would like to instal colorbond to cover our site. However, according to wind speed, it is not available to build over 1.8m height. we pland to have a 2.4m colorbond but to do that, we need some kind of support or material which won't have demage even if wind is strong.
1. is there any calculation or formula that i need to use to calculate colobond maximum height?
2. what other material i can use to make 2.4m height?
best reagrds,
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
5 answers
The studies I have found are not very conclusive.  A study of highway projects found that DBB projects took longer to deliver than Design-Build projects, although cost did not differ significantly. (Shrestha, P., O’Connor, J., and Gibson, G., Jr. (2012). "Performance Comparison of Large Design-Build and Design-Bid-Build Highway Projects." J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000390, 1-13.) Another study found that DBB either performed better than DB in meeting cost estimates, or performed about the same, depending upon the statistical method used; both were comparable at meeting project timelines (although DB is recognized to be faster). (Minchin, R., Jr., Li, X., Issa, R., and Vargas, G. (2013). "Comparison of Cost and Time Performance of Design-Build and Design-Bid-Build Delivery Systems in Florida." J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000746, 04013007.)  And yet Design-Build is continually put forward by officials as a solution to excessive project costs.  Are there any data to back this up?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
Buildings commonly use a factor of safety of 2.0 for each structural member. The value for buildings is relatively low because the loads are well understood and most structures are redundant. Pressure vessels use 3.5 to 4.0, automobiles use 3.0..
Relevant answer
Answer
In modern design, we use 'partial safety factors' derived from statistical analysis of the variability of loads, material properties etc which are combined during the design process, rather than use an 'overall' safety factor. It is useful to look at guides to the Eurocode Design manuals to grasp this concept. 
This is an interesting commentary: http://anbeal.co.uk/factorsofignorance.html
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
6 answers
Is there a good experimental way to protect the sandstone walls of the salts and the moisture in the historic buildings?? Please explain or share some ideas and documents.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
5 answers
I want to study the free oscillations of a 7-storey structure. Apply a displacement to external nodes of the tree by running "initial x disp" but nothing happens. I would like to deform the structure and let her go back to the equilibrium position but nothing happens. Can you tell me where I'm wrong? Maybe I should not use the initial command?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks to both for the answers. I'll try to follow these solutions.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
7 answers
I am doing a research on parametric simulation of modular design of prefabricated components in buildings. I am looking for any standard or guideline on how to calibrate and standardize the size and specifications of modules for prefabricated components such as walls, floors and roofs. What I have found so far are some commercial catalogues that have no decent scientific values.
I would appreciate if the experts and researchers could introduce me any relevant sources of information.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
19 answers
I am just starting a research about building-related urban agriculture, and in particular farming practices taking place against/on/within the building envelope (rooftop and facades). Is there any literature about architectural and spatial integration of the farming rooms into building or, even better, about buildings' architectural requirements for a proper integration ?
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
First indications from the occupant surveys of  people in tall buildings but the case for views on Nature and health are proven since about the early 80s. The Bosca Verticale in Milan is featured a lot but is there any survey of occupants health and well-being for example?
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
4 answers
In view of the traditional craft  in the decline how can we revive these crafts
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Revathi
The craft apart from the above mentioned functions may be used as visuals to create a sense of place and sense of belonging to the buildings.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
7 answers
I have Young’s modulus of grout and its area,Young’s modulus of grouted sand and its area and Young’s modulus of steel casing and its area.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest you look at the following:
Chen L, Poulos HG (1994). A Method Of Pile-Soil Interaction Analysis For Piles Subjected To Lateral Soil Movement. Computer Methods And Advances In Geomechs,, Siriwardane & Zaman (Eds), Balkema, Rotterdam, 2311-2316.
and
Poulos HG (1995). Design of Reinforcing Piles to Increase Slope Stability. Canadian Geot. Jnl, 32(5), 808-818.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
I am going to scale my 7 ground motion for rehabilitation of structure with base isolation. ASCE 7-10 (for new structure) is really explicit in defining period range (0.5Td-1.25Tm) for scaling ground motion to reach design spectra , but unfortunately ASCE 41-06 is very ambiguous about this range.in section 9.2.5.2 about nonlinear dynamic procedure , it referenced to section 3.3.4 , and there , it referenced to section 1.6.2.2 (where T for fix base structure is considered) . 
in none of above section , there isn't any mention about modifying period range for base isolation structure.
can anyone help me.
i must mention that i should use ASCE 41-06 and i couldn't use ASCE41-13 or FEMA1050 or FEMA P-751.
the corresponding sections from ASCE 41-06 is presented in apendix
thanks for all , either responders or not.
Relevant answer
Answer
Your question is very interesting. If there is a newer version of ASCE and this codes have addressed your concern in the scaling of the response history, why don't you scale it according to the newer version of ASCE 41-13? If for any reason why you must stick to the previous version of ASCE 41-06, and the ambiguity of response history scaling is not clearly identified, you may need to identify why are the changes implemented in 41-13 and the consequences of not adhering it. Otherwise, it doesn't really make sense, in my opinion.
I attach a simple comparison between the two ASCE revisions and please refer to page 11 for response history scaling to know briefly why the changes took place.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
12 answers
What do you think if we propose a residential building envelope made of water which is non-toxic, fire resistant, recyclable, and low-cost with high specific heat? I am currently working on a proposal which water is the main structural element of my envelope prototype but I would like to know your feedback on this matter and any resources that might help. 
Thanks
Relevant answer
When you say " water is the main structural element", would I be correct to presume that you mean hollow structural panels that are filled with water?.
Such concepts of "Liquid Engineering" (and "Trans-structures") seem to have been studied since 2007 by Professors Namba and Professor Kengo Kuma of the University of Tokyo.
Recently, I believe that an experimental project in carried out in Hungary by Dr. Matyas Gutai to build a residential house was built with part of the envelope being water-filled panels. A summary of a book on Trans-Structures by Dr. Matyas is annexed for your reference.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
I have a query regarding underfloor pool heating. Is it possible to combine both solar and heat pump for underfloor pool heating in large hotels or natatoriums ? 
Relevant answer
Yes, it is posible, but you only need to resize the plant.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
8 answers
After visiting Europe I noticed a major difference in Europe and America's construction methods, specifically in the residential area. It seemed majority of the homes in Europe were concrete masonry framed, unlike in America whereas most residential homes use wood framing. I would appreciate any input on why the construction is different. 
Relevant answer
Wood is a building material with many interesting properties for building structural frames. So, wood framing was used in houses in all Europe, as it was cheaper than stone. You might still see it in places such as Canterbury (U.K.), Colmar (France), Baden-Württenberg or Quedlinburg (Germany) La Alberca or Calatañazor (Spain). But it is also a combustible material and it has always been related to fire in the mind of many people. You may read about the Great Fire of London (1666) to understand the fears of people and the reason why regulations against spreading of fire in European cities are so important.
Any book on Architecture History will explain how new materials like iron (steel) and concrete were being used for building construction in 19th and 20th Century in Europe. It was the “Industrial Revolution” (http://global.britannica.com/event/Industrial-Revolution). New knowledge and techniques were developed that change completely the “traditional” building construction methods. Wood frames and masonry walls and vaults started to be less used (at the middle of 20th century) or nearly not used (at the end of same century) for new structural frames of any kind of buildings (including houses). These are some of the reasons why, in many European countries, in the sixties and seventies (20th Century), most new houses were built with reinforced concrete or with steel frames (even detached houses in the country).
In Spain, added to that, there were several laws which forbid the use of wood structures for houses in many towns and in some kind of houses, as “Orden Ministerial 20 mayo 1969 – Viviendas de Protección Oficial” for cheap houses.
Those laws changed and, at the end of the 80’s, the building company I was working for decided to assemble in Spain some wood light frame designed houses, with light prefabricated wood panels as facades; they imported around 100 units from USA, to be installed near Madrid. They were more expensive (this was expected, as they were imported), but Spanish people did not like them. They complained mainly about the bad acoustics of the house (bad insulation and “noises” made by wood), the bad behaviour with weather and the need of maintenance of the houses (they say they needed much more maintenance than “traditional” houses), the lack of security of the walls (it was not so difficult to break them)… I have later heard similar reasons for other companies trying to build houses with wood frames (and wood prefabricated components); it is too expensive, people do not like them when they live in them and the company do not make money with it.
I have myself designed and built as an architect some years ago a new detached house with masonry walls and a wood frame for roof and floors, in the mountains in the north of Spain. It was not done with the same "light frame" system used in USA (it will not meet today's european requirements). It was cheaper than “traditional” houses built in the area with reinforced concrete floors and walls. The client, an engineer, was accustomed to international building construction and had ideas very different to “conventional Spanish".
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
As per IS 1893, Storey drift shall not exceed 0.004 times storey height. If it is exceeded, then how to minimize it for multi storied building. 
Relevant answer
Answer
A civil engineer(Structural design) would be able to tell you, but I guess it depends on the level of the drifted storey. If the building is already built and if it is an upper storey, then maybe a support structure, a support cable can help. If it is a storey in lower levels for example in basement or ground floor, then some experts inject concrete to the foundation to stop the drifting or extra support structure to be added to the building later on. Structural engineers shall be able to say.hope that helps.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
8 answers
Generally 5-10% cement (by weight of soil) is added to rammed. Is rammed earth sustainable with this level of cement use?
Relevant answer
Answer
Magdalena is correct as above. The answer to your sustainability question is that this depends upon your view. It is true that this uses a material with embodied energy consumption but far less than the more conventional masonry wall would. The whole process of transporting builders to the site etc and many other things use energy so it's a matter of opinion. Most people would think this is relatively sustainable
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
5 answers
I found two building technologies for helping the sea level rising problem:
1. Seawater Greenhouse
2. Seawater desalination plants
and both of them have been implemented in different countries.
I would like to know is there any other new building technologies which has been implemented or is implementing at the moment that can help to combat with the sea level rising issues.
There are some future construction plans for dealing with the sea level rising issues such as Shimizu Corporation's (Japanese construction firm)'s latest project: Deep Sea Future City Concept- OCEAN SPIRAL.
U.S. students from University of Pennsylvania have come up with an idea to install waterproof membranes protecting the lower stories of Manhattan's buildings to protect against rising sea levels.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Charlene
Land preservation and reclamation is currently the most usual technique against sea level rise. As you mentioned, Hong Kong and Japan are countries that the small size of their island states creates spatial needs to using reclamation techniques. Maldives exactly do the same about the sea level rise problem.
In my opinion reclamation technique includes large protection works of high cost and dubious results( they are sinking every year, as you said). So I think reclamation would not be an appropriate approach against sea level rise.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
9 answers
Airport noise nuisance is a negative impact on long term health problem for residents especially when it occurring near urban areas. Like many other noise nuisance, it may be ignored generally in practice. I am currently looking for reliable materials to understand how government and designer interventions work to establish optimal policy targets for this issue. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi there, using some natural filters like layers of vegetation(mainly trees) can help. for reliable material please check the link below, as I am aware UCL has been working on airports and noise pollution. They have good videos in their websites which explains the projects they currently work on.
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
3 answers
I'm looking into how agricultural architectural systems (vertical landscaping and farming) in highly polluted dense urban environments can reduce greenhouse gases within cities. Within this topic I will be looking at the use and growth of algae within facades to capture greenhouse gasses, the impact of vertical landscaping on air quality, and the potential for vegetated pockets within high rise structures to further filter surrounding air within dense urban environments.
If there are any suggestions as to how I could potentially undertake this topic or publications that you believe might be resourceful, it would be greatly appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
check literature for hydrophonics
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
2 answers
The IMS system was developed by IMS Institute in the last century. In Cuba there are many building built with that system and we need information about test making of that system.
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you have information about joint of IMS building?
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
8 answers
I am trying to asses and evaluate the flexibility of houses but I couldn't find a comprehensive method for it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hassan,
Flexibility, adaptability and robustness are three important concepts for improving sustainability, durability and efficient space use over the service life of a building.
In addition to spatial and structural considerations, these three concepts also have a high potential for increasing energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (e.g. thermal/visual comfort) of buildings. Especially the adaptability of building envelopes is promising in this respect. 
In the article "Climate adaptive building shells: state-of-the-art and future challenges", we (i) relate the concepts of flexibility, adaptability and robustness to each other, (ii) present an overview and classification approach of recent advances in this field, and (iii) give an outline of trends, future directions and potential obstacles.
In terms of methodologies, building performance simulation (BPS) can be a useful tool for assessing the aspects of flexibility/adaptability/robustness and supporting decision-making in the design process of (new) buildings.
The paper by Kasinalis et al, presents a systematic framework that shows how BPS can be used to evaluate the performance benefits of building envelopes with longer-term or seasonal adaptability, e.g. different building shell configurations (thermal insulation, daylight utilization) in summer and winter.
On the other hand, the paper "Simulation-based support for product development of innovative building envelope components" focuses on short-term adaptability. The article is mainly directed to the use of simulations for supporting R&D of novel building envelope products with adaptable properties. However, the same principles can also be used for assessment of flexibility and adaptability in the building design or retrofit phase.
Most building performance simulation tools were developed in a time when adaptability was not high on the list of functional requirements for software developers. This leads to the situation that it is not always straightforward for users to implement the desired adaptable behavior in these legacy software programs. The last paper "Performance prediction of buildings with Responsive Building Elements: Challenges and Solutions" presents a couple of points-of-attention and possible solutions to bypass these issues.
Finally, finding the right set of performance indicators that are able to distinguish the merits of robust/flexible buildings from their 'conventional' counterparts is still a challenging task, but an interesting field of research.
Best regards,
Roel
  • asked a question related to Building Technology
Question
15 answers
Which problems do we have to resolve in LTE?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think its important to understand the 3GPP:s forecasts and proposed solutions are like asking the umbrella manufacturer for a weather forecast - there are vested interests in promoting LTE as THE solution and having something like 5G. Personally I think the 3GPP white paper (and Ismat Aldmour) is basically right when it comes to the balance between densification, spectrum and spectrum efficiency (the latter two are BTW in my opinion somewhat too optimistic). What is vastly under estimated are the cost factors. 50 -100x more LTE access points is not really feasible .. remember that we need the 1000x capacity at the same cost, same energy as today! LTE will be orders of magnitude off in cost (just in royalty fees and backhaul). Only low cost indoor technologies (WiFi or similar) using existing backhaul come even close to this target. Check out