Questions related to Building Materials
I would like to submit a new manuscript for construction and building materials journal. But authors must supply the names, addresses and institutional email addresses of 5 independent referees from outside their own country. Papers will be returned to the author if institutional email addresses of referees are not provided.
How I can solve this problem, I mean, What do they mean by that.
And are there any one could help me to be refereed?
What, in your opinion, are the methods, ways, legal solutions, new material and other technologies to reduce paper consumption, save wood and trees?
What, in your opinion, are the actions and projects that can contribute to forest conservation, to convert deforestation into afforestation, to protect the climate, biosphere and biodiversity of the planet's natural ecosystems, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and counteract the ongoing process of global warming?
As we know, trees, forests, especially old, natural forests, primeval forests with old-growth forests without human interference, without the influence of civilization, are the refuge of the greatest resources of biodiversity of natural ecosystems. Besides, forests play a particularly important role in the issue of slowing down the human-induced global warming process, which is progressing faster and faster. Forests also play a very important role in mitigating weather and climate anomalies, maintaining a mild microclimate friendly to living organisms, keeping the soil and air moist, maintaining the high level of biodiversity and soil fertility created over thousands or millions of years, and so on.
Deforestation still dominates over afforestation in many regions of the world. Forests are still being cut down and burned to acquire new areas for agricultural development, the cultivation of crops, which is usually carried out in the form of unsustainable robbery. In addition, this practice is carried out mainly in the tropics and subtropics, where after logging, forests created new arable land is quickly subject to drought and the soil becomes barren. Restoring a forest that has functioned for thousands of years or more in a specific area on the depleted soil requires huge expenditures. In addition, vegetable crops are grown on these new agricultural areas, which are either transported thousands of kilometers to other countries, which generates high greenhouse gas emissions, or are not used for human food but for livestock feed, which also generates high emissions, as industrial livestock farming is a source of high emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane. Therefore, with a view to protecting the climate, biosphere and biodiversity of the planet's natural ecosystems, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and counteract the ongoing process of global warming.
Various examples of reducing paper consumption and saving forests are as follows:
In some countries, the scale of printing notebooks, notebooks, books, including school books, has been reduced and students as early as elementary school write at school on tablets or laptops rather than in paper notebooks. Green economic activities involving, for example, the production of furniture from recycled materials are also emerging.
Another example is the replacement of dirty energy based on burning firewood with renewable and emission-free sources of clean energy. Unfortunately, in some countries, in order to falsify statistics on the development of renewable energy at the behest of the government, central statistical institutions, ministries and government agencies dealing with climate and environmental issues also count firewood as a renewable energy source. Such absurdities unfortunately still exist in some countries.
Another example is the use of secondary raw materials of various origins in the construction industry instead of using wood, and especially instead of newly harvested wood from companies producing building materials based on fresh, new wood raw material from a sawmill.
As of 1.8.2023, paper receipts are not printed in France to save trees. You have to ask for a printed receipt if the customer needs one.
What other examples of reducing paper consumption and saving forests are as follows?
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
What, in your opinion, are the actions and undertakings that can contribute to forest conservation, to convert deforestation into afforestation, to protect the climate, biosphere and biodiversity of the planet's natural ecosystems, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and counteract the ongoing process of global warming?
What do you think are the methods, ways, legal solutions, new material technologies and others to reduce paper consumption, save wood and trees?
How can we reduce paper consumption, save wood, trees and reduce forest deforestation, protect biodiversity and climate?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this issue?
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Counting on your opinions, on getting to know your personal opinion, on a fair approach to the discussion of scientific issues, I deliberately used the phrase "in your opinion" in the question.
The above text is entirely my own work written by me on the basis of my research.
In writing this text I did not use other sources or automatic text generation systems.
Copyright by Dariusz Prokopowicz
There are many parameters that make the built environment more sustainable. A cradle-to-cradle approach with the production processes of the building materials and the built environment and their design quality play a major role in its sustainability. With this question, it will be interesting to know if the state intervention in terms of development control rules helps in achieving sustainability in the built environment to reduce environmental impacts.
I have to write a state-of-the-art report about circular building materials' usage principles and strategies.
Could you please suggest a relevant bibliographic scientific reference(s) ?
Thanks in advance __/\__
All the best,
- studies on their building materials?
- does the traditional houses before reflect their culture?
I am going to be writing a dissertation on a cost benefit analysis of using timber as a sustainable building material, and I was wondering if there was any known approaches to conducting cost benefit analysis's on construction materials. and if so what metrics would be best to measure e.g. cost, material characteristic's compared to traditional counter parts, life cycle, environmental impact, social and political impacts?
Now iam working on a research which require a standard for carbon emission coefficient of building materials. But in Türkey i can not found it. One of these standard is the national chinese standard (GB/T51366-2019) English version. İf it is available with anyone or any other standard, can you send it to me. Thank you in advance.
In the context of the current energy crisis, rising property prices in conurbations and the climate crisis which is also developing in the long term, the following question is becoming increasingly topical:
With which technologies can a climate-neutral, zero-carbon and energy autonomous residential building be built?
How can a home be built that is resilient to current and future energy crises?
Is it possible to build a house that is resilient to the energy crisis and also to the negative effects of the ongoing climate crisis?
What is your opinion on this topic?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
How can an energy independent home be built?
How can a zero-energy (energy-neutral) house be built?
How can a zero-emission and energy- and climate-neutral house be built?
What combination of energy efficient building technologies and renewable energy sources should be used to build a fully energy independent home?
What are the key priors for sustainable, environmentally friendly construction?
Various solutions are being used in the construction industry to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. New building materials are being used, as well as insulation materials for facades to reduce heat loss. Various renewable and emission-free energy sources are used (windmills, photovoltaic panels, others). Thermal (in winter) and/or cooling (during hot weather) energy-generating devices based on heat pumps, air conditioners, etc. are used.
What are currently known to be the most convenient, sustainable, energy-efficient and cost-effective combinations of applied energy-efficient building technologies and various, especially renewable/zero-emission energy sources in fully energy-independent houses?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
I am looking for publications - papers and books on the carbon footprint of materials (especially building materials), including those that discuss the procedure for determining the carbon footprint value by using examples. Can you recommend something or share your own publication on this topic?
Thank you in advance!
The survey is anonymous, and takes about 10 minutes to complete. The accent is on the usage of building materials and products, before and during the pandemic. Besides, an interesting part is about the readiness to implement new ecological materials in your homes. The survey does not require much of specific knowledge. Please, follow the safe link https://surveyhero.com/c/euyap4fn
Exploring a suitable research topic for MSc. (ENV) research. Linking environmental engineering with construction.
I am working on earth-based material reinforced with cellulose fibre for building applications. The results of the thermal conductivity have been found between the range of 0.350 and 0.695 W/(m.K). However, I can found in the literature the standard range for thermal insulation material for building application. I will really appreciate your help.
I found two articles with options for quantification of amorphous C-S-H:
• Bergold, S. T., Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F., & Neubauer, J. (2013). Quantitative analysis of C–S–H in hydrating alite pastes by in-situ XRD. Cement and Concrete Research, 53, 119-126.
I would like to insert the article data (lattice parameter, space group and all the “hkl”, d and °2θ information for each reflection) as a model pseudo-structure, but I only found the option to insert the structure with lattice and space group parameters, as we do in PONKCS (Partial Or No Known Crystal Structure). The software also needs this reflection information, since I don't have C-S-H to run ... Is it possible to create a ".cif"?
• Suh, J. I., Yum, W. S., Jeong, Y., Park, H. G., & Oh, J. E. (2019). The cation-dependent effects of formate salt additives on the strength and microstructure of CaO-activated fly ash binders. Construction and Building Materials, 194, 92-101.
The authors used the XRD pattern of fully hydrated β-C2S as a reference pattern after the reflections of portlandite were removed. I managed to find the original article (Mohan, K. and Taylor, H.F.W. (1981). J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 717), but I couldn't understand how they generated this pattern for consideration in the XRD software.
if i want to classify opc, ppc using there hyperspectral data and deeplearning how should i do it.
please tell name of any pretrained network that can help via transfer learining.
Insulation materials come from different sources. Each material has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when selecting insulation for buildings. What would you recommend other than the commonly used materials?
We are trying to choose between simultaneous DSC/TGA's from Neztsch (Jupiter F5) and Setaram (Labsys). They both offer very similar systems. Seteram does have an advantage in heat capacity where they can use a 3-dimensional cell, but I do not know if that will be relevant to us. If it makes a difference, we will be using it primarily for Gypsum and perhaps other building materials and/or paints and coatings.
Could someone provide an unbiased opinion if they have noticed differences in the instrument sensitivity, software, service, or some other area of Nezstch versus Setaram?
I need references articles that explain the drawings for the following materials, which illustrate the diagram between DR UV-Vis spectrums of the following materials blank sample as expressed in Kubleka-Munk function versus
the measured wavelength and the materials are ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3, and Co3O4.
Hi there :) I made a model in Sketch up with Open Studio plug in and Energy Plus. The model is a student dormitory (residential building) with 60 thermal zones. It has internal loads (people, equipment, lights etc), also all the building materials are added in the envelope (walls, roof, slabs, windows etc). The weather file is from Skopje (epw file). I am still working on the HVAC :)
I made a simulation in EP (finally with no severe errors :)..To see the results, I used xESO Viewer and there were only one graphic about the dew point outside temperature. The were no graphics for the other output:Variable data (the other graphics are just a straight line).
I am sending the idf.file of the model, eSO file results and screen shoots from the xESO graphics.
Could somebody please help me with this issue and explain about how to visualize the graphics in xESO Viewer. I don't know what l am doing wrong? Maybe I am missing some input commands?!
Any kind of answer will be highly appreciated!
Thank you very much in advance...
Looking forward to hearing from you,
I am planning to build a website " ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING " which aims to help students as well as engineers, my goal is to have a website wherein all the material regarding civil engineering is available on this website, who would like to be part of this website by providing me help to build this website, it will be totally educational website focusing on students and engineers, initially planned to keep search tab, providing my youtube links as free lectures, providing previous years question papers of various universities, IS codes and other countries codes pertaining to civil engineering, Q & A forum to ask questions related to civil engineering by logging in, separate tab for all notes of all subjects and practicals, and also separate section for the articles related to the advances in civil engineering. These are the initial requirements i have planned.
I am specifically interested in any software that can effectively be used to finalize design decisions during the preliminary phase of architectural projects.
Any previous studies benefit me in my research ... Thank you
I am researching about construction and demolition waste then I really need a comprehensive calculation tool or software for estimating the embodied energy in building materials and construction waste.
looking for some helpful sources that have studied/researched the shear analogy approach in wood material/products
I am looking for a PHD dissertation Topic in field of Life Cycle Assessment Of Buildings / Sustainable building materials
Kindly Suggest Me Some Ideas
According to the previous studies [1-3], an increase in the S/C ratio within the range of 0.5 to nearly 2.25 results in a gradual increase in the compressive/flexural strength while the S/C ratio higher than 2.25 can reduce the compressive/flexural strength of the cement mortar. My mix-design consists of general-purpose cement, silica fume, superplasticizer, viscosity modifying agent, and washed high purity silica sand with a maximum particle size of 600 µm and fineness modulus of 1.29. all the proportion including the water/cement =0.35 kept constant except the S/C which changed from 0.8 to 1.0 and 17% reduction observed in compressive strength.
Moreover, the addition of Sand resulted in a lower density and all the compressive and flexural strength were measured after 28 days of curing.
Can this phenomenon be explained by the fineness modulus (particle size distribution) and/or changes in the porosity of the mixes?
Why are concrete and red-brick buildings cyan in infrared false color (IRFC) images?
Most building materials are made of soil (e.g. red tile roofs or concrete), thus most urban areas have the spectral signature of a soil.
Nevertheless, in IRFC satellite images we usually see bright urban areas in Bright Cyan instead of Dark Brown/LightBrown to Orange or Whitish. why is that?
The most used fibers for ECC are PVA and PE, however, these fibers are very expensive. Are there other cheaper and greener materials that can be used as fiber in ECC?
They say the following can optimise the free MgO having the culprit periclase ,free lime(CaO, CaOH) which result in delayed solidification or setting and expansion and lead to surface cracks of roads if used for bitumen and land filling for laying roads, cracks in walls if used in aggrgates as building materials and bricks in walls.
1.acclerated steam injection process can accelerate ageing of LD slag along with
2.crushing to a size whereby you modify the elongation and flaking index to eliminate the needle like as well as porous micro structure
Then comes the P2O5 and sulphur which cause rust if used in reinforced structures which is to be controlled.
How can all this be done? Can i be given a reference to some papers which can combine all this knowledge to comprehend and get the conceptual clarity , so as to proceed with commercialising the LD slag available in abundance in my place
- Are there any building materials that are capable of containing botanical life inside?
- Is it possible to devise structures that contain botanical life?
- What are the necessary requirements to be able to maintain botanical life in the structures of our spaces with an easy self-provision?
What is the best technology for recovering waste from building materials, especially deconstructed concrete waste and sludge?
Sustainable Public Procurement compliance versus very scarce resources in government service delivery. A typical example would be a Durban community in need of 500 houses and the South African government do have money to build them. However, in order to comply with SPP the government must adopt and use "green houses" approach which is, in most cases uses very expensive building material. Therefore, the government must choose to build "normal" 500 houses OR build only "green" 70 houses. Will the community understand why must they get 70 houses while the money is enough to build 500 houses. Maybe, the well developed economies would survive the SPP compliance. What is your take on this ?
Its no new research that several studies have explored the use of alkali activated materials and geopolymer as a sustainable replacement to the conventional ordinary Portland cement. However, the sustainability of these materials is relative as it depends mainly on the availability of materials locally which eliminates the huge emission and cost associated with the transportation of both the raw materials and finished products. Therefore, the use of OPC might still be sustainable in some parts of the world compared to alkali activated materials and geopolymers
I want to separate the individual elements from a sample. Simply without chemicals. The sample includes:
Nepheline 34.5%. Alumina/Aluminium Oxide 14.4%. Anatase, syn TiO2 12.9% and Quarts. It is in powder form. As you can see there are some valuable elements, too good the use as building material.
I require the method to be scalable to industrial scale. Simple and cost effective.
One of the apparatus required for freeze and thaw test according to ASTM C666 is the dynamic testing apparatus. This apparatus is used to obtain the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and durability factor of the concrete.
However, in case where the apparatus is not available, what other apparatus or parameter can be used ?
Few studies have used UPV as an alternative, but i'm still seeking for alternative methods.
The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is increasing rapidly as they can be used to partially or totally replace OPC in concrete.
The most common types of SCMs are fly ash, slag, metakaolin and silica fume. However, the supply of some of these SCMs will be limited in coming years.
What are the other types of emerging SCMs that can be used in concrete?
Let say our common building material for example bricks made of sand, clay and cement, so I want to know how much energy absorbed of bricks and how the retention time of the energy absorbed?
I am wondering if there is any literature review or any other types of information about the consumption of different materials, e.g. cement, concrete, and steel in the construction of different building types, i.e. residential and non-residential, especially in Australia. I also would like to know if there is any literature review about the embodied energy of the different materials, and the impacts of the consumption of the different materials on energy consumption and Co2 and GHG emission the building operation phases? As you know, building materials have somehow lots of things to do with building efficiency during the operation phases by affecting cooling, heating, ventilation, and even lightning, hence have lots of things to do with Co2 and GHG emission, and have an essential role to be considered in any mitigation action plans.
I used a frame structure to represent a continuous shell plate and this frame structure was calibrated with a physical model in order to have the same rigidity as the real one. However I was trying to identify how representative would if a change the thick of the frame elements to represent a shell plate.
Thank you in advance.
To the hardened cement paste, how much water it can absorb after drying at 80 degree for more than 1 week at the water to cement ratio 0.44?
1)We made building on Google sketchup
2)We then imported it on Trnsbuild where we defined all properties eg ventilation,infiltration,building material .
3)Now we want that trnsys calculate building cooling & heating load for whole year for us.
4)Moreover how trnsys come to know when our heating season start and when our cooling season start .
We are attaching the images of our simulation results.when we run simulation on clicking on heat load calculation,simulation run but we get nothing.
How weather conditions (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, etc) affect the construction materials (concrete, steel, wood)?
Hydrostatic forces act to push at walls that are either buried or bermed. Can superadobe withstand the lateral forces at work in a bermed building, or will it need more lateral support such as buttresses etc.
The aim is to follow the evolution of the attenuation coefficient vs. mortar age.
The experiments will be done using the Ultrasound Pulse Echo Method with P-waves and by Immersion testing (using imersion transducers)
Would be most interested in regulatory standards regarding both materials and skills, but also interested in wider regulation issues.
Earth is one of the oldest and most widely used building materials worldwide. Do you know of any reliable studies on the maximum density and bearing capacity of rammed earth (tapial) technique?
I am specially interested in informatinos about Peru.
There is currently increased focus on using timber as the primary building material for construction. Design firms are now creating feasibility studies for timber high-rise buildings.
Due to the specific structural requirements and wind loading/bracing, does timber limit the flexibility of design for buildings?
Where could I find data of production cost and energy consumption of building materials and raw materials extraction processing for building materials manufacture?
Currently there seem to be no standard that covers how to carry out an accelerated corrosion test for steel in a reinforced cementatious composite. However, several studies have explored different ways by passing electrical charges through concrete samples soaked in sodium chloride solution
What is the best way to have an accelerated quantitative assessment of corrosion of steel in concrete? Any suggestions, papers or standards if available will be greatly appreciated
Non destructive tests equipment for concrete are quite expensive and not readily available. Is there any non destructive test that can be improvised or built with commonly available materials to determine the strength or/and permeability properties of concrete and other cementitious composites?
It is logical to assume development of seaweed as a biomaterial will allow it be used as building construction materials in the near future?
Due to the diversity of building materials, there are many equations for calculating the crack spacing and crack width of reinforced concrete members, in which some empirical parameters are used. These structural members are a combination of the following materials:
CONCRETE: normal concrete (NC), ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), fibre-reinforced cocnrete (FRC), lightweight aggregate concrete (LAC), geopolymer concrete (GPC).
REINFORCEMENT: steel, fibre-reinforced polymer (carbon, aramid, basalt, glass), textile-reinforcement.
I would like to know whether there is a general formula for determining the crack spacing of reinforced concrete members? If not, could you give me the "best" equations of crack spacing according to your opinion and experience.
I am also very happy if you can share me literature regarding experimental results of crack spacing and crack width of reinforced concrete members.
Ngoc Linh Tran
I will like to know why there is always high shrinkage when slag is used at larger percentage replacement of cement.
The reasons in terms of its chemical reactions with OPC and the physical and chemical properties of the slag itself will be greatly appreciated
The use of polythene bags in packaging is a major cause of pollution. These bags cause environmental problems if they are not properly disposed of. One method to get rid of them is to recycle them and the other method is to use them as a binder in building materials like in sand bricks or as a stabilizer in pavements. Has anyone ventured into this and what kind of properties was obtained both physical and mechanical?