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Building Materials - Science topic

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How can an energy independent home be built?
How can a zero-energy (energy-neutral) house be built?
How can a zero-emission and energy- and climate-neutral house be built?
What combination of energy efficient building technologies and renewable energy sources should be used to build a fully energy independent home?
What are the key priors for sustainable, environmentally friendly construction?
Various solutions are being used in the construction industry to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. New building materials are being used, as well as insulation materials for facades to reduce heat loss. Various renewable and emission-free energy sources are used (windmills, photovoltaic panels, others). Thermal (in winter) and/or cooling (during hot weather) energy-generating devices based on heat pumps, air conditioners, etc. are used.
What are currently known to be the most convenient, sustainable, energy-efficient and cost-effective combinations of applied energy-efficient building technologies and various, especially renewable/zero-emission energy sources in fully energy-independent houses?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Thank you,
Greetings,
Dariusz
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It depends on the climatic region where you live. Sufficient solar radiation or sufficient wind speed is necessary. If you have one of these two renewable resources then it is absolutely possible to build an energy independent house. The area of an ordinary house usually offers enough space on the roof to place enough solar panels for the general consumption of a house. You should select building forms and materials that allow an efficient use of energy and avoid energy losses.
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)
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Post everything you know about ferrock and ferrock concrete
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Dr David Stone
The History of Ferrock Ferrock was actually invented by accident in the early 2000s. Dr David Stone, the founder of Iron Shell Media Technologies and former University of Arizona PhD student, was researching ways to prevent iron from rusting and hardening when he accidentally created Ferrock.
Iron Shell, LLC
Iron Shell is a start-up material science company founded in 2012 which produces Ferrock, an environmentally friendly cement substitute utilizing waste steel dust. This technology is carbon-negative, absorbs environmental toxins, and has substantial structural advantages over traditional cement.
David Stone Founder and CTO at Iron Shell Material Technologies
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I am looking for publications - papers and books on the carbon footprint of materials (especially building materials), including those that discuss the procedure for determining the carbon footprint value by using examples. Can you recommend something or share your own publication on this topic?
Thank you in advance!
J.J.S.
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Dear Joanna J. Sokołowska , You can use chemical as well as radioactive-related tests.
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The survey is anonymous, and takes about 10 minutes to complete. The accent is on the usage of building materials and products, before and during the pandemic. Besides, an interesting part is about the readiness to implement new ecological materials in your homes. The survey does not require much of specific knowledge.
Please, follow the safe link https://surveyhero.com/c/euyap4fn
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done
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The survey is anonymous, and takes about 10 minutes to complete. The accent is on the usage of building materials and products, before and during the pandemic. Besides, an interesting part is about the readiness to implement new ecological materials in your homes. The survey does not require much of specific knowledge. Please, follow the safe link https://surveyhero.com/c/euyap4fn
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Dr. Milica Vasić,
You're welcome.
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Exploring a suitable research topic for MSc. (ENV) research. Linking environmental engineering with construction.
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This topic is surely suitable for a MSc research, combining the issues of sustainability and enviroment in the built environment. While implementing it, the following environmental-sustainability aspects can be considered and co-evaluated:
-bioclimatic architecture principles,
-passive and low-energy systems in the construction industry focusing on maintaining thermal indoors comfort,
-nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEBs) conceptualization, ensuring the facilitation of acceptable mechanical heating and cooling conditions, through designing high performance building envelopes,
-building energy management system (BEMS) conceptualization, based on high efficiency energy systems that can be effectively managed and sized.
-thermal insulation, water-repellent and hydric properties of the waterproof coatings, as well as localized exploitation of building materials,
All aspects above are regulated, controlled and monitored under local environmental and construction directives, regulations, and laws, which should be differentiated from place to place and from time to time, even at the same places. Therefore, one or two case studies they should be co-presented and co-evaluated in terms of "existing buildings construction for an optimized environmental sustainability".
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I am working on earth-based material reinforced with cellulose fibre for building applications. The results of the thermal conductivity have been found between the range of 0.350 and 0.695 W/(m.K). However, I can found in the literature the standard range for thermal insulation material for building application. I will really appreciate your help.
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Dear Tido Tiwa Stanislas,
You can verify the following link. I hope it would be useful.
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I found two articles with options for quantification of amorphous C-S-H:
Bergold, S. T., Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F., & Neubauer, J. (2013). Quantitative analysis of C–S–H in hydrating alite pastes by in-situ XRD. Cement and Concrete Research, 53, 119-126.
I would like to insert the article data (lattice parameter, space group and all the “hkl”, d and °2θ information for each reflection) as a model pseudo-structure, but I only found the option to insert the structure with lattice and space group parameters, as we do in PONKCS (Partial Or No Known Crystal Structure). The software also needs this reflection information, since I don't have C-S-H to run ... Is it possible to create a ".cif"?
Suh, J. I., Yum, W. S., Jeong, Y., Park, H. G., & Oh, J. E. (2019). The cation-dependent effects of formate salt additives on the strength and microstructure of CaO-activated fly ash binders. Construction and Building Materials, 194, 92-101.
The authors used the XRD pattern of fully hydrated β-C2S as a reference pattern after the reflections of portlandite were removed. I managed to find the original article (Mohan, K. and Taylor, H.F.W. (1981). J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64, 717), but I couldn't understand how they generated this pattern for consideration in the XRD software.
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Dear Beatriz Goncalves and other colleagues, I would like to share my brief experience with XRD in cement pastes.
I believe the answer to your question depends fundamentally on another question: does the Portland cement you are using contain (amorphous) supplemental cement material?
If it does not, it is reasonable to assume that the amorphous fraction of the hydrated paste is basically composed of C-S-H, and then the simple application of the internal/external standard method directly provides the weight fraction that you are looking for. Of course that hydrated cement paste can contain amounts of other amorphous or misfit phases, but these are probably present in small amounts, within the Rietveld quantitative analysis error (i.e., about 1-2%).
However, if your cement contains amorphous supplementary cementitious material, the simple application of the internal/external standard method does not allow the distinction of how much of the amorphous fraction belongs to C-S-H and how much belongs to the unreacted supplementary material. In this case, PONKCS analysis may be the most accurate method to separately quantify each amorphous fraction.
The hkl model created by Bergold and co-authors, in my humble opinion, is still the most accurate model to describe and quantify C-S-H in hydrated paste. In particular, I prefer this approach over the use of a series of peak phases, for example modeled with Split Pseudo-Voigt function. If I'm not mistaken, HighScore software has the Pawley range function, which creates an hkl phase from the experimental data. However, I would only use the PONKCS approach if your cement contains amorphous SCM, since the accuracy of this technique highly depends on the quality and proper calibration of your models.
Finally, I am afraid that the distinction that Nabil Khatib is looking for is quite impossible to accurately get though XRD. Lets remember that XRD evaluates the "long-range order" of the crystal structure. In turn, C-S-H arrangement is given at nanometric scale, and this kind of "short-range order" analysis must be conducted, for instance, using NMR or Raman spectroscopy. Actually, the exact C-S-H arrangement is not clear to this day, and two main theories are on the table: the Jennings model (for discreet colloidal nanoparticles) vs. the Feldman-Serada model (for linked nanocrystalline regions). For more information on this topic, I recommend this lovely video:
Nonetheless, for either model, the crystallite size of C-S-H would be ~5 nm, being virtually impossible to accurately model it on a diffractogram, yielding only in a diffuse scattering.
Hope this helps!
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if i want to classify opc, ppc using there hyperspectral data and deeplearning how should i do it.
please tell name of any pretrained network that can help via transfer learining.
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Dear Aman Jaiswal.
Hyperspectral sensors look at specimen utilizing a tremendous segment of the electromagnetic range. Certain items leave interesting 'fingerprints' in the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, the 'fingerprints' can be used to identify materials such as concrete, cement. Nevertheless, research- work must be carried out, protocols established concerning the application in concrete. Besides, i found the link below given by Matthias very useful.
Thank you
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Insulation materials come from different sources. Each material has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when selecting insulation for buildings. What would you recommend other than the commonly used materials?
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A very eco - friendly material (especially for industrial floors) is magnesia fibrolite - wood chips or straw bonded with magnesia cement, because magnesia cement is used to make millstones, among other things: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342212592_Experience_with_the_use_of_magnesia_binder_in_construction_and_manufacturing_of_building_materials
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please give any information about the Conference on Building Materials or Sustainable Materials
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The International Conference on Sustainable Materials, Structures and Systems which will be held in London from 18 to 19 November 2021.
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We are trying to choose between simultaneous DSC/TGA's from Neztsch (Jupiter F5) and Setaram (Labsys). They both offer very similar systems. Seteram does have an advantage in heat capacity where they can use a 3-dimensional cell, but I do not know if that will be relevant to us. If it makes a difference, we will be using it primarily for Gypsum and perhaps other building materials and/or paints and coatings.
Could someone provide an unbiased opinion if they have noticed differences in the instrument sensitivity, software, service, or some other area of Nezstch versus Setaram?
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Dear Beth Schoen.
For my experience Netzsch is the best hight tmperature tool. They has several advantages you may use.
1. Sensor is convenient in routine. Netzsch provides several typs of sensors. so you may choose.
2. Software. Its convenient and powerful. They have Kinetic NEO. I recomend to try it for some cases. It is not applicable for fundamentals but may yeld good predictions for technology.
3.gas system. you realy could work with controled atmosphere. that is useful for study of processes sensetive to O2 (or ather gases). It is impotent Jupiter has good vacum sistem, so atmosphere changes are easy to do.
4. 3d cell (Setaram) is look inconvenient, 'couse of sempling. But if you need high semsetive sensor it is the best. Nevertheless, note that sensor is "consumable". So keep price in mind.
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I need references articles that explain the drawings for the following materials, which illustrate the diagram between DR UV-Vis spectrums of the following materials blank sample as expressed in Kubleka-Munk function versus
the measured wavelength and the materials are ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3, and Co3O4.
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Hi there :) I made a model in Sketch up with Open Studio plug in and Energy Plus. The model is a student dormitory (residential building) with 60 thermal zones. It has internal loads (people, equipment, lights etc), also all the building materials are added in the envelope (walls, roof, slabs, windows etc). The weather file is from Skopje (epw file). I am still working on the HVAC :)
I made a simulation in EP (finally with no severe errors :)..To see the results, I used xESO Viewer and there were only one graphic about the dew point outside temperature. The were no graphics for the other output:Variable data (the other graphics are just a straight line).
I am sending the idf.file of the model, eSO file results and screen shoots from the xESO graphics.
Could somebody please help me with this issue and explain about how to visualize the graphics in xESO Viewer. I don't know what l am doing wrong? Maybe I am missing some input commands?!
Any kind of answer will be highly appreciated!
Thank you very much in advance...
Looking forward to hearing from you,
Kind regards,
Liljana
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Hi @Raquel. Thanks for your answer. The model is made with Energy plus plugin in Sketchup. After simulation I have an Eso file with OutputVatiables but after l open Eso file using xESO viewer to see the results trough graphics, there are no graphics... I dont know what am I doing wrong...
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I am planning to build a website " ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING " which aims to help students as well as engineers, my goal is to have a website wherein all the material regarding civil engineering is available on this website, who would like to be part of this website by providing me help to build this website, it will be totally educational website focusing on students and engineers, initially planned to keep search tab, providing my youtube links as free lectures,  providing previous years question papers of various universities, IS codes and other countries codes pertaining to civil engineering, Q & A forum to ask questions related to civil engineering by logging in, separate tab for all notes of all subjects and practicals, and also separate section for the articles related to the advances in civil engineering. These are the initial requirements i have planned.
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You can review some similar websites like
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I am specifically interested in any software that can effectively be used to finalize design decisions during the preliminary phase of architectural projects.
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Hi dear friend
I worked in the field of energy for 10 years ... there is a lot of software.
Depending on how you work, I recommend DesignBuilder, Autodesk Ecotect Analysis, and Autodesk Revit.
But I highly recommend the program (DesignBuilder).
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scientific researches
Master Theses
PhD
Any previous studies benefit me in my research ... Thank you
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Dear Hinde
Please find the attached file which represents the recent article about your request.
Regards
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I am researching about construction and demolition waste then I really need a comprehensive calculation tool or software for estimating the embodied energy in building materials and construction waste.
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Hi,
You can use Simapro Software which is actually calculated life cycle (LCA).
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I am looking for a PHD dissertation Topic in field of Life Cycle Assessment Of Buildings / Sustainable building materials
Kindly Suggest Me Some Ideas
Thanks
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I agree with @ shaghayegh . Look for energy efficient and reduced energy consuming alternative materials and do a comparative assessment with traditional materials, perhaps in different geographies. Try including circularity aspect as well.
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According to the previous studies [1-3], an increase in the S/C ratio within the range of 0.5 to nearly 2.25 results in a gradual increase in the compressive/flexural strength while the S/C ratio higher than 2.25 can reduce the compressive/flexural strength of the cement mortar. My mix-design consists of general-purpose cement, silica fume, superplasticizer, viscosity modifying agent, and washed high purity silica sand with a maximum particle size of 600 µm and fineness modulus of 1.29. all the proportion including the water/cement =0.35 kept constant except the S/C which changed from 0.8 to 1.0 and 17% reduction observed in compressive strength.
Moreover, the addition of Sand resulted in a lower density and all the compressive and flexural strength were measured after 28 days of curing.
Can this phenomenon be explained by the fineness modulus (particle size distribution) and/or changes in the porosity of the mixes?
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Why are concrete and red-brick buildings cyan in infrared false color (IRFC) images?
Most building materials are made of soil (e.g. red tile roofs or concrete), thus most urban areas have the spectral signature of a soil.
Nevertheless, in IRFC satellite images we usually see bright urban areas in Bright Cyan instead of Dark Brown/LightBrown to Orange or Whitish. why is that?
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Hi @Matteo Biondi
This is because the buildings exhibit shorter wavelength that corresponds to red colour indication
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The most used fibers for ECC are PVA and PE, however, these fibers are very expensive. Are there other cheaper and greener materials that can be used as fiber in ECC?
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Be aware that natural fibers tend to degradate in alkaline environments, which is the case of concrete.
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They say the following can optimise the free MgO having the culprit periclase ,free lime(CaO, CaOH) which result in delayed solidification or setting and expansion and lead to surface cracks of roads if used for bitumen and land filling for laying roads, cracks in walls if used in aggrgates as building materials and bricks in walls.
1.acclerated steam injection process can accelerate ageing of LD slag along with
2.crushing to a size whereby you modify the elongation and flaking index to eliminate the needle like as well as porous micro structure
Then comes the P2O5 and sulphur which cause rust if used in reinforced structures which is to be controlled.
How can all this be done? Can i be given a reference to some papers which can combine all this knowledge to comprehend and get the conceptual clarity , so as to proceed with commercialising the LD slag available in abundance in my place
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OK. What are the aqueous lixiviants available in commercial perspective to extract various elements form CRUSHED AND SIEVED----- LD slag or BF slag or Class F/ Class C Flyash ....Can anybody help me out
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  • Are there any building materials that are capable of containing botanical life inside?
  • Is it possible to devise structures that contain botanical life?
  • What are the necessary requirements to be able to maintain botanical life in the structures of our spaces with an easy self-provision?
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What I am investigating is the possibility of generating structures that are sufficiently resistant but at the same time composed of organic components that allow plant life and that the structures have a closed life cycle.
I thank you for your answers, currently the concept of BIOArchitecture is very important for this topic, I hope soon to be able to provide more detailed information.
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What is the best technology for recovering waste from building materials, especially deconstructed concrete waste and sludge?
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Concrete is commonly recycled. It is crushed, the reinforcement bar is removed, and the material is screened for size. Market outlets for recycled concrete include road base, general fill, pavement aggregate, and drainage media.
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Sustainable Public Procurement compliance versus very scarce resources in government service delivery. A typical example would be a Durban community in need of 500 houses and the South African government do have money to build them. However, in order to comply with SPP the government must adopt and use "green houses" approach which is, in most cases uses very expensive building material. Therefore, the government must choose to build "normal" 500 houses OR build only "green" 70 houses. Will the community understand why must they get 70 houses while the money is enough to build 500 houses. Maybe, the well developed economies would survive the SPP compliance. What is your take on this ?
📷
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Dear
The majour issue in green and sustainable housing construction is to reduce the impact on environment, reserve the natural resources by using recycled materials in new construction activities, and economy which could be reached through the previous mentioned activity.
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Its no new research that several studies have explored the use of alkali activated materials and geopolymer as a sustainable replacement to the conventional ordinary Portland cement. However, the sustainability of these materials is relative as it depends mainly on the availability of materials locally which eliminates the huge emission and cost associated with the transportation of both the raw materials and finished products. Therefore, the use of OPC might still be sustainable in some parts of the world compared to alkali activated materials and geopolymers
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The only real universal sustainable solution is not producing concrete.
In the comparison of binders, you have to look specifically to each location. Are you in a region where calcite and silicate minerals are abundant, but no producer of NaOH/Na-silicate or aluminosilicate can be found? In this case transport costs & footprint would shoot up for the alkali-activated material or geopolymer and might become less sustainable. In the situation of Belgium, which I know better, alkali-activated materials perform much better in comparison with Portland cement, because of the proximity of Na-silicate producers and the abundance of metallurgical residues.
Now, of course, there are other sustainable cements too, even OPC based systems, where the OPC is blended with high volume replacements of slag (blast furnace or others). In that case, comparing a 40%-60% blend (OPC-slag) with an alkali-activated material, the environmental gain is not that much anymore. Especially if you compare with geopolymer mixtures with metakaolin that you find in literature.
About the difference between geopolymers and alkali-activated materials, well, different definitions exist, which heat up discussions for some reason I never understand. So, just to be clear, the definition of alkali-activated material I used in this answer is "a material that becomes hard after mixing a powdered precursor and an alkali".
Cheerio,
Arne
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What is the main advantage of concrete over other building materials?
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Among all the construction materials used in the world, concrete is most widely used due to its unique advantages compared to other materials
1. Concrete is Economical
2. Concrete Hardens at Ambient Temperature
3. Ability to be Cast into Shape
4. Energy Efficiency in Production
5. Excellent Water Resistance Characteristics
6. High-temperature resistance
7. Ability to Consume and Recycle Waste
8. Application in Reinforced Concrete
9. Low or Zero Maintenance Required
10. Multi-Mode Application
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I want to separate the individual elements from a sample. Simply without chemicals. The sample includes:
Nepheline 34.5%. Alumina/Aluminium Oxide 14.4%. Anatase, syn TiO2 12.9% and Quarts. It is in powder form. As you can see there are some valuable elements, too good the use as building material.
I require the method to be scalable to industrial scale. Simple and cost effective.
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Not sure how you can do it without chemicals. For a simple, scalable, and cost effective technique, try exploiting the difference in solubilty of the various compounds in different solvents (and as a function of temperature); use the difference in solubility as the driving force for separation.
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One of the apparatus required for freeze and thaw test according to ASTM C666 is the dynamic testing apparatus. This apparatus is used to obtain the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and durability factor of the concrete.
However, in case where the apparatus is not available, what other apparatus or parameter can be used ?
Few studies have used UPV as an alternative, but i'm still seeking for alternative methods.
Thanks
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The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is increasing rapidly as they can be used to partially or totally replace OPC in concrete.
The most common types of SCMs are fly ash, slag, metakaolin and silica fume. However, the supply of some of these SCMs will be limited in coming years.
What are the other types of emerging SCMs that can be used in concrete?
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Following ...
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Thermal insulation as polystyrene extruded
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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Let say our common building material for example bricks made of sand, clay and cement, so I want to know how much energy absorbed of bricks and how the retention time of the energy absorbed? 
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I am wondering if there is any literature review or any other types of information about the consumption of different materials, e.g. cement, concrete, and steel in the construction of different building types, i.e. residential and non-residential, especially in Australia. I also would like to know if there is any literature review about the embodied energy of the different materials, and the impacts of the consumption of the different materials on energy consumption and Co2 and GHG emission the building operation phases? As you know, building materials have somehow lots of things to do with building efficiency during the operation phases by affecting cooling, heating, ventilation, and even lightning, hence have lots of things to do with Co2 and GHG emission, and have an essential role to be considered in any mitigation action plans.
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Good answer Dharmesh K. Oza ...
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.
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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I used a frame structure to represent a continuous shell plate and this frame structure was calibrated with a physical model in order to  have the same rigidity as the real one. However I was trying to identify how representative would if a change the thick of the frame elements to represent a shell plate.
Thank you in advance.
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Good answer.. Nathan Madutujuh ... Following
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To the hardened cement paste, how much water it can absorb after drying at 80 degree for more than 1 week at the water to cement ratio 0.44?
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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1)We made building on Google sketchup
2)We then imported it on Trnsbuild where we defined all properties eg ventilation,infiltration,building material .
3)Now we want that trnsys calculate building cooling & heating load for whole year for us.
4)Moreover how trnsys come to know when our heating season start and when our cooling season start .
We are attaching the images of our simulation results.when we run simulation on clicking on heat load calculation,simulation run but we get nothing.
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Interesting..
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How weather conditions (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, etc) affect the construction materials (concrete, steel, wood)?
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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please give the details for experimental set up....
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Hydrostatic forces act to push at walls that are either buried or bermed. Can superadobe withstand the lateral forces at work in a bermed building, or will it need more lateral support such as buttresses etc.
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Interesting..
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The stones should be Belgium stones
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Interesting..
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The aim is to follow the evolution of the attenuation coefficient vs. mortar age.
The experiments will be done using the Ultrasound Pulse Echo Method with P-waves and by Immersion testing (using imersion transducers)
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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Would be most interested in regulatory standards regarding both materials and skills, but also interested in wider regulation issues.
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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How can buildings materials efficiently be classified other than via Raman spectroscopy?
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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Earth is one of the oldest and most widely used building materials worldwide. Do you know of any reliable studies on the maximum density and bearing capacity of rammed earth (tapial) technique?
I am specially interested in informatinos about Peru.
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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Our group design fiber rolls rack. Safety that must be taken to when handle the fiber rolls? 
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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There is currently increased focus on using timber as the primary building material for construction. Design firms are now creating feasibility studies for timber high-rise buildings.
Due to the specific structural requirements and wind loading/bracing, does timber limit the flexibility of design for buildings?
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Agree with Aryan Shahabian
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Is anybody aware of any resource that offers some advice/figures on measured vs. calculated building fabric U-Values?
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Its for a multi-objective situation.
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Yes for sure...
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I search for bibiliographic or other ( research studies, scientific papers to gather information about mechanical, thermal and physical properties of classic building and insulating materials. Any referencing hint would be helpful.
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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Where could I find data of production cost and energy consumption of building materials and raw materials extraction processing for building materials manufacture?
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Interesting..
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Currently there seem to be no standard that covers how to carry out an accelerated corrosion test for steel in a reinforced cementatious composite. However, several studies have explored different ways by passing electrical charges through concrete samples soaked in sodium chloride solution
What is the best way to have an accelerated quantitative assessment of corrosion of steel in concrete? Any suggestions, papers or standards if available will be greatly appreciated
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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if there is so then it may be good alternative material to electric Wires.
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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Non destructive tests equipment for concrete are quite expensive and not readily available. Is there any non destructive test that can be improvised or built with commonly available materials to determine the strength or/and permeability properties of concrete and other cementitious composites?
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There is some developing research that utilises surface water flow to predict concrete permeability and durability characteristics. This research determines the relative covercrete skin permeability which can be standardised for various concrete parameters such as strength, porosity, and durability. You can get an idea of how it works from this link (at least through the images). http://wdnsword.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/IISopen/Kikuchi_2012.pdf
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It is logical to assume development of seaweed as a biomaterial will allow it be used as building construction materials in the near future?
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It's already been used for 100s of years, so why not in the future too?
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Engineered cementatious composites are high performance composite and are gaining huge research recently due to their enhanced ductility and durability.
What are the major ways to improve the sustainability of the ECC?
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Dear Adeyemi, you have a good point about how long we will have fly ash available in sufficient quantities for replacing cement. Even if pond ash is used, still it's inadequate in the long term given the ever increasing quantities of cement being consumed. Also availability of fly ash at a suitable location for its economical use also can be a challenge. Given all of these issues which also affects geopolymers, material like LC3 cement is being pursued aggressively by researchers led by Prof Karen Scrivner and he collaborators. Lime Calcined Clay Cement is made from the same abundantly available raw materials as Cement but at a.much lower embodied energy. You may find it of interest. We are currently developing ECC using LC3 materials. We will be publishing the results soon.
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Due to the diversity of building materials, there are many equations for calculating the crack spacing and crack width of reinforced concrete members, in which some empirical parameters are used. These structural members are a combination of the following materials:
CONCRETE: normal concrete (NC), ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), fibre-reinforced cocnrete (FRC), lightweight aggregate concrete (LAC), geopolymer concrete (GPC).
REINFORCEMENT: steel, fibre-reinforced polymer (carbon, aramid, basalt, glass), textile-reinforcement.
I would like to know whether there is a general formula for determining the crack spacing of reinforced concrete members? If not, could you give me the "best" equations of crack spacing according to your opinion and experience.
I am also very happy if you can share me literature regarding experimental results of crack spacing and crack width of reinforced concrete members.
Thank you,
Best regards,
Ngoc Linh Tran
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Check the following reference Please.. it might's assist you in your question … Regards…
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I will like to know why there is always high shrinkage when slag is used at larger percentage replacement of cement.
The reasons in terms of its chemical reactions with OPC and the physical and chemical properties of the slag itself will be greatly appreciated
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Because the specific gravity of the slag is lower than the cement. As a result, when the slag is used instead of cement, the paste volume increases. If the paste volume increases, it may increase in shrinkage.
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Wish you success.
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Cement stabilized clay brick is a good topic for research. I have produced in a real project cement stabilized marine clay bricks (brand name: marine mud made material, MMMM) for paving and non-structural wall constructions. You may need to add some superplasticizer to disperse the clay particles during mixing.
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Answer the question
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Of course you can with any materials whose tensile strength, durability, surface characteristics and thermal properties are compatible with concrete.
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The use of polythene bags in packaging is a major cause of pollution. These bags cause environmental problems if they are not properly disposed of. One method to get rid of them is to recycle them and the other method is to use them as a binder in building materials like in sand bricks or as a stabilizer in pavements. Has anyone ventured into this and what kind of properties was obtained both physical and mechanical?
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Plastic shopping bags are a huge environmental problem around the world and are causing huge issues that affect human and animal health.
Recycling plastic bags is problematic. The problem is when people put individual bags into the recycling stream, and this action usually causes problems with recycling machinery. That is the reason it is best to reuse plastic bags as much as possible. That said, there are ways that municipalities have been encouraging citizens to help them to recycle plastic bags.
The major step to get rid of the pollution problems of waste polythene bags is to use our own reusable shopping bags instead of plastic bags. Reusable shopping bags are available in many colors and styles and can buy them in various weights for different types of products.
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I want to publish an article on the development of impermeable concretes
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Dear Roman:
Please consider the following:
1) Construction and Building Materials (Elsevier) at https://www.journals.elsevier.com/construction-and-building-materials,
2) Materials and Structures (Springer) at https://link.springer.com/journal/11527, and
3) Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE) at https://ascelibrary.org/journal/jmcee7.
I hope that this helps you.
Arturo
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we have collected two categories of data as follows :
1-life cycle assessment (kg co2) for 30 different building materials
2- annual energy consumption of the building due to use of these materials
I want to make pareto front for these data and my question is
there is no definite mathematical relation between the tow categories how can the materials be ranked based on the lowest life cycle and the lowest annual energy consumption ?
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Hi Ehsan,
I would also suggest the weighted-sum method, which is very efficient in finding Pareto frontier and also easy to implement.
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Infrared thermography has been used for different aspects of building diagnostics to help with performance evaluation. I have read recently about the use of infrared thermography to determine other materials properties such as u-value especially for existing building. is this an effective and accurate process?
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In recent years, several researchers highlighted the use of quantitative infrared thermography for building diagnostics. In fact, the combination of qualitative and quantitative IRT in the same inspection allows an in-depth evaluation of the building envelope, instead of providing a local measurement.
Maybe you find interesting my article (Tejedor et al., 2017). Quantitative internal IRT provides a high accuracy for heavy walls (1-4%). In terms of execution time, it only takes 2-3 h. These two aspects are considerably importants, since HFM method requires a minimum of 72h and its accuracy ranges from 14-28% according to ISO 9869-1:2014.
As regards "absorptivity" and "reflectivity", they can be determined following EN 13187:1998 (ISO 6781:1983 modified), the RESNET Interim Guideline for Thermographic Inspections of Buildings (RESNET, 2010) and so on. The body's absorptivity coincides with its emission capacity. In accordance with the standardized procedure, wall surface emissivity can be determined by a IR camera, a reflector (a piece of a crinkled aluminium foil) and a blackbody (black tape). The reflectivity is the difference between 1 and the emissivity, taking into account that the majority of bodies are opaques.
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The volume and mass of the market for reclaimed building materials has been dropping in the UK, and I think many European countries, since the early 1990s
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Construction business is not going well. Especially the owner built houses extinct. Those are the largest users of reclaimed building materials.
Large construction will need large volume uniform materials, the cannot use building materials from different sources to risk the integrity and skyrocket the costs.
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Please note that high temperatures should not affect the fibers and make them brittle. Also, based on our knowledge, the glass fibers which are used in cementitious fireproofing materials must be resistant to alkaline environment.
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Hello, 
I made several test about fire resistance, specially using geopolymer binders that naturally are fireproof. I used different fibers for spraying tests and I noted these properties (tests made till 1300°C using propane flame):
- glass fibers , treated with superficial film that permitted them flexibility and of course alkali resistant, became brittle after 600-700 °C, but geopolymer binder protected from other damaging. Using a Portland cementitious binder sample exploded or was seriously damaged after the same temperature.
- poly propylene fibers , were very useful because after 450-600°C they burned but porosity that was so created (air ) permitted to gasses to move without creating big damaging. Even cementitious samples cracked but without exploding . 
- basalt fibers , were produced at about 1200°C so in a geopolymer mortar remain stable , but if you use a Molar Ratio of silicate too low (user hostile so less than 1,45) very alcali ambient started to dissolve fibers. So fire wasn't an issue, on the contrary pH was necessary to be maintained on user friendly levels so about 13-13,2 with molar ratio higher till about 1,7-1,8 for this application. I tested potassium silicate , that showed better resistance and sodium silicate (was possible to use blends of silicates to this particular application with the best results). Using Portland cement, fibers maintained their properties but mortar was seriously damaged. 
other fibers didn't show good performance when temperature increased . By the way I'm testing hemp fibers and they work incredibly good. There is only a problem of supplying because in Italy , this cheap fiber has still a niche market . At the moment I'm checking only geopolymer products with these fibers with the best results (no creeping). 
Regards 
Alex Reggiani 
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Dear colleague,
How to calculate the lateral stress exercise in the walls of the oedometer apparatus during a compression test in the field of non-linear behavior ?
Please let me offer methematical formul, or any experimental technique !
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Hi,
it is common to assume a K0 stress state, i.e. the lateral stress is the vertical stress multiplied by K0, where K0 is the earth pressure coefficient at rest. Jaky's formula can be used to estimate K0 for normally consolidated soils:
K0 = 1 - sin(phi), where phi is the friction angle.
See reference for other estimates.
Regards
Reference: R. F. Craig, Craig’s Soil Mechanics, 7th Edition, E & FN Spon, London, New York, 2007.
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Everyone is talking about this new material - graphene, and its amazing mechanical properties. At this time, however, I can't find any research on it as for a building material. It seems to me that graphene would be great for the strengthening of existing structures, for example, given its light weight and high strenght.
Is there a particular reason why it is not yet considered as a potential building material?
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When we have a cheap way of manufacturing graphene or GO, flakes of these can be used as reinforcement in various composites. Perhaps in the first place GO, with its selective permeability to different species, can be used as a protective coating to critical components of structures operating in hostile environments, e.g. for corrosion protection.
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Looking for a list of lab experiments that can be carried out to find the stiffness of fine recycled aggregate concrete to find out the cause of their self-cementing properties.
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Perform unconfined compression or triaxial tests
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I would appreciate it if anyone can help me to get the values of the inertia resistance and viscous resistance for air flow through fiberglass on mineral wool used in thermal insulation.
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it depends on the type of material and the porosity of the zone,you can give me the values and i can find it out for you.
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I m doing research in this topic so i couldnt get solution above question if any one can help i ll be grateful
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Few years ago I saw a somehow practical laboratory method. In order to find the "best" mixture of subgrade material and plastic fiber, around 6 different quantities of plastic fibers were mixed to 6 subgrade samples of the same volume. Then, a CBR lab test for each mixture was carried out. With the results, a curve (CBR vs fiber content) was drawn, to analyze the reinforced subgrade behaviour and to decide which could be the best content of fiber for the subgrade.
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I am trying to run a simulation of local residential buildings. Most building's material properties are found in ASHRAE. Can you let me know where to find the values of solar absorptance, thermal absorptance and visible absorptance for different materials used in building construction such as walls, roof, windows , etc...?
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Not sure if this is what you're looking for but I found it useful for thermal envelope simulations
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There are a vast of literature conducted on the impacts of building materials, architectural elements, e.g. shading components, silhouette, courtyard, along with the orientation and volume characteristics on energy consumption. I would like to know your opinions about the effect of the spatial structure and its physical characteristics e.g. size, number of floors, number of rooms, density, and spatial proportion on the energy consumption in a house, especially the mutual interrelationships between the spatial structure and end-users' energy consumption choice behaviours and environmental perceptions. I am also looking for the literature on this research area.
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I think what are you referring to is the passive design for building. In fact, passive cooling strategy is a key element of sustainable building. Its optimum performance and potential benefit can be achieved with careful and meticulous design.
A good design is a necessity to achieve energy efficiency for housing. However, adopting passive design strategy alone is not a one-fit-all solution, as there are still many stages needed to be considered, especially during the construction and operation & maintenance of the housing. What is more important in the context of hosing sustainability is how the housing construction costs and life-cycle costs are to be reduced. In other words, it is important to figure out how to keep house price affordable while maintaining its liveability.   
A good design can be the critical difference between an affordable development that succeeds – one that satisfies its residents and neighbours, enhances the community where it is built, and continues as a stable part of the community for decades – and one that does not.
Given that each dwelling unit is a primary structure which would contribute to the quality of life, and the root causes leading to housing quality problem are identified as issues related to housing layout and design, surrounding environment, maintenance, location, amenities, and building material, house builders should be aware of the potential for a good design in responding to the evolving social behaviour, and strike to take advantage of technology in the housing production process through integrating housing design with industrial construction system. In other words, each dwelling unit should be designed, in such a way that it is economically and easily adjustable, while adheres to the context of contemporary technology, tropical adaptation, and cultural responses
As such, I strongly believe that spatial structure and its physical characteristics are  interrelated to housing energy efficiency. You are welcomed to find out more on this topic from one of my articles - Design Revolution For Affordable Housing In Tropical Country - which is available in my Research Gate publication. Thanks.
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I'm creating a Pb analysis station at my job, but I have no experience in it. I'm mostly concerned with what to dissolve the samples in, but ANY other information would be amazingly appreciated!!
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I haven't extracted lead from building materials. We use nitric acid ( and heat) to extract lead from soil and vegetables. It is a fairly general extraction in that it should catch most metals. However, you may want to look at the specific types of building materials you plan to use and see if something will work better.
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I am looking for literature reviews conducted on the contribution of residential buildings during their total life cycle, i.e. material production and transportation, feasibility assessments, design  and planning, construction, operation, and demolition phases for Co2 and GHG mitigation. I would like to know about the previous studies conducted in different countries, or if there is any cross comparison studies comparing the various research works from different countries. I am also interested in knowing if there is any literature review on the effect of housing structure and settings, end-users' perceptions and behaviors, or experiences about passive housing. I am also interested in expanding my knowledge about the barriers detracting the practical approach to the mitigation in residential sector.
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Thanks a lot Dear John ...
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I'm interested in practical experiences with the use any other alternative binders except cement. 
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