Science topic

Building Codes - Science topic

Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.
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To whom it may concern...
Case shown in pictures below need to stop in front of it...
Starting with the way of supporting slab before casting.. the question appear...
Based on your engineering opinion, and supporting method that you might used... is what shown in pictures attached ,.. enough.. ?
Then... whom responsibility is that... if slab fail during casting process, as there will be additional loading of pumped concrete and labors also ...? where that will be the most important question....
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Dear Sir,
supervision consultant needs to verify the scaffolding design which considers all loads of concrete and labors, usually the scaffolding specialist to provide full calculations, this specialist works under the contractor umbrella, both of contractor and supervision consultant did not perform well
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my code:
#building tf-idf
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer
vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer(analyzer = message_cleaning)
#X = vectorizer.fit_transform(corpus)
X = vectorizer.fit_transform(corpus)
#converting the result to array causes the prolem
X = pd.DataFrame(x.toarray())
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You can try with Dask, Python library, https://docs.dask.org/
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Picture attached shows the case of complete reinforcement of raft foundation, but after sand storm, as appear, more than 20mm layer form from sand under the reinforcement.... on your opinion, what might do to continue with work...?
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excellent quesion
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With the introduction of the latest version of the ACI-318, what are some of the impacts to design as well as organizational changes that this new document will pose?
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These attached figures are captured from Concrete Frame Design Manual using ACI-318 attached with Etabs Design examples.
It calculates the amplified moment due to second order effects using this equation:
M=deltans* (Mnonsawy+deltas*Msway)
, not by the equation proved in all stability books
M=deltans*Mnonsawy+deltas*Msway
I tried a design example in Etabs to verify this and I found that it does use the first equation.
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when performing the 2nd order analysis by etabs, as per etabs manual the small delta effect due to deformation of member between ends not consiedered, Do we need to consider and how?
as I understand the code didn't mention any issue related to local member buckling in SWAY FRAMES, please correct me if I'm wrong.
thanks in advance
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Overall Sciences ... Overall Designs... Do we need always to consider Factor of Safety ... ?
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Yes we have to consider factor of safety depending on standards we are following and type of material and structure.
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Hello,
I would like to extract all the walls from complex .DWG files that comes from the conversion from a .PDF by AutoDWG software. In these big multi-floor plans, there are multiple types of walls (exterior, office, corridors, etc) that have their own thickness and interior composition (trusts, insulation, etc.) and it's not even always clear to the eye where one type of wall ends and another starts. To give you an idea of the problem, here are two examples of very small regions of these kind of plans.
Note that I'm NOT interested in starting from a high resolution image of a scanned floor plan as the information is already vectorial in the DWG file. Also, I must do it by programming and as little user intervention as possible as this must be part of a bigger software solution.
I would be glad if anybody could propose software, libraries or papers describing methods to extract wall information from such a .DWG file. I guess OpenDWG seems to be part of the solution but if someone has more first hand experience with this problem, I would like to know about that!
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In AutoLISP or ObjectARX C#/C
- Disable all layers except envelopes, partitions, doors and space labels.
- With each space label: Zoom centre then zoom out to a common zoom factor: You'll be able to figure out a factor by zoom extents on the largest space's boundary.
- Use the space label's insertion point (assumption that label insertion points are within their space's boundary.
- Run boundary poly command "_bp" (I think)
- With each space boundary, get the selection set of intersecting envelopes.
- Finally, for each bpoly line segment, match the points from the segment to the adjacent envelope/partition/door.
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For instance, while comparing the response spectrum curve in IS 1893-2002 with that of ATC-40, Ca = Z/2 and Cv is either of Z/2, 1.36·Z/2 and 1.67·Z/2 for hard, medium and soft soils respectively for DBE.
While doing the pushover analysis using capacity spectrum method (ATC 40), what would be the values for Ca and Cv with respect to the response spectrum curve given in NBC 105:1994???
As the values are expressed in terms of coefficients, it's rather confusing to figure out the value of intensity of ground acceleration.
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I agree with the statement of DR. Karim
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Hi,
I have a L -shaped or Re-entrant corner building. I need to assign the rigid diaphragm to the entire building either in SAP2000 or ETABS. Is assigning the diaphragm the same as one assigns in case of regular buildings or is it different? Because in Re-entrant corner buildings the torsion effect also come into action very widely.
Can anyone help me how to assign the rigid diaphragm for irregular plan buildings?
Am attaching the plan of the building.
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Assigning rigid diaphragms is the same as regular buildings. But effects of torsion and the eccentericity amplification factor (Aij) must be seen in the analysis.
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As far I am aware, the Building Code requirements in the USA, with respect to Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), were updated and incorporated into the 2015 National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. It is this NDS for Wood Specification document that paved the way, as an important guideline and reference, for the incorporation of CLT as a recognized and utilized Building Code compliant and General Construction Industry accepted Construction Material into the 2015 International Building Code (IBC) and also the more recently updated IBC. The CLT changes that were incorporated include the assembly of exterior walls, floors, partition walls and roofs among others. Additionally, in order to adhere to the minimum structural performance standards, the IBC 2015 requires that the structural CLT products are in compliance with the standards and the requirements, as also prescribed and specified by ANSI/APA PR 320.
As an interesting fact, please note that as of this time (October 2020), to the best of my knowledge, the current world's tallest timber building is reported to be 85.1m (280 ft) and is located in Norway, Europe.
Are you aware of other important Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) Building Codes other than the 2015 NDS for Wood Construction, 2015 IBC, and ANSI/APA PRG 320 ?
Additionally, are you aware of any other substantial Timber Structures that have been completed or are planned to be build, or exceed the currently reported 85.1m (280 ft) ?
Let's keep on innovating :).
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Have checked the EUROCODE 5?
Maybe this research will help you
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Is there a maximum recommended retaining wall height, in the building codes?
Even if a counterfort retaining wall is constructed, is there a height limit?
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Thank you Hani Alharbi
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I am planning to build a website " ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING " which aims to help students as well as engineers, my goal is to have a website wherein all the material regarding civil engineering is available on this website, who would like to be part of this website by providing me help to build this website, it will be totally educational website focusing on students and engineers, initially planned to keep search tab, providing my youtube links as free lectures,  providing previous years question papers of various universities, IS codes and other countries codes pertaining to civil engineering, Q & A forum to ask questions related to civil engineering by logging in, separate tab for all notes of all subjects and practicals, and also separate section for the articles related to the advances in civil engineering. These are the initial requirements i have planned.
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You can review some similar websites like
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While going through the ASCE 7-16, I encountered with the equation C26.11-8 under chapter 26 'Wind loads: General Requirements'.
fn1=150/h (ft) ------------- Equation (C26.11-8)
There is a reference to two papers by Zhou and Kareem. However, I couldn't quite grasp the idea on how the equation was derived and wanted to know if that equation is reliable to use?
Thank you so much for your time.
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This is an empirical equation, there is no derivation.
It is usually used by designers to estimate the wind load.
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Referring to research papers and general advice are welcomed as part of the discussion
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Zeyad T. Al-Rrassam Yuan-Yeu Yau many thanks for participating in this disuccsion.
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Why the minimum reinforcement ratio in the walls is 0.12% or 0.15% and in special cases 0.25% according to ACI318, while, in column, this ratio is high 1%.
Even their behaviors are similar in most cases.
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Hi, generally speaking, concrete in compression acts perfect and so the minimum reinforcement percentage of flexural and shear members can not be compared to compression members like columns.
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Good evening,
I'm searching all the information about earth building codes, standards and normative around the world. Please help me a find some more.
This is the list of the country, that I already know, where there are earth building codes, standards and norms:
France; Germany, India, Kyrgystan; New Zealand; Peru; Spain; USA (New Mexico); Australia; Zimbawe; Brazil; Columbia; Kenya; Nigeria; Sri Lanka; Tunisia; Turkey; Switzerland.
I'm sure there are codes or standards in: China, Japan, Ecuador. But I couldn't find the name or the references.
Thank you for listening
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I am doing research in confined masonry field where i need different western masonry building codes. If any one has access to them please share.
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I found the following link useful:
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Hello,
Does anyone have electronic version of 2017 ASHRAE Handbook and AHSRAE standard 55? It would be a great help if someone can share these two useful tools. My email address is lmhtongji@berkeley.edu. Thanks a lot!
Best regards,
Maohui
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Dear followers,
Thanks for your trust and help to share the ASHRAE handbook. I have sent the book to over 30 requests individually by email. For the convenience of future requests, you can find the book through the link below. If you have problems to open the link, welcome to give me an email.
Best regards,
Maohui
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It is a design guideline published in their own website but the only guideline for the construction product I am looking for, as there is no standard for the product in that region.
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It's not a problem citing websites or company documentation but it should be done correctly, as with all citations. Follow a standard format for the citation - author (if known), title, publisher/publication (company name), date, etc. Include the website address and when last accessed, i.e http://www.abc.com (Accessed 12 December 2019). If you are writing a report or dissertation you could include a printed copy of the website as an appendix, there shouldn't be any copyright issues since the company/publisher has put the information in the public domain and you are acknowledging their contribution.
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I wondered if anyone knows of regulatory requirements or building standards/codes around the world that obliges developers / builders to incorporate demand side response (DSR) in their buildings?
I only know of one (California Title 24 building code 2019 ) that requires all new and retrofit buildings to be ready for two-way, automated utility-to-customer energy management. But i am interested to know what other country might have DSR as a obligatory requirement for 'buildings' as opposed to large industrial energy consumers.
Thanks
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Well done Preston,
I didn't know of this document.
Although it encourages all steps to facilitate Demand Response, as a report it doesn't have regulatory implication for building codes (nor does it mention building codes specifically).
It would still be lovely to know if any advance nations is considering enforcing DR in their building codes.
Thanks for your contribution.
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Most building codes require the following elements to be designed for VERTICAL seismic excitation:
1. Cantilever more than 5m span
2. Beams more than 20 m span
3. Pre stressed concrete
I can understand why the first two elements shall be designed for vertical excitation. What I want to understand is why pre stressed concrete is supposed to be designed for VERTICAL seismic excitation?
Please help me.
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You may well understand this concept if you know the method proposed by T Y Lin i.e. load balancing concept. When acceleration is up it is safe as this will lead to further reduction of load balancing. However when this is reverse the load increase and same has not been compensated and therefore this must be considered in addition to the imposed load.
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I know that IBC permits to calculate story-drift based on modal fundamental time period exceeding the upper limit T. I mean that if the calculated T by ETABS exceeds the allowed upper limit for time period (Ct × H0.75×Cu), then IBC permits calculating the story-drift using the larger T obtained from ETABS.
Moreover, IBC permits to calculate story-drift without considering the minimum base shear (CS = 0.044SDSI ).
Please check the attachments to confirm these two permissions according to items 12.8.6.1 and 12.8.6.2 in ASCE 7.
I want to
1-confirm the correctness of my knowledge.
2-understand the philosophy behind this rule.. using Tetabs and ignoring the minimum limit of base shear when calculating the drift and do not allow these permissions when calculating the base shear (force)??
3-investigate if these permissions are really applied in the engineering design offices? or they are only code permissions with no use in real engineering design .
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Why having the minimum base shear in the first place? - Because your building may have a very low actual seismic demand, but still needs to have some minimum lateral strength.
Why limiting the period for base shear calculation? - Because longer periods (after the spectral plateau) mean smaller lateral seismic forces. Introducing upper limit of the period you aim again at providing some minimum and reasonable lateral strength of the building.
Why not limiting the period for drift calculation? - Because when using the ASCE7 design spectra longer periods mean greater displacements/drifts. You aim at calculating correctly the displacements without artificially limiting them.
Combining all these requirements you'll have a conservative design for both strength (with the code minimum lateral force capacity) and stiffness (with the code maximum lateral displacements and drifts).
I can assure you that these clauses of the ASCE7-16 and the reasons for their existence are well understood and used by practicing engineers.
Good luck,
Stoyan
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I want to calculate the shear viscosity of metallic glass using molecular dynamics method in Lammps. However, I don't know how to write the code (.in file). As there is only half a year left for me to do it, it's infeasible for me to learn the way of writing it. Thus, how can I get a code?
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You can follow the following link instruction to download the code:
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I am trying to write a code to build fuzzy inference system in MATLAB. The function 'addRule' works fine when I add a single rule but as soon as I add more rules it gives error saying 'Do not use a rule keyword as a variable name' even if there is no variable with name 'rule'.
I have added few lines from my code below. My fis has two inputs depth1, depth2 and output called abundance.
r1 = 'If depth1 is Low and depth2 is Low then abundance is Low';
r2 = 'If depth1 is High and depth2 is High then abundance is High';
ruletext = [r1 r2];
cupFIS = addRule(cupFIS,ruletext);
Can anyone help me with this?
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It is better to use the fuzzy grhaphical interface
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Upon your site experience, what must done, if the consultant reject part form the work carried out by the contractor?
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If the reason for the rejection is based on a real scientific basis .and the error was simple and can be treated and did not affect the performance of structure in any way my opinion is that the contractor pay all costs for the difference and if the error is essential and can be repaired, I do the same procedure ... If it can not be repaired, the contractor should remove construction with paying all the costs and even those resulting from the delay of work.
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Performance Based design (PBD) seems to be more complete compare to existing force based design. Some building codes already added PBD as suitable guideline, example, EC8. However, limitations are important to know before application.
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I have already read few books and journals on the topic.
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How could I use this tool to reach to wind pressure distribution over simulated building and How could I deal generally with the results?
Thank you
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Thank you Leighton Cochran
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People feel uncomfortable in the upper stairs of the tall building when the building move laterally due to wind load or to be accurate the lateral acceleration of the building. Is their any recommendations or limits in code provisions for this acceleration.
Thanks
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thank you Leighton Cochran
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Could wind tunnel provide accurate results to wind load distribution over the building?
What if the building is very flexible like cable stayed bridges or tall building. Could it be simulated using wind tunnel?
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Khaled. Yes, the buildings and structures you mention (and many other human constructions) are routinely studied in wind tunnels every day. Some at universities (eg UWO, CSU, TTU, UF, Monash, HKUST, etc.) and some at commercial facilities (eg RWDI, CPP, MEL, etc.). The success at modeling various actions on a small-scale model in the wind tunnel has been well-established and refined since the 1960s. There are dozens of wind-engineering societies and associations in many countries around the world (AAWE and AWES to name two I belong to) and these are all connected to the international body, IAWE. The best assessment of "accuracy" is to compare the wind tunnel with a full-scale building in the real wind. There are several good examples of this (a well-known recent example was the Texas Tech University Building that spanned work over the 1990s and 2000s, and an earlier effort in Britain called SILSOE) in the literature and, with some caveats, the agreement is really quite good between model and full scale data. The Elsevier journal called Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics has been the source of many papers in this field for over 40 years. Lots of reading for you!
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why lateral-force fluctuations frequency is half longitudinal-force fluctuations in turbulence flow or wind simulation?
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Not sure about what you want to know, in turbulence regime there is a wide range of frequencies not a single one as happens in laminar vortex shedding. However, one can consider the averaging to determine the main frequency.
If you consider a single vortex shedding frequency, the lift and the drag are clearly both subject to the shedding but while the lift force is acted by one event in a full period, the drag is involved twice in a period.
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In textbook I read this sentence "In the case of positive aerodynamic damping the forces generated by motion through the airstream tend to oppose the motion. Negative damping tends to reinforce the motion. "
Why the damping is negative?
What is the physical meaning of the aerodynamic damping?
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thank you Hayrani Oz
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Building exhibit torsional rotation under seismic loading due distance between the center of mass and center of rigidity. According to building codes, does this distance or torsional rotation have any limitations? And if not, how could I check the capacity of building for large torsional rotation?
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Thank you so much Denniis Miller
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Could the layout of the shear walls in multi story building induce torsional rotation due to dead load only?
I faced this problem when analyzing a building in Etabs.
Thanks
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I'm trying to find some info on the site effects or geotechnical zonation of some caribbean countries. I tried to find something in the Caribbean Uniform Building Code, but it only offers the value of Z of the table 2.305.1 associated to the seismicity of the region
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Hola Ivan, las siguientes referencias puedes encontrarlas en mi cuenta de Research Gate, sobre site effects utilizando microtremors y la amenaza sismica para el Eastern Caribbean y Jamaica. Si necesitas algo mas avisame.
Salazar, W., G. Mannete, K. Reddock & Clevon Ash (2017) High Resolution Grid of H/V Spectral Ratios and Spatial Variability on Microtremors at Port of Spain, Trinidad. Journal of Seismology. DOI: 10.1007/s 10950-017-9681-1. 21:1541-1557.
Salazar, W., L. Brown and G. Mannette (2013) Probabilisitc Seismic Hazard Assessment for Jamaica. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA, Sep., Volume 7, No. 9 (Serial No. 70), pp. 1118-1140.
Salazar, W., L. Brown and G. Mannette (2013) Surface soil effects studies based on H/V ratios of Microtremors at Kingston Metropolitan Area, Jamaica. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA, Oct., Volume 7, No. 10 (Serial No. 71), pp. 1301-1322.
Salazar, W. & L. Brown and G. Mannette (2013) Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Bridgetown-Barbados, employing Subduction Interface Characteristic Earthquakes. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA, Nov., Volume 7, No. 11 (Serial No. 72), pp. 1405-1422.
Bozzoni, F., M. Corigliano, C. Lai, W. Salazar, L. Scandella, E. Zuccolo, J. Latchman; L. Lynch; R. Robertson (2011) Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment at the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 101, no. 5, pp.2499-2521.
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Dear Researchers,
As shown in the figure there are two strip footing, the short one that has already been constructed and the long one for the same structure. The question is, Is there some reccomendations on either text books or Building codes regarding this matter or any precautions to take?
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Thank you Mr. Balamurali Kanagaraj , Any references please?
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Normally, vertical seismic accelerations don't affect the building design but as per Uniform Building Code, it's considered in the design of Cantilever and Post-tensioned elements. Why is that?
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vertical forces specially vertical wave as earthquake have important role in gravity acc then it cz of over loading and less loading at structure...
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Concrete performance actually improves when several common industrial by products are added, so what are the recycling possibilities for precast concrete manufacturing?
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No problem Hussam.
All the the best with your research.
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How can inspecting precast?
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I follow the answers.
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Well... Its very important question always asked just when the term precast concrete structures appear...
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I follow answers
best regards
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To increase the strength of concrete, say from 40MPa to 80MPa, it definitely helps in improving the structural performance of the structure, So why don't recommend use of very high strength concrete...?
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A problem with mixture, high strength concrete needs large amount of cement, therefore Ca(OH)2 will product from hydration reaction ,so that Pozolana like (Silica Fume with High SiO2 %) is necessary to react with excess Ca(OH)2 and then products CSH strong Gel.
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When the temperature is rising, the inner concrete’s temperature is higher than outer concrete’s temperature and the inner concrete is expanding.. what that will induce as a results of cracking.... ?
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Challa Mallikarjuna ... Thanks for answering..
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In BS8110, it states that secondary reinforcement should be provided for beams exceeding 750mm deep at a distance measured 2/3 depth from the tension face....What is the purpose of skin reinforcement for deep beams?
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I agree with Ishwar Sonar and Nasir Shafiq answers
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That was very important question .. whats can we do if compression test fails.. can we re-tested by Schmidit Hummer... is that enough..?
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Ertug Aydin ... Many references recommend Schmidt hummer and consider it as a reliable test, .. but I don't trust that..
If this test as you mention is not reliable, ... why we might did it...?
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Design life means the minimum duration a structure is expected to last. The longer is the design life; the higher is the cost of a project. Therefore, in choosing the design life for a structure, engineers should consider the design life which generates a economical project without sacrificing the required function.
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The return period for design events has a very loose relation with the expected life of the structure. Nuclear power plants are designed for seimic events with return periods of at least 10,000 years, while their expected life is at least two orders of magnitude shorter.
A longer design return period increases the upfront costs (design and construction) but reduces the long-term ones (seismically caused damage). Hence, with a suitable assumption on interest rates you could combine the two and find an optimum. In practice there other intervening factors, such as public sensitivity to the facility, and the final result is implicitly embedded in the design codes and licensing procedures.
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In particular I'm looking for books/articles (preferably with free access) which compare ASHRAE standards to European Standards.
I found the following article helpful:
What other sources do you suggest? It would be great if they cover these keywords: large office buildings, tall buildings, (various climate zones including) hot climates
Thanks
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Greetings
Energy Efficiency through Building Envelope in Malaysia and Singapore. Article available via the Link
Best Wishes
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I want to design a structure using steel shear walls. I know the requirements of the building codes such as ASCE07 and AISC341 for the design of the SSWs.
The problem is how to model these walls in commercial design softwares such as Etabs to obtain the design forces?
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I find the easiest method to model steel plate walls in ETABS is to use the orthotropic membrane model. You can find information on this method in AISC design guide 20 : Steel Plate Shear Walls.
Basically, you model the plates as membrane elements which you rotate by the angle alpha (tension strip angle). Codes now allow using alpha = 40 degrees in many cases throughout the walls, so it's even simpler now.
Then, you set the elements stiffness modifiers to 1 in one of the 2 axial directions (f11), and a very low amount (like 0.00001) on the orthogonal direction (f22) as well as the shear stiffness (f12).
This will give you an adequate bahevior for the walls in your models. Then, you can extract the shear forces at every level using section cuts, and use these shear forces to design your plate thickness. Then, you design everything else according to capacity design principles.
Hope this helps!
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Dear readers, I am looking for examples of good and successful practices with the use of Matlab Embedded Coder. Could you please write here any examples you know or you are working on? You can also past here a link to your research papers or project webpages.
I am looking mostly in the field of power electronics and drives, but it can be also any other area of electronics. Many thanks for any post.
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Please refer to this paper :
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I am looking for literature reviews conducted on the contribution of residential buildings during their total life cycle, i.e. material production and transportation, feasibility assessments, design  and planning, construction, operation, and demolition phases for Co2 and GHG mitigation. I would like to know about the previous studies conducted in different countries, or if there is any cross comparison studies comparing the various research works from different countries. I am also interested in knowing if there is any literature review on the effect of housing structure and settings, end-users' perceptions and behaviors, or experiences about passive housing. I am also interested in expanding my knowledge about the barriers detracting the practical approach to the mitigation in residential sector.
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Thanks a lot Dear John ...
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I am doing a research on parametric simulation of modular design of prefabricated components in buildings. I am looking for any standard or guideline on how to calibrate and standardize the size and specifications of modules for prefabricated components such as walls, floors and roofs. What I have found so far are some commercial catalogues that have no decent scientific values.
I would appreciate if the experts and researchers could introduce me any relevant sources of information.
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I am presently initiating the review and structural optimization of our square bin products. I have search for design codes but other than the Eurocode I have found little information. I am intending to review the existing research information and the science driving the design for programming. We are an International conglomerate of companies providing equipment, storage facilities and supporting engineering to the agricultural market worldwide. I would appreciate receiving from those more familiar with this type of specialty structural design...please allow me thanking you in advance...E Farach, PE
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Thank you Napoleon...I will look into your suggested references...Gene.
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Building bye-laws  or building codes are the basic planning tool to regulate the overall form of the buildings and we all are aware of the fact that buildings consume a huge amount of energy and it can be reduced with proper design consideration..... for that some of the performance based evaluation mechanism is also there designed by LEED and other organization. But my concern is by just designing one or few platinum rated building we can not solve all the problems on the contrary if are able to reduce the energy consumption and increase the environment responsiveness of the whole neighbourhood and the city as a whole.  
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Dear Md. Fuzail Jawaid,
This a key issue I would say for entire world development and global health!! It would be really really nice to cooperate in this direction, matching experiences from both economically developed and developing countries. That would be really exciting. I think we might use this platform to discuss the basis of a collaboration.
Thank you very much!!
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I have a problem to act a smile detect code and other facial actions.
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Sorry,
No idea.
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Does the NFPA require a specific distance for each speaker used in Public Address systems inside office buildings? 
Are there any standards for the Public Address system in an office building? Is a speaker necessary in every office, conference room and washroom, or just the large open areas?
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The local building and fire codes dictate which buildings are required to have public address systems. Most office buildings are not required to have these, but the owner can elect to have them even if the codes don't mandate them. NFPA 72 regulates the design and installation where required or where installed. Some buildings have speaker systems which is just a building amenity, but is not robust enough to be a NFPA 72 compliant system. The placement of the speaker system varies and dependent on the decibel level of the output and the layout of the building. However, they are required in all occupied areas. A good rule of thumb is no farther than twice the ceiling height.
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I have been coding the likes and dislikes of playing videogames in different modes of play. After merging categories, ditching some that had too few cases, coding and recoding, and finally generating Kappas between two raters I have some codes that have have non-significant Kappas, some that are significant but low (under .4) and some that are significant and high (over .8).
Two questions:
1. I would assume that the non-significant Kappas indicate that those codes need to be looked at again and possibly eliminated or merged where possible, however would the same hold true for codes that generated low Kappas?
2. How would you treat the difference in agreement between these codes in terms of their interpretation and application? 
Thanks!
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I am confused? But I will try to help. 
Coding is typically used to QUALITATIVE Methodology.  Your research on video games likes and dislikes will be best suited for Qualitative study.  The application of Cohen's Kappa may not be suitable with the Qualitative Methodology. 
For your 2nd question in coding. The research presents the data as is.  If both data are in disagreement it is better to call back the informants to clarify their intentions. Again this answer assumes that you are following the Qualitative Methodology.
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I meant to say, i.e, when we use staad pro for structural design, we have the options of choosing the standard codes of that particular country,where we are designing. Likewise is there any software which involves the use of all procedures like the permissions, approvals and other permissions that needs to be considered before commencing with a construction project?
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It depend on the type of the construction projects and the relevant regulation statements of each Country.
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For example, I'd like to see window sizes restricted to 40% of total wall area in temperate climates for commercial and multi unit residential buildings.  How would I measure its direct impact on energy consumption and be able to isolate it from other factors like more efficient appliances in new builds, smaller units, etc? 
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Simulation programs is the best  way for your case to fix all other factors and focus on window to wall ratio. you can use Design Builder or TRNSYS . both are good in calculating energy consumption. However, TRNSYS is more detailed in mechanics.  
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Urban consolidation is a diverse set of planning policies developed with the intent of improving the existing urban infrastructure by encouraging developments to be constructed or rebuilt within the already urbanized area rather than tapping into "non-urbanized" land; in an attempt to limit urban sprawl.
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Actually High Rise apartments should be distantly located as FAR consumed is already more.
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Any recommendation in building codes, articles... for design of structures against large amplitude long-period ground motion? (In particular, high-rise building, long span bridge, oil tank...)
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I agree with Thomas Strum that base isolation is a good option for controlling the seismic response of buildings when subjected to long-period wave component of earthquakes (near-fault earthquakes). However, a concern is that all isolators do not give satisfactory results when subjected to near-fault ground motions. For example, a conventional FPS sliding isolator behaves poorly in near-fault ground motions since it is very likely that resonance phenomenon occurs in the FPS response. To overcome this problem, many studies have been done recently. One of the ways is to use sliding isolators with variable curvature which have been proved to behave excellently in near-fault ground motions.
Thus, before considering any base isolator, you must carefully see if it is a good option for near-fault ground motions which have different characteristics than far-field earthquakes.
Wish it helps.
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The IMS system was developed by IMS Institute in the last century. In Cuba there are many building built with that system and we need information about test making of that system.
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Do you have information about joint of IMS building?
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Are building codes such as Eurocode 8, Bristish code, Japanese code, Mexican code... mention to seismic design of a building, bridge or oil tank... in deep basin region where the ground motion has long-period?
Is there any recommendation for structure design against earthquake in distance from several kilometers?
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I'm sorry to assert that "deep basin" region seems a bit vague and even though I concur with what others said, and especially George E. Varelis, I would like to add that local soil-effect on buildings have been known for a long time and have a major impact on the fate of constructions, e.g. the Agadir (Morocco) earthquake, 29/02/1960 was a puzzling event (not that strong but terribly destructive for various reasons) where similarly designed reinforced constructions lead sometimes to total destruction and sometimes to nearly intact survival of the buildings. Major explanations were both "loose" execution of the design prescriptions during construction on site and local soil-effect. Same for the Aquila (Italy) earthquake in Italy. My point here is that you do not need a "deep-basin" to be facing strong local soil-effect, reinforcing considerably the destructiveness of the quake. Anytime you face a local unfavorable soil, security factors in designing the building should be increased accordingly and execution on site done with great respect of the design instructions (not just a matter of "putting the right amount of steel" !).
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Does BIM have a magic button that can be pressed to confirm that a design falls in line with current Building Regulations?
I have managed to find some information on how it may be implemented but not too sure what part of a program would do this. 
Does BIM make it easier or quicker to check design conforms to current Building Regulations? 
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There indeed are different interpretation of what is a BIM and/or what constitutes a BIM; they typically represent interpretations related to capabilities of software that generates the given BIM.  The future use of BIM may be related to weather it is "open" and "life cycle" BIM.
Any BIM based on a data model of buildings that covers the entire building life cycle should contain enough data about the given building to support investigation of compliance with regulation of a particular type.  But no BIM contains any "magic buttons."  To segment data related to checking a specific regulation compliance one needs a specific "model view" (MVD) of the involved data model of buildings that clearly identifies the subset of the data model that needs to be implemented by any software that is checking a particular form building compliance.
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Suppose I have some code written in .m scripts in MATLAB:
In order to run the code in embedded hardware platform supported by MATLAB, is dumping a .m file directly to any hardware platform possible, or do I need to write the program completely afresh to suit the syntax of the embedded platform?
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Dear Mussa Dida, my question is not that I can run matlab file by placing it in a directory or not But to know what is the best way to run matlab code in an embedded hardware supported by matlab.
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Natural frequency of building structures is one of the most important parameters in seismic design. It affects to building stability and deflection. Design codes normally give limits on story drift and total deflection.
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Please, check section 2 of the following paper:
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Pid tuning by neural network
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what is even better for tuning PID is ANFIS (available as a toolbox in Matlab)