Questions related to Building Codes
I am trying to understand the fuel loads of a residential building (or any other type of occupancy) in a formal and an informal settlement. Please suggest some literature in English and possibly open-access journals.
To whom it may concern...
Case shown in pictures below need to stop in front of it...
Starting with the way of supporting slab before casting.. the question appear...
Based on your engineering opinion, and supporting method that you might used... is what shown in pictures attached ,.. enough.. ?
Then... whom responsibility is that... if slab fail during casting process, as there will be additional loading of pumped concrete and labors also ...? where that will be the most important question....
Picture attached shows the case of complete reinforcement of raft foundation, but after sand storm, as appear, more than 20mm layer form from sand under the reinforcement.... on your opinion, what might do to continue with work...?
With the introduction of the latest version of the ACI-318, what are some of the impacts to design as well as organizational changes that this new document will pose?
These attached figures are captured from Concrete Frame Design Manual using ACI-318 attached with Etabs Design examples.
It calculates the amplified moment due to second order effects using this equation:
, not by the equation proved in all stability books
I tried a design example in Etabs to verify this and I found that it does use the first equation.
I would like to extract all the walls from complex .DWG files that comes from the conversion from a .PDF by AutoDWG software. In these big multi-floor plans, there are multiple types of walls (exterior, office, corridors, etc) that have their own thickness and interior composition (trusts, insulation, etc.) and it's not even always clear to the eye where one type of wall ends and another starts. To give you an idea of the problem, here are two examples of very small regions of these kind of plans.
Note that I'm NOT interested in starting from a high resolution image of a scanned floor plan as the information is already vectorial in the DWG file. Also, I must do it by programming and as little user intervention as possible as this must be part of a bigger software solution.
I would be glad if anybody could propose software, libraries or papers describing methods to extract wall information from such a .DWG file. I guess OpenDWG seems to be part of the solution but if someone has more first hand experience with this problem, I would like to know about that!
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer
vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer(analyzer = message_cleaning)
#X = vectorizer.fit_transform(corpus)
X = vectorizer.fit_transform(corpus)
#converting the result to array causes the prolem
X = pd.DataFrame(x.toarray())
For instance, while comparing the response spectrum curve in IS 1893-2002 with that of ATC-40, Ca = Z/2 and Cv is either of Z/2, 1.36·Z/2 and 1.67·Z/2 for hard, medium and soft soils respectively for DBE.
While doing the pushover analysis using capacity spectrum method (ATC 40), what would be the values for Ca and Cv with respect to the response spectrum curve given in NBC 105:1994???
As the values are expressed in terms of coefficients, it's rather confusing to figure out the value of intensity of ground acceleration.
I have a L -shaped or Re-entrant corner building. I need to assign the rigid diaphragm to the entire building either in SAP2000 or ETABS. Is assigning the diaphragm the same as one assigns in case of regular buildings or is it different? Because in Re-entrant corner buildings the torsion effect also come into action very widely.
Can anyone help me how to assign the rigid diaphragm for irregular plan buildings?
Am attaching the plan of the building.
As far I am aware, the Building Code requirements in the USA, with respect to Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), were updated and incorporated into the 2015 National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. It is this NDS for Wood Specification document that paved the way, as an important guideline and reference, for the incorporation of CLT as a recognized and utilized Building Code compliant and General Construction Industry accepted Construction Material into the 2015 International Building Code (IBC) and also the more recently updated IBC. The CLT changes that were incorporated include the assembly of exterior walls, floors, partition walls and roofs among others. Additionally, in order to adhere to the minimum structural performance standards, the IBC 2015 requires that the structural CLT products are in compliance with the standards and the requirements, as also prescribed and specified by ANSI/APA PR 320.
As an interesting fact, please note that as of this time (October 2020), to the best of my knowledge, the current world's tallest timber building is reported to be 85.1m (280 ft) and is located in Norway, Europe.
Are you aware of other important Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) Building Codes other than the 2015 NDS for Wood Construction, 2015 IBC, and ANSI/APA PRG 320 ?
Additionally, are you aware of any other substantial Timber Structures that have been completed or are planned to be build, or exceed the currently reported 85.1m (280 ft) ?
Let's keep on innovating :).
I am planning to build a website " ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING " which aims to help students as well as engineers, my goal is to have a website wherein all the material regarding civil engineering is available on this website, who would like to be part of this website by providing me help to build this website, it will be totally educational website focusing on students and engineers, initially planned to keep search tab, providing my youtube links as free lectures, providing previous years question papers of various universities, IS codes and other countries codes pertaining to civil engineering, Q & A forum to ask questions related to civil engineering by logging in, separate tab for all notes of all subjects and practicals, and also separate section for the articles related to the advances in civil engineering. These are the initial requirements i have planned.
While going through the ASCE 7-16, I encountered with the equation C26.11-8 under chapter 26 'Wind loads: General Requirements'.
fn1=150/h (ft) ------------- Equation (C26.11-8)
There is a reference to two papers by Zhou and Kareem. However, I couldn't quite grasp the idea on how the equation was derived and wanted to know if that equation is reliable to use?
Thank you so much for your time.
Referring to research papers and general advice are welcomed as part of the discussion
Why the minimum reinforcement ratio in the walls is 0.12% or 0.15% and in special cases 0.25% according to ACI318, while, in column, this ratio is high 1%.
Even their behaviors are similar in most cases.
I'm searching all the information about earth building codes, standards and normative around the world. Please help me a find some more.
This is the list of the country, that I already know, where there are earth building codes, standards and norms:
France; Germany, India, Kyrgystan; New Zealand; Peru; Spain; USA (New Mexico); Australia; Zimbawe; Brazil; Columbia; Kenya; Nigeria; Sri Lanka; Tunisia; Turkey; Switzerland.
I'm sure there are codes or standards in: China, Japan, Ecuador. But I couldn't find the name or the references.
Thank you for listening
I am doing research in confined masonry field where i need different western masonry building codes. If any one has access to them please share.
Does anyone have electronic version of 2017 ASHRAE Handbook and AHSRAE standard 55? It would be a great help if someone can share these two useful tools. My email address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanks a lot!
It is a design guideline published in their own website but the only guideline for the construction product I am looking for, as there is no standard for the product in that region.
I wondered if anyone knows of regulatory requirements or building standards/codes around the world that obliges developers / builders to incorporate demand side response (DSR) in their buildings?
I only know of one (California Title 24 building code 2019 ) that requires all new and retrofit buildings to be ready for two-way, automated utility-to-customer energy management. But i am interested to know what other country might have DSR as a obligatory requirement for 'buildings' as opposed to large industrial energy consumers.
Most building codes require the following elements to be designed for VERTICAL seismic excitation:
1. Cantilever more than 5m span
2. Beams more than 20 m span
3. Pre stressed concrete
I can understand why the first two elements shall be designed for vertical excitation. What I want to understand is why pre stressed concrete is supposed to be designed for VERTICAL seismic excitation?
Please help me.
I know that IBC permits to calculate story-drift based on modal fundamental time period exceeding the upper limit T. I mean that if the calculated T by ETABS exceeds the allowed upper limit for time period (Ct × H0.75×Cu), then IBC permits calculating the story-drift using the larger T obtained from ETABS.
Moreover, IBC permits to calculate story-drift without considering the minimum base shear (CS = 0.044SDSI ).
Please check the attachments to confirm these two permissions according to items 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11 in ASCE 7.
I want to
1-confirm the correctness of my knowledge.
2-understand the philosophy behind this rule.. using Tetabs and ignoring the minimum limit of base shear when calculating the drift and do not allow these permissions when calculating the base shear (force)??
3-investigate if these permissions are really applied in the engineering design offices? or they are only code permissions with no use in real engineering design .
I want to calculate the shear viscosity of metallic glass using molecular dynamics method in Lammps. However, I don't know how to write the code (.in file). As there is only half a year left for me to do it, it's infeasible for me to learn the way of writing it. Thus, how can I get a code?
I am trying to write a code to build fuzzy inference system in MATLAB. The function 'addRule' works fine when I add a single rule but as soon as I add more rules it gives error saying 'Do not use a rule keyword as a variable name' even if there is no variable with name 'rule'.
I have added few lines from my code below. My fis has two inputs depth1, depth2 and output called abundance.
r1 = 'If depth1 is Low and depth2 is Low then abundance is Low';
r2 = 'If depth1 is High and depth2 is High then abundance is High';
ruletext = [r1 r2];
cupFIS = addRule(cupFIS,ruletext);
Can anyone help me with this?
Upon your site experience, what must done, if the consultant reject part form the work carried out by the contractor?
Performance Based design (PBD) seems to be more complete compare to existing force based design. Some building codes already added PBD as suitable guideline, example, EC8. However, limitations are important to know before application.
People feel uncomfortable in the upper stairs of the tall building when the building move laterally due to wind load or to be accurate the lateral acceleration of the building. Is their any recommendations or limits in code provisions for this acceleration.
Could wind tunnel provide accurate results to wind load distribution over the building?
What if the building is very flexible like cable stayed bridges or tall building. Could it be simulated using wind tunnel?
In textbook I read this sentence "In the case of positive aerodynamic damping the forces generated by motion through the airstream tend to oppose the motion. Negative damping tends to reinforce the motion. "
Why the damping is negative?
What is the physical meaning of the aerodynamic damping?
Building exhibit torsional rotation under seismic loading due distance between the center of mass and center of rigidity. According to building codes, does this distance or torsional rotation have any limitations? And if not, how could I check the capacity of building for large torsional rotation?
Could the layout of the shear walls in multi story building induce torsional rotation due to dead load only?
I faced this problem when analyzing a building in Etabs.
I'm trying to find some info on the site effects or geotechnical zonation of some caribbean countries. I tried to find something in the Caribbean Uniform Building Code, but it only offers the value of Z of the table 2.305.1 associated to the seismicity of the region
As shown in the figure there are two strip footing, the short one that has already been constructed and the long one for the same structure. The question is, Is there some reccomendations on either text books or Building codes regarding this matter or any precautions to take?
Normally, vertical seismic accelerations don't affect the building design but as per Uniform Building Code, it's considered in the design of Cantilever and Post-tensioned elements. Why is that?
Concrete performance actually improves when several common industrial by products are added, so what are the recycling possibilities for precast concrete manufacturing?
Well... Its very important question always asked just when the term precast concrete structures appear...
To increase the strength of concrete, say from 40MPa to 80MPa, it definitely helps in improving the structural performance of the structure, So why don't recommend use of very high strength concrete...?
When the temperature is rising, the inner concrete’s temperature is higher than outer concrete’s temperature and the inner concrete is expanding.. what that will induce as a results of cracking.... ?
In BS8110, it states that secondary reinforcement should be provided for beams exceeding 750mm deep at a distance measured 2/3 depth from the tension face....What is the purpose of skin reinforcement for deep beams?
That was very important question .. whats can we do if compression test fails.. can we re-tested by Schmidit Hummer... is that enough..?
Design life means the minimum duration a structure is expected to last. The longer is the design life; the higher is the cost of a project. Therefore, in choosing the design life for a structure, engineers should consider the design life which generates a economical project without sacrificing the required function.
I want to design a structure using steel shear walls. I know the requirements of the building codes such as ASCE07 and AISC341 for the design of the SSWs.
The problem is how to model these walls in commercial design softwares such as Etabs to obtain the design forces?
In particular I'm looking for books/articles (preferably with free access) which compare ASHRAE standards to European Standards.
I found the following article helpful:
What other sources do you suggest? It would be great if they cover these keywords: large office buildings, tall buildings, (various climate zones including) hot climates
Dear readers, I am looking for examples of good and successful practices with the use of Matlab Embedded Coder. Could you please write here any examples you know or you are working on? You can also past here a link to your research papers or project webpages.
I am looking mostly in the field of power electronics and drives, but it can be also any other area of electronics. Many thanks for any post.
I am looking for literature reviews conducted on the contribution of residential buildings during their total life cycle, i.e. material production and transportation, feasibility assessments, design and planning, construction, operation, and demolition phases for Co2 and GHG mitigation. I would like to know about the previous studies conducted in different countries, or if there is any cross comparison studies comparing the various research works from different countries. I am also interested in knowing if there is any literature review on the effect of housing structure and settings, end-users' perceptions and behaviors, or experiences about passive housing. I am also interested in expanding my knowledge about the barriers detracting the practical approach to the mitigation in residential sector.
I am doing a research on parametric simulation of modular design of prefabricated components in buildings. I am looking for any standard or guideline on how to calibrate and standardize the size and specifications of modules for prefabricated components such as walls, floors and roofs. What I have found so far are some commercial catalogues that have no decent scientific values.
I would appreciate if the experts and researchers could introduce me any relevant sources of information.
I am presently initiating the review and structural optimization of our square bin products. I have search for design codes but other than the Eurocode I have found little information. I am intending to review the existing research information and the science driving the design for programming. We are an International conglomerate of companies providing equipment, storage facilities and supporting engineering to the agricultural market worldwide. I would appreciate receiving from those more familiar with this type of specialty structural design...please allow me thanking you in advance...E Farach, PE
Building bye-laws or building codes are the basic planning tool to regulate the overall form of the buildings and we all are aware of the fact that buildings consume a huge amount of energy and it can be reduced with proper design consideration..... for that some of the performance based evaluation mechanism is also there designed by LEED and other organization. But my concern is by just designing one or few platinum rated building we can not solve all the problems on the contrary if are able to reduce the energy consumption and increase the environment responsiveness of the whole neighbourhood and the city as a whole.
Does the NFPA require a specific distance for each speaker used in Public Address systems inside office buildings?
Are there any standards for the Public Address system in an office building? Is a speaker necessary in every office, conference room and washroom, or just the large open areas?
I have been coding the likes and dislikes of playing videogames in different modes of play. After merging categories, ditching some that had too few cases, coding and recoding, and finally generating Kappas between two raters I have some codes that have have non-significant Kappas, some that are significant but low (under .4) and some that are significant and high (over .8).
1. I would assume that the non-significant Kappas indicate that those codes need to be looked at again and possibly eliminated or merged where possible, however would the same hold true for codes that generated low Kappas?
2. How would you treat the difference in agreement between these codes in terms of their interpretation and application?
I meant to say, i.e, when we use staad pro for structural design, we have the options of choosing the standard codes of that particular country,where we are designing. Likewise is there any software which involves the use of all procedures like the permissions, approvals and other permissions that needs to be considered before commencing with a construction project?
For example, I'd like to see window sizes restricted to 40% of total wall area in temperate climates for commercial and multi unit residential buildings. How would I measure its direct impact on energy consumption and be able to isolate it from other factors like more efficient appliances in new builds, smaller units, etc?
Urban consolidation is a diverse set of planning policies developed with the intent of improving the existing urban infrastructure by encouraging developments to be constructed or rebuilt within the already urbanized area rather than tapping into "non-urbanized" land; in an attempt to limit urban sprawl.
Any recommendation in building codes, articles... for design of structures against large amplitude long-period ground motion? (In particular, high-rise building, long span bridge, oil tank...)
The IMS system was developed by IMS Institute in the last century. In Cuba there are many building built with that system and we need information about test making of that system.
Are building codes such as Eurocode 8, Bristish code, Japanese code, Mexican code... mention to seismic design of a building, bridge or oil tank... in deep basin region where the ground motion has long-period?
Is there any recommendation for structure design against earthquake in distance from several kilometers?
Does BIM have a magic button that can be pressed to confirm that a design falls in line with current Building Regulations?
I have managed to find some information on how it may be implemented but not too sure what part of a program would do this.
Does BIM make it easier or quicker to check design conforms to current Building Regulations?
Suppose I have some code written in .m scripts in MATLAB:
In order to run the code in embedded hardware platform supported by MATLAB, is dumping a .m file directly to any hardware platform possible, or do I need to write the program completely afresh to suit the syntax of the embedded platform?
Natural frequency of building structures is one of the most important parameters in seismic design. It affects to building stability and deflection. Design codes normally give limits on story drift and total deflection.