Science topic

Budgeting - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Budgeting, and find Budgeting experts.
Questions related to Budgeting
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
8 answers
How should an anti-inflationary and at the same time pro-development, growth-activating (medium-term) and growth-activating (long-term) economic, anti-crisis, counter-cyclical, pro-development socio-economic policy be constructed?
How should such a multi-faceted socio-economic policy be designed?
In designing such an anti-inflationary and anti-crisis socio-economic policy, how should some mutually contradictory instruments for activating economic processes and curbing inflation be reconciled?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
Relevant answer
Answer
An anti-inflationary policy is a pro-growth policy
In the end—and this bears repeating—inflation is bad for economic growth. And the Federal Reserve's policy, even though it's often misinterpreted, is an anti-inflation policy, which is another name for a pro-growth policy.
Arthur J. RolnickSenior Vice President and Director of Research, 1985-2010
(Citation from the link).
Am in agreement with the policy statements of the mentioned author !
————-—
Inflation is the fiscal complement of statism and arbitrary government. It is a cog in the complex of policies and institutions which gradually lead toward totalitarianism .
Continued inflation inevitably leads to catastrophe
The most important thing to remember is that inflation is not an act of God, that inflation is not a catastrophe of the elements or a disease that comes like the plague. Inflation is a policy.
Inflation has always been an important resource of policies of war and revolution and why we also find it in the service of socialism.
Inflation is essentially antidemocratic.
Inflation is an increase in the quantity of money without a corresponding increase in the demand for money, i.e., for cash holdings.
The Free Market and Its Enemies". Ludwig von Mises' speech to the Foundation for Economic Education, 1951
——————————————-—
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
I am interested in methodological guides or references or websites to apply a simple version of the LOICZ budgeting: water, salt, nutrient and carbon fluxes in the interfaz land-sea
Relevant answer
I think the following paper will help you out:
Balance of catchment and offshore nutrient loading and biogeochemical response in four New Zealand coastal systems: implications for resource …
JR Zeldis, DP Swaney - Estuaries and Coasts, 2018 - Springer
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
7 answers
In times of a pandemic, as employees of financial departments, we were subjected to a difficult test of high volatility of economic and financial data on enterprises, which we financially analyze on a daily basis. The most common opinion I received while working on financial plans during the exchange of experiences with ICV Poland members was that the method of incremental budgets and rigid budgeting were completely rejected. These methods turned out to be completely useless during the year 2020. During the pandemic, companies were hit by supply shocks (broken and irregular supply chains) and demand shocks (large fluctuations in the demand for a company's products different from what was before the covid-19 pandemic). Financial planning in the field of personal finances in individual households underwent a real revolution due to changes in incomes and due to increasing inflation and high economic uncertainty. What is Your opinion on these issues and do You know any research studies developed on these topics?
Relevant answer
Answer
Uncertainty is unavoidable. Today is it the pandemic. Previously we have seen BREXIT and the Global Financial Crisis. Tomorrow it might be nuclear war. Therefore financial planning both for enterprises and even households needs to take a steer from risk management to balance opportunities against one-in-10 year events, one-in-100 year events, black swan events etc leveraging the knowledge of history and subject matter experts.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
10 answers
hello every one
Can the independent variable be a constant
I want to Run MANOVA
I have the independent variable that is constant a budget during the year
and the opinion on the impact of the budget on quality of education (1 DV), on research (2DV), diplomatic rate (3dv), Employment rate(4DV) are the dependent variable
i Run the MANOVA but it looks like i have a lot of errors even if i tried to normalize Data,
SPSS gives me this message: this Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices is not computed because there are less than two nonempty cells.
i tried to work with the discrim but i get the same errors
i get my data frow a survey it means that i can not change it , what other methods to analyse my data
I am trying to analyse the impact of quantified budgeting (historical budgeting, because it is the only method that is applicated in mycountry,the independent variable is historical budgeting>>its the budget>>> its continuous variable) on some universities performance indicators.
Thank you for the help
Relevant answer
Answer
use the SPSS program to analyze your data
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
9 answers
Unethical practices in business constitute a negative aspect of business processes and often generate additional costs for contractors and consumers. On the other hand, the scale of the gray market in the national economy is often correlated with the level of fiscal burdens and the quality of legal regulations regarding the commencement of business activities.
The high share of shadow economy in various branches of the national economy is also lower income from taxes and fees to the central state budget and to local budgets of local government units.
High fiscal burdens and imprecisely formulated legal regulations regarding running a business activity apart from generating a high level of gray economy in the economy may also be a source of unethical practices used in business between contractors or between producers and suppliers of products and services and consumers.
The large scale of the shadow economy in the national economy and the applied unethical practices in business is one of the key factors in the imperfections of the country's economic system.
According to the above, the current question is: Does the scale of occurrence of unethical practices in business correlate with the size of the shadow economy in national economies?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion, the use of unethical practices in business, failure to apply the principles of business ethics, failure to apply the principles of corporate social responsibility may be significantly correlated with the scale of the development of the shadow economy in individual industries and sectors of the economy.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
State-owned enterprises means enterprises as those owned by the
government (central, federal, local or regional) and those in which the state has significant control through full, majority, or minority ownership.
Is there a model for SOE's budgeting. For example How SOE's budget include in government budget? what is the budget classification of SOEs? what is the budget process (prepare and approval) of SOEs?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you quite useful feedback
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I am working on budgeting for my dissertation, which involves conducting qualitative, one-on-one interviews virtually. I am working on my budgeting plan as part of research grant, and a research grant application that I am completing.
I am wondering what items/factors should I consider in my budgeting plan? I have so far ascribed some of the funding in the plan for honoraria and support with transcription through a Research Assistant.
What are other considerations that I should have? Please share any thoughts or considerations you may have as this will greatly support me.
Many thanks in advance,
Riham A.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello!
some thoughts - without any further background informatin of your concrete plans:
Budget for transcription is definitely a good idea. As I do not know if you have experience with interviews - at least think about 1:4 (1h interview ~ takes you 4 hours to transcribe, if you are rather fast).
Do you plan to use open source software for transcription and data analyis / is some software available at your University? Otherwise, I would consider to put it on your budget too.
Another issue: How do you plan to recruit your interviewees? We made the recent experience that - due to COVID 19 - we had to find our interviewees online. And it was helpful that we could offer some incentive - a voucher as a "thank you for participating" in some cases - depending on the topic and the duration of the interview. We did also consider professional recruiting (which is offered, but is also rather expensive).
Finally: Technical equipement for conducting online interviews (which is currently always at least Plan B) - such as headset or else.
In case you plan to conduct face-to-face interviews, travel expenses might be an issue.
All the best,
Eva
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
18 answers
Why did the governments of many countries, despite a good economic situation, not reduce the debt of public finances of the state and budget deficits in the state budgets?
Unfortunately, for several decades in most countries permanently budgets of public finances, state budgets are unbalanced, they are usually in deficit. Such a situation generates the risk of excessive indebtedness and loss of liquidity in public finances of the state. In a good economic situation, deficits tend to fall, but in a period of declining economic growth, deficits are rising and there is a risk of a public finance crisis. In such a situation, the state, in order to maintain liquidity, raises interest rates on treasury bonds in order to find buyers from domestic and foreign investors. This problem appeared in the countries of the south of Europe after the appearance of the global financial crisis in the autumn of 2008.
In connection with the above, the governments of individual countries should from year to year reduce the state of public finance debt, ie reduce public debt and budget deficit. However, for many years, in many countries, public debt and budget deficit, despite good economic conditions, were not reduced despite good economic growth. Why despite the good economic situation in the 90s and the beginning of the 21st century, ie before the emergence of the global financial crisis in 2008, public debt of the state finances and budget deficit in the state budget were not significantly reduced or reduced?
A fully balanced state budget should not have any deficit. Why do not the governments of many countries care about this issue and forward this unresolved problem of state funs to the subsequent ruling teams? Perhaps the answer to this question arises from this question. Well, usually several summer political cycles of exercising power by a specific government team are not correlated with the period of the business cycle.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
In connection with the above, I ask: Why did the governments of many countries, despite a good economic situation, not lower the debt of public finances of the state and budget deficits in the state budgets?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
This issue is described in the following publication:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Cutting government spending can increase the budget deficit at zero interest rates according to a standard New Keynesian model, calibrated with Bayesian methods. Similarly, increasing sales taxes can increase the budget deficit rather than reducing it. Both results suggest limitations of ‘austerity measures’. At zero interest rates, running budget deficits can be either expansionary or contractionary depending on how they interact with expectations about long‐run taxes and spending. The effect of fiscal policy action is thus highly dependent on the policy regime. A successful stimulus, therefore, needs to specify how the budget is managed not only in the short but also medium and long run... Denes, M., Eggertsson, G. B., & Gilbukh, S. (2013). Deficits, public debt dynamics and tax and spending multipliers. The Economic Journal, 123(566), F133-F163.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
6 answers
Dear RG members,
Recent trends showing lots of work are to be focussed on energy budgeting in different cropping system. Is this parameters is good to suggest to the farmers to opt efficient cropping system or not. Views invited..
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, you can,
For reference, you can learn from this pdf, which has overall calculations :
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
There are some criticism about the 'fake' participation among local community just to satisfy the government or donor's agenda to show that there are names and meeting have been organized prior to the final drafting of any municipal budgeting plan. I am trying to crack out this situation by showing the difference between a 'genuine' and 'fake' participation in the process.
Relevant answer
Answer
Be very careful with fake conferences and journals.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
11 answers
A business background prepares one to deal efficiently and effectively with everyday problems.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much for your eloquent contribution, which I enjoy reading because you present a refreshing and new perspective!
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
7 answers
Does official policy documents have limited scope for institutionalized spaces for public participation? If this true then can one argue that it is failure of the government to meaningfully engage with its citizens that results in lower rates of participation. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear colleague,
In Switzerland, citizens are consulted on several provincial and local policy matters by referendum every 3 months on average. Quite often, one or several national questions are also included by the federal government.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
Science is becoming more costly but what inflation rate index should we use in budgeting or use in long term proposals?
Relevant answer
Answer
Science costs are the total costs including wages, operating, administration, infrastructure and equipment ie the full cost of science as if you were charging it out for a contract.
regards Gerald
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
2 answers
A lo largo de los procesos de dirección, asesoría y acompañamiento de proyectos de investigación basados en metodologías cualitativas, se vienen cometiendo errores que repercuten en la rigurosidad y la calidad de estos estudios:
El error más comúnmente cometido se asocia a seguir lineamientos pertenecientes a la metodología cuantitativa, para orientar problemas eminentemente dados para una aproximación cualitativa.
Entre las fallas observadas tenemos:
1. Utilizar el término variable para dirigirse al problema de estudio
2. Pedir operacionalización de variables.
3. Preguntar por los procedimientos de muestreo con base en la idea de población y muestra.
4. sugerir la aplicación de procedimientos comúnmente utilizados para la creación y validación de instrumentos de medición, para la validación de técnicas cualitativas.
5. Desconocer la naturaleza inductiva y flexible de los enfoques cualitativos(ej. el planteamiento del problema, los propósitos, etc podrán irse modificando a medida que el estudio avance, incluso en las etapas últimas del mismo).
Otro de los problemas presentados y que se asocia con lo mencionado anteriormente es que, en algunas ocasiones quienes asesoran proyectos cualitativos no tienen ni idea de estas metodologías, incluso está sucediendo a nivel de posgrados, conllevando a quien realiza la asesoría a enfocar el estudio desde métodos inadecuados e incluso a cambiar el tema de estudio.
Es fundamental para entender la lógica de la investigación cualitativa, conocer los presupuestos epistemológicos y ontológicos, sobre estos se fundamentan los métodos.
Sigue habiendo un gran desconocimiento acerca de la metodología cualitativa , aun así se le cuestiona , se ponen en tela de juicio sus hallazgos y se reduce a conocimiento no científico.....
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Kelvin.
Wishes .
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
4 answers
There are many factors to consider before starting a new project enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for agribusiness owners and managers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting point, following
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
10 answers
I am trying to find guidelines for geographical jurisdiction of IEC. Is it true that my institutional ethics committee cannot review a research study which I am doing/leading in a site which is in the same country but far away?
To my knowledge and understanding, it should review with appropriate budgeting by the researcher for site visits and monitoring.
Relevant answer
Answer
Regarding Canada, and perhaps some other jurisdictions, in cases in which an international site for research led by a Canadian faculty member doesn't have an REB/IRB, sometimes administrative approvals from community-based organizations partnering in the project have been sufficient--in addition to the Canadian university REB. Interestingly from my standpoint, this has happened to me in research collaborations in both high- and low-/middle-income countries.
In India, I was pleased to work with a researcher who facilitated the creation of an REB in a very large NGO with whom we worked, and planned to continue to work with in the future. Earlier (10 years ago), they provided us administrative letters of support for our community-based research; now, they have a registered IRB and do full reviews of our Indo-Canadian projects, in addition to my Canadian university REB. Beyond the geography, and in addition to cultural diversity, they are experts in working with the marginalized populations with whom we often do (HIV prevention) research in India.
In Taiwan, my PhD student (in Canada, from Taiwan) was referred by a large Taiwanese university to seek administrative approvals from our two CBO partners in a Canadian-led project in two Taiwanese cities. He reported that there is a weak history of ethical review of research in Taiwan, and only inchoate university IRBs; so in this case, beyond logistics, the CBO's approval was also more trusted by participating communities.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
The lack of imperical studies on Higher Education Budgeting in West African Universities.
Relevant answer
Answer
I do not think that the question is related to imperialism. I think he is talking about empirical studies in the area of financing higher education in West Africa. Rafael has given a reading list that suggests that contrary to the stated perspective, the empirical studies do exist. They may not be sufficient , but, that is an opportunity for researchers such as Justice Ayam to study how,why and what budgeting processes are carried out in the higher education sector in West Africa and document them so that the gap in knowledge which has been identified can be filled.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
1 answer
Normally, one use outstanding to GDP ratio as indiator to compare bond market depth across countries. However, different to corporate bond, government bond faces some constraints, including political debates.
The outstanding corporate bonds can possibly grow limitless following the funding needs of the private sectors. Therefore, a deep market is a market that has the highest outstanding to GDP ratio.
In contrast, outstanding governemnt bond is limited to the financing needs of the budget deficit. A country can not increase its governemnt bond issuance beyond the limit. Moreover, a country that posses a higher outstanding government bond is not necessarily better than that who has lower debt.
Thus, what indicator properly measured to indicate market depth of government bond?
Relevant answer
Answer
It is a function of how much interest is there from non banks in the bonds and how liquid and tradeable they are.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
4 answers
1. how to calculate the different components of energy budget using satellite data
2. Which satellite products may help in this regards
3. what are the different models that can be employed 
Relevant answer
Answer
EUMETSAT has products, where evapotranspiration (ET) is calculated. For example, I use one of these to integrate ET values at daly, 10-day or month periods. Example is on the pictures.
Drawback of the product is a fact, that algorithm does not take into account ice evaporation.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
1 answer
As a developing country like India there is so much opportunity for construction activities not only in the civil construction but also the mechanical and infrastructural too. Most of our construction companies facing problems like delaying the project submission period, back charges, over budgeting etc.
So the concept of lean thinking can be applied to elimate the muda, mura and muri of construction same like in the manufacturing.
Relevant answer
Answer
That's a great thought, and yes Lean thinking could be very effective if applied in the construction industry. In fact lean concepts like value stream mapping, takt time, SOPs, Kanbans etc,. could find great application in this context. 
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
I am working on an update of my Encyclopedia of Social Work entry on Management: Financial and would appreciate any tips, suggestions, or sources. The focus will be on human service enterprise, especially accounting, budgeting and financial analysis. I am especially interested in international perspectives on human services financing.
Relevant answer
Answer
I understand that you are asking about the recruitment consultancies and their financials...the fee varies from country to country. (both origin and destination) if you are referring to international. For blue color workers usually, the tariffs are fixed and for the white the tariffs are variable. One month salary is the usual tariff. In most cases, these institutions try to collect the fee from both sides. in some gulf countries intermediation in mandatory. If it is remote service, then, the timing and the skill sets determine the pricing. The documentation charges again vary depending on the documents the target has. If you have domestic documentations, the charges are lesser. Those who do not have proper documentation are required to pay higher fees. A few years back in one of the borders the nationality papers were organized for 100 USD!! Usually, the ruling party has the privilege of this service!!
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
10 answers
What literature do you recommend for capital budgeting methods (NPV,IRR,ARR, and Payback period in decision making?
Relevant answer
Answer
You may refer to the following links which contain papers on use of capital budgeting methods in decision making & the frequency of their use:
Hope this helps.
Hemlata
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
4 answers
I am primarily concerned with state government, but see no reason for presuming that their technostructures would be different in composition and functions from those of other similar sized entities. Personnel, budgeting, debt management, and procurement policies and practices, probably. IT? collection of accounts receivable? Grants monitoring and acquisition? Cash management? My question was partially inspired by Irene Rubin's observation that cutback management must be centralized at the top of the organization.
Relevant answer
Answer
What I meant by centralizing cutback management is that the lower level programs and units are not well able to judge priorities between them, which is necessary for well managed cutback.  In the budget function, which is the one I know best, a combination of top down and bottom up budgeting seems to be the goal.  As in target based budgeting, the targets, and hence the priorities between units, are set by the centralized budget office while the decisions on what to cut back or what to add or how to shift resources, the priorities within units, are determined by the lower level managers.  The overall resource constraints, revenue estimation, needs to be a centralized function, though there may be minor funds collected and spent at lower levels.  Some fees and penalties might fit in that category.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
16 answers
All the Countries, whether Developed, Developing, under Developed, have budgetary allocation and generally  compare  with the National GDP. R&D is basically driven by Public and Private domain. Please giev your suggestion to decide budgetary allocation methods.
Relevant answer
Answer
Generally, the budget has mainly two functions. First, it estimates, as realistically as possible, the cost of completing the objectives identified in the project proposal. The sponsoring agencies will use the budget details to determine whether the proposal is economically feasible and realistic. Secondly, the budget provides a means to monitor the project's financial activities over the life of the project.Funding of science and technology (S&T) at the national and state levels since the launch of economic reforms in India.
1. It brings out that though more recently an improvement has been experienced in the gross budgetary support for S&T expenditure vis-à-vis other socio-economic activities but research and development (R&D) expenditure as a percentage of GDP is still the lowest among the BRICS group of countries. A comparative assessment of the current level of per capita national R&D expenditure also shows that the country is spending far less on R&D than the BRICS group of countries.
2. Analysis indicates that during the period of economic reforms mainly strategic S&T investments experienced an increase in their shares within publicly funded S&T. Assessment of the latest shares of civilian and strategic S&T departments shows that in the more recent allocations about sixty-four percent of investment in science and technology is going to the strategic S&T organizations, namely Defence Research and Development Organization (30.3%), Department of Atomic Energy (12.2%) and Department of Space (21.3%).
3. It also indicates that though in terms of sectoral contributions the share of Central Government itself declined from 79% to 71% in percentage terms, but the Central Government is still a major source of funds for the conduct of activities of civilian R&D in India.
4. It shows that while the share of private sector in national R&D expenditure increased but the private sector R&D intensity did not rise during the period of economic reforms.
5. It indicates that the central government dependent pattern of public funding of S&T continued. The share of state governments in S&T investment increased only for the states of Gujarat, West Bengal and Maharashtra.
6. Analysis of the pattern of extra-mural research (EMR) project funding indicates that its share in total S&T funding has decreased from the earlier level of nine percent to seven percent of expenditure on S&T by Central Scientific Departments.
7. it also indicates that the strategic S&T departments, receiving close to 63.8 % of the S&T outlays, provide only 7.77 % of the total EMR funds. The share of EMR funds is also small and decreasing in the case of socio-economic ministries.
8. It points out that though the share of public funding for thematic research is now higher than academic research schemes but the share of innovation-targeted research schemes still account for only 1 % of the total EMR funding.
9. Analysis of the EMR projects indicates that the same top ten institutions continue to attract a significant share of EMR funding.
10. The main change observed during the period of economic reforms relates to the fact of increased R&D funding to business enterprises for technology development from the government. In both, the S&T departments as well as the user departments, the Central Government could establish a wide variety of mechanisms for aiding the industry in technology development
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
I am looking for budgeting theories/models that can help libraries survice budget cuts.
Relevant answer
Answer
ACRL: Assessment in Action: Academic Libraries and Student Success at http://www.ala.org/acrl/AiA
"a program to strengthen the competencies of librarians in campus leadership and data-informed advocacy"
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
6 answers
Dear all,
Based on research and a wide range of evidence from both public and private sector organizations both in Australia and overseas, the best practices guide on budgeting produced by the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) in June 2008 details the characteristics and key elements of effective budget management. The guide examined effectiveness of the budget management system at best practice public organizations across three broad dimensions i.e. Embedding the budgeting processes into organizational planning and management; developing and implementing a comprehensive budget; and monitoring and evaluating budgeting performance. These elements were augmented by validation from the literature carried out as part of my study, where it emerged that essential factors that determine effectiveness of the budgeting in both public and private organizations seem to coalesce around these three interrelated elements. So, my question is can i use these three key elements in my case study research, as a means to devise a conceptual framework, for evaluating effectiveness of the budget management system in one public hospital located in Ethiopia, with appropriate modifications to reflect its context?
Thanks in advance for your valuable comments.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gedion,
I think it is a good idea to rely on a pre-existing framework for the sake of assurance and controllability. I think it is pretty difficult to develop your own framework from scratch that will be of a quality required by practice and by academia. Also, if you develop your own idea of something going beyond the established framework or even challenging it, you can test your idea against the framework and you will have a reliable source of reference.
Paul
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
20 answers
Since decades we are working on this aspect with plethora of models, modelers and projects at global scale. Still unit hydrograph, SCS CN and other synthetic means are appearing good enough or atleast base tools/methods. Reason is lack of real field data & commitment at micro scale. Every researcher prefer to work on a table placed in AC room and conducting experimental or other efforts in numerical form with end target of a publication in high impact journal. This weakness of micro level real data and real exposures to ground conditions, and a fear of loosing time & diluted research publication , keep away most researcher away from this challenging difficult task. This is the probable reason in my way of thinking , why even the best rainfall-runoff  models are giving equally bad answers/simulations what we get from simpler model, but here it is at higher costs. Researchers are shifting their attention towards high tech water balance water budgeting kind of phenomenon  excluding runoff overland component and getting more concentrated on remotely estimated other hydro logical constituents   like transpiration evapotranspiration moisture that too via setelite remote or sensors. Some time calling rainfall runoff modeling as ' gone era of hydrological research'  I personally feel disappointed with such kind of views. As on day, I am confident enough that even we are not in a position    to accurately define or parametrise the loss function in a rainfall runoff modeling and choose its value in very arbitrary manner, what to say about runoff prediction capabilities. Jumping towards a comfort zone just to be concentrated on publication and leaving aside understanding real ground schenerios is what I consider very much worrying situation what I guess/realize.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dr. Gaur, Unfortunately, you may be hitting the nail on the head, but as semi-retired, I may not be absolutely up to date.  Many researchgate questions seem to be about models to get them to function, rather than if they are applicable.  Modeling was a step in research after you developed a research plan, collected data, and tried to come up with relationships and understand watershed/stream functions.  The models of yesterday need a full review and update, perhaps rewrite or total revision.  As more and more hydrological data is collected and available, why are we not moving forward?  The problem may be as you say, many use what is available, crunch numbers in an office and do not conduct an appropriate degree of field review and data collection.  Today, we can get so much information from just GIS, and  research and stream gauging in general is perhaps getting underfunded.  Perhaps to some, hydrology is running models, maybe that is being taught too much.  And true, hydrology is not the easiest field to master, and the definition of a professional hydrologist may be blurred by the variability in expertise, as well as the complexity of water related subjects.  
Yes, hydrologists should be conducting field surveys, data collection, utilizing new technology especially LiDAR and high resolution aerial photos, testing and revising old models and developing new and improved ones.  There is nothing inherently wrong with high tech, but it should not replace attention to field data and developing that experience in being able to read the ground and stream conditions. Hydrology training should include some combination in existing models, data collection, analysis techniques and stream/watershed experience and field validation.  Hydrology studies are not necessarily quick, requiring long term funding and researcher committments.  Maybe there is a migration away, but many water issues affect life on this planet, so maybe the pendulum will swing back to better funding, long term committment, increased attention.
Regards, Bill
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
I am trying to find positive or negative effects of distributing of large sums of intergovernmental transfers in the sense of additional expenditures they may require from the budget-recipient. If the extra outlays are indeed caused could it be the case for unconditional transfers (grants) to be considered as a better instrument for providing the local budgets with the funds the need?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Evgeny,
I can’t remember any particular paper with estimation of earmarked grants effect on expenditure but in theory if we talk about matching grants they are designed to push local (regional) governments to spend money according to the goals of central (federal) government. In this case, local governments spend more comparing the situation without grants.
In the case of general grants local government spend money according to their own preferences. In this sense, general grants are more preferable for grant receivers (local governments).
See, for example, this book on different type of grants.
And if you have a look on the grants for financing National Projects in Russia in the 2005-2007 I’ll bet you’ll find a regional expenditure growth.
Regards,
Natalia
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
1 answer
Is there an agreed up on, comprehensive conceptual framework in the accounting literature for evaluating effectiveness of the budgeting system at a meso (organizational) level in case of hospitals ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gedion, 
I have done a search and you have 8 papers in Web-of-Science about that issue since 1990 until 2016.Please see the file attacehed. You have only 5 citations.
Have a nice time
Helena
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
2 answers
I am looking for evaluations of participatory budgeting
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Marilyn, 
Below I have attached some fairly recent references you might find some value in.  This Fabre (2015) reference is probably the most informative.
Fabre, A. (2015). An Overview of Participatory Budgeting.
Frey, R. (2014). Gender Responsive Budgeting, Participation and Transparency: Tensions or Synergies?.
Goldfrank, B. (2012). The world bank and the globalization of participatory budgeting. Journal of Public Deliberation, 8(2).
Harkins, C., & Egan, J. (2012). The role of participatory budgeting in promoting localism and mobilising community assets. Glasgow: Glasgow Centre for Population Health.
Jancovich, L. (2015). The participation myth. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 1-15.
Jaramillo, M., & Alcázar, L. (2013). Does Participatory Budgeting have an Effect on the Quality of Public Services?: The Case of Peru's Water and Sanitation Sector. Inter-American Development Bank.
Kim, S., & Schachter, H. L. (2013). Citizen participation in the budget process and local government accountability: Case studies of organizational learning from the United States and South Korea. Public Performance & Management Review, 36(3), 456-471.
Vlahov, D., & Caiaffa, W. T. (2013). Healthy urban governance and population health. The Urban Transformation: Health, Shelter and Climate Change, 63.
I hope these articles are useful.
Kind Regards,
Laura Chubb 
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
4 answers
I am writing about mental accounting especially mental budgeting. I need more review and detail theoretical about that topic. 
Relevant answer
Answer
I found this interesting paper by RICHARD H. THALER (1999) on mental accounting. You may find some answers from this paper.
Regards.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
I am conducting a study on practices of capital budgeting techniques. I want to study the relationship of Total assets, sales, project life, project size etc (independent variables) with various capital budgeting techniques like NPV, IRR, PB, Real option. etc (dependent variables) among the independent variables 2 are measured at nominal level and four are measured at continuous level. while all dependent variables are dichotomous (used/ not used). How could I frame these relationships theoretically in form of a graphic model. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Muhammad Imran
Greetings,
please find the attached file about your question may be useful and related for your topic.
Best Regards
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
Creating a presentation for government officials demonstrating the benefits and drawbacks of Program-Based Performance Budgeting, but cannot find any research on any type of impacts. The work I am finding is either institutional change, process evolution, or implementation  practices.
Demonstratable impacts at the sub-federal level are preferred, but anything with implied causation is helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is a meta analysis of performance budgeting, attached...Should you have any questions, I could reached at ylu@jjay.cuny.edu, or 631-867-6118 during the next week. I will be out of the country after that and email would be the best after that. 
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
Based on the literature review I expect the relation between budget participation (IV) and budget slack (DV) to be not significant, however budget participation seems to play a key role in the development of budget slack through the interaction with other factors. Therefore I expect the variables information asymmetry, budget emphasis and organizational commitment (all 3 MV) to moderate the not significant relation between participation and budget slack. I am also interested in the direct effect of these moderator variables.
My main questions are:
* Is it possible to research moderator interactions on a not significant relation
* Is is possible to use information asymmetry, budget emphasis and organizational commitment both as a moderator- and idependent variable
* Is it possible to perform a OLS Regression on this conceptual model
Relevant answer
Answer
I think it’s an interesting topic for doctoral thesis
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
1 answer
I am currently analyzing the CAPEX budgeting process regarding bank branches and I am trying to identify possible generalization to retail business of any type (businesses based on store chains).
Thank very much in advance and kind regards!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Rafael Castellote
greetings,
Please find the attached file may be useful and interesting for you,
Best Regards,
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
weaknesses in traditional budgeting and solutions for that
references to support the above.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use the Activity Based Budgeting
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
.
Relevant answer
Answer
 Thank you very much Mr. Bergmann. We based the estimates in our study on: Costs estimation is based on a phased implementation, where we consult the Regulatory Impact Assessment methodology. In order to estimate benefits, we use a microeconomic approach to assess technical efficiency (Data Envelopment Analysis-DEA and Stochastic Frontier Analysis-SFA) of the budget users. When the final version will be reviewed I will publish on Research Gate. Best regards, Borce
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
What are model and metod that one should measuring of impact of makroindicators on budget revenues
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear  Tatyana Kvasha 
Greetings,
Please see the three attached files many variables can used to measured the risk 
Best Regards
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
Can anyone suggest me  a good research on budget management and control in public hospitals (preferably a case study type)?
Thanks ahead! 
Relevant answer
Answer
A full understanding of the budget planning and preparation system is essential, not just to derive expenditure projections but to be able to advise policymakers on the feasibility and desirability of specific budget proposals, from a macroeconomic or microeconomic perspective. It is much easier to control government expenditures at the "upstream" point of budget preparation than later during the execution of the budget.
Thus, fiscal economists and general budget advisors need to know:
  1. what is the framework in which budget decisions are made; 
  2. who is responsible for planning and preparing the budget; 
  3. what are the typical weaknesses in procedures and how can these be overcome; and 
  4. Changes in budget plans be programmed and targeted?
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
6 answers
This is help for research 
Relevant answer
Answer
In Russia now introduced a system of budgeting for results. This system is aimed at the planning and funding of public expenditure with reference to a specific end results. For example, in the health financing uses governmental task each Agency, which prescribes what must be achieved for the year that funding was retained in the future. Such parameters can be, for example, reducing mortality by a certain percentage, or a reduction in the number of days spent sick in bed in the complete recovery, etc.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
11 answers
Can u suggest me a good research that has been conducted on budgeting and budgetary control system in a single hospital? Preferably in a public hospital?
I am doing organizational level research on budgeting and budgetary control system in one public hospital, so i need good priori researches that has been conducted on the issue. Thank you in advance for your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
The study is posted in the system researchgate.net on my page. The name "finances of the public (municipal) institutions". Unfortunately a study in Russian. we hope you can solve the problem with the help of an online translator. also there is an article on medical institution under the name of EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF THE REFORM OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE STATE AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTION OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
5 answers
Hello respected people, i have got one question today. I am looking for information about the budget preparation process in hospitals. As i read from many books, many hospitals follow bottom- up approach. This is to say that various clinical unit heads present their departmental budget requests to the finance department of the organization, which compiles the various components in to the master budget. Then the finance department  present the budget request to the budget committee/ the top management . And once all budget negotiation and revisions have been completed between department heads and top managers the budget finally will get approved. But what i want to know is that the extent to which clinicians / medical professionals such as doctors and nurses  participate in  budgeting process in hospitals. Do clinicians (clinician managers ) in hospitals really have budget responsibility ( in addition to clinical responsibilities) in managing their unit?      Of course it may vary from one hospital to another depending on the place/ context but i want to know the practice in which the majority of hospitals follow in different places. Thank you. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gedion,
 I think your question is really interesting!
From my experience as a hospital director at public hospitals in Sweden, but also from research in health care services (Nordgren 2003, 2015, Nylinder 2012) I will underpin that the budget process at hospitals has to be managed as a creative and thrusted dialogue between those in management and those at the clinical level as well as with the hospital board and it has to be communicated all the time. There are many reasons for this co-creation of the budget.
The first reason is to create understanding of the conditions and context, i.e. the contingencies for the budget as well as for the hospital. In what economic situation is the hospital situated and how does the compensation system work? There are many contingencies that affect the budget control process. Therefore the budget Control process has become matched with circumstances concerning the specific environment where the hospital operates.
The second reason is to communicate and discuss openly the vision and goal for the hospital in terms which are understood of all people working at the hospital. So the language of communication is important.
The third reason is to work with quality and service as management concepts and tools in order to co-create value for patients and stakeholders and moreover to create good financial conditions for the hospital.
Fourthly it should be pinpointed that those professionals, which ‘have’ the highest positions and status at the clinical level influence the budget control process and the use of resources. Therefore they are positioned as responsible and have authority in exercising budget decisions. In this meaning the system could be described as decentralized. The role of central management is to exercise control of the total budget.   
There is a tendency of people to be influenced by the previous highest (or best) level of a factor in the budget process. This tendency means that it is quite hard to bring change into a budget. The focus is therefore often on minor changes since most of the budget is predetermined from previously decisions.
At last, In Sweden the professionals as a rule participate in the budget process and are perceived as responsible.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
4 answers
Hi everyone.
The problem is that I need a set of quarterly CAB time series for different countries which don't publish such estimates. So I need some easy way to do calculation proxy. Is it a good idea just to run regression of Primary Surplus in period t on GDP Cycle in period t? The residuals then are an approximation of CAB.
Relevant answer
Answer
Two things to take into account are: taking seasonally adjusted data (many countries spend in december); consider cyles by using both gdp growth (below and over average) and levels. Another possible extension would be to use lags.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
For our research centre I'm trying to find a good software tool that takes care of most/all aspects of contract and grant funded research projects. I haven't found one that integrates applications, financial management, time management, collaboration, all in one place. Does anyone have a tip? 
The tool I'm looking for should be user friendly and should handle:
- managing grant / contract applications / tenders
- budgeting
- keeping track of hours worked by team members
- financial tracking
- collaborating during the actual research project
- task management with milestones, automatic reminders
- document editing/revising
- removes the need to send e-mails outside the system
I can find lots of tools that do some of these things, but none that do them all and are actually user friendly. The best thing I found so far is called EMDESK but it's specifically aimed at European research.
If anyone has a good tip you will have my eternal gratitude.. :)
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mandy,
you need some sort of project management software like MS-Project. That should come with your microsoft copy office. It is quite good in terms of producing charts, workflows, cashflows etc. 
ProjectLibre is a good alternative and it is open source, hence free.
Hope that helps
Nikos
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
my research is to quantify how chronic budget deficit lead to current account deficit
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use a this case the cointegration method or ARDL bound and you must apply the granger causality test to know who cause the other ? and you have more method which you may use as neural network.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
How to use time series analysis to analyse budget components such as National Debt, GDP and unemployment trends over years? Which parameters to be captured and which software can be used in this case?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can run Johansen Jesulius cointegration, Vecm, Granger causality by using any software namely eviews or stata, microfit. Firstly you must be clear with the theories for understanding their relationship and impacts on budget, then go for stationarity and the above mentioned test
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
19 answers
At the outset, let me apologize for sharing this question to all my RG contacts. 
In contemporary development agenda, gender responsive budgeting has emerged an effective tool to address gender gaps, if it is applied properly. There are some countries that have implemented the GRB tool in all their sectors/ministries/departments, as well as some countries have given it a try in a few selected ministries/departments/sectors – e.f. education or women affairs– to see the results. How is the situation/level in terms of implementation and the results – if any - of GRB in your country? You can provide your general opinion as well. Any relevant reference will be much appreciated. Thank you in advance for your time in answering this question. Information provided will be very important for me. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Pahlaj,
Hungary must be at such a high level of gender emancipation that I have not even heard or read on the gender responsive budgeting. I think this is an important issue in EU because some years ago I have translated an official EU text.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
3 answers
Geospatial technologies have succeeded in developing new aspects of research and even, new products, especially at the high-tech sector of the economy. However, there is not enough information for the contribution of GIS to different productive and operating systems in different sectors of economy. Besides the producers of GIS packages, I am not very sure if there are organizations or researchers that could estimate the contribution of GIS in different economic sectors and I would really like to know what methodology they use.
Relevant answer
Answer
Companies like ESRI use to have some "commercial" (advertisment) reports about GIS economical impact. I think Global Spatial Infrastructure (GSDI) can have any report about economical impacts as well as World Bank. In most of the cases GIS technology works as a part of new bussines infrastructure and I think it has different impacts in different activities. As a part of a new infrastructure its contribution to the improvement of bussines is sometimes intagible. anyway, I think you can also have a good idea about GIS economical impact in a specific actity like cadastre. See what is happening in countries or states where taxes are based on digital cadastre vs non digital cadastre. Try to look to the FIG congress too if there are any information about the subject you are interested on.
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
6 answers
The question is more in prominence in the context of Business Schools all over the world wherein the business community believes that the research being churned out has no relevance to their work or world. Is this an analogous situation with 'popular choice' awards versus 'critics choice' awards in case of film industry?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prof Mukul ,
You have raised an important question. Relevance Vs Rigor.
I may like to label it as R vs r !
In my view, both are needed and needed in right quantity ! At times , due to time pressures or due to business dynamics, one has to do research which may lack rigor BUT meets the need adequately. This could be followed up later by adding rigor. Initially,as an experienced management researcher, one may raise certain proportions or share certain insights. The next set of research may complement this by adding rigor and various tests of validity.
Sometimes sharing insights may lead to high quality research. Sometimes, rigorous may lead to attracting attention of researchers who may assess its relevance.
For example: economic meltdown attracted lot of relevant research which was later followed by mathematical models having sufficient rigor.
Indirectly, this debate also takes a shape of quantitative vs qualitative research !. Qualitative research may be high on relevance scale and quantitative research may be high on rigor scale. I call it as Q vs q dilemma. For the management research to progress both Q and q are indeed needed.
I also agree with Prof Bhakar's view that business and academic research may have differential requirements. I would add that both are needed for management education and research to progress !
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
17 answers
While unemployment is soaring and government debt is on the rise, some governments have made it a habit to cut down on public frontline services thus making it even harder for the population segment that needs those services, especially those who lost their jobs in the crisis and are struggling to feed their families. How legitimate is such action?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mohamed
No !
Public service is a set of activities and services related to state administration through its agents and representatives , but also exercised by other entities , even individuals, aiming to promote well -being to the population .
Public services tend to be regarded as essential to modern life that their universal provisions need to be guaranteed for moral reasons , and some are even associated with basic human rights such as universal access to water.
The interest of the community to be able to allow the interruption of essential public service - constitutionally guaranteed - can only by some kind of fraud practiced by the user and , therefore , may cause some injury to the collectivity. The suspension of service provision only after a court order , is shown in the made ​​to the defaulting consumer can pay the bill - that is, taking economic and financial conditions for this, do not do it . Only with judicial authorization service could be interrupted .
  • asked a question related to Budgeting
Question
6 answers
The Pro-Poor Budgeting is expected to contribute to improvement of access of the poor to quality social services and infrastructure.
Relevant answer
Answer
I highly recommend you to read and use the Part IV POVERTY AND EQUITY: POLICY AND GROWTH, of the book POVERTY AND EQUITY. MEASUREMENT, POLICY AND ESTIMATION by Jean-Yves Duclos and Abdelkrim Araar (2006). Chapter 12 Poverty alleviation: Policy and growth is amazing, where you will find ALL you need to know about "budgeting" with abscence of redistributive costs as well as adding cost incurred for a given total budget spent on the poor, in both nice theoretical and practical levels. Also on its pages 234 & 235 much references are given for research done realted to budgetary rules under the more specific objective on poverty reduction. It has a full section of all posible effects on poverty from propoor growth as well.