Science topic

Broadcasting - Science topic

The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
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We all know that fertilizer increase the OM growth but the application of fertilizer have a great role in this mechanism.. myself Udit want to know about the fertilizer application method and OM content in soil.
Thank you
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An interesting question . The rhizocompetent microbes would prefer broadcast method of fertilizer application , uniformly available to microbes spatially over band placement ...it will be an interesting execise to evaluate the crop response under two different methods of fertilizer applications vis-a-vis microbial growth ( population counts and diversity as well).
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I am looking for research idea in Satellite Communication systems for my master research. I work in Broadcasting. Your good suggestions will be highly valued. Thank you
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I am going to investigate the electric field strength in broadcast station due to some complain concerning the health situation of the employees.
Thank to everyone that can help.
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Thank you all for your help, However I have found a device that suits the study's requirements.
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Without using triangulation, how might one broadcast a signal that would only be picked up by one antenna out of the many present?  Or, if not one antenna, then perhaps just a few close by.  These antenna are not stationary.  We can use any frequency that we want, although a higher frequency would be best.  Each antenna has a slightly different Q, length, and width.
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Using directional antenna for one receiver would make it large antenna to concentrate the radiation in small angle making it very directive. If one could make a pencil like beam this would be a very suitable solution. It will also very power efficient. The ability of the designing antennas with high directivity increases with the increase of the frequency. If the use of optical communication system is allowed, then one can use laser beams. The use of MIMO system can be used to focus the radiation on an intended direction and null it in other specific radiation.
A second solution is to use a coded transmissions. such those used in the code division multiple accessing. The one which is very simple is to encrypt the data transmitted such that it can be only decrypted by the one who has the key.
Best wishes
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Today news over entire world is ready at fingertip. Also it creates lot of junk news which one may not interested at all. Is there any system developed to fetch only the important happenings and broadcast as online FM station (a automated FM station). How design such automated FM station to which can collected information from various online news channels and broadcast only important news as audio based on predefined categories of news. Is possible to develop mobile app for such application?
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"Design" is a wide topic. You might mean the transmitter, tower,antenna and studios. You might mean design of the automation system. Or you might mean design of the programming content.
Regardless of your automated programming, you need a source for the programming, either that you purchase of produce yourself for later broadcast. How you to this depends on the programming you decide is best for your audience.
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Business economics theories related to broadcasting.
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You need to examine what was once known as "industrial organization" which arose from the theory of the firm. Specifically, the analysis of "natural monopolies" is important. The radio spectrum if not regulated would award monopolies in specific markets. Analyses go beyond radio waves to other utilities. The underlying proposition was to provide service at reasonable rates to consumers as well as provide profits to firms. The US experience differs from other countries where many utilities are owned by governments. The Federal Communications Commission has a significant history of economic studies.
Currently in the United States there is concern over the monopolization of all media in which broadcasting corporations are allowed to have several stations in a single market as well as owning newspapers and other communication media. Underlying all of this in the US is to ensure consumers access to information. With all of the new media, internet, for example, the issue is more complex.
Broadcasting firms investment, pricing, and similar elements of economics. I suggest that you start with a basic economics textbook and then search the vast literature on the economics the industry. There are probably 100s of thousands of studies. You need to define which area is of interest.
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The approach should meet technical criteria, application in sports marketing, and include all the complementarity of the sports system.
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Dear Sretenka,
Maybe the following papers will help you:
Noll RG. BROADCASTING AND TEAM SPORTS. STANFORD INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC POLICY RESEARCH. February, 2007. http://www-siepr.stanford.edu/repec/sip/06-016.pdf
Andrews J. TACKLING THE DIGITAL FUTURE OF SPORTS JOURNALISM: A look at sports journalism in the United Kingdom and United States. 2011. http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/media/documents/reports/robert_bell_report_april11.pdf
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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DVB= digital video broadcasting
the software can be a Matlab/simulink implementation or a stand alone software
i have gathered TV signal from the air and now i need a software that can convert this signal to video.
thanks for your time.
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In windows you can download a binary/executable version of ffmpeg. See https://www.ffmpeg.org/ for more information. The same with mplayer.
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I want to find secrecy rate of a main channel in case of Gaussian broadcast channel. e.g. I have a single transmitter and a receiver where eavesdropper wants to eavesdrop the communication over secondary channel. What will be the information rate, so eavesdropper can be kept ignorant of sent message
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Thanks Rob, But I am looking for channel with log normal distribution. In referred paper they consider Raleigh fading. I am interested to find average secrecy capacity instead of outage probability of secrecy capacity.
thanks
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I am not a speaker of Spanish, but I teach media and am wondering about the dialect or accent of Spanish used in Spanish language media across the United States.
Is it based on the version of Spanish spoken in the region where the media outlet exists? Is there an overall preferred accent (like Midwest English is the preferred American English accent)?
What form of Spanish should a "Spanish Media" academic program in the US teach?
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I would doubt there to be one "preferred" dialect or "accent" because the hispanic population in the U.S. is incredibly diverse. The image that I attached to my reply is from the webpage whose link is separated below and shows origin statistics from hispanics in the US.
With regard to these statistics, even percentages like 3% need to be taken seriously because of the sheer volume of Spanish speakers in the U.S. (52,000,000 as of 2014, meaning Mexico is the only other country in the world with more Spanish speakers; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_where_Spanish_is_an_official_language).
There is likely to be a diversity of national origins and dialects within Spanish-speaking media outlets that is fairly representative of the nation at large. I say this, however, with one caveat. Some regions have many more people from certain origins. For example, most Cubans are in Florida, there is a high concentration of Puerto Ricans in New York, and there tend to be higher concentrations of Central Americans in large cities or near the gulf coast (https://collagegroup.com/2015/04/14/differences-spanish-dialects/). This could--and this is only conjecture--make it so that although Mexican-origin hispanics make up about 64% of all U.S. hispanics, there may be a percentage of Mexicans working in media outlets incongruent with this 64%. I say this because most media outlets are in larger cities, so I would semi-confidently venture such to be the case in places like New York and Florida, at the very least.
Why do I bring this up? I brought it up in order to highlight the diversity of origin/heritage in U.S. hispanics as well as other factors that could make Spanish-speaking media reporters even more diverse than a simple across the board look at the U.S. as a whole would seem to suggest.
With all of this in mind, however, and despite the origin/heritage of any given reporter, there most likely exists--and is currently evolving/being defined or led by big media players such as Univision as Mahmood pointed out--a sort of standard Spanish that reporters will gravitate to just like there is a very particular way for English-speaking reporters to talk.
All in all, I really doubt there is a "preferred accent or dialect" for Spanish language media beyond a striving for a the most neutral and universally intelligible dialect a reporter can muster.
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Hi, I am working as farm broadcaster. I am doing research on impact of my farm broadcast's on farmers in my area. I would also like to measure its impact in developing agriculture and rural economy in my program covering zone. I would like to know if any one is doing similar kind of research or know about such media research works can  guide me please.
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This is a novel job of farm broadcaster, especially in agriculture, it's simply a call of the day. We need to take technologies to farm to raise individual farm productivity for those countries whose economy is agriculture driven and so dependent upon vagaries of monsoon
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is it same or different for all three? if it differs then how to calculate energy dissipation for unicast, multicast, and broadcast at the same distance?
Scenario: Cluster based wireless sensor network. 
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You should first find out if your sensor PHY or MAC layers even differentiate between unicast, multicast, and broadcast.
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I am using CCNx Protocol implemented in Contiki OS. Details of this implementation are available in the given link. And source code for this protocol is also given in attachment. In this protocol, broadcast mode is implemented. I want to use this protocol in multicast or unicast mode. Whats changes will be required. Code for broadcast mode is given in ccn_driver.c file which is present in this folder contiki/core/net/ccn.
Your advantageous and valuable help is required.
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I am using ubuntu 16.04 (64 bit) and unable to compile for sky or cooja on contiki 2.6. This I get while compiling on cooja simulator for sky.
msp430-gcc -DCONTIKI=1 -DCONTIKI_TARGET_SKY=1 -DWITH_CCN=1 -Os -fno-strict-aliasing -ffunction-sections -Wall -mmcu=msp430f1611 -g -DPROJECT_CONF_H=\"ccn-conf.h\" -I. -I../../platform/sky/. -I../../platform/sky/dev -I../../platform/sky/apps -I../../platform/sky/net -I../../cpu/msp430/f1xxx -I../../cpu/msp430/. -I../../cpu/msp430/dev -I../../core/dev -I../../core/lib -I../../core/net -I../../core/net/ccn -I../../core/net/mac -I../../core/net/rime -I../../core/net/rpl -I../../core/sys -I../../core/cfs -I../../core/ctk -I../../core/lib/ctk -I../../core/loader -I../../core/. -I../../platform/sky/ -MMD -c ../../core/net/ccn/ccn.c -o obj_sky/ccn.o
In file included from ../../core/net/ccn/ccn.c:33:0:
/usr/lib/gcc/msp430/4.6.3/../../../../msp430/include/signal.h:43:2: attention : #warning msp430-libc <signal.h> deprecated, using <legacymsp430.h> [-Wcpp]
../../core/net/ccn/ccn.c:39:24: erreur fatale: sys/unistd.h : Aucun fichier ou dossier de ce type
compilation terminée.
../../Makefile.include:200 : la recette pour la cible « obj_sky/ccn.o » a échouée
make: *** [obj_sky/ccn.o] Erreur 1
Please help!
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while using third order program to generate third order force constant, I    am getting this error. help me to get out of it. I have used a 3X3 supercell for a monolayer 
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I think you should add more information to your question. The error message says that you try to operate with arrays having incompatible dimensions, but it not possible to say anything more than that. You should not expect people on RG to be psychics.
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I have a question in NS2 . I am simulating a Vanet scenario where there is a group of vehicles in topology of 1 km * 1 km. There is one leader vehicle among them that should broadcasts a packet to all the vehicles and all other vehicles should reply back. Of course there are some vehicles that will be far from the transmission range of the leader. How the packets sent from the leader will reach the other vehicles and vice versa?. 
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Hello sir, I have the same problem about how to broadcast security message in VANET.
Could you please help me?
Thanks in advance...
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In RPL (Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks), to maintain a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graphs), each node periodically generates DIO messages triggered by the trickle timer.
If the rank value of a node has changed after recalculation (due to update of ETX after data transmission), does the node issue a DIO message to broadcast the updated rank immediately or waiting for the trickle timer?
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RPL topology formation:
The DODAG(destination-oriented directed acyclic graph)  is built based on the information of DODAG information object (DIO) messages (ICMPv6 messages defined in RPL). These messages contain a DODAGID, rank information, and objective function.
DIO packets are first sent by the root and then periodically by each node of the DODAG after calculation of its own rank. The rate at which the DIO messages are being sent is dynamically tuned, using the Trickle algorithm[16]. In the absence of changes in the DODAG structure, the algorithm doubles the period of the DIO messages after each transmission of a DIO messages; otherwise, the trickle timer is reset to send the DIO messages more frequently in order to propagate the updated DODAG quickly.
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hai every one, i have one doubt, with FM broadcast signals i started modeling the passive bistatic radar, where i received one signal from target(echo signal,moving target with constant velocity), another signal from direct path(called reference signal) these two signals were correlated and got some peak(s), now my problem is how can i prepare threshold and how can i detect the target,
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One good way of verifying the proper functioning of your detector is through Monte Carlo simulations. They allow estimating the exact threshold value for guaranteeing a given false alarm probability. I have used this method for the Weibull distribution in the following paper.
Good Luck!
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I have a question regarding the signals broadcast by nodes in VANET. I wanted to know when a node broadcasts a signal to the medium is it always with same power. Like does the node just take the maximum interference range and broadcasts. Or does it vary in every case.
I simulated the case of keeping static receiver and mobile transmitting node using VEINS simulator for VANET. Now if the sender is moved from a far off distance towards the receiver there is not much losses but if I modify the same with the sender being placed nearer to receiver and starts moving far away there is significant losses.
So my question is if the broadcast of signals vary with the environment or are there any specific parameters that define the broadcasting techniques for any given node.
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I believe it would be good if you could further detail your scenario:
- Are you considering 1-hop broadcast transmissions or multihop?
- If multihop, what is the broadcasting (dissemination) protocol used?
- What propagation model are you considering?
Communication range is not a deterministic parameter if you are considering a realistic propagation model (see e.g. reference attached to this answer).
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I would like to broadcast a message... but want to stop a particular node receiving this broadcast message... is there any we to do this in run time... can we able to change a channel of a node or the RF power a node for a particular time in TinyOS
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thank you muhammad i will check to turn off RF
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for example DSTV and STARTIMES
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My answer is not to do with technology but to do with newsworthiness, and the availability of those channels to those wanting to broadcast...
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I am interest in a good text about the law protection of this type of rights in comparative law.
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Just because I was studying this case, it might be helpful for the purpose of your question.
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I am going to do a quasi-experimental cross sectional study that measures the effect of new broadcasts on the fear of death compared to psychological distance. The idea is to divide the participants into two groups of equal size. One group sees a montage of news items including: the Ukraine crisis, a Boko Haram attack and an oil crisis in Brazil. The second group gets the same video but instead of the Boko Haram item it will show an item about the recent Paris terrorist attacks. I am not sure how to effectively measure death anxiety in this case because I want to have a before and after the video result so we can see what effect the videos have on the fear of death. Could anyone help me out?
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Is there any way this could be measured in a questionairre? This is for a school project in which we need to use a questionairre, we want to use one questionairre before hand and one after but with similar questions.
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i broadcast a packet from one node to another
and not all packets received
sent 20 packets and received 16 ,, why ?
using TunableMAC protocol
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good
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i work on deployment of AUVs to achieve coverage in UWSN
i need each AUV  get position information of its neighbor to make decide for next move. I do not need routing protocol, just normally one node
broadcast packet and neigboring nodes receive that packet.
i didn't know how the node can send message that contains its position information to all of its neighbor?
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Hi , in Aquasim is very simple
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Does anybody know of any case where any government/regime complained to the British government about the BBC broadcasting of any news/programmes, similar to governments complains to the Qataris about Al Jazeera's broadcasting some of its news/programmes?
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The short answer is yes. Michael above provided the link. but not much will change.
About news broadcast and its content, the purpose of informing the masses seems like an excuse to launch institutional/government agenda. You have a choice not to watch their broadcast. The issue is when you watch their news from the perspective of the foreigner, you want to complain. Overseas news/programs are at times advocacies of sorts seeking acceptance of ideology foreign to native audience.
Next, broadcast organizations need permission to broadcast locally. With or without permission, they spray their footprints globally, anyone with a dish and a tracker can follow news legally or illegally. Following the experience of Mr. Chuks Agoha of Nigeria, Malaysia's state broadcaster once suspended the subscription of CNN and then reinstated it.
Finally, the British left behind a Public Broadcasting Model that relates quite closely to the nature of the democratic nature of the nation. In a continuum of models, I believe Pakistan followed a socially responsible model of broadcasting just like the BBC. However I would not say that both countries or institutions are now socially responsible. They have evolved from their original practices. one is championing the cause of the west and Pakistan is essentially an Islamic broadcaster. 
Therefore there is bound to be ideological differences in audience reception.  
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YouTube live streaming or live broadcasting
(events such as Golden Globe Awards or live matches)
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You can be sure that a sizeable portion of your audience is on YouTube. YouTube is reporting 3 billion hours of video streamed per day. And you can now broadcast live, inside of that stream. Who wouldn’t want a piece of that for their business?
Live YouTube streaming is not just on a computer platform. Most modern smartphones can take a YouTube live stream and more and more smart television sets are coming with that capacity as well.
Not only can you partner with the biggest video network in the world, but you can also broadcast, through them, to every screen that can take a live Internet video feed. Google’s billions in profit is making that possible for you.
Live streaming, even free, is not new to the Internet. But it’s now much easier and allows more businesses the opportunity to reach a wider audience by integrating live streaming into their marketing plan.
Consider leveraging this infrastructure for your business now.
YouTube Mobile (seen here on an iPhone, but this is true for any mobile device) lists "Live" before event "Playlists" or "Subscriptions"—it's a big deal!
Consider your live-streaming content options.
Spend some time to find the right live-streaming strategy to suit your personality and needs. You are about to share your video content on a social media platform that could potentially bring lots of exposure to you and your business.
In addition to live streaming while you are directly in front of the camera, you can alsoshare your desktop content.
Does the idea of a camera pointed at your face broadcasting to the world scare you bit? Don’t worry. There are a variety of tools that exist to help you.
For example, you can use a PowerPoint presentation or a Keynote slide deck to share content on your desktop during your live-streaming broadcast.
And you’re not even limited to these pricey office suites. Products like Prezi or Mind Mapping products all make for compelling screen presentations.
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what is the best polarization&modulation for broadcasting digital tv with satelite Geo ?
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Sorry for the laconic reply on the merits. I believe that the health and future of life - often need to arrange jogging or walking in the park. It is necessary to find a pleasant experience in nature, and discuss news with friends or acquaintances who are professionally versed in politics and economics. If you have a desire to see a play or listen to an opera and a concert, it is better to go to the theater. It will be remembered for a long time. Then for digital TV will be a minimum of time. And that's great. After all, health and longevity is more important.
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Since 2001/2002, the Brazilian Supreme Court broadcast all it's judgements. The experience show us interesting situations, as judges laughing and teasing other judges (a.ex. Criminal Suit n. 470, in witch Justice Marco Aurélio called Justice Roberto Barroso "the beginner", then the newer Justice on the Court.
We aslo could see Justices discussing ideas disrespectfully, almost fighting, like when the Justice Nelson Jobim asked, on the Judgments of the Direct Unconstitutional Suit n. 2925, the follow question: "and the curious thing is that the Supreme Court is holding against the government of the Republic dishonesty, and for whom? National Confederation of Transport!".
In another judgment, the President of the Court, Justice Ricardo Lewandowsky did a public recognition of his own ignorance of a specific legal theory, one of the most famous and well-known legal theory of the country, saying he never heard that theory before, being interrupted with a laugh humorous by justices Gilmar Mendes and Luiz Fux, talking about the extensive discussion and knowledge of such theory.
In the same judgment (RE 608.482/RN) the Justice Roberto Barroso showed technically not know the difference between something important in the world of law, as the difference between trial injunction and judgment on the merits, and heard the Justice Teori Zavascky ask ironically: "then we'll start discussing process here, now?", and the Justice Marco Aurélio also Asked to call one of the most important Brazilian civil procedure professors, José Carlos Barbosa Moreira, to solve the question.
The live broadcast of the Judgements of Supreme Court trilas is a good thing, even when it show us the worst side of the Justice, as the bad side of the human being? Or it is a bad idea broadcast Supreme Court trials, because it brings some degree of loss of respectability for justice?
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It is an important principle that the public should be able to see justice in action. Access of the public to the courts is written into some constitutions. When you go to court you would not see the judges' internal arguments about their final decision, and that presumably would not be broadcast either. All that might be broadcast is what goes on in open court. 
There is an argument - that has been made here -- against broadcasting proceedings involving witnesses. They might well feel that their (probably stressful and perhaps embarassing) appearance in court ought not to be the stuff of popular entertainment!
But don't we need to 'unpack' the idea that broadcasting what judges say in open court  would diminish the respect in which judges and justice are held? If they behave in an undignified way, whose fault is that? Legislators still seem to do that even with the cameras on them!
We used to say that judges should wear wigs and other fancy dress to enhance the respect in which they are held. Many countries (by no means all) have moved away from that. 
In Kenya most judges no longer wear wigs - and lawyers are not expected to wear fancy dress either in most courts. And the presidential election petition before the Supreme Court in 2013 was broadcast live.
If you have a serious interest in this subject, you could do worse than to read the judgments in the South African Constitutional Court in South African Broadcasting Corporation Limited v National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others (CCT58/06) [2006] ZACC 15; 2007 (1) SA 523 (CC); 2007 (2) BCLR 167 (CC), which you can find at http://www.saflii.org/za/cases/ZACC/2006/15.html
The case involved an appeal against the ruling of the Supreme Court of Appeal refusing the State Broadcasting Corporation permission to broadcast a forthcoming and newsworthy appeal hearing. The majority observed that the case concerned " the right of South Africans to know and understand the manner in which one of the three arms of government functions, namely, the judiciary. This is a strong constitutional consideration. The right of the people to be informed of judicial processes presupposes that courts are open and accessible. The fact that courts do their work in the public eye is a key mechanism for ensuring their accountability. As we have already said, this case is also about the obligation upon courts to ensure that accused people have a fair trial." 
The Court decided not to interfere with the Supreme Court of Appeal's decision. It said that decision was not clearly wrong - even if the CC itself might have reached a different decision. It discusses many of the issues - with the stress on the rights of the public to know and the necessity to ensure a fair trial.
Justice Sachs made the following interesting observations:
"As a general rule I would say that appeal courts are under a constitutional obligation to facilitate public understanding of how they work, and this ordinarily would require granting of full access to electronic media. There might be exceptional cases where special factors regarding privacy or national interest might justify limiting exposure, but these would apply to the press as well as to the electronic media. There is one systemic problem however that has specific relevance to television and radio. This relates to the special dangers of distortion brought about by selective presentation....." 
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transport agent UDP
routing agent AODV
NS2 Simulator
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i guess u are referring to the control packet broadcast (since u have mentioned routing agent),  in ns2 for the control packets i dont think udp header is allowed for control packets. BUt in actual kernel implementation, control messages are received via udp.
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Concerns on interference of wind turbines and wind turbine parks on the distribution of RF broadcast signals, point-to-point radio links and radar are raised from time to time. The interference would be caused by scattering of the signals of the turbine blades, intermittent shadowing by the rotor blades and in a turbine park even by the number of large (forest) of vertical support structures. To avoid following unvalidated opinions I would like to collect as many scientific research articles on this issue as possible. Target frequencies are between 80 and 800 MHz, although other frequencies are welcome too. Any suggestions of titles and authors are very welcome!
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Thanks Eric, very useful!
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I am specifically interested in the discourse of baseball commentators on television.
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You might want to contact Torsten Müller (University of Bochum, http://www.es.rub.de/personal.php?id=28). He has published a monograph and a couple of articles on the language of football (= soccer) some years ago. 
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Gannett Tuesday became the latest media company to separate its publishing assets, which include USA Today, from broadcast and digital businesses. The move is the latest in a string of similar actions by the likes of Time Warner TWX +2.24% and News Corp NWSA +0.85%., which have both separated slow-growing print segments from more profitable television divisions.
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Eso es obvio doctor. Me parece que lo interesante en este caso es tratar de ver si el resto de las grandes corporaciones van a seguir el mismo camibo. Y si maniobras como la de Murdoch podráin repetirse con esos u otros protagonistas. Gracias por su respuesta en español
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I need to see opinions from physicists and radio/TV broadcast engineers as to the possible explanation of a video signal being gradually interfered with until it vanishes on the receiving TV monitor. Total elapsed time is usually 20 to 30 minutes. Once the set-up is complete, there are no changes made to transmitting power or anything else. The signal is being transmitted through a rotating electromagnetic field. This experiment has been repeatedly conducted with the same results.
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While we are waiting for your book to get out online, can you please give us some more details about your time travel geometry ? I already know that you think a closed time-like curve, as seen in four dimensions, has a spiral shape. So when you look at it a little bit, it looks like a couple of parallel circles like parallel dimensions as you are going back in time. So its no more a closed but an open time-like curve if we follow an easy reasoning. But what do you think about the possibility of targetting exact parallel time coordinates, and then come back to our own parallel reality and if its all done in the time it takes to do our round-trip from our present to a precise parallel past and the comeback ?
I imagine that until the wormhole generated by a STDTS signal stays open its ok and the time spent in the past remains the same as if you stayed in the present, but if we cut or lose the signal and try to reconnect, do you think we'll be able to reach the same time coordinates ? Is it just a question of precise modulations-settings of the STDTS signal or a power increasing matter, like the more you have a high input of energy to supply your STDTS, the further you can go back in time throught that kind of spiral shaped tunnel ? 
Also, if you just want to use the STDTS as planetary transportation system, how do you do to always stay in the same parallel reality (our own) but travel great distances in few seconds ? Finally, how can you use the STDTS as a space travel machine in our local timeline and as a time machine in parrallel timeline ?  I know that space and time are indistinguishable, but I need your lights to go further in my reasoning.
Thanks a lot again Marshall for your time, but this will soon be no more a matter for you with a time machine !!! 
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In normal networks, Broadcasting is performed by using a specfic IP address called "Broadcasting address" (e.g. 193.169.1.255).
How it works on WSN?
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It depends on the technology you are using, for IEEE 802.15.4 you have to set the 'destination PAN identifier' field and 'destination address' field to 0xFFFF in the packet's MAC header.