Questions related to Branding
Nonfunctional Requirements or Quality Factors of Any Concept
Any concept's (and any domain Knowledge's) functional and nonfunctional's requirements represent the problem space, and we don't know how to define and state (disaster) that corresponds to what we will do with any concept.
Both functional and nonfunctional are executable.
Nonfunctional requirements have 10+ innovative keys and essential properties:
1. Quality, morals, and beauty factors
2. Enduring themes
3. Positive goals
4. Unified System (Unification)
6. Control the functional requirements. and behavior of the concept
7. Evaluation and Assessment
8. Measurement -- Qualitative Measurements
9. Descriptive Adequacy (Unified, stable, final Definition of any concept)
11. Positive Energy
Does anyone know the nonfunctional requirements of Any Concept or Any Domain Knowledge? The answer is NO.
Nonfunctional requirements are a creative key that we must explore.
Therefore, this is an invitation for gurus and experts to collaborate and write an entire book on any concept or domain knowledge.
I want to research about international brand and How change people think about my country.
please help to find the dimension of international branding and introduce me new article about this subject.
i want to use this research to improve my country image all over the world.
Do you have any companies in mind that are currently successfull because of their design and do not follow a minimalistic approach (like Apple or Porsche design does)? Maybe some that use a more playful or even psychedelic approach to product design...
I completed my first year PhD in the area of networking under uncertainty. The reason I chose that topic is that I have close relationships with organisations where I could get sufficient respondents for my study (and I was mildly interested in it). That's probably the wrong reason. I am starting again at another institution and have a choice of two universities - the one school has a focus on entrepreneurship and the other on branding. I'm looking for a topic that will include both (entrepreneurship and branding), so that I can submit one concept note. Any suggestions for a contemporary question that needs answering?
As the question states, I am currently doing some revisions for a paper on personal branding for artists. Although I have found enough theory in the influencer marketing area, I am interested in more narrowly focused work that focuses on graphic artists and fine art photographers. I am looking for literature references that address the position of the artist in a marketing-driven world. References can be doctoral dissertations, master thesis, bachelor thesis, or articles (not earlier than 2018).
After publishing the co-authored paper about the purpose branding last year (attached), I'm working on the purpose luxury branding paper about luxury-art cooperation in radical changes in aesthetic practices now. My initial insight is that the incumbent luxury brand makes a radical change in the aesthetic practice when cooperating with an artist in a project that provides a new artifact = the asset for a new practice. Have you any suggestions on what could help?
Many universities are engaged in increasing their international reputation and building their brands. The reason is often to strengthen their position in recruitment of students and staff. In a tuition fee financed institution student recruitment is of course central for the funding of a university. But in a university that is not dependent on the inflow of student tuition fees, the value of university reputation for the individual researcher is less clear. How can investment in a university's international reputation and visibility be justified in the perspective of the individual researcher? I would be very happy for any suggestions for literature on the subject.
Dear Respondent, I am inviting you to participate in research conducted for academic purposes to investigate the relationship between animosity and consumer perceptions. Included with this letter, there is a short scenario. After reading the scenario, please answer the questions. The results of this pretest will be used for a Ph.D. dissertation, so the cumulative responses of the sample are important for the results rather than individual ones. Therefore, there is no need to give your name. There is no risk for you in participating and you can be assured that your responses will be confidential. The survey should take you about 15-20 minutes to complete. Participation is entirely voluntary. Thank you very much in advance. Survey Link: https://forms.gle/pMTeM7WRm12YT7Bz8
Sincerely. Muhammad Taqi Ph.D. Candidate Department of Business Administration Izmir University of Economics
Dear Respondent, I am inviting you to participate in research conducted for academic purposes to investigate the relationship between animosity and consumer perceptions. Included with this letter, there is a short scenario. After reading the scenario, please answer the questions. The results of this pretest will be used for a Ph.D. dissertation, so the cumulative responses of the sample are important for the results rather than individual ones. Therefore, there is no need to give your name. There is no risk for you in participating and you can be assured that your responses will be confidential. The survey should take you about 15-20 minutes to complete. Participation is entirely voluntary. Thank you very much in advance. Survey Link: https://forms.gle/kytRVFgfF21Huja4A
Sincerely. Muhammad Taqi Ph.D. Candidate Department of Business Administration Izmir University of Economics
I am inviting you to participate in research conducted for academic purposes to investigate the relationship between animosity and consumer perceptions. Included with this letter, there is a short scenario. After reading the scenario, please answer the questions. The results of this pretest will be used for a PhD dissertation, so the cumulative responses of the sample are important for the results rather than individual ones. Therefore, there is no need to give your name. There is no risk for you in participating and you can be assured that your responses will be confidential. The survey should take you about 5 minutes to complete. Participation is entirely voluntary. Thank you very much in advance.
Link for the Survey: https://forms.gle/Ym5uq3RxeGb9iNR98
Muhammad Taqi - PhD candidate
Department of Business Administration
Izmir University of Economics
Does anyone have experience and maybe recommendations on conferences on retail, private labels and national brands? Maybe also looking at future development and online topics?
Dear Respondent, I am inviting you to participate in research conducted for academic purposes to investigate the relationship between animosity and consumer perceptions. Included with this letter, there is a short scenario. After reading the scenario, please answer the questions. The results of this pretest will be used for a PhD dissertation, so the cumulative responses of the sample are important for the results rather than individual ones. Therefore, there is no need to give your name. There is no risk for you in participating and you can be assured that your responses will be confidential. The survey should take you about 5 minutes to complete. Participation is entirely voluntary. Thank you very much in advance.
Link for the Survey: https://forms.gle/Ym5uq3RxeGb9iNR98
Sincerely. Muhammad Taqi PhD candidate Department of Business Administration Izmir University of Economics
I need to develop a marketing model for the brand positioning strategy. The field of application is represented by green products, more precisely by organic food. Therefore, the basic theoretical concept is: green brand positioning.
The sample will be represented by companies that hold in their portfolio brands of organic food products (marketing and brand communication specialists), therefore the model created should represent the desired positioning (positioning strategy): formulation/elaboration of strategy, decision making and, possibly, the communication of the positioning strategy (through marketing mix). I would also like to use structural equation modeling for hypothesis analysis.
1. What research variables should be included in the model? (maybe a series of factors that influence the choice of the most appropriate variant of positioning strategy depending on the particularities of the internal and external environment of the company ...)
2. Do you know similar models in the field of brand positioning, which address especially the field of food or the field of green products (or more explicitly, organic food)? What works, articles could I consult in order to make the model proposal? What do you recommend?
Thank you for your help!
Can anybody help me in connecting to a researcher or a professor of a business school from Mexico city or South Africa who is having his/her research interest in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Branding.
In-fact, I have a plan to conduct a cross-cultural study in the area of CSR and Corporate Branding between India and the country that I am looking for.
The interested collaborator needs to be a full time professor in a B school of its repute.
Kindly help me.
Suvendu Kr. Pratihari
School of Management
Dear fellow researchers,
We are quantitatively investigating the past research on the impact of internal branding / internal marketing on the commitment of employees to the corporate brand. While doing that, we also intend to include any unpublished studies for a more holistic analysis.
Therefore, if you have done any empirical study on the relationship of internal branding / internal marketing on employee / organisational / brand commitment, we seek the following information for our analysis:
- The citation of your paper
- Sample size of the study (or that of each study if multiple studies are done)
- Correlation table for all variables (preferably, first order factors)
- Available demographics of the respondents, For instance, age, gender, education qualification, tenure in the organisation, Work-status (Full-time / part-time employees), customer interaction (front-line / back-office) etc.
- Quantitative measure of any other moderating variables, if used.
We shall be highly obliged to get the information.
The corresponding author, Atul Prashar, can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or +918800097740.
I am doing my master's thesis about city marketing. The purpose of the research is to build a suitable city marketing plan to attract international talents to our city.
To do the primary research, I am a bit confused about the targeted customers concept in city marketing.
So my question is, what keyword is more appropriate to search in the scholarly papers about targeted customers (a group of people that a city wants to attract) in city marketing?
Could you please recommend a good topic for my MBA-Dissertation mainly around Pharmaceutical marketing. I believe the Covid-19 will significantly impact the way Pharma marketing operated earlier.
The brand managers/digital marketers would probably struggle to figure out the balanced operating model in a post COVID-19 world to commercialize their brand in a highly regulated space (B2B2C) which was primarily driven by sales reps. It would be interesting to know how pandemic has transformed the prescriber behavior and will they be open for sales reps visits which remained virtual for considerable time.
Hi folks. I am going to write a master thesis this term. My master's program is on Business & Marketing. I would like to have your ideas on this issue. I was thinking of game publisher branding. I did my research, but there was not much to dig in. What would be interesting to dig into in this topic? I would appreciate it if you could come up with ideas related to customer satisfaction, consumer behavior, or branding :)
Dear Profs, Associate Profs, and Assistant Profs,
I graduated with a Ph.D. in Marketing from Graduate School of Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (GSB-UKM) in 2019. GSB-UKM is an AACSB-accredited business school.
Then, I launched my own digital marketing agency in Norway in July 2019 and moved to Norway. However, my passion lies in conducting research.
I am very proactive in conducting research and very good at teaching.
I am actively looking for a Postdoc position in the area of Marketing.
Could you please let me know if you need a Post-Doctoral student?
Dear researchers in marketing and consumer behavior studies,
I am in middle of a dilemma, i must choose my dissertation title but I don't know in which field should I work?
personally I prefer to work on green marketing and green purchase, green consume, but I have a suggestion from an industry to work on their branding status in their industry.
between these subjects I want to know which subjects are more trended now.
Who can tell me what ´speces´ constitue city branding? So is it emotional, cognitive, connative etc and are there any good questionnaires to ´measure´city branding space?
I´m in the next couple of months writing my dissertation. My thinking is along the lines of: Corporate heritage/history colliding with innovation and relevancy for the upcoming generation (millennials) in the luxury watch market. Especially the following paper has peeked my interest: "The corporate heritage brand paradox: Managing the tension between continuity and change in luxury brands"
However, there is also a lot of conflicting material and papers out there on the millennials, and not sure if I would end up studying two separate matters with this topic.
My question is if someone has any tips on how to attack this? If you have some expertise on the topics, and willing to share some thoughts/info/guidance it would be of great help. Ultimately, any help or feedback is very much appreciated!
I am currently working on ideas for my master thesis in branding and communication studies and could use a little inspiration. I find storytelling and especially the use of nostalgia in marketing very interesting and I want to ask you if you have some good ideas of areas that you consider relevant to investigate within this field?
Thank you in advance!
Modern politics has witnessed the anvil of the dual concepts of political branding and political marketing which have played crucial roles in such political events like elections, specifically, the campaigning aspect of it. Question is, how they differ from each other? The difference ought to be highlighted with regard to the practical implications arising out of the two and not merely the theoretical one.
Political branding has been a phenomenon which has come to characterize the campaigning associated with an election in modern politics. Question is, apart from an election, where else does the concept of political branding find traction in the scheme of a political party and/or leader?
In recent days, many organisations participate in CSR activists. Few organisations involve here for the development of society whereas many do it for business perspective, for instance, to avoid the legal issues, reduce the tax, increase the business image or branding, etc.
So, now my questions are:
1. Is my thinking right or wrong.
2. Is there any literature/ study to understand the business perspective to participate in CSR. If you have any resources, pls share it with me.
What if I say Neighborhoods can be seen as micro-destinations. Thus, they are sub-brands (under the main brand, the city itself), with its own image, attributes and resources which creates an aura of uniqueness ? Branding has been a means by which destinations have sought to distinguish themselves from others and increase their competitiveness by creating a unique identity. However, most continue to promote and present themselves in a very similar way; highlighting generic characteristics and aspects related to competitive advantage, which are transient, and which became ineffective, since these characteristics do not constitute differentiators. This indicates a trend to homogenize the place branding narrative. Cities that aspire to position themselves in a national and international arena need to tap into unique, rare and inimitable attributes and characteristics. The value of neighborhoods in tourism is often neglected as marketing and branding efforts are concentrated in the country, region, or city. However, neighborhoods can help a city or region to have even more tourist attraction. Neighborhoods create opportunities for creating an authentic and differentiated voice for a destination. It's a distinct way of leveraging a destination brand from a country, region, or city. Competitiveness through Branding can be achieved through a continuous process to create authentic experiences and build a sustained and solid image that attaches emotionally to the host community and resonates in its target markets. For this, a destination must work the visible / exterior part of its identity, which is in the neighborhoods. This means identifying and articulating the core of what the place is and who are the people. Thus, the neighborhoods can increase the destination experience of the visitors by creating emotional bonds to the site. Thanks for your time. Even if you cannot answer or even reply me. It has been a great pleasure sharing my angust with you.
Requirement and Procedure for POSTDOC degeree in Management in USA?
Hello,I recently moved to USA (North Carolina).I have completed my MBA (Marketing) and Ph.D.(Marketing);having 12+ experience in Education field in India in PG institute. I have been teaching Marketing specialization subjects like advertisement, consumer behaviour, Branding, Marketing Management.
I would like to pursue my POSTDOC degree in Marketing area in USA to pursue my career in education and research field.can Anyone pls guide me here for POSTDOC admission and requirements for the same?
which is the best university to make your career in education field after postdoc as well?
How to make a proposal for the same?
Thank you !
Dear Fellow Colleagues,
I am conducting research on symbolic and functional branding on selected cosmetic brands in India. I am facing a problem in identifying constructs and further needs to formulate a questionnaire on the basis of constructs. Can anyone send me the questionnaire on the same they conducted research? It will help me to develop my own constructs and can get an idea about preparing a questionnaire.
I am sharing the information about the list of hijacked and predatory journals. It is very very important for scientists across the globe particularly for young scientists who have little knowledge about the journals.
I am also attaching real journals' list for your information.
This is a list of journals that appear to have been hijacked, meaning that their websites or branding have been co-opted by a predatory journal or publisher. List of Hijacked Journals: https://predatoryjournals.com/hijacked/
Potential predatory scholarly open‑access publishers, BEALL'S LIST OF PREDATORY
JOURNALS AND PUBLISHERS: https://beallslist.weebly.com/
Nowadays, plastic is considered a great environmental and health hazard. Plastic bags and food wrappers are consumed by animals leading to digestive problems that can cause their death. Animals can get trapped with bags around their heads causing them to suffocate. Plastic bags tend to disrupt the environment in a serious way. They get into soil and slowly release toxic chemicals. They eventually break down into the soil, with the unfortunate result being that animals eat them and often choke and die. The plastic pieces are polluting even our oceans causing negative impact on hundreds of different species of marine plants and animals.
On the other hand, there are positive points, as well. Plastic bags are durable and weatherproof, stronger than paper and resistant to many chemicals. They are the most convenient packaging option, good for branding and cheaper than paper or cloth packaging. Most of the plastic bags are biodegradable, i.e. they can be broken down in a reasonable amount of time when thrown in the waste. Biodegradable plastic bags leave no trace behind and are safe for the environment.
I would like to know if we can run endogeneity test using SPSS?
Actually, I know about 2SLS. However, how can we identify if a variable is endogenous through 2SLS?
I appreciate any assistance.
I pursued my doctoral work in the domain of political branding in the context of a developing democracy, India. During my work, I conducted an empirical analysis to establish the relationship between political branding and political participation and other related concepts. The findings of the study do indicate that such a relationship exist, that is, political branding influences political participation. However, the relationship the other way around, that is, political participation influencing political branding left things to be desired. Also, the role of social media, which is quite hyped in an event like an election, was not found to be much as far as influencing voting preferences was concerned. All this got me thinking whether the efficacy of political branding could be similar in a developing democracy like it is in an advanced democracy?
I am currently writing a research proposal around the research question:
" How does the perceived practice of greenwashing affect consumers’ perceptions of high involvement brands and their willingness to purchase these brands?"
I am taking a mixed-methods approach and am using both a qualitative semi-structured interview and quantitative questionnaire.
How do I get a sampling frame and what method of sampling would be best?
I'm interested in the following questions: do online brands have different nature vs traditional offline brands? What are the similarities and differences? Are there any significant differences in a branding/re-branding process?
Is there a scale that can reveal the impact of sensory branding (or sensory characteristics) of hotels on customer experience.
Can I get a result by combining tourist experience and sensory hotel branding scales? Are there scales that you can send me about these issues? or do you have any recommendations?
Thank you in advance for your time.
How to measure of Return on Investment (ROI) in marketing particularly in corporate sponsorship event? I am looking for something more than improvement in average gross sale after sponsorship.
As digitization is increasing, company investing more on internet, surgical marketing. Keeping in view these what is the future of sponsorship marketing?
As per my initial findings [source (IEG, 2017]) despite increased digitization and online marketing the corporate sponsorship also increased in 2017 ( $60.2 Billions in 2016 vs $62.8 Billions)
Looking forward to hearing from experts/seniors.
what is good return on investment in marketing? ROI Formula ROI calculator
City brand has many dimensions. Which one is the most important? Position? People? Infrastructure? Way of living? Atmosphere or something else?
My original methodology was going to be a 2 part quants study. After a systematic literature review I identified a series of components. I then was able to use a different study to ask one question about the importance of all of them. After a principle component analysis on the results of this, it found that actually there were only 2 real components. This is not what we were expecting at all. Thought there would be some grouping but not only 2. So instead of doing a second full survey on one component, I am now looking to change and do some exploratory interviews to on these two groups.
So question One: is there a name for doing a quants/qual mixed method approach (as it is more commonly qual/quants)?
Question two: Does anyone have any examples of people who have used this method successfully in a preferably marketing or specifically branding based study that I can look at as a reference point?
Authenticity have been previously the core of my research until I have been discouraged after discussed with some other practitioners and researchers.
You may agree this is a quite intricate construct. Actually, this should put into a context. Destination brand authenticity. How to bring authenticity to the branding process of a destination?
I was am trying to create a model to explain authenticity in destination brand. First of all, by identifying and selecting the correct itens to building the dimensions of this multifacted construct. Then, developing the scale. Next, validating the model.
My assumptions were:
It is understood that is possible to establish objective procedures to measure the perception of authenticity of destination brand, with the support of a methodological strategy that combines qualitative methods with quantitative methods
I was am arguing that authenticity it an element that is set amid the not yet established relationship in the literature between the image and perception of the destination [the visitor/tourist perspective] and the self connection with the destination brand by the local community.
So, i was am considering the brand as a two-way communication process, as proposed by Ashworth and Kavaratzis: On the one hand, the image resulting from the tourist perspective, that considers the destination and its authentic or inauthentic attractions from of expectations and preconceptions, compared their impressions and experiences during and after the trip; On the other, the identity of destiny, from the perspective of local residents, manifested in how they perceive the place, how they express their identity and how they wish to be perceived.
So, the brand authenticity would underlies on this alignment. Self-Identity (local-internal) <-> Brand <-> Percepetion (visitor-external).
But, since them. I got lots of questions to myself which I would like to share.
Are there perceveid authenticity on Tourism? Is the authenticity of a destination is built over what? Who is supposed to validated what is authentic or inauthentic on tourism? experts? local community? suppliers? consumers? all of them?
I tend to think that it's not possible to promote a destination (thus a brand) as authentic without those who are in the core of identity, the locals. But, every local is a potential visitor, and every visitor is a local from the place they come. So, among these people, perhaps, I will be able to identify the basis of authenticity when it comes to tourism atractions and destinations.
Also, what concerns me, it the impression that authenticity is a concept which is subjected to changes through time.
Are these making sense?
My questions directs into the concepts of Legacy, Belonging and Identity of family firms and how, when and where would you build a strong family brand around it? What are the factors (external, internal, market) that should be given to a family firm that they brand itself as a family firm? Is there any literature about this topic?
I'm doing a research about the impact of sensory factors on tourist experience in hotels (sensory branding of hotels and its impact on tourist experience).
Are there some scales that you can offer me about this topic?
Do I need to combine the sensory dimensions and tourist experience scales? or can I reach a combined one?
Thank you in advance for taking the time to answer my question.
I am looking for a data set or source that provides Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) scores for companies in addition to other firm level variables that potentially explain these scores. My goal is to develop a predictive model to predict CSR scores based on company characteristics. Any references or sources of where I may find such data would be most appreciated.
I am a co-owner in a sports training aid company called Chute Trainer. We're always looking for scientific backing to our claims. www.chutetrainer.com Please respond if you're interested in trying a Bat Chute, Throwing Chute, or Golf Chute. Your feedback is necessary to help with validity and branding.
My thesis in about the effects of city branding on citizen participation. I'm looking for resources about dimensions of citizen participation and city branding. Could you help me to know this resources? Is there any resources about the relationship between place marketing and citizen participation that you know?
Thank you for reading, currently, I'm doing a research for my study on how to brand a business.
What is important when branding a business, what research has been done previously and what systems are there to measure this.
If you have any information, could you please link me the documents.
Thank you in advance.
There are many theories and studies in the domain of political branding which delve in the psychology of the voters. Question is, who could one quantify the effect of political branding with regard to helping the voters behave rationally in an election?
I would like to know if there is any study on social media-based brand community (quantitative study) that has administered the questionnaire worldwide though one of the social networks (e.g., Facebook).
Actually, I need a paper that has mentioned the term "we administer the questionnaire globally" or something like that.
Actually, since the members of social media-based brand communities are from different parts of the world, we should administer the questionnaire worldwide; however, I need to show the evidence to someone.
I really appreciate your assistance.
Some discussion has arisen in my classes because of the meaning of "Reflection" in Kapferer's Brand Prism. Two ideas compete:
1. Reflection is what society in general thinks of those brand customers, the general, stereotypical, idea.
2. Reflection is the way the brand portraits its customers. So in a way, it should be as close as possible to the "Self-Image" quadrant. It is the image that people want to identify with.
The difference is important, it may lead to important differences when building a brand prism. There might in fact be three different "images" contending, if you adopt definition 1 - the way advertising portraits users; the way users think of themselves; and the way society thinks of users. This situation may happen when you discuss iconic brands like Harley-Davidson or even Apple.
I welcome any input, thank you
#branding #brandprism #kapferer #jeannoelkapferer #brandmanagement #brandbuilding
Dear Scholars and Researchers,
referring to above question, I would be very grateful if any one could help me or guide me if we could use EBK as a mediator between the relationship of In ternal branding practices and brand citizenship behavior(e.g. brand consistent behavior). I would specially appreciate if anyone could share/or provide citation from previous work where author(s) has used this construct as a Mediator to predict relationship between any two or more than two variables. in addition to this, employee brand knowledge has been conceptualized by various others either uni-dimension or multidimensional. in any case I just need enough proved from previous studies that some one has used it as a mediation. lastly, if we cannot find any prove still we can use it as a mediation or we can not?
your response will be highly appreciated.
thank you and best regards,
Related topics are brand personalities, social psychology, cultural anthropology, maybe consumer culture. Thanks Jens
* can you help me to find the challenge (L'oreal group) ?
the question is ...
Critical evaluation of its corporate brand management (e.g. What are they?, How have they been performing?) *Effective application of appropriate corporate branding theories to evaluate the chosen corporate brand in relation to various corporate brand components. For example:
• Corporate brand identity? • Corporate brand equity? • Corporate image? • Corporate communication? • Etc.
*Awareness of challenges faced in corporate brand management in relation to those corporate brand components. For example: • How does the company vision permeate throughout its corporate brand? • How are the corporate brand values communicated through various corporate brand components (e.g. identity, image, reputation, etc.), and its brand architecture?
o Consistent? o Relevant? o Clear? o Competitive?
Maybe journals which publish marketing related topics in regards to social psychology, cultural anthropology or consumer culture theory?
I am investigating the issue of value co-creation recovery. However,the research interest in my department focuses on branding. Could you give me ideas of how can I link between these two?
In cities where pro-environmental values for sustainability are missing, e.g., cities where car-centric lifestyles, energy consuming large conditioned spaces, mega-structures and international branding appear to be the preferred trends, what role/scope does individual (unit) sustainability play in such context.
Since the growing awareness of quality concern among the Indian consumer, quality branding of cattle milk has become an important issue. Milk types A1 and A2 thus are gaining acceptance among the consumers. India's local breeds have the potential to produce A2 types of milk which has wider immunity spectrum as compared to A1 type. And thus, improving the production efficiency of indigenous breeds of country shall be the right step in this direction which shall have the bearing on the economic empowerment of cattle keepers of India.
There have been many proponents of the concept of political branding which is basically an amalgamation of the dual concepts of politics and branding. Question is, what all activities and events as practiced and performed by the political parties and leaders would qualify to be considered under the concept of political branding? Asking this question so as to understand how well the concept of political branding could be understood in terms of these of activities.
There have been instances when politicians have accused deliberate negative coverage on the part of media. Question is, how true is the same especially in the case of the phenomenon of political branding?