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Brand Management - Science topic

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Customer reviews on social media play a critical role in the decision making (i.e., pre-purchase) stage in the customer journey. Therefore, it is critical for a brand to measure customers' perception of the quality of the reviews available across the brand's social media platforms, such as reviews on the brand's Facebook page. The following study has developed and empirically validated a construct called 'Social Communications' (SOCM) that brand managers and researchers could use to measure the quality of a brand's customer reviews. They define 'Social Communications' as the customer’s evaluative judgment of peer user endorsements of a brand across any channels. The four items for measuring the construct are (replace XYZ with the brand's name):
  • SOCM1: Customer reviews of XYZ across all channels are accurate.
  • SOCM2: Customer reviews across XYZ’s channels make me feel confident to buy from XYZ.
  • SOCM3: Online posts by other customers make me feel confident to buy from XYZ.
  • SOCM4: Customer reviews of XYZ across all channels are trustworthy.
Review the article for further details (open/free access): Syed Mahmudur Rahman, Jamie Carlson, Siegfried P. Gudergan, Martin Wetzels, Dhruv Grewal. (2022). Perceived Omnichannel Customer Experience (OCX): Concept, measurement, and impact. Journal of Retailing, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2022.03.003
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Thanks Kim Viljoen . This construct (social communication) is one of the nine first-order dimensions in the newly developed 36-items OCX scale in this JR paper. We had to keep the number of items per dimension limited to 4 to manage the total number of items in the scale, and to achieve good model fit. Because OCX is a reflective-formative model, future studies could expand any dimension if their study focuses on exploring that dimension further.
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There are many publications about the proliferation of private labels over the last years (for example, measured by market shares). But is this proliferation going on and on? Or has a new balance emerged? And if so, how can retailers and industry influence this competition? Or does the proliferation take place 'covertly'? For example, via high-quality or sustainable private labels.
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A vet good analytical question. Through my analysis of current research, this still differs from country to country. However, the attached article provides greater insights and future research directions for private labels. Lastly, as grocery retailers invest in innovation, there is room for an even more upward trajectory.
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Could you please recommend a good topic for my MBA-Dissertation mainly around Pharmaceutical marketing. I believe the Covid-19 will significantly impact the way Pharma marketing operated earlier.
The brand managers/digital marketers would probably struggle to figure out the balanced operating model in a post COVID-19 world to commercialize their brand in a highly regulated space (B2B2C) which was primarily driven by sales reps. It would be interesting to know how pandemic has transformed the prescriber behavior and will they be open for sales reps visits which remained virtual for considerable time.
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The global pandemic has caused pharma companies to invest massively in digital marketing, as healthcare systems across the world adapt to strict lockdown rules. Once the global emergency ends, this trend will continue. Why not do research on something related to "COVID-19 and the digital pharma marketing revolution"
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The proposed work is about influence on gamification in Customer brand engagement but unable to decide that in current scenario which category is more impactful.
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Hello,
There would be multiple scenarios that would be plausible. I do recommend that you take the "practice" as orientation and justification for your study. Hence, have a look at practical examples and see where and how gamification is used here to engage consumers with a brand. Then copy and pre-test different scenarios before you draw a decision for your own study.
Best of luck!
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My area of research involves- Brand Mnagement, Strategic Brand Management, Consumer brand relationship. Basically, anything related to brand.
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Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC) Journal Quality List
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For my thesis, I am explicitly looking for studies that deal with the motivation for brand related ugc. I can also use general literature for creating ugc if they are up-to-date. It would help me a lot. Thank you
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Hi Alex,
In case you are still working on the topic, I suggest that you also turn your attention to the sphere of UGB: user-generated branding. Also, it could be helpful to look at the literature on co-creation and on brand co-creation. That might open up new avenues for you.
Best wishes,
Samuel
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Dear all,
I would like to know if we can run endogeneity test using SPSS?
Actually, I know about 2SLS. However, how can we identify if a variable is endogenous through 2SLS?
I appreciate any assistance.
Thank you.
Best Regards,
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Thanks for share it.
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I would like to find papers or theses - or in fact any article, if from a business publication - that focused on Brand Valuation methods, and tried to compare different methods or different brands according to the same method.
I teach Brand Management to undergraduates and the Brand Valuation methods is a confusing point; i could never develop anything like a class exercise that would allow me to clarify the matter, and the students feel they can't grasp how exactly do consultants determine a global brand's valuation, nor do they understand the full consequences of such attribution.
I would appreciate any material that could help shed a light on this.
thank you,
Paulo L
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Battersby, G. J., Grimes, C. W. (2016). Licensing Royalty Rates: 2016 Edition. New York, NY: Wolters Kluwer.
Degnan, S. A., Horton, C. (1997). A survey of licensed royalties. Les Nouvelles (June 1997), 91–96.
Keller, K. L. (2013) Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity. Massachusetts, Boston: Pearson.
Parr, R. L. (2018). Intellectual property. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Salinas, G., Ambler, T. (2009). A taxonomy of brand valuation practice: Methodologies and purposes. Journal of Brand Management 1(17), 39-61.
Janoskova, K., & Krizanova, A. (2017). Comparison of selected internationally recognized brand valuation methods. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(1), 99-110.
Mellen, C. M., Evans, F. C. (2018). Valuation for M & A: Building and measuring private company value. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Reilly, R. F., Schweihs, R. P. (2014). Guide to intangible asset valuation. New York, NY: AICPA.
Rubio, G., Manuel, C. M., Pérez-Hernández, F. (2016). Valuing brands under royalty relief methodology according to international accounting and valuation standards. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 2(25), 76-87.
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I'm interested in the following questions: do online brands have different nature vs traditional offline brands? What are the similarities and differences? Are there any significant differences in a branding/re-branding process?
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Dear Muthana Makki Mohammedali , the reason for I have said five years is related to the guidelines of some journals, which define that the authors should consider articles published in recent years in their theoretical reviews. Actually, this is not something that I totally agree, and from my point of view is more related to market matters than academic matters. And five, as well two, seems to be magical numbers because of the calculation of Impact Factor published every year by Journal of Citation Report, for instance.
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Is it true and ethical that consumers have to ask their doctors to prescribe particular medicines or particular brands?
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Yes it is, but as pharmaceutical products are like double edge sword which require art of weighing of benefits vs risk so less likely.
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I am very interested in this topic, but this is early days for me.
I would appreciate any comments, please.
; )
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Nice topic. Go ahead & best of luck!
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How Different and same are the above two concepts? is there any relationship between the two or one is part of another?
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Dear Rajwinder,
It depends on the outcome that you are interested in exploring. I believe that these two should be treated differently. For example, as Muhammad Farooq said, if you are interested in measuring job satisfaction, employee turn over rate , employee well being etc, then internal brand management is more aligned as it relates to internal factors of an organisation relevant to existing employees. Employer branding on the other hand, in part, is a a value proposition for those who have yet to join the organisation, i.e. job seekers..
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For some years i've been teaching the concept of Brand Equity in my classes, based on Aaker and Keller - lately solely on Keller. I find the idea itself very useful as a way to translate the added value of the brand to a company's market proposition; besides, companies may make the Brand itself as the most significant part of their proposition in certain industries and models (like licensing).
I understand Aaker tried for a company oriented definition and Keller for a consumer-based definition, but i think they complement each other; i would like to know if there were any newer authors, newer constructions, worth assessing.
(also, i find Kapferer more useful to other aspects of Brand Mgmt, and i confess i've had trouble in making deChernatony palatable for undergraduate level)
thank you,
Paulo L
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In order to explain the roles of different brands in a portfolio i have been using the classic Aaker model of portfolio strategy;
I am not sure, though, if this model is still accepted since it was proposed around 20 years ago.
i am looking for updates or newer models that could explain both the relationship among brands in side a portfolio, and the roles they could perform.
Thank you,
Paulo L
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well, i think all about portofolio is still relevant now and its work to be a good media to promote but must be update time by time
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We are looking for a platform to integrate different biometric measurements like GSR, eye tracking etc. We want to use these techniques for consumer and brand research. One potential system is the iMotion platform. Any experiences with this system? Do you know high-ranked journal articles (in marketing, consumer behavior, brand management) with the use of this system?
Thanks in advance!
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I have some experiences with Biosignalsplux - I encourage you to try their equipment - it's cheap and realiable for most applications.
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I have been lecturing on Brand Management for a few years now; even though it is not a graphic design course, i do try to show students different options for logo development, my aim is to help them develop their own taste and feel for what makes a logo attractive and effective.
I have used a couple of logo classifications, sort of typologies, but i do feel the need to see more options. The classifications i use focus on the relation between symbol and lettering and seem to have too may undecided cases; the exceptions tend to make the students more confused, and this undermines my objectives.
Thank you all,
Paulo L
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It all comes up on what is the purpose or scope of the classification, but mostly you'll end up things such as 'pictorial', 'lettermark', 'mascot', 'emblem', 'abstract' or a combination of two or more of these (e.g. (e.g. https://en.99designs.pt/blog/tips/types-of-logos/)... You may even come up with color-based distinctions, and so forth. Gestalt-based principles are certainly worth mentioning as a possible generalization of the underlying visual principles (e.g. https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/the-laws-of-figure-ground-praegnanz-closure-and-common-fate-gestalt-principles-3). Anyway it is not straightforward to know what will or will not work out, as numerous factors (e.g. age, sex, sexuality, religion or fashion) will be interfering, and thus, yes, students may easily be confused. In this regard, it will certainly be worth mentioning the 'classic' troubled story of NASA logo (e.g. https://www.ceros.com/originals/nasa/).
Hope any of this can be usefull!
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Some discussion has arisen in my classes because of the meaning of "Reflection" in Kapferer's Brand Prism. Two ideas compete:
1. Reflection is what society in general thinks of those brand customers, the general, stereotypical, idea.
2. Reflection is the way the brand portraits its customers. So in a way, it should be as close as possible to the "Self-Image" quadrant. It is the image that people want to identify with.
The difference is important, it may lead to important differences when building a brand prism. There might in fact be three different "images" contending, if you adopt definition 1 - the way advertising portraits users; the way users think of themselves; and the way society thinks of users. This situation may happen when you discuss iconic brands like Harley-Davidson or even Apple.
I welcome any input, thank you
Paulo L
#branding #brandprism #kapferer #jeannoelkapferer #brandmanagement #brandbuilding
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Thank you so much Dhani Shanker Chaubey , i appreciate it.
Paulo L
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* can you help me to find the challenge (L'oreal group) ?
the question is ...
Critical evaluation of its corporate brand management (e.g. What are they?, How have they been performing?) *Effective application of appropriate corporate branding theories to evaluate the chosen corporate brand in relation to various corporate brand components. For example:
Corporate brand identity? Corporate brand equity? Corporate image? Corporate communication? Etc.
*Awareness of challenges faced in corporate brand management in relation to those corporate brand components. For example: How does the company vision permeate throughout its corporate brand? How are the corporate brand values communicated through various corporate brand components (e.g. identity, image, reputation, etc.), and its brand architecture?
o Consistent? o Relevant? o Clear? o Competitive?
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If you read spanish, I recommend "Branding Corporativo" (Capriotti). You will find this matrix and I think it will answer your question.
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i think that perceived fit can be enhanced by doing well
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Probably the publication -.www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:867885/FULLTEXT01.pdf may be useful.
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How can service brand equity be measured?
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Kotler and Keller (2012:277) identify two basic approaches to measuring brand equity. An indirect approach—assesses potential sources of brand equity by identifying and tracking consumer brand knowledge structures.
A direct approach—assesses the actual impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different aspects of the marketing. The two general approaches are complementary and marketers can employ both.
Regards,
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I've been working with our Brand Management course for some years; our strong points are Brand Identity models, Brand Extensions, Brand Portfolio Management. It seems however that the Digital revolution has challenged the way we usually think about brands. Course restructuring is an option by I would like some opinions on the relevant subjects for todays' students, which are about to go, in their great majority, to the job market.
Thank you.
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Definitely place branding, usage of new media in tourism branding...I am working on research on local food souvenirs that could be destination brands.
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Dear friends, one of the researcher who is doing research in the area of Brand Image (marketing).
We are look for a comprehensive but precise questionnaire related to Brand Image? Can anyone suggest or share questionnaire related to Brand Image?
Best Regards 
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I do not know what exactly you are looking for. My work for more than 10 years was related to brand image and I have several validated questionnaires but it is very much depending on what is your research about. If you send me more details I would be happy to help. 
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I am in a little dilema that consumer's attitude might be differ as per the involvement to accept the collaborative approach.
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Thanks Michal. You are true in the good sense that ultimately consumer is the king.
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i am looking at companies who have used music in their adverts.i need example of a brand being associated or identified by music they chose for their advert
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Hi,
For a long time Heineken has been using "Every Kinda People" from Robert Palmer. See Eckhardt, G. M., & Bradshaw, A. (2014). The erasure of antagonisms between popular music and advertising. Marketing Theory, 14(2), 167-183 for other examples. Best regards
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Hi,
I would greatly appreciate help on the following problem:
I included a 5 point Likert scale in a survey (Aaker's brand personality scale) and now want to check it on SPSS.
The scale includes 8 different items, from which 4 belong to the brand personality "sincere" and the other ones to "exciting". Now I try to check if the brands I asked for in the survey are perceived as one of the mentioned brand personality and are equally evaluated on the items.
Which test can I execute? I already used Cronbach's alpha, but feel like it does not test what I am intended to.
Many thanks,
Franziska
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Dear Concerned,
Reliability measurement criteria are different by different authors, so accordingly Cronbach's alpha should be atleast 0.5. otherwise it will not justify the reliability of the statements for different sample size. here in your case it o.35 for first which is low.
Again important thing is for such a sample size factor analysis is not a valid tool. you can use other tools.
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Consumer behavior on social media marketing 
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Shu-Chuan Chu & Yoojung Kim (2011) Determinants of consumer engagement
in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites, International Journal of Advertising,
30:1, 47-75
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On the surface this is not a complex question but why isn’t designing thinking not a mainstream executive management topic? There is strong evidence from the new product development discipline that design thinking is a core concept. I see huge design thinking potential across advertising, online retailing and supply chain disciplines but I do not see much evidence. Is design thinking a fad or difficult to articulate and execute?
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"Thinking" hasn't changed. Only emergent of new technologies make the process of converting this "thinking" into goods and services becoming easier. :)
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I'm doing a research about intention purchase in social media instagram, the background of my research is while the local brand which being my object research keep getting bad e-wom, the brand never stop to create a lot promotion for their brand and still the enthusiastic of people towards brand still keep high. 
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How about you try . Social Media Marketing in emmerging Economies for an Article. For a journal i would recommend . international journal of online marketing research. IJOMR
Also i would like to invite you to the international conference on social media marketing  in Netherlands.ICSMM'17
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My current study is on Facebook marketing and its impact on brand equity. Though I found some useful articles, they do not reveal the theoretical foundation of their framework. Can someone please help me to find a theory which relevant to the social media marketing and brand equity?
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Hi, Nisha:
Scant evidence is available on of how social media marketing activities influence brand equity creation and consumers' behavior towards a brand. This research (Godey et al., 2016) explored these relationships by analyzing pioneering brands in the luxury sector (Burberry, Dior, Gucci, Hermès, and Louis Vuitton).
Based on a survey of 845 luxury brand consumers (Chinese, French, Indian, and Italian), who follow the five brands studied on social media, the study developed a structural equation model that helps to address gaps in prior social media branding literature. Specifically, the study demonstrated the links between social media marketing efforts and their consequences (brand preference, price premium, and loyalty). The study measured brands' social media marketing efforts as a holistic concept that incorporates five aspects (entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization, and word of mouth).
Another contribution of the study is that it finds that SMMEs have a significant positive effect on brand equity and on the two main dimensions of brand equity: brand awareness and brand image!
  • Godey, B., Manthiou, A., Pederzoli, D., Rokka, J., Aiello, G., Donvito, R., & Singh, R. (2016). Social media marketing efforts of luxury brands: Influence on brand equity and consumer behavior. Journal Of Business Research, 69(12), 5833-5841.
Hope this helps!
Kind Regards, Nadeem
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With special focus on emerging trends in the space. -Thanks
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it is a pleasure
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I have been working on measuring service quality, customer satisfaction and brand image of multispecialty hospitals in India?
I have drafted a questionnaire for measuring service quality and customer satisfaction but not able to design out items for measuring brand image?
Can any one help me in designing the items or questions for measuring brand image of multispecialty hospitals?
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Thank you Sir.
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Hi scholars,
I have been searching for appropriate underlying theory that explains the relationship among the variables of customer based brand equity model. I came across of "Associative Network Memory Module" theory that describes the Keller's CBBE model. However, more appropriate theory would explain the variable relationships in a larger context. Looking forward your suggestions. Thanks in advance 
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Dear Sarker
Answering your question is simple yet not to so simple so hear me out with patience:
1. CBBE is in itself a theory and a model thus it does not require an underlying model.
2. However, the dimensions of CBBE (Aaker, 1993) have their own respective theories. For, example Loyalty by Oliver (1999), Perceived Quality (Gronroos, 1984; Parasuraman et al, 1988). Therefore, look into the literature concerning these constructs.
3. I would advise you not to try operationalizing or deconstructing CBBE based on Keller's (1993) work. That piece is too philosophical hence difficult to quantify. My advice is to follow Aaker's (1993) model based on which later on Yoo & Donthu (2010) made a seminal paper. 
4. CBBE dimensions may change based on the context of the brand. Aaker (1993) was for product whereas Berry (2000) is for service, Kuhn et al (2008) is in the B2B context and Bose et al (2016), Konecnik and Gartner (2007) are for place. Apply CBBE considering this reality.
Lastly, you may choose to use any standard CBBE model to understand the interrelationships between the antecedents and consequences. If you would be interested you can download our paper from my profile where we have developed scale to measure place brand equity.  
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I need new and useful articles about essence of brand.   Because this is a new topic, I do not have access to new articles (2013-2015). Can you help me? 
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Dear Fatemeh,
I suggest you check a number of  good journals in Elsevier, Springer, Emerald and Scopus to find useful papers in  related to your interesting topic.
Good luck!
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Hi,
I am a student (MBA Luxury Brand Management) and I am doing a research paper on brand experience in hospitality. The main question is about creating/design an experience for the guests. What are the important elements?.
What is an experience? Branding implies also staff recruitment etc.
If you have any articles, ideas, suggestions to share I will be please.
Thanks
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Well, I am just running a little Bed & Breakfast besides and it is true that first reason why people rather prefer B&B than hotels is not the price (it is about the same as a 3 star hotel), but the personal touch we try to show at every touchpoint. In general, you have mainly three touchpoints to create a brand experience: 
  • Before arrival: Quickly answer questions with personal touch, sign with name and mark somewhere that this is a family B&B and you are part of the house when arriving. Asking about plans, arrival time, make sure they have address and possibilty to call in cas of inconvenience, etc.
  • During stay: welcome warmly, asking about plan, giving some advices, tipps about poss. trips or good restaurants (and of sure, adapt this advices to the wallet of customers). At the end of the stay make sure everything is fine, all ready for departures, help for little sorrows like taking airplane, etc.
  • After stay: quick mail, ask for feedback, mention individual experience. 
For every touchpoint it is necessary to define personalization of action. Just a general and uniforme behavior doesn't lead to a good brand experience. 
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How far have brand management scholars gone in their quest to come up with a common understanding  of what  the terms  "brand" and "brand equity" mean?
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For a recent discussion of the full richness of the concept of brand and its meaning creation see: 
Francisco Conejo and Ben Wooliscroft
Brands Defined as Semiotic Marketing Systems
Journal of Macromarketing September 2015 35: 287-301
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I want to conduct a brand awareness survey. I do not have access to the number of all people and I want to know what is the best practice to select the sample from the population (which is the citizens of a country). 
In this regards, I have two options:
1. To go on the street and ask the pedestrians to answer the questionnaire in a convenient way (which I do not like due to its limits for generalizing). 
2. I can generate random possible cellphone users' phone number and call to see who is going to pick up. (in this case, do you know what would be the name of the method I am using? can I call it a random sampling?)
I think the second method is more close to random sampling however I might fail to call the numbers because they are random numbers and might not be a working phone number. 
The company is among the top companies in Iran in the field of mobile payment (through USSD)
please give me your feedback. 
Thanks in advance,
Hosein 
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Dear Hosein
I think that you should need help of a sampling or statistic expert to compute the weight of each observation to obtain unbiased estimators of the parameters and of their precission.
Regards,
Guillermo
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Dear Friends on Researchgate,
I am currently working on a paper about metaphors consumers have learned in relation to a particular brand. Generally speaking, metaphors are relevant for people to make sense of the world and bestow meaning onto abstract concepts, like love or a brand. In their well-known Paper, Braun-LaTour et al. (2007) introduce the memory walk to uncover the earliest experiences consumers had with a brand. The transcripts of these early experiences help in uncovering the metaphor consumers have learned in relation to a brand.
Yet I wonder why we as researchers and brand managers should actually care about such metaphors? Is it meaningful to pursue research in this area? Studies on metaphor and embodied cognition seem en vogue at the moment, but in what way are they relevant for the scientific community and practioners? 
I am looking forward to your opinion and arguments.
Best wishes
Jens
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Metaphor is a fundamental aspect of human language.You cannot speak or write or sign without them.
There are thousands of books and research articles that have been produced over thousands of years. If you look into the earliest forms of writing, you will find that metaphor plays a critical role. The transition from hieroglyphs to alphabets or ideograms is based on metaphor. The reputation of people has been measured by metaphors for thousands of years. Kings have the hearts of lions. Gasoline and cereal brands prefer tigers. But for many, the lord is a shepherd and they are his sheep, even if they do have the heart of a lion and put a tiger in their tanks.
If nothing in the existing corpus of literary and scientific studies from ancient Egypt, ancient China, central America, south Asia, or anywhere else that writing systems were invented, up to the most recent analyses doesn't convince you that they are relevant, I can't imagine that there is anything that would convince you that they are relevant.
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I am kindly asking those with practical or extensive research experience in marketing communication to recommend the strategies they have found to be  most productive when one is promoting services and sport brands.
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I am speaking more from the perspective of a practitioner than a researcher....for managing services, the most important communications tool you have is the physical evidence of the service. e.g. a banks using its bank statements and IVR at the call center to make its communication clear and delivered at the appropriate time. However, this form of communication can happen only after you have driven traffic your service outlet. In order to drive traffic, it is best to conduct on-ground events at appropriate catchment areas to create awareness, and incentivize customers to visit your outlet during these on-ground events. E.g. online grocery stores conduct on-ground events at residential apartments with incentives for visiting the website. 
Hope this helps.
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In fact, many researchers (e.g., Keller, 1993) have suggested that brand awareness influences brand image. A few researchers (e.g., Padilla and Watson), however, claim that brand image may influence brand awareness. I would like to know if we can conceptually explain the effect of brand image on brand awareness. 
For your knowledge, I have attached both Keller's and Padilla and Watson's papers.
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Yes ,you can conceptually explain the effect of brand associations (image) on brand awareness.Ross, Russell and Bang (2008),  view  Identification and Internalization as antecedents to sports team  brand awareness. With identification being  the ease with which brands come to the minds of the customers/prospective customers and  internalization being the depth of the psychological connections that customers/prospective customers have with brands.
In that regard ,brand  image can strengthen or weaken the emotional connections that customers have with a brand
I also published and article entitled  ‘Unpacking The Integrative Conceptual Framework For Assessing Perceived Brand Equity In Professional Sports Teams’, which is also available on my researchgate page. The framework shows that the consumers may develop negative or positive brand perceptions as a result of the actions or attitudes of individuals or organizations they admire or respect towards a brand .Positive attitudes and actions by the “significant others” towards a brand  may influence the consumers to develop favourable brand  associations. This may avail more  brand information  to the consumers and increase the levels of brand awareness. However, negative attitudes, actions by the “significant others” towards a brand  may influence the consumers to develop unfavourable  brand associations. Since these actions or attitudes are not controlled by the brand makers , wrong or inaccurate information and impressions can also cascade to the consumers, with negative consequences on brand awareness.
You can also refer to the Service Branding Model by Berry (2000) .It will help you  to further explore the relationship
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Customer might be mislead by the advertisement that enterprises gave, so what should we do? As a customer? As a university student?
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Dear Joyce,
Advertisements are theoretically to promote a product and create awareness. Brand is something to differentiate the product of a company in the competitive market. Simple, isnt it? However, things are not so simple as they seem. Advertisements are used to fool people, so, dont trust advertisements on its face value. There are many good products which dont have ads. My suggestion would be, be clear what do you 'want', what is your 'need', assess what you can afford and have experience of that product. Just dont get excited about a product because there are many advertisements about a product.
Branded products to maintain their value in the market have to produce good products, atleast better than many other. So, no doubt they are good, ofcourse at a premium.
Hope this helped 
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suggestions about the criteria that brand must satisfy
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Hello.
I believe (1) brand quality,  (2) good packaging and (3) positioning are very important. In fact, the brand quality is everything, but then if that quality is concealed through poor packaging and presentation, the product stands a little chance of succeeding in the market.
Best wishes,
Pauline.
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I am researching into the primary causes of inconsistencies or variations in corporate logos
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Dear Julian, this an interesting topic because most of us 'interact' with logos daily! Please find embedded a link to a Google Scholar search with some of your keywords (publications between 2011 and 2016). Some of them are available on ResearchGate. I also embed a link to an alternative search engine that may be useful.
Finally, I include a link to posts on my Scoop.it site that relate to logo design. I find that it sometimes is useful when one observe your area of interest in real life/in an informal environment. It is possible to search for further topics by clicking on the funnel in the top right-hand corner of the site and inserting different keywords. Good luck! 
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In the attached paper, authors have calculated an Index for Multidimensional Brand Equity construct and also used an Overall Brand Equity latent variable as a 2nd order construct, than examined the correlation between them.
My question is; what is the difference between calculating an index and creating an high order more abstract latent variable for examining the effects of dimensions on the higher order construct?
Do we have to create an index, or can we just use an high order constract to compare the effects of the dimensions ?
Also, when creating an higher order latent variable, does the latent variable have to have an indicator representing each dimensions?
Kind Regards,
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Thank you dear Ms. Karin,
Sometimes it is really hard finding your way especially studying with an unestablished theory. Your answer really helped, thank you.
Regards,
Yusuf
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looking for articles about impact of religiosity on brand switching.Product should not be food or clothing.
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i have read it. anyways thanks
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Purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics distribution mechanism of MNCs distributor those who introduce private label brand within same organization platform. Firstly analyze the cause behind introducing a private label brand and operationalize the each cause interlink to market orientation scenario of MNCs prospects and MNCs distributor views. 
Research aims to capture critical issues related to MNCs distributor launch their own brand and how MNCs face competition within their own distribution platform.
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Just check out IBM to Lenovo story
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I'm working with a company that is nowadays dealing with a rebranding process and i want to know how the creation of a institutional video helps the rebranindg strategy
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The growth of digital technology is giving institutional (or corporate) videos an edge over other earlier forms of communications, e.g., TV advertising, and do much to promote favorable points of view among the stakeholders on whom an organization depends.
Certainly, adding institutional videos to a website or video blog, and sharing them with social media, can dramatically improve the volume and (hopefully) quality of traffic from search engines. (An online video is much more likely to hit the front pages of search engines than, say, single text web pages.)
But, as the saying has it, it is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak and remove all doubt. The same applies to institutional videos, in the sense that  a shoddy product can do more harm to a company's reputation than, say, a humble pamphlet.
What is more, not all institutional videos are equal. What purpose they are to serve must be clear from the onset: for instance, institutional videos can severally (and in no particular order) promote (i) company profiles and policies, (ii) investor relations and financial results, (iii) products and services, including new launches, (iv) testimonials from happy customers and employees, for instance by means of User Generated Content—whereby customers can upload videos on how they use a company's products and services, (v) answers to frequently asked questions, (vi) how-to instructions, (vii) corporate social responsibility, (viii) corporate events, (ix) well-prepared presentations by charismatic company personnel, (x) staff learning, development, and safety, (xi) company culture and recruitment, (xii) internal communications, (xiii) crisis communications, (xiv) knowledge banking and problem solving, etc.
Not only must the messaging, look, feel, and duration of each type of video differ but their individual contribution to branding, if that is an objective, must also be contextualized and planned. In short, each video must fulfill a distinct need or help reach a specific goal, including in relation to branding.
New-Age Branding in the Public Sector, available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265006667_New-Age_Branding_and_the_Public_Sector, makes suggestions for branding, relationships, and behavior that institutional videos, for sure, can also advance. The ADB Sustainable Development Timeline, available at http://reflections.adb.org/, is one example of a series of videos (+450) aimed at knowledge banking (but with wide-ranging other applications too).
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For example: dependent variables are; brand association, brand preference and brand recognition
Independent variable; attitude toward cartoon characters in commercials
All variables are categorical
The research design is experimental for brand preference and brand recognition.
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I agree with the other comments regarding the data analysis, but just want to add that as soon as you say "causal" relationship, you must first ensure that your data come from a controlled, scientific experiment following the standard rules for designing experiments. Data that come from surveys, and other such methods are correlational or observational and cannot be used to determine causality. Only by experiment can causality be assessed. 
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I am looking for scales for measuring impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty.
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Even if it is not addressed to your specific research question, you might try to adapt some of the scales reported in Srinivasan et al. (2002) that that seemed to
influence e-loyalty.
Srinivasan, Srini S., Rolph Anderson, and Kishore Ponnavolu (2002), “Customer Loyalty in E-commerce: An Exploration of its Antecedents and Consequences,” JR, 78 (1), 41-50.  > http://onemvweb.com/sources/sources/customer_loyalty.pdf
If you intend to measure how the attachement to social media community could influence brand loyalty, you might also consider "brand community loyalty" in Algesheimer, René, Utpal M. Dholakia, and Andreas Herrmann (2005), “The Social
Influence of Brand Community: Evidence from European Car Clubs,” JM, 69 (July),
19-34.
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I'm interested in research about the brand of HEI, brand value of HEI and I am looking for some references, research, surveys, case studies, and suggestions of methods. Thank all for any help;
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Dear @Katarzyna, here is fine new metrics! How to Measure a College’s Value!
It is about measuring the value of HEI through college graduates (Gallup-Purdue Index)...
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I'm looking for different models of the brand management process.Is there an article which summarizes the different models. So far I've found models by Keller, Aaker, M'zunga, Ahn and Khan
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Mazurek Marica , (2014) "Branding paradigms and the shift of methodological approaches to branding", Kybernetes, Vol. 43 Iss: 3/4, pp.565 - 586
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Corporate reputation is always more influenced by web, in particular the foodbloggers are opinion leader and they can create sentiment about products and corporate image. Is it possible measuring this impact?
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Thank you!!!!!
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Specifically I will be examining the impact of event sponsorship on brand image looking at 1 music event and 1 sporting event. Ideally I need to choose events that are equivalent in terms of attendee profile, image etc. As such I would like literature that speaks to equivalence and how objects are treated when there isn't equivalence.
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Look at papers about congruence in sponsorship or brand extensions
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I want to study that how trademark as a vital intellectual property can be sustained through IP governance and enforcement as only then the trademark could go towards becoming a brand. 
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Dear Imran.. u may read my humble paper on IP for SMEs. Hope it helps u on the relation of IP and how does it help SMEs and finally increasing the economic value of the product n the country itself.
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One of the constructs of my research are intellectual property governance and brand equity and i want to know that in how many dimensions they connect with each other 
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see this article it may be relevant
Managing risk and protecting intellectual property
Corbin, Ruth M. Ivey Business Journal 66.3 (Jan/Feb 2002): 11-13
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I am using Nvivo for qualitative analysis and have crafted tree diagram, word frequency diagrams and cluster analysis from the interview transcripts. I have seen articles that have not given a model but still are considered good in terms of indepth study of their concerned problem area. 
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Dear Imran Bashir Dar,
you are doing great qualitative research! In my opinion you should follow the thematic analysis principles and theory approach. First is important to identify as many as possible codes/nodes, but in the continue is as much important to develop a model, a theory of your studied practice. A tree diagram, word frequency diagrams and cluster analysis in NVivo programme based on word frequency and are more quantitative analysis approaches to qualitative data. I suggest you to go beyond word frequency to study more deeply how your codes are linked to categories and how categories are connected between each other in the theoretical model about brand equity loss in terms of marketer and consumer.
Good luck and have a fun with theoretical principles discovery of studied practice.
Kind regards,
Joca 
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I want to know if there has been any work done on brand equity loss from marketer and consumer perspective as i am coordinating a work group, qualitative research, on it at PhD level. 
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Here you can find a lot of brand equity cases in customer equity builiding context. They are good for students, but I am not sure, if the book is aviable now to buy. If not, try library
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I am doing a PhD level work on Qualitative descriptive research and for that i am need to know about any recent developments in techniques on it using Nvivo. I will be very thankful for those who can help me out it this endeavor. I am doing Qualitative research.
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Good Afternoon Sir:  In researching for my dissertation, I amassed a large amount of notes and references. I elected to conduct a qualitative approach to my paper rather than a quantitative approach, because I believe that statistics can only render approximations.  To fully understand the author's  real meaning, it becomes necessary to understand the thought process of the author.  Doing a content analysis of the words used in an article can provide new insight into the meaning of words that a statistical equation or answer, cannot provide.  I used the following books to help me understand content analysis and to use this knowledge to perform my qualitative analysis using NVivo10. 
1.  Content Analysis - An Introduction to its Methodology, 3rd Ed, Klaus Krippendorff, 2013, Sage Publications.
2.  Qualitative Content Analysis in Practice, Margrit Schreier, 2012, reprinted in 2013, Sage Publications.
3.  Content Analysis Guidebook, Kimberly A. Neuendorf, 2002, Sage Publications.
4.  Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, John W. Creswell, 2009, Sage Publications.
I hope this will help you in your research.  I found these boos extremely helpful in understanding the qualitative process.  Once I understood the process, it was easier for me to understand how to use NVivo10, and use the results of the analysis to write  my paper.  Good luck on your paper.
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Can you suggest any case study on sustainability marketing? What and how firms have really done it?
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  • Sustainable marketing is an approach to marketing that ideally aligns internal organizational processes and organizes resources that create value for stakeholders (owners, shareholders, employees, value chain partners) and through which the external natural and social environments are enriched by the activities of the firm. This approach is used most effectively by organizations that have clearly stated values and goals for their desired effect on their own economic viability, as well as on the natural and social environments they operate within.
  • The term sustainable marketing applies when an organization takes the perspective that it operates within a finite resource system, and thus has a responsibility to its current and future stakeholders to make strategic decisions for the long-term benefit of the entire system. There are several common frameworks organizations use to develop sustainable strategies. Some sustainability frameworks place value on incorporating the costs of ecosystem services into operations; some try to mimic natural systems in new product development and operations; some try to minimize the firm’s overall carbon footprint; and, some try to change technologies they deploy in order to enhance rather than diminish natural resources.
find some link below which may be helpful to you
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My team is preparing a list of books on brand equity management that could help the young research students in this field, specifically in the area of theory and research.
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For books Building Strong Brands by David Aaker and Strategic Brand Management by Kevin Lane Keller are the most popular. For operationalizing brand equity measurement you can refer to the Yoo and Donthu (2001) CBBE scale. 
If you require those papers mail me at sunny_1708@rediffmail.com
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Today there are tons of value added to service are being offered by every cellular service. Do you think these services are increasing the operators revenue or destructing the health and revenue of core services.
And what do you think which has more adaptability in Pakistan cellular industry?
Live Radio, Music,  SMS Alerts, Missed call alert.. etc? 
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Valued Comments Sir,  i am in the job of making these services, people like the audio services even tens of hundred people subscriber to these services,  but 97% of this base is from the areas away from urban areas where only GSM or Edge services available so providing audio entertainment through GSM is best way to satisfy the need of subscriber. 
now i am working to make these services useful in urban and developed cities also
Sohaib Ur Rehan 
Director Audio and VAS Operations 
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Because Brand Equity is having assets and liabilities attached to it. So what is your opinion.........
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We define Equity into Firm-Based-BE; Employee-Based-BE; Customer-Based-BE (attached), and all three must be aligned, i.e. customer perception (Image) with internal desire (Identity) and reality (Soul).
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My research will be about impact of brand name on consumer choice and memory. I would like to examine our local consumer's willingness to choose specific product depending on the brand name and which brand names are easy to remember. I have already found some articles linked with phonetic symbolism and would like to include them to my research. However, I have some difficulties with methodology of my research and need some of the latest articles on this topic. I would be very gratefull if you could share some of them. 
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Hi, Madina:
I hope you find the following 7 articles useful for what you're looking for:
  1. Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), Dimensions of brand
personality, Journal of Marketing
Research, 34(Aug), pp 347-356.
  1. Bowlby, J. (1979), The making and breaking of
Affectional bonds, London: Tavistock
  1. Chaplin, Lan, N. and Deborah, R. J. (2005), The
development of self brand connections
in children and adolescents, Journal of
Consumer Research, 32.1, pp 119-129.
  1. Fournier, S. (1998), Consumers and their
brands: Developing relationship theory
in Consumer Research, Journal of
Consumer Research, 24.4, pp 343-373.
  1. Geuens, M., Bert, W. and Kristof, de Wulf
(2009),A new measure of brand
personality, International Journal of
Research in Marketing,26.2,pp 97-107.
  1. Kent, Robert J. and Chris, T. Allen (1994),
Competitive interference effects in
consumer memory for advertising: The
role of brand familiarity, Journal of
Marketing, 58(July),pp 97-105.
  1. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D.J. and Park, C. (2005),
The ties that bind : Measuring the strength
of consumers’ emotional attachment to
brands, Journal of Consumer
Pyschology,15.1,pp 77-91.
Nadeem
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In the context of emerging markets.
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i just got my dissertation title approved:
i am looking at the factors influencing the global brand purchase likelihood , in the presence of a local brand
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And which variables of consumption pattern are necessary in FMCG sector? I am doing Corporate Project on Brand Image & preferences of Pepsi VS Coca Cola. Kindly give me your expert opinion in this regard.
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Thanks Mr. Rahul Dhiman
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Dear communty,
I have the question regarding the choice of an appropriate model for panel data with serial autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity at the same time.
Here is the info with respect to my data set N=60 and T=47, so I have a panel data set and this is also strongly balanced. The issue of my analysis is to find out if there is any difference in advertising elasticity of firms outside vs. inside sport events and I also 'd like to know if this effect would be moderated by the fact of being the official sponsor of the respective event. So my DV is brand value and my IV are advertising and a some dummy variable and advertising multiplicate with this dummy variables.
In order to find an appropriate model, first, i conducted the Hausman Test and that was negative. So I installed the packet xtoverid and applied Sargan-Hansen statistic. The test was significant, so I have to use the FE model. Afterwards I used the Breusch Pagan test and that showed that the random effect model would be appropriate (but I can ignore the result, as the test below indicated use the FE model, right?)
Next, i examined the assumptions of autocorrelation, using xtserial command and then hetereskedacsticity with the help of xttest3, but also afterwards test the assumption following the suggestion on the link (http://www.stata.com/support/faqs/st...tocorrelation/).
According to the results both assumptions were violated. So I have a panel data with serial autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity and now I have no idea what model would solve this problem and what command I can use in Stata.
Thanks in advance and I hope, dear ResearchGate members, that u can help me.
A.
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Apologies if this is off the point but the Hausman test does not necessarily mean that you have to use FE - it can mean that the cross-sectional (between) effect is not equal to the within (longitudinal) effect - this may be of real substantive interest. And the RE model can handle temporal autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity
see
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Brand and sales to be differentiated on studies related to products and services of SMEs. 
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The nature of product would define the need for brand. one way to look at association between sales turnover and brand association would be in terms of the percentage of repeat sales to same set of customers. SMEs at times work on a limited set of customers and they create an equity for themselves in that limited customer base.
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Many times these hospitality corporations own establishments way beyond what we see as a place to sleep while we're out on vacation.  They run banquet halls, cafe's, luxury themed restaurants, gift shops, brand shops at vacation spots like theme parks and golf courses.  Some even own the golf course clubhouse or the tournament spinning a golf championship.  They own clothing lines and dining utensil factories.  So, what measures do these corporations have to take to ensure that those in direct contact with the consumers adhere not only to their own brand that they are selling through the hospitality corporation, but to the actual brand of that corporation at the same time?
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This is simple question of brand extension. The same ambience shouldrun through out the activities and final word is quality standrads to be maintained.,Nothing else will work.
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Are there differences in design or in the way they work?
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Subliminal advertising is related to consumers' subconscious. Normally when we sense anything, we are doing it consciously. We pay attention to a particular object, we sense it (see, touch, smell) and thus our brain processes it. But all that requires a lot of processing from our brain as we make conscious judgements and opinions about it. Unfortunately, there is just too much data/input at any given instance for us to process all at once so our conscious mind sifts the good data (the one we actually want to pay attention to) from the bad data (the unimportant one). For example when I go into a class to teach my students, I'm paying attention to my lecture and my students' academic needs. Thats all good data. But many of my students are holding notebooks or water bottles or some other stuff that has something written on it. (small or large). That's the bad data, the one my brain doesn't want to process. BUT just because my conscious part of the brain didn't process it, doesn't mean that the bad data did not get inside of my brain. Almost everything that is within one's peripheral vision is stored into the brain. However it is not part of our conscious mind. This means we can't retrieve it consciously. However it does effect our judgements and evaluations of related objects.
A very famous example that people quote is that of an american cinema where during a movie, out of millions of frames, one of the frames showed a brand (rumored to be Coca Cola) and after the movie ended, the sales of coke spiked for the cinema which was not usual.  
Surrogate Advertising, on the other hand, is somewhat unethical form of advertising. It is done for those products that cannot be advertised on TV. For example, in India, promotion of alcohol is not allowed. So what they do is that they create a separate (but somewhat related) product like soda and promote soda on television with the same brand name. This gives that top of the mind brand recall. A good example is Bacardi Blast Music CD for Bacardi Spirits/Alcohol. 
I hope it helped.
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Why did the author write Private Labels should not be confused with generics? (Strategic Brand Management, Kevin Lane Keller, Second Edition, 2012). In some journals and books I read (example: Private label strategy; Nirmalya Kumar; First Edition), Generics is one of the types of Private Labels.
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Thank you Ed Chung 
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"If the businesses were split up, I would take the brands, trademarks, and goodwill, and you could have all the bricks and mortar and I would fare better than you".
–John Stuart
This quantitative research targets consumer behaviors in purchasing fast moving consumers goods (FMCG) in term of Brand of products. For this purpose four elements as brand equity's components were identified that has potential affect purchasing FMCG, and they are follows:
1) Brand Awraeness,
2) Brand Association,
3) Perceived Quality, and
4) Brand Loyalty.
Please find the some useful related articles. 
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We know about Aaker's dimensions of brand personality, but its not the same situation for destination which is different due to the number and types of stakeholders. Another area of knowledge can help with the identification of brand destination personality?.
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What do you mean with "Social Factors"? Poverty, Facilities, middle class income? Or cultural activities, music, tradition? Maybe you would review Anholt brand hexagon. His approach included a social factors like people and culture.
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Consumers sometimes change their mind when they purchase.
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There are a lot of negative behaviors from company employees that may affect consumer attitude. Satisfied employees create satisfied customers.
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My research seeks to measure the brand image of a politician
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Identify the qualities and/or characteristics that the politician is (apparently) seeking to personify and conduct quant & qual research to determine to what extent different audience segments endorse the politician's 'possession' of these. It might also be helpful to extend the research questions to include other (potentially negative) qualities and/or characteristics that the audience segments may perceive -- including those that the politician may not be consciously attempting to personify.
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References suggestions
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I would suggest you have a search in my journal, the International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management that I Edit as there a number of related papers in this area. See: .http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0959-0552
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Especially in conducting advertising effectiveness research to test consumer recall on exposed ads.
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Well, i agreed with all. In field we face the real situations/problems whereas in lab experiments we can only know the dose response effects.
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Because most of scholars have used experimental design in this study which i think unnatural in terms of viewing environment. what do you think If I use survey only without any artificial stimuli to test consumer recall on exposed advertising they experienced in general? Is this approach effects the quality of the research?
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Many researchers use surveys that test advertising using recall only. This works fine if your sample is aware of the particular ads you are interested in. Obviously it does not allow you to test variations that the test participants have not seen, heard, or read. So the answer is that it depends on your objective. If the objective fits the "survey only" type questions that can be asked, then that can work.