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Brand Equity - Science topic

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When looking at many sectors (tourism, automobile, agricultural produce) TV advertising always seem to be more prevalent in high demand periods.
However, if the goal of a company is to boost brand awareness is there any reason why the company should advertise during these demand peaks?
Intuitively, since the goal is long term it would be more economically efficient to run advertising during low demand periods.
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Dear Bryan Blanchot From my point of view, at this stage, awareness of the brand has become a matter of fact. It is better for the company to focus on building a strong brand by taking advantage of the increasing demand for products, by obtaining a larger market share. because competition will be on the doorstep ... It is not harmful for the advertisement to continue during this stage, but within the limits of the budget. Reasonable use of financial abundance to develop business and enter new investments
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please suggest questionnaire on the following topics:
Consumer-based brand equity,
Firm-created content,
Purchase intentions of fashion products.
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I had an idea for you but after reading the first 2 comments by Dr. Rajendra K. Gupta and Serhat Karaoglan I realize I’m repeating the advice they gave you. I agree a questionnaire is a basic component of designing and thinking about research project. For me, the questionnaire is the result of careful analysis of your own work. Please look at Serhat’s links for more insight.
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Dear all,
For my master thesis I am trying to predict the effect of brand equity on brand utility. I calculate the brand utility using a multi-attribute conjoint analysis and Hierarchical Bayes, which I will use as my dependent variable in the final regression. I also included a brand equity questionnaire with 15 different questions representing 5 different brand equity concepts (Awareness, Sustainability, Trust, Perceived Quality, and Perception), using a 5-point Likert scale.
I was recommended to run a Confirmatory Factor Analysis to create see whether I could use five concepts from the 15 questions. I used the lavaan package in R to create my 5 Latent variables and all goodness of fit measures (RMSEA > 0.6, CFI <0.9, TCI <0.9) seem good. [Note, since I have Likert scale data I treated the data as ordinal and used polychroic correlations instead of Pearsons.]
I then used LavPredict to create factor scores for my 5 variables (using Maximum Likelihood), which I then use as my independent variables in my regression. After searching online my questions are; how do I interpret the coefficient of these factor scores? (I.e. a significant coefficient of 0.08).
I am looking for " If a X is increased by 1 .... (unit, st.dev, percentage, etc) this leads to a Y increase in the dependent variable" .
Also is there an alternative method I should be using to more accurately predict factor scores? Considering my end goal is to use them in a regression.
Final note: I have quite high correlations among a couple of the latent variables (>0.8), is this an issue?
Thank you in advance and please let me know if you'd like me to provide additional information.
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First of all, RMSEA > 0.6 and CFI < 0.90 are not at all indicative of a good model fit but rather the opposite (terrible fit).
Regarding your questions, in many (but not all) factor measurement models, factors have an arbitrary metric. That is, their units of measurement tend to not be uniquely defined (again, there are exceptions such as Tau equivalent measurement). As an example, in many CFA models you could scale a factor either by fixing one factor loading to a non-zero value or fix the factor variance to a value > 0. This would not change the fit of the model, but it would change the metric of the factor as well as the values of the estimated unstandardized regression coefficients.
Therefore, we usually focus on the interpretation of standardized regression coefficients when it comes to latent factor regression analysis. Those are in standard deviation units and in that sense relatively straightforward to interpret.
Regarding correlations of independent variables, those can cause the same issues as in conventional regression analysis (e.g., collinearity, high standard errors, suppressor effects).
As an aside, it is typically recommended to estimate factor regressions in a single step, that is, within the model, rather than estimating factor scores first and then the regression in a separate analysis.
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Hello,
I need so advice on this statistics project that I'm working on
I need to measure brand equity of a company (dependent variable) with multiple independent variables such as loyalty, popularity, familiarity, etc.
A survey was conducted where many people gave a score for each independent variable for that one company. I was thinking of multiple linear regression but I'm not sure if I'm on the right track.
Please let me know what are your inputs
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If you set customer satisfaction as the mediator. You may be considered PLS-SEM, but if only independent variables, suggest using Multiple regression analysis. Agree with the professors, thank you for the good question and answers.
All the best,
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Please suggest the reference for qualitative dimensions of Brand Equity as intangible and qualitative aspects of the brand influence brand equity .
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I am working on brand Equity and identified alignment with brand personality as a factor which influence brand equity. Please provide me reference for " BRAND PERSONALITY" Scale
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There is an Aaker's brand personality scale (1997) and the Weijters and De Wulf (2009), both frameworks are based on the Big five model.
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Hi, I am working on a dissertation. Somebody suggest what kind of topics can I add to the literature review from the research objectives written below?
1- To explore how business analytics utilises user data to predict how future transactions build brand equity.
2- To learn from successful corporations/SME’s who use internal and external data to improve brand equity.
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Hi Khalil,
I have completed your survey and hope that it will be useful for your research
Meliha
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How advertising skepticism negatively influences or effects or decreases overall consumer based brand equity?
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I would say time is the critical factor. In a short time, there can be a negative impact but later influence should disappear. If marketers understand the market and consumer scepticism, they will react and change their approach. I have only empirical feeling that the Nordic countries have high ad scepticism and are among leaders by guerilla, buzz, social and other alternative forms of promotion. A wrong strategy has a negative impact, but not because of advertising scepticism but because of the wrong strategy. In my opinion ad scepticism erodes the brand equity of such brands which do not respect the scepticism and transfer it toward brand equity of more trustworthy communicated brands. It can change the market shares but does not mean movement toward rational consumer behaviour.
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Hi everyone! I would like to write my bachelor's thesis on a topic that's currently relevant in the sphere of finance, marketing or computer science (or if it's possible a topic concerning all the three fields of interest). Those fields are the same upon which my bachelor is based (Bachelor of Science in Economics, Management and Computer Science).
I've some broad ideas about the topics, for example: the link between brand equity and financial performance; the effects of aggressive marketing on financial markets; the new generation of traders (covid has increase the number of retail investors with no previous experience); machine learning applied to behavioral finance (I really enjoy those last two topics but have no idea on how to connect them).
Obviously any kind of suggestions, regarding new topic (broad or specific) or the development of cited ones would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you in advance!
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A good answer would be: Digital currencies and digital payment - an IT challenge for safe transactions.
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Dear Profs, Associate Profs, and Assistant Profs,
I graduated with a Ph.D. in Marketing from Graduate School of Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (GSB-UKM) in 2019. GSB-UKM is an AACSB-accredited business school.
Then, I launched my own digital marketing agency in Norway in July 2019 and moved to Norway. However, my passion lies in conducting research.
I am very proactive in conducting research and very good at teaching.
I am actively looking for a Postdoc position in the area of Marketing.
Could you please let me know if you need a Post-Doctoral student?
Best Regards,
Amin Ansary
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I want to start a research on brand equity in e-banking. can you please suggest related literature and let me know what models and theories can I use to enrich my research
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Dear Mr@Emmanuel V Murray,
Well, noted. Thanks for your kindly recommendation.
Best regards.
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Hi everyone!
In my survey I have 3 likert scales measuring 3 antecedents of brand equity. My aim is to create a variable representing Brand Equity, somewhay summing up the 3 single likert scales, in order to run a ANOVA analysis between intervention and control group.
Can someone help me please?
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Have you tried the 'multiple response' function in 'Analyse'?
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This is my observation, I can be wrong. What do you say about it. I wrote three papers on transformative marketing, my these articles are getting least visibility. ( Transformative marketing was introduced in August 2018 in Journal of Marketing by Dr.V. Kumar)
Just for the sake of comparison you can see the performance of well researched topics interms of reads vs new topic article..
New topic articles
Old topic articles
On other side researchers are evaluated based on the citations? I wonder how it works, what is your opinion on it? How you keep the balance?
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Muhammad - it doesn't seem that strange to me. New topics take time to get established and gain momentum in the research world. Some fade quickly and are hardly noticed - until the trend crops up again. It is part of the 'art' of research. Those that note new social trends and phenomena, and can react quickly, have a high chance of being among the first to publish - either conceptual material to establish or applied research findings. Most topics, however, soon get noticed and there is often a 'flurry' of research that follows within 5-years of the original findings. The thing is that the 'original' research tends to be acknowledged as such and is often the highest cited. A handful of my 'oldest' works, that might be considered seminal in my field, are amongst my highest cited works - and are still regularly cited even though they are 15-years plus.
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Dear Colleagues
I have just read in Homburg (2015) that independent coders have identified product design dimensions: functional, aesthetic and self-expressive.
Keller (1993) suggests in his article similar dimensions (functional, experiential, self-expressive) of consumer knowledge about the brand.
Do not you think that in this case (1) the advancement of conceptualization of value for consumers is very small (if it exists at all)? (2) the coding results include also the coders' hidden assumptions (the Keller's conceptualization) about the value dimensions? the coders in 2015 code the data generated in 2015 along to categories from 1999?
How to overcome this? What other conceptualizations would be useful to develop the knowledge ? Any sources?
Literature:
Homburg, C., Schwemmle, M., & Kuehnl, C. (2015). New product design: Concept, measurement, and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 79, 41–56.
Keller K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 1-22
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Dear Colleagues.
I have just found another example of how the not-predetermined analysis provides results=categories that we know from earlier (Vargo & Lush) publications.
Look at this:
Kaartemo V, Helkkula A (2018): "The thematic analysis of the papers shows four themes that describe the content of the studies, namely, generic field advancement, supporting service providers, enabling resource integration between service providers and beneficiaries, and supporting beneficiaries’ well-being (...). These themes were not predetermined as they emerged from the reviewed articles inductively."
My comment: the themes obtained inductively are equal to the categories of the previously published (Vargo&Lush) theory. It looks like recognition (aided-recall) of ready categories in the texts. What do you think about it? Maybe you have different interpretations of what we see here?
Kaartemo V, Helkkula A (2018) A Systematic Review of Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Value Co-creation: Current Status and Future Research Avenues. Journal of Creating Value 4(2) 211–228
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Educational marketing has gained significance in the past few decades. Is it really important to build brand equity for universities?
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It is very important.
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Hi,
I am working on Brand equity and its relationship with advertising awareness, please response according to aforementioned.
Respected members, Please respond as soon as possible.
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Muhammad Shoaib Iqbal Good to see you are working on brand equity. as highlighted by Khawaja Usman Sarfraz Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid the instrument is available in the article. Please also cite my work, as I worked on brand equity and Cx in context of Pakistan. Thank you.
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How we can evaluate brand equity on the internet, especially on Facebook brand page ?
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continuously understanding customers preferences and updating products and services is the key to increasing the brand equity on any channel.
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Brand
Brand equity
Brand experience
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kindly also go through, I hope you will find it useful
Article Customer-based brand equity and firms' performance in the te...
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Can anyone provide me the full text of:
Understanding, Measuring, and Using Brand Equity, January 1996, Journal of Advertising Research 36(6):9-21
Paul Dyson, Andy Farr and Nigel S. Hollis
I've already requested it, but still haven't an answer. Thanks in advance.
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kindly also go through, I hope you will find it useful
Article Customer-based brand equity and firms' performance in the te...
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- "Analyzing factors that influence brand resonance among alumni (as past customers) to develop brand equity for higher education brands", (Monica Khanna, Isaac Jacob, Anjali Chopra, 2018)
- "An applied predictive modeling of brand equity inducing social media brand-related engagement", (Bruno Schivinski, 2018)
I'm a master student at the Faculty of Economics of University of Porto. I contacted the authors directly, but no reply so far.
Hope that someone has a way to acess it and help me.
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Liliana Carvalho kindly also go through, I hope you will find it useful
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are there any differences between brand equity antecedents and brand equity components? 
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If you measuring Customer Based Brand Equity for IT & Telecom Companies you can review & read it
Article Customer-based brand equity and firms' performance in the te...
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For some years i've been teaching the concept of Brand Equity in my classes, based on Aaker and Keller - lately solely on Keller. I find the idea itself very useful as a way to translate the added value of the brand to a company's market proposition; besides, companies may make the Brand itself as the most significant part of their proposition in certain industries and models (like licensing).
I understand Aaker tried for a company oriented definition and Keller for a consumer-based definition, but i think they complement each other; i would like to know if there were any newer authors, newer constructions, worth assessing.
(also, i find Kapferer more useful to other aspects of Brand Mgmt, and i confess i've had trouble in making deChernatony palatable for undergraduate level)
thank you,
Paulo L
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* can you help me to find the challenge (L'oreal group) ?
the question is ...
Critical evaluation of its corporate brand management (e.g. What are they?, How have they been performing?) *Effective application of appropriate corporate branding theories to evaluate the chosen corporate brand in relation to various corporate brand components. For example:
Corporate brand identity? Corporate brand equity? Corporate image? Corporate communication? Etc.
*Awareness of challenges faced in corporate brand management in relation to those corporate brand components. For example: How does the company vision permeate throughout its corporate brand? How are the corporate brand values communicated through various corporate brand components (e.g. identity, image, reputation, etc.), and its brand architecture?
o Consistent? o Relevant? o Clear? o Competitive?
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If you read spanish, I recommend "Branding Corporativo" (Capriotti). You will find this matrix and I think it will answer your question.
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I would like to know how can we promote higher learning institutions to the current and potential customers(Students) and other stakeholders, to increase our recruitment, retention and brand equity strategy of such institutions.
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This might be useful - attachment (Glenn Rikowski)
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I would be grateful if someone can guide me if there is any reliable database about the companies brand equity value? I know something as Young&Robicam. However, I dont know what is the procedure to getting access to the data. thanks
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Kotler and Keller (2012:277) identify two basic approaches to measuring brand equity. An indirect approach—assesses potential sources of brand equity by identifying and tracking consumer brand knowledge structures.
A direct approach—assesses the actual impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different aspects of the marketing. The two general approaches are complementary and marketers can employ both.
Regards
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Branding, Brand Equity, Brand Attitude
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Kotler and Keller (2012:277) identify two basic approaches to measuring brand equity. An indirect approach—assesses potential sources of brand equity by identifying and tracking consumer brand knowledge structures.
A direct approach—assesses the actual impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different aspects of the marketing. The two general approaches are complementary and marketers can employ both.
Regards
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How can service brand equity be measured?
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Kotler and Keller (2012:277) identify two basic approaches to measuring brand equity. An indirect approach—assesses potential sources of brand equity by identifying and tracking consumer brand knowledge structures.
A direct approach—assesses the actual impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different aspects of the marketing. The two general approaches are complementary and marketers can employ both.
Regards,
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Entrepreneurship is opportunity based concept?  However, export entrepreneurship could be different from the general entrepreneurship since it is out of the context.
Upananda
Sri Lanka 
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Compared to general entrepreneurship, in export entrepreneurship, there can be many constraints and external forces which are beyond the control of the entrepreneur. Especially, influence of macroeconomic factors and the economic stability may be critical
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My current study is on Facebook marketing and its impact on brand equity. Though I found some useful articles, they do not reveal the theoretical foundation of their framework. Can someone please help me to find a theory which relevant to the social media marketing and brand equity?
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Hi, Nisha:
Scant evidence is available on of how social media marketing activities influence brand equity creation and consumers' behavior towards a brand. This research (Godey et al., 2016) explored these relationships by analyzing pioneering brands in the luxury sector (Burberry, Dior, Gucci, Hermès, and Louis Vuitton).
Based on a survey of 845 luxury brand consumers (Chinese, French, Indian, and Italian), who follow the five brands studied on social media, the study developed a structural equation model that helps to address gaps in prior social media branding literature. Specifically, the study demonstrated the links between social media marketing efforts and their consequences (brand preference, price premium, and loyalty). The study measured brands' social media marketing efforts as a holistic concept that incorporates five aspects (entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization, and word of mouth).
Another contribution of the study is that it finds that SMMEs have a significant positive effect on brand equity and on the two main dimensions of brand equity: brand awareness and brand image!
  • Godey, B., Manthiou, A., Pederzoli, D., Rokka, J., Aiello, G., Donvito, R., & Singh, R. (2016). Social media marketing efforts of luxury brands: Influence on brand equity and consumer behavior. Journal Of Business Research, 69(12), 5833-5841.
Hope this helps!
Kind Regards, Nadeem
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I would like to carry out an empirical analysis on the impact of different marketing mix models on sales/brand equity/trials; therefore I am looking for any study or research using econometric models to understand the impact of marketing on sales.
Thank you in advance  for your support.
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you cam go through some peer reviewed articles
The persistence of marketing effects on sales
MODELING MARKETING MIX
Market response models and marketing practice
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I am looking for recent publications focusing on whether sports sponsorship really works when it to improving the brand equity or financial performance of the sponsoring organization.
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Research shows fairly consistently that consumers respond positively to sponsors of properties that they care about. It is based on Heider's Balance Theory where positive feelings toward one entity transfer to what becomes associated with that entity. This tendency is especially pronounced in the context of sports sponsorship where die-hard fans have strong attachment to their favorite teams, which then translates to positive feelings toward the sponsor. I'd recommend checking Bettina Cornwell's publications as she has done extensive research on this topic. She also has written a nice book summarizing sponsorship theory and sponsorship research: "Sponsorship in Marketing: Effective Communication through Sports, Arts and Events"
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How far have brand management scholars gone in their quest to come up with a common understanding  of what  the terms  "brand" and "brand equity" mean?
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For a recent discussion of the full richness of the concept of brand and its meaning creation see: 
Francisco Conejo and Ben Wooliscroft
Brands Defined as Semiotic Marketing Systems
Journal of Macromarketing September 2015 35: 287-301
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In the attached paper, authors have calculated an Index for Multidimensional Brand Equity construct and also used an Overall Brand Equity latent variable as a 2nd order construct, than examined the correlation between them.
My question is; what is the difference between calculating an index and creating an high order more abstract latent variable for examining the effects of dimensions on the higher order construct?
Do we have to create an index, or can we just use an high order constract to compare the effects of the dimensions ?
Also, when creating an higher order latent variable, does the latent variable have to have an indicator representing each dimensions?
Kind Regards,
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Thank you dear Ms. Karin,
Sometimes it is really hard finding your way especially studying with an unestablished theory. Your answer really helped, thank you.
Regards,
Yusuf
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I am working on a paper " Measuring brand equity of educational institute imparting professional education" 
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Dr. Dhani,
Kindly find the the attached file regarding one of my researches, it may help you,
best regards,
Dr. Abdullah
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How are the two correlated? Please quote empirical studies, if possible.
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You can find these article:  Social Media in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Research Directions by Charles H.F. Davis III. www.academia.edu/1220569
The Use of Social Media in Higher Education for Marketing and
Communications: A Guide for Professionals in Higher
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Measuring brand equity of higher education institute.
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Dear its a mix of what exactly the institute is producing (Output)
it can be in terms of:
1. Alumni (what the passed out students are doing)
2. Educational Qualification and Background of the faculty members 
3. Research Contribution (what is the level of research done by the faculty members of the institution. 
4. Infrastructure (what overall facilities are available in an institution 
5. Placement (where institute is helping and getting their students placed, package of the students)
6. Funded projects and Consultancy work performed by the institution 
7.  Approval (Affiliation)  
8. Social Responsibility of the institution 
Hope this will help. All the best
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The question is related to the accounting in Business. The addressed three financial statements are : SOFP , CFS and PL.  Brand equity is considered on of the major intangible assets of a company, specially the well-known brands, the value of the brand is measured based on the marketing researches.  Can please anyone explain if the calculated value should be positioned in any of above financial statements ?
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According to IFRS, there is obligation to valuate brand only in case of purchase or merge and acquisition. But there are different possibilities of valuation methods  valuation. You can prepare accounting historical costs of purchase in -> balance sheet -> assets -> intangibe assets. In the other side you got amortization of the brand in Profit and Loss account. Other way we can use fair value (look at IFRS no.13) and business valuation methods as intellectual capital valuation for example VAIC.  And there can occur depreciation, apprciation and amortization of the asset value. If you would like to get more information please send me private message with details of your research. 
Kind regards
Igor Perechuda
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Actually, I did a research on brand equity evaluation in bank service long time ago. Now, I am planning on doing a research about brand equity evaluation/measurement in the field of education, especially in university brand equity. I found this useful article from USA researchers, are there more research papers done about this topic?
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I am searching for research paper related with celebrity endorsement effect on brand equity. 
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there is also a recent special issue from Journal of Marketing Management --
Issue 5-6 2015 
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Impact of country of origin in the brand equity.
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Hello Irma, You can look these few papers from our institute...
The last link is of researcher, who is involved in doing similar researches.
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some researchers use brand equity and brand value as synonymous term. is there differences between them  
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The concept of brand equity has been discussed in a different ways, literatures divide brand equity into three categories: the customer-based perspective ,the financial perspective  and the combined perspective.
Brand equity is more difficult to estimate because it is a set of customer's perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors.
Brand value is easier  to estimate by asking others what price they would pay to purchase the brand.
In general, brand equity can increase brand value .
best regards.
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Can corporate social responsibility effect the decision of buying luxury brands?
Better to provide your input with certain context or region.
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There are three elements in your question that are worth to talk about: (1) "is the CSR effective" - the real question is : "effective in comparison with what.?" PA.Dacin and T.J. Brown in their famous research presented in article  The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing; Jan 1997; 61, 1; pg. 68 confirmed the theory that Corporate Abilities (CA) works better than CSR in context of consumer products, (2) "luxury brands"  - it is just a context = another product category in which the CA over CSR theory is to be checked, (3) research method - data generation in investigations carried in context of  luxury brands may require to take into consideration so called "transformational communication" that is used to communicate the target positions of luxury brands . RK
PS
It's worth to take into consideration the "fit" ("match up") theory in CSR effecetiveness research. The "fit" theory suggests that when leveraging the product brand image by CSR (or other elements like co-brand, celebrity, country of origin etc) not the CSR project(s) but the fit between CSR projects and product brand explains consumer reactions.  One of the most famous and seminal articles that empirically checks the fit theory in context of consumer brands is: Aaker, David A.; Keller, Kevin Lane, Consumer Evaluations Of Brand Extensions
Journal of Marketing; Jan 1990; 54, 1; pg. 27.
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I am successful in developing tree maps, word frequency maps, cluster analysis map but i am not having mind clarity in terms of how to make a model in Nvivo. Some of the researchers' whom i consulted are of the view that one can make a self generated model or it is not must and some say that its a must.
Dear Research Gate community !
Do help me in this regard so that i can have a clear idea about the techniques and literature.
Thanks in anticipation.   
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Read my book The Economics of Quality Grades and Brands, which shows that hedonic and characteristics approaches are inadequate, and you need to use ALL the theory. It tells you what you need to know to describe the quality of the product. Contact me at Peter@Bowbrick.eu for a copy
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I want to study that how trademark as a vital intellectual property can be sustained through IP governance and enforcement as only then the trademark could go towards becoming a brand. 
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Dear Imran.. u may read my humble paper on IP for SMEs. Hope it helps u on the relation of IP and how does it help SMEs and finally increasing the economic value of the product n the country itself.
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One of the constructs of my research are intellectual property governance and brand equity and i want to know that in how many dimensions they connect with each other 
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see this article it may be relevant
Managing risk and protecting intellectual property
Corbin, Ruth M. Ivey Business Journal 66.3 (Jan/Feb 2002): 11-13
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I am using Nvivo for qualitative analysis and have crafted tree diagram, word frequency diagrams and cluster analysis from the interview transcripts. I have seen articles that have not given a model but still are considered good in terms of indepth study of their concerned problem area. 
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Dear Imran Bashir Dar,
you are doing great qualitative research! In my opinion you should follow the thematic analysis principles and theory approach. First is important to identify as many as possible codes/nodes, but in the continue is as much important to develop a model, a theory of your studied practice. A tree diagram, word frequency diagrams and cluster analysis in NVivo programme based on word frequency and are more quantitative analysis approaches to qualitative data. I suggest you to go beyond word frequency to study more deeply how your codes are linked to categories and how categories are connected between each other in the theoretical model about brand equity loss in terms of marketer and consumer.
Good luck and have a fun with theoretical principles discovery of studied practice.
Kind regards,
Joca 
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I want to know if there has been any work done on brand equity loss from marketer and consumer perspective as i am coordinating a work group, qualitative research, on it at PhD level. 
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Here you can find a lot of brand equity cases in customer equity builiding context. They are good for students, but I am not sure, if the book is aviable now to buy. If not, try library
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I am doing a PhD level work on Qualitative descriptive research and for that i am need to know about any recent developments in techniques on it using Nvivo. I will be very thankful for those who can help me out it this endeavor. I am doing Qualitative research.
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Good Afternoon Sir:  In researching for my dissertation, I amassed a large amount of notes and references. I elected to conduct a qualitative approach to my paper rather than a quantitative approach, because I believe that statistics can only render approximations.  To fully understand the author's  real meaning, it becomes necessary to understand the thought process of the author.  Doing a content analysis of the words used in an article can provide new insight into the meaning of words that a statistical equation or answer, cannot provide.  I used the following books to help me understand content analysis and to use this knowledge to perform my qualitative analysis using NVivo10. 
1.  Content Analysis - An Introduction to its Methodology, 3rd Ed, Klaus Krippendorff, 2013, Sage Publications.
2.  Qualitative Content Analysis in Practice, Margrit Schreier, 2012, reprinted in 2013, Sage Publications.
3.  Content Analysis Guidebook, Kimberly A. Neuendorf, 2002, Sage Publications.
4.  Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, John W. Creswell, 2009, Sage Publications.
I hope this will help you in your research.  I found these boos extremely helpful in understanding the qualitative process.  Once I understood the process, it was easier for me to understand how to use NVivo10, and use the results of the analysis to write  my paper.  Good luck on your paper.
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I want to know about any books written on brand equity as it will guide me further in my endeavor on brand equity. 
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Hello, here are some useful references for you. Aaker (1991) takes a broad approach to brand equity, including behavioural measures such as revenue premiums.  Keller (1993) is the seminal article on customer-based brand equity, using customer perceptions to determine brand strength rather than revenue or choice. Romaniuk (2013) is recent work that has developed Keller's approach to a very finely tuned level, to the point that she can provide quantitative generalisations about market structure for customer-based brand equity. Sharp (2010) offers an alternative view to Aaker (1991), saying that most measures of brand strength simply reflect the number of buyers of a brand. These are all quite quantitative approaches.  For qualitative methods, you could consider the attribute elicitation methods discussed in Steenkamp and van Trijp (1997). These provide a way of using projective techniques to identify brand associations which form the basis of customer-based brand equity, for example with Kelley's Repertory Grid, or the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique. There is much more you can do on qualitative research, but that should at least start you off.
I hope this is of some help.
Malcolm
References
. Aaker, D. A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, New York: The Free Press.
. Keller, K. L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity”, The Journal of Marketing, 57(1), pp. 1-22.
. Romaniuk, J. (2013), “Modeling mental market share”, Journal of Business Research, 66 (2) pp. 188-185.
 Sharp, B. (2010), How brands grow: What marketers don't know. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
. Steenkamp, J. B., & Van Trijp, H. (1997). Attribute elicitation in marketing research: a comparison of three procedures. Marketing Letters, 8(2), 153-165.
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I am doing research on brand equity while using identity and consumer approach which are positivistic (marketer perspective) and constructivist (consumer perspective) in nature. I have observed that there is a connection between the two theories as both use cognitive theory. 
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If one Theory is complementary to other, yes. The Method of Analysis of Content is one way for this solution. Make categorization about each one theory - and after make one Table of comparison. I hope to have collaborated with you.
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My team is preparing a list of books on brand equity management that could help the young research students in this field, specifically in the area of theory and research.
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For books Building Strong Brands by David Aaker and Strategic Brand Management by Kevin Lane Keller are the most popular. For operationalizing brand equity measurement you can refer to the Yoo and Donthu (2001) CBBE scale. 
If you require those papers mail me at sunny_1708@rediffmail.com
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Because Brand Equity is having assets and liabilities attached to it. So what is your opinion.........
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We define Equity into Firm-Based-BE; Employee-Based-BE; Customer-Based-BE (attached), and all three must be aligned, i.e. customer perception (Image) with internal desire (Identity) and reality (Soul).
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I want to study the brand equity in the three biggest banks in the Philippines namely, BPI, BDO and Metro Bank. The closest framework I have so far is Keller's Framework on Consumer Based Brand Equity which is more of a marketing tool than an economic one.
Hope anyone can help me with this. Thank you! 
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i suggest that you look at the literature on game theory and advertising.  brand equity invariably creates two agents, the vendor and the stakeholders (customers, future owners of the brand).  there is work done by the Harvard Business School, International Forum on Marketing Science (Chengdu, China 2006)
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Brand health measurement for categories like FMCG, durables and telecom services have a standard pattern of metrics considering higher involvement of customers. But in categories like general insurance and some financial services the familiarity and involvement level are rather low. There seems to be a need for improvised new metrics and pattern for measuring brand health in such sectors. What are your thoughts?
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Brand Asset Valuator is one of the metrics, I used to use a lot for all sorts of industries. The way it works is it compare brand value across four main pillars, energized differentiation, esteem, knowledge and regards. The reason this might be good one is because while deriving the brand health or value, we take into consideration all types of brands to compare with, right from FMCG to branking to insurance. All types were used, so this might be a good metric. 
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"If the businesses were split up, I would take the brands, trademarks, and goodwill, and you could have all the bricks and mortar and I would fare better than you".
–John Stuart
This quantitative research targets consumer behaviors in purchasing fast moving consumers goods (FMCG) in term of Brand of products. For this purpose four elements as brand equity's components were identified that has potential affect purchasing FMCG, and they are follows:
1) Brand Awraeness,
2) Brand Association,
3) Perceived Quality, and
4) Brand Loyalty.
Please find the some useful related articles. 
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My research seeks to measure the brand image of a politician
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Identify the qualities and/or characteristics that the politician is (apparently) seeking to personify and conduct quant & qual research to determine to what extent different audience segments endorse the politician's 'possession' of these. It might also be helpful to extend the research questions to include other (potentially negative) qualities and/or characteristics that the audience segments may perceive -- including those that the politician may not be consciously attempting to personify.