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Brain Anatomy - Science topic

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Publications related to Brain Anatomy (2,377)
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Given controversial findings of reduced depressive symptom severity and increased hippocampus volume in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, we sought to provide empirical evidence from a large-scale single-center longitudinal cohort in the community-dwelling adult population—Colaus|PsyCoLaus in Lausanne, Switzerland ( n = 4152). We looked for CYP2C19 genoty...
Article
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Seasonally reproducing small mammals often undergo changes in brain anatomy throughout the year. Much of the research on this seasonal neuroplasticity has focused on changes in hippocampus volume and neurogenesis, with relatively little attention paid to neuronal morphology. Here, we test for sex, season and sex–season interaction effects on hippoc...
Article
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The human brain develops dynamically during early childhood, when the child is sensitive to both genetic programming and extrinsic exposures. Recent studies have found links between prenatal and early life environmental factors, family demographics and the cortical brain morphology in newborns measured by surface area, volume and thickness. Here in...
Article
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Engineered three-dimensional (3D) in vitro and ex vivo neural tissues, also known as “mini brains and spinal cords in a dish,” can be derived from different types of human stem cells via several differentiation protocols. In general, human mini brains are micro-scale physiological systems consisting of mixed populations of neural progenitor cells,...
Article
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Characterization of baboon model of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) is driven both electroclinically and by successful adoption of neuroimaging platforms, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Based upon its phylogenetic proximity and similar brain anatomy to humans, the epileptic baboon provides an exc...
Article
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An important line of research related to the resolution of word problems is the study of the cognitive processes involved when subjects translate problems into the language of algebra. One of the most common errors in problem‐solving is the reversal error (RE), which occurs when students reverse the relationship between two variables when translati...
Article
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Cognitive and sensory abilities are vital in affecting survival under predation risk, leading to selection on brain anatomy. However, how exactly predation and brain evolution are linked has not yet been resolved, as current empirical evidence is inconclusive. This may be due to predation pressure having different effects across life stages and/or...
Article
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AB S T RA C T Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities are invaluable for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. This study aimed to correlate the anatomical sectional data of the cats' brain to the sections obtained by both MRI and CT examination. The present work was conducted on four cats, 1...
Article
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Aggression is a core feature of conduct disorder (CD), but the motivation, execution of aggression may vary. A deeper understanding of the neural substrates of aggressive behaviours is critical for effective clinical intervention. Seventy-six Boys with CD (50 with impulsive aggression (I-CD) and 26 with premeditated aggression (P-CD)) and 69 health...
Article
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Anatomy Nights is an international public engagement event created to bring anatomy and anatomists back to public spaces with the goal of increasing the public’s understanding of their own anatomy by comparison with non-human tissues. The event consists of a 30-minute mini-lecture on the anatomy of a specific anatomical organ followed by a dissecti...
Article
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Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool to enhance therapeutic efforts, for instance, after a stroke. The achieved stimulation effects exhibit high inter-subject variability, primarily driven by perturbations of the induced electric field (EF). Differences are further elevated in the aging brain due to anatomic...
Preprint
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In this paper, we propose a method for denoising diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of the brain using a convolutional neural network trained on realistic, synthetic MR data. We compare our results to averaging of repeated scans, a widespread method used in clinics to improve signal-to-noise ratio of MR images. To obtain training data for transfer lea...
Article
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In this manuscript, we present a translational physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to characterize receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) of anti-transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the central nervous system (CNS). The model accounts for the state-of-the-art knowledge of the brain's anatomy and physiology, and p...
Article
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The Drosophila brain has only a fraction of the number of neurons of higher organisms such as mice and humans. Yet the sheer complexity of its neural circuits recently revealed by large connectomics datasets suggests that computationally modeling the function of fruit fly brain circuits at this scale poses significant challenges. To address these c...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that lasts lifelong and causes noticeably higher premature mortality. Although the core symptoms and other behavioral deficits of ASD can persist or be deteriorated from early development to old age, how aging affects the behaviors and brain anatomy in ASD is largely unknown. DOCK4 is...
Article
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Background In the recent years, growing interest in simulation-based surgical education has led to various practical alternatives for medical training. More recently, courses based on virtual reality (VR) and three-dimensional (3D)-printed models are available. In this paper, a hybrid (virtual and physical) neurosurgical simulator has been validate...
Article
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Brain science, an emerging, dynamic, multidisciplinary basic research field, is generating numerous valuable data. However, there are still several obstacles for the utilization of these data, such as data fragmentation, heterogeneity, availability, and annotation divergence. Thus, to overcome these obstacles and construct an online community, we d...
Article
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Sex differences are poorly studied within the field of mental health, even though there is evidence of disparities (with respect to brain anatomy, activation patterns, and neurochemistry, etc.) that can significantly influence the etiology and course of mental disorders. The objective of this work was to review sex differences in adolescents (aged...
Article
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Socioeconomic status (SES) correlates with brain structure, a relation of interest given the long-observed relations of SES to cognitive abilities and health. Yet, major questions remain open, in particular, the pattern of causality that underlies this relation. In an unprecedently large study, here, we assess genetic and environmental contribution...
Article
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Background: The gender differences in the brain anatomy play an important role in planning and analysis in a lot of studies of the brain. Despite most animal studies being performed on the animals of only one sex, clinical studies generally enroll both males and females. Keeping this fact in mind, learning the gender differences in the white matter...
Article
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Several neurological illnesses and diseased sites have been studied, along with the anatomical framework of the brain, using structural MRI (sMRI). It is critical to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients in a timely manner to implement preventative treatments. The segmentation of brain anatomy and categorization of AD have received increased a...
Book
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Introduction: Antisocial behavior (ASB) in children and youth is public health problem in Georgia. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic study the risk factors for ASB that could counteract on ASB development. Aim: This study presents the systematic study of the constitutional and environmental risk factors in children and youth with CD or AS...
Article
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Personality traits such as impulsivity or sensitivity to rewards and punishments have been associated with risky driving behavior, but it is still unclear how brain anatomy is related to these traits as a function of risky driving. In the present study, we explore the neuroanatomical basis of risky driving behavior and how the level of risk-taking...
Preprint
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Preparing intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) datasets for analysis presents a unique set of methodological challenges that are absent in non-invasive investigative techniques. Because iEEG is primarily used in epilepsy patients with varying brain pathologies, the main challenges pertain to variability in electrode coverage and therefore the...
Poster
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Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often considered when ultrasound is inconclusive for assessing fetal anatomy during all phases of gestation. Fetal MRI provides clear images for diagnosis and early detection of perinatal disorders of development • Measuring fetal MRI can be a time-consuming process to attain specificity of brain anatomy me...
Article
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It has been suggested that intergenerational transmission of risk for substance use disorder (SUD) manifests in the brain anatomy of substance naïve adolescents. While volume and shapes of subcortical structures (SSS) have been shown to be heritable, these structures, especially the pallidum, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus, have also b...
Article
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Impairments in cognitive performance are common in schizophrenia, and these contribute to poor awareness of symptoms and treatment (‘clinical insight’), which is an important predictor of functional outcome. Although relationships between cognitive impairment and reductions in regional brain volumes in patients are relatively well characterised, le...
Article
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Explorations of the relation between brain anatomy and functional connections in the brain are crucial for shedding more light on network connectivity that sustains brain communication. In this study, by means of an integrative approach, we examined both the structural and functional connections of the default mode network (DMN) in a group of sixte...
Article
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Interindividual anatomical differences in the human cortex can lead to suboptimal current directions and may result in response variability of transcranial electrical stimulation methods. These differences in brain anatomy require individualized electrode stimulation montages to induce an optimal current density in the targeted area of each individ...
Article
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Significance Prenatal exposure to maternal infection increases the risk of developing mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure to maternal immune activation has been associated with a number of neuroanatomical deficits in adolescent and adult offspring, with differing effects based on the gestational tim...
Article
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Transgender people report discomfort with their birth sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The current study was designed to shed further light on the question of whether the brains of transgender people resemble their birth sex or their gender identity. For this purpose, we analyzed a sample of 24 cisgender men, 24 cisgender wome...
Article
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Background Sheep ( Ovis aries ) have been largely used as animal models in a multitude of specialties in biomedical research. The similarity to human brain anatomy in terms of brain size, skull features, and gyrification index, gives to ovine as a large animal model a better translational value than small animal models in neuroscience. Despite this...
Article
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Importance: Late-life depression (LLD) is characterized by considerable heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Unraveling such heterogeneity might aid in elucidating etiological mechanisms and support precision and individualized medicine. Objective: To cross-sectionally and longitudinally delineate disease-related heterogeneity in LLD associa...
Article
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Inter-individual differences can inform treatment procedures and—if accounted for—have the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes. However, when studying brain anatomy, these inter-individual variations are commonly unaccounted for, despite reports of differences in gross anatomical features, cross-sectional, and connectional anatomy....
Article
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Disruption of mental functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders is accompanied by selective degeneration of brain regions. These regions comprise large-scale ensembles of cells organized into systems for mental functioning, however the relationship between clinical symptoms of dementia, patterns of neurodegeneration, and functional...
Article
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IntroductionThe increasing use of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the USA and the need for three-dimensional (3D) appreciation of complex spatial relationships between implanted stereotactic EEG depth electrodes and surrounding brain and cerebral vasculature are a challenge to clinicians who are used to two-dimensional (2D) appreciation of c...
Article
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The human brain develops from a smooth cortical surface in early stages of fetal life to a convoluted one postnatally, creating an organized ensemble of folds. Abnormal folding patterns are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the complex multi-scale interactions involved in cortical folding are not fully known yet. Computational models...
Article
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Socioeconomic status (SES) plays a significant role in health and disease. At the same time, early-life conditions affect neural function and structure, suggesting the brain may be a conduit for the biological embedding of SES. Here, we investigate the brain anatomy signatures of SES in a large-scale population cohort aged 45-85 years. We assess bo...
Article
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Purpose Hippocampal volumetry is an important biomarker to quantify atrophy in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We investigate the sensitivity of automated segmentation methods to support radiological assessments of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Results from FreeSurfer and FSL-FIRST are contrasted to a deep learning (DL)-based segmentatio...
Article
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Registration-based methods are commonly used in the automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. However, these methods are not robust to the presence of gross pathologies that can alter the brain anatomy and affect the alignment of the atlas image with the target image. In this work, we develop a robust algorithm, MU-Net-R, for...
Article
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Background and objective Injuries to the parasagittal cerebrovenous structures may lead to devastating complications. Being aware of the inherent anatomical heterogeneity in the region might lower the rate of undesirable outcomes. In this study, our goal was to characterize the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) positioning in relation to the midline an...
Article
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The hypothalamus is the key region that regulates the neuroendocrine system as well as instinct behaviors, and hypothalamic dysfunction causes refractory clinical problems. Recent studies have indicated that neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) in the hypothalamus play a crucial role in hypothalamic function. However, specific hypothalamic NSPC cultu...
Article
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Despite the fast growing interest in the impact of microbiome–gut–brain interaction on regulating emotional behavior in animals, the underlying mechanisms on how brain anatomy together with gut microbiotic condition jointly influence emotional state in healthy human volunteers remain largely unknown and hypothetic. Here, high-resolution structural...
Conference Paper
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Support Vector Machines were trained to classify patients with Alzheimer’s Disease against controls via spatial patterns in CBF maps acquired by Arterial Spin Labelling, using both linear and non-linear kernels. Applying a 2nd order polynomial non-linear kernel made the SVM most accurate (balanced classification accuracy: 87.2%). However, a non-lin...
Article
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The dataset contains structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance brain imaging data from 136 young individuals (87 females; age range from 18 to 35 years old) along with questionnaire-assessed measurements of trait-like chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. The recruitment criteria excluded individuals with self-reported history of psychi...
Preprint
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Lesion detection in brain Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) remains a challenging task. MRIs are typically read and interpreted by domain experts, which is a tedious and time-consuming process. Recently, unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) in brain MRI with deep learning has shown promising results to provide a quick, initial assessment. So far, th...
Article
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Compatibility has been one of the central concepts of work design since the very beginning of ergonomic research. Even if, or precisely because, the concept of compatibility is established, the importance of compatibility for current work design issues often takes a back seat because it is an old and therefore supposedly antiquated concept. The ver...
Article
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Individuals can be characterized in a population according to their brain measurements and activity, given the inter-subject variability in brain anatomy, structure-function relationships, or life experience. Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the potential of functional network connectivity patterns estimated from resting functional magne...
Article
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Introduction This large-scale lesion-symptom mapping study investigates the necessary neuro-anatomical substrates of 5 cognitive domains frequently affected post stroke: Language, Attention, Praxis, Number, and Memory. This study aims to demonstrate the validity of using routine clinical brain imaging and standard bedside cognitive screening data f...
Preprint
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Deficiency in the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin severely affects migration of neurons during development. The function of serine at position 1283 in Reelin has remained uncertain. To explore its relevance we generated rln A/A mice that carry alanine instead of serine at position 1283, thereby disrupting the putative casein kinase 2 (CK2)...
Article
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Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) interferes with neurodevelopment. The brain is particularly susceptible to the adverse consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, and numerous studies have documented changes to brain anatomy and function, as well as consequences for cognition, behavior, and mental health. Studies in typically developing individuals...
Article
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Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a persistent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire resulting in significant distress or interpersonal difficulty. Women with this disorder may display a lack of motivation for sexual activity, reduced responsiveness to erotic cues, a loss of interest during sexual activity, and avoidance of...
Article
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Recent whole-brain mapping projects are collecting large-scale three-dimensional images using modalities such as serial two-photon tomography, fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography, light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, volumetric imaging with synchronous on-the-fly scan and readout or magnetic resonance imaging. Registration of these mul...
Article
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It was once believed by most scientists that sperm is a blind and simple sack that barley chromosomes are squeezed on. This atlas of micrographs has explored the brain in human sperm. Different stages of staining and advanced clinical light microscopy were assigned to distinguish the human sperm structure. This atlas of micrography gives the neurol...
Article
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Characterizing epileptogenic zones EZ (sources responsible of excessive discharges) would assist a neurologist during epilepsy diagnosis. Locating efficiently these abnormal sources among magnetoencephalography (MEG) biomarker is obtained by several inverse problem techniques. These techniques present different assumptions and particular epileptic...
Preprint
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The human brain develops dynamically during early childhood, when the child is sensitive to both genetic programming and extrinsic exposures. Recent studies have found links between prenatal and early life environmental factors, family demographics and the cortical brain morphology in newborns measured by surface area, volume and thickness. Here in...
Book
Full-text available
Wie beeinflusst der menschliche Geist Krankheiten? Der Mediziner und Philosoph Michael Imhof geht der Frage nach, wie Krankheiten in den Mustern der neuronalen Netzwerke des Gehirns repräsentiert werden und auf welche Weise Bewusstseinsprozesse in rekursiven Schleifen auf die Entstehung und den Verlauf von Krankheiten einwirken können. Grundleg...
Article
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Although an increasing number of studies are combining skeletal and neural morphology data in a phylogenetic context, most studies do not include extinct taxa due to the rarity of preserved endocasts. The early Eocene avifauna of the Fur Formation of Denmark presents an excellent opportunity for further study of extinct osteological and endocranial...