Science topic

Body Size - Science topic

The physical measurements of a body.
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Hi, I'm looking for datasets like the Baracca dataset, containing both pictures of people (not 3D scans) with their body measurements (e.g. shoulder width, leg length, etc.)
Do you know where I can find such dataset ?
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It is very expensive metode for screeing much more patients
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How do male-dominant activities and large body sizes lead to the high prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in males?
This fact is written in the last paragraph of the discussion section in the research paper link is given below:
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The article you provided offered citation 15 (linked below) for this claim. I saw nothing about male dominated activities or body size. The only statement addressing gender in that cited article was
"The mean age of the patients was 28.8+17.3 years, comprised of 56 (52.8%) males and 50 (47.2%) females."
The claim might be true but this is very poor scholarship.
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I want to take body size measurements of a few species of butterflies in the field, as well as to take their pictures with enough quality for morphometric analyses. However, I would like not to have to sacrifice so many individuals, for conservation reasons of couse, so I was wondering if anyone may have ideas or insights as to which anesthetic to use and/or their dosage. I've tried to do a literature search but had no luck. Thank you in advance!
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Hello Claudia; I've used a picnic ice chest to create a cold place. Cooling the butterflies to some low temperature will immobize them for a little while. Try it in the lab so you can tell how long it takes to cool them and how long they stay immobile. Good luck with your project; Jim Des Lauriers
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Good morning Dear all
Please, can you provide me some reference where I can find a relationship between great apes' age (juveniles, adults mature,) or body size with their nest diameter. I have collected nests diameter of great apes in my study area and I would like to sort them in classes of diameter according to the age of the animal that constructed the nest.
Thank you in advance and good day
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Hi Dear Carl
Thanks you very much for this. With the reference I might find others.
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Unfortunately carabids.org is down. I am looking for European Carabidae traid data, like Distribution range size, adaptability to environment, habitat preference, body size, hind wing morphology, feeding, breeding season, hibernation stage, daily activity. Does anyone know an alternative database of publicly available Carabidae trait database? I would be interested expanding an existing database if someone had one.
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visit
in the search menu you can find the material you are interested in.
Regards, Sergey
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So far, most of methods about inferring the trophic or ecological interactions take account of the circumstance of aquatic ecosystem. Many methods have emerged, such as the method based on body size (Gravel and Poisot et al., 2013) and the method based on published data (Gray and Figueroa et al., 2015). However, these methods have many limitations when applied to terrestrial ecosystems. Are there any generic methods to infer the trophic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems?
Any helpful answers would be appreciated!
Best wishes.
Reference
Gray, C. and D. H. Figueroa, et al. (2015). "Joining the dots: An automated method for constructing food webs from compendia of published interactions." Food Webs 5: 11-20.
Gravel, D. and T. Poisot, et al. (2013). "Inferring food web structure from predator-prey body size relationships." Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4 (11): 1083-1090.
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Hi Hao Xiyang , kindly check whether the below link is helpful for you.
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Hello everyone. I am trying to perform a functional diversity analysis in R with copepods' families as well as their nauplii and copepodids. I do have a table with abundances and traits (feeding preferences, body size, carbon content and feeding strategy) for each copepod and their nauplii and copepodids. I am struggling to do it. How to set up the table to run the analysis? May you help me?
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Hi! I think you should prepare two matrix, one is abundance matrix where site or sample in row and species in line, another matrix is trait matrix where species in row and triat indices in line. Note that the order of the species in two matrix is the same. Then you can use dbFD function in FD package in R to calculate the functional diversity indices of each site or sample, including functional richness, functional divergence, function evenness, community weighted mean of trait, etc.
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We all know numerous examples for sexual dimorphism as the result of sexual selection. Thinking of mammals and birds, males are very often bigger or more colorful and richly ornamented than females. In some species however, females and males look very much alike, (aside from a minute difference in body size maybe), they are monomorphic. Why is that?
I couldn't find an answer myself in the literature so maybe you can give me a hint!
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Never really thought about it. I guess it implies that sexual selection isn't always the strongest player in the field: in cases with strong predation pressure, natural selection could overshadow any potential sexual selection. For instance, consider Zahavi's handicap principle: females will prefer males with conspicuous traits that reduce male survival chance, because it signals their quality ('they can afford it, so they must be good'). But if predation pressure is very high, males may not be able to afford conspicuousness at all (hence not leaving a lot of room for sexual selection).
Just some first thoughts that crossed my mind, I'm not the expert in this.
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We're doing a project on this. So how can this be implemented and how come it hasn't been implemented commercially?
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The first thing that you have to do is to align individuals, you need a frame of reference in which to place the different people. The idea is to use a Cartesian coordinate space in three dimensions as a common space (this step known by REGISTRATION). The second step is to segment the body, than it will be easily implemented by python to calculate the size.
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Hello RG community,
I am starting a project aimed at detecting what genetic variants are associated with traits being heavily selected upon (frog mating call and body size) in a recently speciated group of species.
We have developed linkage maps for all lineages/species, at a resolution of 0.5 cM, for a total of some 20,000 SNPs mapped, 10,000 per species (some overlap, 10%, between species).
We now want to identify regions in the genome that are associated with those traits of interest. We have phenotyped some ~1000 individuals, and we will be genotyping them for the same SNP as those used to build the linkage maps.
Now my question is, what methods would YOU recommend to detect the association, and WHY? What things should I keep in mind when conducting these analyses, from your experience?
I've been reading through the literature, and there seem to be many options available:
- GWAS
- Multivariate polygenic approaches
- RandomForest
All with their pros and cons. The literature is starting to make sense, but I would still like to hear from your personal experience.
Thank you,
Lorenzo
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We are working on belemnite jaws and this lead to the question to size limits in belemnite body size. The largest genus is undoubtedly Megateuthis from the Middle Jurassic.
The largest published record of a rostrum is around 500 mm in length to our knowledge.
In our collection, there is a phragmocone fragment where the largest septum has a diameter of over 130 mm.
However, there are certainly larger rostra and I wonder is one of you knows about much larger ones. A fossil collector owns a rostrum that is about 600 mm long, but I could imagine that this is not the limit yet.
I look for photos of larger rostra and phragmocones to get an idea of the upper size limit.
Thanks for your contributions!
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We only published figures of the type material of Volgobelus colossicus (Rogov, Bizikov 2006: http://mmtk.ginras.ru/pdf/Rogov,Bizikov,2006_Belemnoteuthis.pdf ), while this specimen is a recent finding by palaeontologist amateur
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For linear regressions between linear measurements and body mass, which transformation is better to use? base e logarithm (LN)? or base 10 logaritm (LOG10).
Apparently they do not make such a for data transformation, but there might be a difference of which I am not aware, regarding body mass estimates. Any suggested references on this subject would be greatly appreciated.
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they differ by a constant only, use what you like:
(log(x) to base 'e')/(log(10) to base 'e' =log(x) to base '10'
1. log(100) to base 'e'=4.60517186
2. log(100) to base '10'=2
3. log(10) to base 'e' = 2.302585093
thus (1)/(3) = (2)
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Body size (total length or body mass) estimates, derived from linear measurements of skeletal elements (e. g. skull length, molar length, long bone diameter), are commonly used for paleobiological studies.
There is a trend to use Reduced Major Axis (RMA), instead of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), due to the asumption of error distributed betweeen both the independent and dependent variable in RMA, instead of being considered only for the dependent variable as in OLS. However, some authors (e.g. Kilmen & Rodriguez, 2017) consider RMA has additional problems, and OLS can be used for allometry studies if the error of the independent variable can be ensured as low.
Please note that my question applies only to body size estimates derived from linear measurements. The choice might be different for other applications of linear regression.
Kilmer, J.T. and Rodríguez, R.L. (2017), Ordinary least squares regression is indicated for studies of allometry. J. Evol. Biol., 30: 4-12. doi:10.1111/jeb.12986
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Jorge -
I think you might research "errors
-in-variables" models which I think look at errors in the independent variables by making repeated measures. Not my area, but it sounds promising here.
Also, have you considered heteroscedasticity?
For regression of form y = y* + e:  
Cheers - Jim
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We study SSD in Ground Beetles. Our last study in altitude gradient is contradictory: RMA results showed males sensitivity to be greater, BUT females body size clines were steeper. What do you think - why?
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Thank you!
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I am attempting to mesh a complicated design (~80,000 faces) for a microchannel heat sink, as pictured, and I would appreciate some advice. I have tried a range of different mesh controls (especially face sizing and body sizing), mesh settings and element sizes, and all have failed to produce a working mesh. The most common errors are shown in the attached picture, in particular the one regarding "The following surfaces cannot be meshed with acceptable quality. Try using a different element size or virtual topology." However, I have already reduced the element size to 2x10^-6 m, which takes two days to resolve before failure.
Unfortunately I cannot alter the geometry significantly, as it is imported from generation in SolidWORKS as either a STEP or an x.t file. As such, any advice for how I can successfully mesh the geometry for CFD analysis in FLUENT would be greatly appreciated.
I can provide more details or the geometry file itself if required.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Marshal
I suggest to use COMSOL for meshing as you say. Because COMSOL has a automatic meshing based on the condition.
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I'm looking for articles studied the interaction between body size and mode of life in bivalvia for extinction selectivity during hyperthermal events.
Thank you in advance.
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Ahmed, while not directly related to hyperthermal events, we have a somewhat older paper that noted "gigantism" in several molluscs found along the Maryland/Virginia USA coast. We speculate on possible causes for these particularly large specimens and briefly review other's thoughts. See: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281733145_Mollusca_of_Assateague_Island_Maryland_and_Virginia_Additions_to_the_fauna_range_extensions_and_gigantism
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the elderly people are often identified as a vulnerable group who appear susceptible to malnutrition and disease. At the moment there are no standards for assessing the nutritional status of the elderly. In adults, body size and nutritional status are calculated using Body Mass Index (BMI is weight divided by height squared). The problem with doing the same for the elderly is that it can be difficult to measure their height because of spinal curvature or osteoporosis...
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Please go through the following PDF attachments.
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Hi,
I have a measurement of the length of phalanges of gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans, and I want to know whether there are significant differences in this variable among these species, after correction by body size. Thus, I want to use an ANCOVA, where:
Dependent variable: Length of phalanges
Independent variable: species
Covariate: body size.
However, I don't have the body size of each of the individuals I am analyzing, but just an average body size per sex and species (e.g. mean body size for female gorillas is 71 kg). My question is, it's wrong if I use the mean of body size per species and sex as a covariate? Body size is a continuous variable, but it will be the same value for all female gorillas, the same for all male gorillas and so on. It does not vary within these groups, is that a problem?
I'll appreciate any comments!
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Worth also saying what "after correction" means, and if you think this is something Ancova does (see, e.g., http://meehl.umn.edu/sites/meehl.dl.umn.edu/files/084nuisancevariables.pdf). But, as Jochen says, next time it would be good to have the individual measurements. Also, presumably you have some idea how the 3d variable like weight should be transformed to predict a length variable. I don't know about the context so don't know, but linear might not be appropriate.
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I want to hear about experiences using traditional or relatively simple capture-recapture models to investigate effects of time-varying individual covariates (i.e. body size) on survival. An easy trick is to make the covariate categorical instead of continuous and examine effects of (size) states on survival (using multistate or multievent models), but if you want to investigate continuous size-survival relationships and how they change over time, what options do you have without needing to shift to more complex modelling tools?
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Hi Albert,
does this example fit to your question? They used a combination of state and time-varying covariate (serological measure). It allows for absence of measurement event if an individual is captured.
Another possibility is to use as many individual covariates as the number of occasion and to include it in your model in E-SURGE i+t*xind(1_t)
Hope it helps,
Guillaume
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The thymus is a flattened, bilobed structure lying between the sternum and the pericardium in the anterior mediastinum. In the newborn infant, the thy­mus reaches its largest size relative to the size of the body, at which time it may extend up through the superior me­diastinum in front of the great vessels into the root of the neck. The thymus continues to grow until puberty but thereafter undergoes involution. It has a pink, lobulated appearance and is the site for the development of thymus processed lymphocytes, T (thymic) lymphocytes, which are distributed to the whole body.
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Sure Mr Faissal Logan ....that is the idea beyond the question...
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I'm looking for a simple method of comparing fungal fruit body production across a number of sites - I'm interested in the volume of fruit body produced. Children would be taking the measurements so it has to be something really simple! It can be a relative rather than absolute measurement, but must be comparable across sites.
One option is asking for a photograph of fruit bodies with a tag of known size in the photo, and then assessing fruit body size relative to the tag (if I can automate that process!). However, this doesn't take into account the 3D variation between fruit bodies.
Other suggestions welcome. Thanks!
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Could you maybe take a stereo-graphic photo and then use software to calculate the volume. ie take a photo from 2 fixed angles to allow you to interpret the 3D shape variation.
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I have catch several fish in following size 6,7,11,12 and 18 cm, from a given transect of small stream. During the catch in the same transect I saw about 5 times more fish than I catch. Is there appropriate method for size and number interpolation? or even extrapolation?
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The problem of sampling is very complex and requires a case by case study based on the objectives that must be reached, on the available financial and human resources and on the species under study. In general, according to the sampling theory, the sample must be taken in an objective and random manner. The number of samples to be taken must be representative of the population to be analyzed. If you look at the variance for example in the calculation of the average size, you can determine the minimum number of samples necessary for the variance of the average to be less than a certain value or to stabilize. But since, obviously, the sampling has a cost in financial terms and human resources, it is established to sample the maximum number of samples possible with the available resources paying particular attention not to oversample since oversampling is a waste of money and time / man. Exclusively as an example you can see:
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Why forage fish species not increase their body size?
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Now I understand your question better...I'm not sure if there's a solid answer out there (we may not know), but here are a few points to consider: Fish are often described as having indeterminate growth (ie rate of growth may change with age, but growth basically continues indefinitely), but my understanding is that this is not universal--some fishes do have determinate growth. Dutta (1994 Gerontology 40(2-4):97-112; not sure to what extent I trust this) states that short-lived spp from warm regions have determinate growth; long-lived spp from cooler regions have indeterminate growth. A simple (simplistic?) answer to your question may be that forage fish (ie small, schooling species) have determinate growth. We know that there are multiple endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate growth (genetics, endocrine, temperature, food availability, competition, size of environment, etc; see McDowall 1994 Ecol FW Fish doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.1994.tb00108.x). Because forage fish depend on schooling for predator avoidance, it's likely to be adaptive that these spp grow quickly to near some max size and then spend those growth resources on reproduction instead, in part because distinctly larger individuals may be more conspicuous in a school. Sorry for the rather chaotic answer; hope this gets you started!
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I want the examples about this case in animal world. My opinion this subject is a case for more studies.
Dear scientists please help me for expanding of this subject.
Thanks.
Cheers
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The short answer is yes - there is correlation and it is quite ubiquitous, although the strength of correlation varies widely depending on taxonomic level and the taxon in question.
This review could be a good place to start:
Also, this book provides a detailed overview:
and other work by Felisa Smith could be useful too:
Hope this helps,
Roi Maor
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I mean like The body sizes of the worker bees , eggs laying capacity of the queen and so on ...
Thank you in advance ...
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Hello Omama,
The most precise tool to reflect any intervention in a bee colony would be the development (i.e. population dynamics) before and after this event/treatment etc. To measure such population dynamics, there are different methods. In our experience, the Liebefeld method has proven to be appropriate:
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The extensive literature on crocodilian morphometrics focuses either on cranial morphology or body size indicators such as Total Length (TL), Snout-Vent Length (SVL) and Body Mass (BM). So far I have found very few research dealing with relative limb proportions in living crocodilians (e.g., Ouboter, 1996; Farlow & Britton, 2000).
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Sure, I have all of those. Please check the direct message I sent you.
Apparently this elusive work has additional information on crocodilian proportions, but I have not been able to find it so far:
Junprasert, S. and Youngprapakorn, P. (1994) Head length proportion and predictable equation of Siamese crocodile’s body length at Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo. Journal of the Thai Association for Trade in Reptiles and Amphibians 1 (1), 45–46.
Jorge.
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This relationship is very obvious to me (think of lobsters), but hard to actually measure. I could not find any study which addresses this issue!
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Not sure how to measure cuticle thickness per se, but you could use an indirect measure: how hard you have to press to puncture the carapace. John Christy and collaborators have done a similar thing a few years back for fiddler crabs (reference below), and they showed that it is harder to puncture the claw than it is to puncture the carapace. Also, the force you needed to puncture the claw was correlated to the pinching force of the claw. These suggest that Nahuel's idea is on the right track.
I would go a bit further and say that not only diet, but how much a given species fight should also correlate to cuticle thickness.
At the individual level I would assume that there should be a good amoung of variation as well. The minerals that make up the cuticle are not easy to come by in water, thus I would guess that some individuals can capture more minerals than others.
It would also be interesting to test if crabs that consistently win fights also have thicker cuticles - that may decrease the force the opponent is able to apply on the individual. That sort of study is missing in the fighting literature...
I hope some of my rambling is helpful.
Cheers,
Alexandre
The paper I commented is this:
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Sexual selection by females promotes trait elaborations in males (e.g. large body size, colorful plumage etc.). Are you aware of some examples and/or some good reads on human male trait elaborations? Thanks.
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Thanks James. I would appreciate if you can point any specific publications on pheromones. Merry Christmas!
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Dear colleagues,
The CeRSM (Research Center on Sport and Movement) at Université Paris Nanterre (France) and the LPNC (Laboratory of Psychology and NeuroCognition) at Université Grenoble Alpes (France) are conducting a meta-analysis on the effect of action constraints on distance perception.
The general topic of interest
Some authors have proposed that people use the various constraints associated with their action potentialities as a unit to scale their perception of space (e.g., Jackson & Cormack, 2007; Proffitt & Lineknauger, 2013; Witt & Riley, 2014; for a review, see Morgado & Palluel-Germain, 2015). For instance, some studies have suggested that the more effortful it is to reach a target, the further people perceive this target.
What we are loking for?
We are particularly interested in studies about:
-The effect of effort or other energy-related variables on distance perception
-The effect of task constraints (e.g., tool-use, difficulty) on distance perceptionThe effect of morphological variables (e.g., body size, arm length) on distance perception
-The effect of morphological variables (e.g., body size, arm length) on distance perception
If you have any studies that fall in this topic, we are kindly requesting the manuscript and the complete set of raw data (or data summaries containing enough information). Please send your manuscripts (or papers) and data to nicolas_morgado@outlook.com. If you have any questions, please let us know by emailing your questions.
Thank you very much for your help
Nicolas Morgado (Associate Professor at Université Paris Nanterre, CeRSM), Lisa Molto (PhD student at Université Grenoble Alpes, LPNC), and Richard Palluel-Germain (Associate Professor at Université Grenoble Alpes, LPNC)
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Thanks for your suggestion
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I am interested in comparing the overall body and head size of free-ranging mammals from different geographic locations. Since they are free-ranging, touching them or taking measurements with tapes are not feasible all the time.
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Dear Debottam,
the software developed by Montani (2001) can be useful for your research. However you must take pictures from diffenrent angles.
Best,
Cristna
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I'm searching for some resource (book or paper or database) with more or less complete list of common marine zooplankton species (e.g. crustaceans) with body lengths or better body masses. There are many publications in this direction, but rarely raw data is presented. I would appreciate any advise.
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Dear Danilo,
Thanks a lot. It's closely related topic. I also found some publications on regressions. If it's of interest, there are some more recent examples:
Nakamura et al. 2017 "Length-weight Relationships and Chemical Composition of the Dominant Mesozooplankton Taxa/species in the Subarctic Pacific, with Special Reference to the Effect of Lipid Accumulation in Copepoda"
Robinson et al. 2010 "Length–weight relationships of 216 North Sea benthic invertebrates and fish"
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In development of Drosophila
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Among invertebrates the larger size of females is a common situation - they need more resourses for eggs production.
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We study carabids diversity and body size variation in altitude gradient as well. What about collaboration?
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Hi Raisa, I suggest you to contact Pierre Moret (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pierre_Moret), we are cooperating to a common project on carabid beetles diversity and distribution along several altitudinal gradients in tropical andes (Ecuator). Best wishes, Mauro
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We analysed heritability of body size in sexual dimorphism species using MCMCglmm. We aim to calculate inter-sex genetic correlation as sqrt((hFD*hMS)/(hMD*hFS)). We got r > 1. How is that possible???
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With some software you can model this as two traits - males have a value for one of the traits and missing for the other and the other way round for females. Genetic relationships allow estimating the genetic covariance, but there is no information on residual covariance which can be fixed at a value which you then ignore. I don't know if MCMChmm can do this, but worth looking at.
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I want to see if samples from different locations are more similar to or different from each other by comparing  the small species (with presumably higher turnover) separately from the larger ones. 
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Thanks Raisa, 
I will take you up on this offer in the future! Nice to be in touch!
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Hi. I am looking for a way to measure body size or body image incongruence. i would like to try and measure the differnece between actual and perceived body size. i was wondering if anyone knows or can think of a measure for this.
Thank you
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There are purpose made 3D body scanners. I can't remember the name of the company but I think they are based in Basingstoke, UK.
and
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I am doing a research project on eating disorders. 
My proposal questions is : Is there an increase in smaller and thinner body sizes on magazine covers and does it correlate with the increase in the cases of eating disorders among American women between the ages of 19-24? (5 year study)
I need to be able to measure whether is will be an increasing in the rate of eating disorders in American women in the next 5 years. I would not actually need the data, but a confirmation that a hospital has this information. If not a hospital then who would I go to get a statistical representation of eating disorder cases so that I could track an increase.
Could I possibly do a national survey and track it like that? Should I do a more narrow survey in a certain university?
Any and all help is appreciated! 
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This does sound like a very ambitious project. In general though if a hospital has electronic records like epic you should be able to easily populate data like you think of.
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I'm trying to find any studies that have looked at selection both before and after mating acting on a single genital trait, in any species. I have been able to find a few examples of studies investigating this in other morphological traits such as body size (such as the study by Danielsson, 2001 in Gerris lacustris), but so far I've had no luck with genitalia. It doesn't matter if it is internal or external genitalia, or if the result was not significant for any measures of selection.
If anyone could help it would be greatly appreciated!
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Hi Elina! Thanks for that, though not sure if they have shown any pre-cop function as well.
And thanks E. B. yes I think I may contact Bill Eberhard, hopefully he can point me in the right direction.
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Peto's paradox states: "There appears to be no correlation between body size, longevity and cancer across species and the absence of such a relationship is referred to as Peto’s Paradox".
Example: whales and elephants are massive cell conglomerates with long lifespans. Why don't they have high cancer rates, higher than humans? Why do humans not have higher cancer rates than smaller mammals? Is there a paradox? If so, what does it mean for the use of small, short-lived mammals such as mice as cancer models?
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I do not know if what I wrote in another thread may interest you.
Staying within the carcinomas ( epithelial malignancies ), these are very rare in some anatomical sites (and when present, they are in the context of some syndromic complex), epididymis , seminal vesicles , uterine tubes , the small intestine etc. Conversely locations where cancers arise most frequently are the transition areas where active chronic inflammatory processes result in a high cells turnover (sometimes with metaplastic processes ) . In these circumstances carcinogens ( chemical and biological ) have more effect ( the bronchial mucosa, the cervix where there is a transition between squamous and columnar epithelium , the gastric mucosa which changes and becomes absorbent type ( intestinal metaplasia ), etc. . Other areas of transition are particularly subject to turnover following the sequence of hormonal secretory and proliferative stimuli ( ductulus in the breast , at the junction between the duct and lobule where the majority of breast cancers occurs , the endometrium etc). Probably this is not the sole cause of the difference in the incidence of cancer in various epithelia, but it can be one of the main switchboards. Seems to me that, for example, the seminal vesicles have been studied to find some intrinsic characteristic to justify their inability to develop cancer , but I think with few results.
In other circumstances specific genes are likely involved. The keratoacanthoma of the skin that arises from structures of the hair. It shares many morphological and molecular characters with squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis, however, are probably still active genes that regulate hair growth (anagen and catagen). Thus, this tumor grows and regresses on schedule by the hair cycle.
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Are there any relevant examples of cosmopolitan marine mammal species showing a geographic pattern in maximum animal body size due to any difference in environmental variables and/or oceanographic parameters throughout their area of distribution? I am interested into looking at the intraspecific variability of body length amongst subpopulations that do not respond only to a generalized Bergmann’s rule (i.e. larger bodies in colder environments), but (also) to other causes such as geographic/genetic isolation, prey availability/primary production, contaminant loads/anthropogenic pressure, etc..). Whilst I have found several examples of land mammals and birds, I only managed to find a few good examples for marine mammals (Mayr E. 1965. Animal Species and Evolution; Brodie P.F. 1975. Ecology 56 (1): 152-161; Hale P.T. et al., 2000. Aquatic Mammals 26: 101-110). I am not looking at sexual dimorphism. Your answers, help and comments will be very much appreciated.
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You should look into Bryde's whales too. Although there is still a lot of uncertainty about the number of species/subspecies, there are allopatric populations that differ in body size, diet and habitat. Look at Best, PB (1977) Two Allopatric forms of Bryde's Whales off South Africa. Rep Int Whal Commn (Special issue 1).