Science topic

Body Composition - Science topic

The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Questions related to Body Composition
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
2 answers
Looking to find evidence as to the consequences of communication of body composition data in the student athlete collegiate population
Relevant answer
Answer
interesting
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
2 answers
Do you see cases where the DEXA findings don’t fit with the clinical findings of being consistent with sarcopenia?
Or the opposite so the findings/numbers suggest sarcopenia but not the clinical findings?
What do you do about these situations?
Relevant answer
Answer
Another interesting read w.r.t. your question: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322506/
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
We have conducted a study to compare the effects of 3 training methods on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. A Log 10 transformation was applied for all non-normal distributions, however, the reviewer suggested considering a more conservative test (the Bonferroni correction factor). If we apply the Benforrini correction (p/6), all significant changes become non-significant because the p-values are all close to 0.05. What to do?
Relevant answer
Answer
The transformation and the correction for multiple testing are entirely different things.
Using log-transformed variables is usually more reasonable than using the untransformed values for almost all biological variables (that are bounded on the positive real line). When the variance is small relative to the mean, the log transformation will simply not have any impact; it does not harm to transform such variables anyway, because then the statistical model asks for relative changes rather then for absolute changes - and this usually is the biologically more reasonable question. Exceptions are left-skewed variables (variables with an upper bound) or variables that are bounded at both sides (like age or proportions), that should better be analyzed using a beta-model.
Corrections for multiple testing are important when the experiment is some kind of screening, that is done to find or identify at least on factor out of a couple of several possible factors. If you screen 10 or so different cardiovascular risk factors, chances are that some of the data you collect will just accidentally scatter in a way that looks like an effect. If you let enough people ply lottery, someone will win - not much of an evidence that there is at least one person with psychic powers... so you should correct for that.
David proposed to control the FDR, what may not be what you want. Bonferroni controls the FWER, and yes, it's a very simple but also extremely conservative method. Holm (or aka. Bonferroni-Holm) is a more liberal modification that still is simple to perform.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
10 answers
I have a healthy control group (obese and non-obese) and patients with breast cancer. I am evaluating if protein intake values is an independent predictor for phase angle (body composition) results. It is not clear if I have to include all subjects or just the patient group in my regression analysis?
I appreciate your help.
Bruna
Relevant answer
Answer
Da resposta acima vejo que também trabalhará com medidas repetidas. Como dito antes, ANCOVA é provavelmente o método mais robusto para sua análise.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
In addition to above question i need more clarification on How body composition assessment aids in the management of CVD and how does Body composition assessment alter as a result of CVD?
Relevant answer
Answer
What equipment are you using to assess the body composition? That would determine if you are getting the overall body fat to lean mass ratio and not necessarily the accumulation of fat in specific areas of the body like abdomen or organs. In relation to exercise the body composition will guide the intensity and duration of physical activity. otherwise there are other risk factors for CVD that may need to be managed through medication, diet, lifestyle change etc.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
I would like to predict Stiffness of composite porous material by understanding the stiffness of each particles .To do so, Is there any methods or software?
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Pascale Royer
I will try it as well, Thank you
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
Can we eliminate BCAAs supplement from our daily nutrition plan? Please read the following article and subsequently participate in this discussion.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Khashayar Maroufi , for sharing this article. I had read this article previously. This paper about whey protein supplement, and we know the whey protein supplement contains BCAA and other essential amino acids. In other words, BCAA is one of the constitutes that exist in whey protein. I asked about BCAA supplements use lonely. In the review paper that I attached to the present topic, indicated that BCAA supplement alone could not increase muscle protein synthesis and explained for elevation in muscle protein synthesis needs to other essential amino acids. On the other hand, a recent review( ) demonstrated that whole food ingestion (whole egg, whole milk) induce muscle protein synthesis regardless of the leucine threshold. The occurrences in muscle protein synthesis in this review explained with the food matrix effects. So if a person intakes sufficient protein in daily diet plans (through whole food) can we say BCAA supplement is not a necessary supplement to increase the muscle protein synthesis for him/her? Thanks for your participation in this topic
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
7 answers
which one of these diet can help to athlete for lose weight ?
what effect they have on body composition?
Relevant answer
Answer
Kindly go through the following RG link.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
After a systematic review of validity of body composition techniques, I got several Bland-Altmans (from each study). I´d like to know if there is some manner where I can have a summary of these results (a meta-analysis) or I should only describe them. Thank you for any help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
I will recommend the article with the following link:
Best,
Oloyede
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
Hello,
Can someone share their experiences with me on body analysers?
I know there are some studies on validity and reliability, but I just wanted to know your opinions.
Thank you!
Izzy :-)
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Izabela,
I concur with Christine. Making sure you or participants adhere to pre guidelines is vital!
Testing Guidelines:
Have you restricted your fluid intake in the last 24 hrs?Have you consumed caffeine in the last 12 hrs?Did you eat 3–4 hours prior to testing?Did you exercise 6–12 hours prior to testing?Did you get in a shower or sauna today?Do you have a pacemaker installed?Did you apply lotion/ointment on your hands today?Have you consumed alcohol 24 hours prior to testing?
With that said is appears that recent research shows that tracking changes via all the BIA devices seem to be actually pretty good as long as you keep everything consistent from visit to visit.
Hope this helps.
Potential References
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
1 answer
Equation for body composition
Relevant answer
Answer
Violence shall be legitimate in the case:
- of legitimate defense
-in the performance of duty
- in cases specified in the legal texts
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
I am currently analyzing data and I am not sure of what would be the best function and script I should use in SAS. I am looking if there is a difference in body composition (BMI Z-score) between children with congenital heart diseases depending of the physical activity restrictions they have. These restrictions can be imposed by the doctor (MDany), the parents (PAany) or both (Bothany).
Thank you !
Relevant answer
Answer
If you only measure effect of restriction on BMI once for each restriction type,why not just do a one way ANOVA of the BMI differences (Before-after) with the comparison groups Md, Pa, Both. .
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
15 answers
Please don't answer, if you don't reference your answer!
Please also, don't answer if you just have NPK! I already found lots listing N:P:K
Please don't answer if you don't read the whole question!
I was having a discussion with one of my children yesterday and he told me about what he was being taught in class. His teacher is trying to prove that we are all made from stardust. After having a look at a few sites promoting the concept, I found a distinct lack of proof. Just lots of latest theory.
So I started thinking this all sounds like bullshit to me! Hey, I wonder what is in bullshit! I've googled for maybe an hour for the chemical or elemental composition of cow manure. Nowhere can I find information listing the Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium percentages of fresh manure.
Can anyone humour me and point me to a document listing all of them (and more)?
Relevant answer
Answer
I was not able to find cow manure but did get good analysis of chicken manure. From Carbon to Chlorine the based on dry content is percent and from Iron to Molybdenum are in parts per million.
Carbon 27.4, Nitrogen 2.64, Phosphorus 0.99, Potassium 2.74, Calcium 1.71, Magnesium 0.67, Sulfur 0.86, Sodium 0.36, Silicon 1.69, Chlorine 0.45
Iron 118, Zinc 45.7, Manganese 57.2, Copper 51.0, and Molybdenum 0.44.
Raw manure would have a significant amount of water so oxygen and hydrogen are major constitutents. If we look at the human body its major composition is Oxygen.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
Is any material available concerning equations for estimating total body water using BC545N- a segmental body composition monitor from TANITA?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are 3 main principles for measuring body water:
With multiple frequencies (Multifrequency Devices).
With a single frequency, typically 50 kHz (Single Frequency Device).
This model Tanita BC545N is a single frequency at 50kHz.
There are many regression equations available in the literature for measuring total body water from the frequency at 50 kHz, and it is generally based on these publications that manufacturers design their own water formulas in the form of water. adapting to their device. I did not see any communication from Tanita about their body water formula. So I do not think they want to share it.
Logically their water formula (TBW) relies on : weight, height, sex and impedance (or resistance) at 50kHz.
This device gives as information on the hydration rate that the % relative to the weight of the person (W) is TBW / W * 100. This is not very interesting because the fatty tissue contains only very little water. People with high fat potential therefore always appear very under-hydrated.
Devices that give a % hydration of the FFM (mass excluding fat) are preferred by far : TBW / FFM * 100.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
We are looking for manuscripts measuring 4-compartment body composition in African-American and Hispanic-American youth and adults. What about other races/ethnicities outside of the United States?
We performed a systematic review and only identified about 175 articles across ALL races and ethnicities, and are surprised there aren't more. We are a little worried that we haven't found them all.
Can we get some help?
Relevant answer
Answer
Bingo, I don't think there is much out there, but it could be my own ignorance. Thanks Matt Schubert!
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
19 answers
Your ability to lose, gain or maintain your weight is dependent on genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. But how much of a role does genetics play in weight loss versus eating a healthy diet? Is there any truth to genetics playing a substantial role in your ability to lose weight to improve health and overall body composition? Or the exercise and diet is the driving factor?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have diabetes because my mother was also diabetic. However; I am fine only with low carb diet and no medecine at all. It is not easy ; especially in the beguining. However diet not only solved my diabetes problem but also made my immunity system stronger. I feel much healtier now than when I had diabetes fifteen years ago.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
Any article related to effect of core training on body composition variables?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
look at my profile Andrzej Tomczak ,
mayby you can find something interesting. I have written some papers about training, fitness and body composition. One article I added.
Regards,
Andrzej Tomczak
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
Dear, the literature presents some studies validated for assessment of body composition of infants, considering that the lifetime in days is an important variable in the calculation (the main studies claim that the measures skinfolds children should be obtained up to 72 hours of birth). Is there a method or study that has done the measurement of the neonatal diposity, since children can have more than 72 hours of life? My protocol establishes that data collection will be between the third and the tenth day of life.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Adjustment of directly measured adipose tissue volume in infants.
Gale C, Santhakumaran S, Wells JC, Modi N.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jul;38(7):995-9.
this may be another useful reference, and freely available by pubmed
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
2 answers
Any article related to effect of core training on body composition?
Relevant answer
Answer
Age group between 18-25 male players.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
Is there any studies related to relationship between core stability, body composition & performance?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Shabir Kumar Anant ,
Maybe the following papers will help you:
Selkow NM, Eck MR, Rivas S. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS ACTIVATION AND TIMING IMPROVES FOLLOWING CORE STABILITY TRAINING: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2017;12(7):1048-1056. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717480/pdf/ijspt-12-1048.pdf
Watson T, Graning J, McPherson S, Carter E, Edwards J, Melcher I, Burgess T. DANCE, BALANCE AND CORE MUSCLE PERFORMANCE MEASURES ARE IMPROVED FOLLOWING A 9-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION TRAINING PROGRAM AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE Dancers. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2017;12(1):25-41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294944/pdf/ijspt-12-25.pdf
Bagherian S, Ghasempoor K, Rahnama N, Wikstrom EA. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes. J Sport Rehabil. 2018 Feb 6:1-22. doi: 10.1123/jsr.2017-0107. [Epub ahead of print]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29405798
Cabanas-Valdés R, Bagur-Calafat C, Girabent-Farrés M, Caballero-Gómez FM, du Port de Pontcharra-Serra H, German-Romero A, Urrútia G. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on additional core stability exercises training for improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control in stroke patients. Clin Rehabil 2017;31(11):1492-1499. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315692066_Long-term_follow-up_of_a_randomized_controlled_trial_on_additional_core_stability_exercises_training_for_improving_dynamic_sitting_balance_and_trunk_control_in_stroke_patients
Akhtar MW, Karimi H, Gilani SA. Effectiveness of core stabilization exercises and routine exercise therapy in management of pain in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(4):1002-1006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648929/pdf/PJMS-33-1002.pdf
Bagheri R, Takamjani IE, Dadgoo M, Sarrafzadeh J, Ahmadi A, Pourahmadi MR, Jafarpisheh AS. A protocol for clinical trial study of the effect of core stabilization exercises on spine kinematics during gait with and without load in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Chiropr Man Therap 2017;25:31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688737/pdf/12998_2017_Article_162.pdf
Park JM, Hyun GS, Jee YS. Effects of Pilates core stability exercises on the balance abilities of archers. J Exerc Rehabil 2016;12(6):553-558. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5227317/pdf/jer-12-6-553.pdf
AlAbdulwahab SS, Kachanathu SJ. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population. J Exerc Rehabil 2016;12(3):182-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934962/pdf/jer-12-3-182.pdf
Faramarzi M, Banitalebi E, Nori S, Farzin S, Taghavian Z. Effects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum omentin, chemerin and vaspin levels and insulin resistance of overweight women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016;56(4):476-82. https://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/sports-med-physical-fitness/article.php?cod=R40Y2016N04A0476
van den Berg LE, Favejee MM, Wens SC, Kruijshaar ME, Praet SF, Reuser AJ, Bussmann JB, van Doorn PA, van der Ploeg AT. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2015;10:87. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506616/pdf/13023_2015_Article_303.pdf
Sharrock C, Cropper J, Mostad J, Johnson M, Malone T. A pilot study of core stability and athletic performance: is there a relationship? Int J Sports Phys Ther 2011;6(2):63-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109894/pdf/ijspt-06-063.pdf
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
1 answer
I am trying to meta-analyse differences in Fat free mass, yet some studies measure via DXA, some use other methods. Is it more appropriate to use mean difference or standardised mean difference to analyse this effect?
I have seen meta-analyses that do both!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
for meta-analysis studies, you should evaluate the effect size for each instrument used to evaluate body composition parameters.
Ex: Studies that evaluated parameters of body composition through DXA; studies that evaluated through the BOD POD ...
Good luck with your search!
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
1 answer
Dear Professor Messina,
I have read the idea of your scientific project. I am interested in differences between sports involved children and non-athlete children in terms of dietary habits and body composition. I have been using the questionnaire made by Polish authors and I utilize Tanita BC 545 N to assess body composition. I wonder if I could use the questionnaire used by you. Do you think we could start a co-ooperation in that matter?
With best regards,
Grzegorz Bielec, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
Relevant answer
Answer
Ciao Grzegorz,
I hope you still remember me. Please send to me you contacts via email antonino.bianco@unipa.it, so we will start a new cicle, after Gdanzic period, :-)
ciao
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
How can I download or get BIA (Omron HBF-300, Tokyo, Japan) instruction and formulas for analyzing body fat percentage? Can we use it for obese women?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend to use more sofisticated device, such as InBody or Tanita as mantioned before, because the "home analyzers" like you are using would be hardly be possible to be used in scientific research paper publication as a relevant sources.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
I´m working on an article investigating the optimal somatotype and body composition of triathletes. I´m searching for anthropometric characteristics of female and male triathletes competing in different distances and different skill levels
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank´s Thom
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
Those in Anthropology
Relevant answer
Answer
Forgive me for repetition.
A ratio is just one number divided by another number (quotient). But.... this ratio can be used as an index of something else. See earlier remark. One could also name it an indicator. In Latin one meaning of index indeed is indicator.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
12 week exercise intervention using power training (20-50% 1RM) or whole body vibration. Complete 3x10 of 4 lower body exercises with 1-3 minutes rest.
Serum collection is early in the morning while fasted using red top vacutainers.
Participants will continue with regular physician care and any prescribed therapy.
All participants are >65 years and long-term care residents.
The presence of comorbidity is common among participants. Diseases range from T2DM, dementia, stroke, hypertension, Alzheimer disease, GERD, and osteoporosis.
Some participants are taking statins.
Relevant answer
Answer
The best should be the hs-CRP which brings more information 
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
2 answers
Near infrared reflectance analysis (NIKA) recently used to rapidly determine carcass composition of rainbow trout, another non-destructive and reliable means of estimating body composition in mamrnals , birds and fish  is based on measurement of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC).I need more detailed information.  
Relevant answer
Answer
The measurement of TOBEC is based on the induction of a uniform current ion the body by placement within  a characteristic  low-frequency magnetic field.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
10 answers
Various techniques for measurement of body composition are commonly used in human performance laboratories. Some that are often seen are skinfold thickness measurements, BMI, bioelectrical impedance, DEXA, bod-pod etc.
What would be the best method/combination of methods for measuring body composition in athletes? Should there be a difference in methods used for high-intensity sports and low to moderate intensity sports and healthy non athletes?
What do you use in your lab and could you suggest some review on that topic or provide possible guidelines for that issue.
Thank you in advance,
Kind regards,
TinG
Relevant answer
Answer
All the answers are helpful, and I am agree with those. But you have to look to your available facilities and the available budget. Then based on it can choose the most accurate.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
Like-
Sum of four skinfolds
PBF/BMI
Sum of four skinfolds/BMI
Centripetal fat ratio
Supra scapular skinfold / triceps skinfold
and other
Relevant answer
Answer
Waist to hip ratio is used as an indicator of excessive abdominal/central adipose tissue....or a higher risk for obesity related morbidities. It is a useful tool for assessment but does not determine specific body composition figures.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
From various studies and clinical experience, what effect has body composition on the outcome of knee osteoarthritis management/interventions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
OA is not mainly aging process as it was obeserved for young patient such as dancers.
Different studies have shown that OA is a multifactordisease: Aging, genetics, obesity and traumatic injuries were identified as potential causes as well as abnormal joint morphologies. Moreover extreme movements can lead to OA. 
regards
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
6 answers
I would like to know if exists a specific methodology to analyse the CoM using 16 markers in the body. In this case, I used four cameras (CODA system) to measure the 3D position, with two markers located on the ear, and the others located on the left and right acromion, anterior superior iliac spine, knee, ankle, fifth metatarsal, elbow, and wrist joints (= 16 markers). What method of analysis I would can use in my research? What method is most indicate with 16 markers?  
Relevant answer
Answer
Sorry i sent that one by mistake. I tried the Kinematic method. Check the attached paper.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
Numerous studies have been published on precision error for DXA measurements of body composition. Very few (if any) have applied precision error when interpreting longitudinal body comp change in athletes/sport science fields. Would be interested to hear opinions on application of LSC and precision error to mean group changes too- typically (in clinical practice) these are used on an individual basis
Relevant answer
Answer
Great point. I am not within the sports medicine field but examine changes in bone and muscle in older adults. 
I interpret clinically significant change using LSC. I also report odds ratios and hazard ratios for clinical endpoints like fractures and falls per unit LSC. That way, you could interpret changes better: 
ie. There is a 5-fold increased risk for fracture when your muscle change by an amount equivalent to the clinically-meaningful change of the variable (LSC). 
I typically compute LSC based on one-year RMSSD though. Many studies use same-day RMSSD to compute LSC, which in my opinion is highly biased. I would make sure to see if the origin of the LSC you found in literature related to DXA was based on same-day or one-year data. 
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
11 answers
Most studies involving calorie restriction that I see involve removing ~500kCals or more from the diet of the subjects. However, body weight appears to be regulated by a homeostatic system(s). Making extreme perturbations to energy intake at any one instance may not have the same efficacy as making smaller changes overtime in attempt to reduce the adaptation or the rate of adaptation of these metabolic systems. I would appreciate any references you could provide to in regard to a scientific inquiry to find a minimum energy deficit that has yielded weight loss.
Relevant answer
Answer
when? why? what? where? how? are more important questions for weight loss than the number of calories...
Please see my definition of 2 general urges to eat:
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
I look for good equation for simply anthropometric method. Maybe someone could suggest good source in literature?
Relevant answer
Dear Pawel Posluszny.
Several of our colleagues have suggested interesting solutions to solve your problem. Therefore, any additional information would be repeating what has already been said so I send you two references, one for appendicular mass calculation of old and the other for general use.
Martin, A.D.; Spenst, L.F.; Drinkwater, D.T.; Clary, J.P. Anthropometic estimation of muscle mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990; 22:729-33.
Piettra Moura Pereira Galvão, Danny Alcantara da Silva, Gilberto Moreira Santos, Luiz andAmandio Petroski Edition Aristides Rihan Gallagher. Development and validation of anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass in elderly women. Nutrition Journal. 2013; http: www.nutritionj.comcontentpdf1475-2891-12-92.pdf
Additionally, I suggest reading the chapter: Estimation of Muscle Mass.In: Human Body Composition. Roche, A.F.; Heynsfield, S.B.; Lohman, T.G.
Good luck
 Amandio Geraldes
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
9 answers
Particularly with regard to health, and/or genetic determinants.
Relevant answer
Answer
Steve
When you say Native Americans, what do you mean, natives of the USA or natives in the rest of the America, including Mexico ( part of North America) , Central America, Panama and South America ? 
Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Mar;53(3):594-8.
Body composition in Pima Indians: validation of bioelectrical resistance.
Rising R1, Swinburn B, Larson K, Ravussin E.
I include a paper that has body composition in USA and Mexican Pima  Native Americans.
Plasma Leptin Concentrations in Pima Indians Living in Drastically Different Environments
CAROLINE FOX, MD JULIAN ESPARZA, PHD MARGERY NICOLSON, PHD PETER H. BENNETT, MD
LESLIE O. SCHULZ, PHD MAURO E. VALENCIA, PHD ERIC RAVUSSIN, PHD
Diabetes Care 22:413–417, 1999
Also a national study of body composition in children and youths 6-14 years that has both the main Indigesnistic and Mestizo  groups of Mexico 
Body composition prediction equations based on deuterium oxide
dilution method in Mexican children: a national study
E Ramırez, ME Valencia, H Bourges, T Espinosa, SY Moya-Camarena, G Salazar and H Alema ́n-Mateo.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) 66, 1099–1103; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.89;
Best regards
Mauro
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
We recently acquired a tetrapolar bioimpedanciometry device and our results in terms os body composition percentuals differ a lot from our clinical perception. We understand that clinical perception is not the best way to evaluate body composition, but our results are so unexpected that we'd like to hear from the coleagues theirs experiences and difficulties in this kind of method, in hospitalized clinical ward patiens.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is true that for these sort of subjects BIA is the most practical/applicable technique currently available,  however one should be aware of potential issue with BIA. I suggest that you also look at these papers for a more in-depth look at BIA.especially in those subjects with atypical fluid status and/or body geometry:
Evolution of bioimpedance: a circuitous journey from estimation
of physiological function to assessment of body composition and a
return to clinical research. HC Lukaski. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013) 67, S2–S9
Bioimpedance at the Bedside: Current Applications,
Limitations, and Opportunities Urvashi Mulasi, MS, RD1; Adam J. Kuchnia, MS, RD, LD, CNSC1;Abigail J. Cole, BS1; and Carrie P. Earthman, PhD, RD, LD1. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 2015  30:180–193
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
Body composition assessment from impedance was done through prediction models that assume the body to be a cylinder through which the current flows. Literature shows that prediction of whole body composition from the sum of individual segments is advantageous over whole body wrist to ankle impedance measurements. In such cases, the body is approximated into five conductors; right arm, left arm, trunk, right leg and left leg.
In above situation, as in most of literatures, whole body impedance were calculated from segmental impedance however the exact method used to calculate this is not mentioned. Can anyone elicit this ? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thawee Chanchairujira and Ravindra L Mehta assessed fluid change in hemodialysis using Whole body versus sum of segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy and concluded that  while both WBIS and SBIS can be used to track relative ECF volume changes in HD patients, they are not accurate in quantifying changes in ECF volume.
They have also provided the mathematical calculation used by the Xitron (manufacturers). Hope it is of some use in your endeavor.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
10 answers
When comparing leptin levels between a larger and a smaller rodent of the same species and similar body composition, will the larger one have a higher serum leptin concentration due to absolutely higher fat mass, or will the concentration be the same, as fat mass relative to body mass is similar?
Relevant answer
Answer
Laura,
Here is a paper that shows that muscle mass contributes to whole body leptin production. 
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
7 answers
As l have understood, fat is the primary source of energy that the body uses when an individual is at rest. However, l have read that the moment there is an intake of carbohydrates, the body shift to this source of energy and stops using fat. Also, l read that in order to make the body use fat as the primary source of energy at rest, one should try to eat many times during the day (i.e. 5 or 6), and these meals and snacks should contain low glycemic index carbohydrates, proteins and vegetables or fruits. Apparently, by doing so a peak of insulin is avoided and the body continues using fat as primary source of energy. Can anybody explain how exactly this happen? Would this be a good strategy in order to change an athlete´s body composition (if we want to decrease fat levels while maintaining lean muscular mass)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Carbs = Sugar
Sugar in your food generally requires little to no digesting or processing and will be in your bloodstream inside 60 minutes after eating. In response, blood sugar shoots up for a bit before coming back down rapidly a short while later. Other
carbohydrates, referred to as complex carbohydrates, will be sugar in your bloodstream as well eventually. It takes your digestive system a little longer to convert complex carbs into simple sugars, so blood sugar will rise and fall a bit slower depending on a few factors. These include
the type of carbohydrate (how "complex" it is) and how fibrous and/or fatty the food is.
Once in the blood, your metabolism begins to use sugar in a variety of ways. Particularly if you are active or exercising, some of the sugar in your blood will be
used quickly for energy. Glucose and/or fructose are the end-products of all carbohydrate breakdown. These simple sugars enter into either glycolysis (for glucose) or fructolysis (for fructose). In these processes, the metabolism uses the simple sugars to generate the compounds
that, in turn, power all of the body's other metabolic processes. Put more simply, glycolysis and fructolysis convert simple sugars into energy.
(A quick note on fiber: fiber is classified as a type of carbohydrate and is listed on nutrition labels under the
carbohydrate section. Most fiber will pass through the body undigested. The remainder will be digested quite slowly over the course of many hours. Fiber does not have a meaningful effect on blood sugar.)
Insulin: The Storage Hormone
Most of the time, however, sugar is not used immediately but is stored in cells for use later. This is where insulin comes into the equation. Insulin is a protein that acts as a hormone in the digestive process. When a protein is classified as a hormone, it means that it's
presence in the bloodstream triggers a cascade of other related and interdependent processes in the metabolism. Insulin is perhaps the single most important element of nutrient metabolism, and understanding its function is critical for understanding what your body is doing with the food you eat. When
there is more sugar in the bloodstream than the body is immediately using, insulin is released and initiates the storage process. Insulin causes glucose to be absorbed into cells, upon which, it is stored in one of two ways. The primary storage method for glucose is as triglycerides in adipose
(fatty) tissue. The secondary method is as glycogen, essentially a matrix of glucose that is stored in muscle and liver cells for later use as quick energy, primarily in times of exertion.
To summarize, when you eat carbs they are broken down
into sugars by the digestion process. Sugar causes the release of insulin and insulin causes the sugar to be stored, primarily as fat in adipose cells. Particularly when forming a large portion of your caloric intake, carbohydrates are the primary source of any fat your body is storing.
Fueling With Fats
Fat digestion and metabolism happen via completely different pathways than the ones used for carbohydrate metabolism. The first major difference in the digestion of fats relative to
carbohydrates is that the breakdown and absorption is a much slower process. Most fats are broken down slowly in the gut via a series of enzymes called lipases and eventually make their way into the blood stream as free fatty acids. Like sugars, once in the bloodstream free fatty acids can be used for
energy (via the process known as ketogenesis) or stored in adipose (fatty) tissue for later use.
One notable exception to this digestion pathway is medium-chain triglycerides (MCT's). Because they are smaller than other fats, MCT's can pass directly into
the bloodstream without needing digestion in the gut by lipases. These smaller fats are broken down into free fatty acids by lipases in the blood rather than in the gut. While other types of fat take too long to digest and process to be a legitimate alternative to carbohydrate as a primary fuel source, the
quicker availability of MCT's makes them not only a legitimate alternative, but a preferable one. MCT's are also unique among fats in that they can be used by the brain for energy. Other types of fat must go through the long process of being converted into sugars before they can be used by the
brain. Eating primarily other types of fats would leave the brain under-fueled. Once again, MCT's and SCT's not only solve this issue, but offer a superior alternative to carbohydrate. Unsurprisingly, MCT's and SCT's are critical to any diet using fats as a the primary calorie and fuel source.
When your metabolism is using primarily fats as an energy source, you are essentially "training" your metabolism to use fats more often and more efficiently. The metabolic pathways involved in ketogenesis (fat-burning) become more robust, and the body
becomes better at using fat stored in adipose tissue when available sufficient calories are not available from food intake. Fats also don't directly trigger an insulin response, so the body doesn't go into "storage mode" as often when fats are your primary fuel source.
So what are the best sources of MCT's? Coconut oil (and related products) and grass-fed butter are hands-down the top choices. Coconut oil is about 2/3 MCT's by weight. In addition to it's many other benefits coconut oil is the go-to fuel source for many people adhering to this type of high-fat diet. A
few companies isolate the MCT's from coconut oil and sell "MCT oil" by itself. This is a pricy option as an every-day fuel source, but if you're looking to accelerate the fat-burning capacity of a this diet, MCT oil is a powerful tool. Coconut butter is also a great choice, as it is the "meat" of the coconut before
the protein and fiber is pulled out in the process of making coconut oil.
Additionally, grass-fed butter is an excellent source of short-chain fatty acids (as well as many vitamins and Omega-3 fatty acids). These short-chain fatty acids behave in much the same
way as MCT's and can be used for the same purposes. It is important to source only 100% grass-fed (sometimes called "pastured") butter. Conventional butter has a significantly different nutritional profile and is more likely to contain toxins.
Fats vs. Carbs
the metabolism tends to adapt to the types of fuel it is receiving most frequently. If the metabolism is being fueled disproportionately with carbohydrates, the metabolic pathways that use and store carbohydrates will dominate while fat metabolism pathways will
diminish. The reason for this is two-fold. The first reason is that the pathways required to store or use carbohydrates require a set of enzymes unique from those the metabolism uses to process fat. The body is remarkably good at not being wasteful and will decrease production of fat
metabolism enzymes when they are used infrequently. The second reason is that insulin specifically stops the use of fat for energy by inhibiting the release of glucagon, a hormone that increases blood sugar and thus directly competes with insulin.
Because of this "competition" between fat and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, fat will only be used for energy in the absence of insulin. If you're going to train your body to use fat for energy, it becomes critical to minimize both the magnitude and duration of any spike in
blood sugar and thus, the magnitude and duration of the corresponding insulin release.
Glycemic Load, Glycemic Load, Glycemic Load
If you're aiming to minimize insulin response and support your body's fat-
burning metabolism - there is one concept that stands above all the rest to use when judging the effect of a given food. That concept is, of course, glycemic load. Glycemic load is essentially a measure of how much a given amount of a certain food will increase blood glucose levels after eating.
With the exception of a few specific situations (nutrition during an intense workout is one such exception), you should focus on keeping the glycemic load of any meal relatively low. Keeping the glycemic load low will minimize the amount of insulin released during and after eating. This will in turn
minimize both the amount of carbohydrate from your meal that is stored as fat - and - minimize the time in which fat-burning metabolism is suppressed.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
12 answers
I am using Tinita body composition analyzer for my study. The devices can't be used for the children under 15 years of age. I don't want to go for a manual method.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you looked at the Omron?  That handheld analyzer has been validated in children as young as 10.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
3 answers
If your were to buy a DXA scanner to measure body compostion (fat & lean mass), would you go for Hologic or Lunar?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think it is important to remember that neither the Lunar nor the Hologic can guarantee the right answer and that the data from one will differ to that from the other as the energies / voltages  of the X-ray beam differ, and the assumptions of the fat distribution model will also differ.  We know that in the past our leanest athletes would have negative fat on the torso, and now they don't - it doesn't mean that today's athletes are fatter, but that the algorithms have changed.  Having said this, the practical issues Jo raises are important in selecting your preferred provider.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
7 answers
The potential benefits of HIT for body composition are still under discussion. In practice, what is the best volume and the intensity for this type of training intensity?
Relevant answer
Answer
As noted in the previous response(s), fat loss has not been the primary research focus of HIT training to date.  Studies in this area are welcomed and needed!  Do keep in mind the precision of the instrument/method used to assess body composition.  Several, such as skinfold thickness assessment, have a +/- 3.5% error range.  On the other hand, HIT has been shown to be successful in increasing aerobic capacity in very few weeks.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
5 answers
I am searching for sources of information on anthropometric measures in order to make my project to graduate. The aim is to check if the bone structure is associated with increased fat mass.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, thank you very much for the reply.
However, I`m looking for relationship between anthropometric measurements related to bone, and fat.
Anyway, thanks, I had not taken into account the mineral density.
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
4 answers
What is fat free mass? How it can be calculated?
Relevant answer
Answer
To be pedantic, the two compartment models can be chemically based (i.e. fat vs fat-free mass) or anatomical (i.e. adipose vs lean body mass). That is, LBM is not equal to fat free mass. LBM includes intracellular fat and adipose includes non-fat components.
Bruce
  • asked a question related to Body Composition
Question
7 answers
My data shows an increase in pectoral, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillar and sum of skinfold fat thicknesses (from 100 to 112) over the four-year period however there is a decrease in thigh (from 15.56 to 14.21) and calf (10.02 to 9.50) skinfold fat thicknesses over the four year period from 18 to 22 age.
Relevant answer
Answer
No doubt you have experience, but I have measured many times and I am ISAK 3 and I have an error within 6%, so if I measures a skindfold is 9.4 or 10.6 mm I have in consideration this error for interpret the data.
There were changes in the body mass?