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Blended Learning - Science topic

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With the transition to blended learning and full adoption of e-learning necessitated by the Covid-19 pandemic, many institutions have adopted blended learning to achieve flexibility in learning. Most authors agree that technology can aid in achieving flexibility in a blended learning curriculum but the flexibility lies more on pedagogy than on technology as many authors have shown. How technology contributes to flexibility has not been substantiated yet. In the paper I am currently working on, I used the concept of technological affordances to investigate how a technological tool used in learning can contribute to curriculum flexibility. I am proposing a model to predict curriculum flexibility, so I want to know if there are existing validated measures for curriculum flexibility and technological affordance
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Very interesting question, but,...
I think the first, primary question is: what is flexibility?
After its definition one can find dimensions, indicators, etc, to try measure it.
I think, that flexibility and openness are related concepts. But openness is not fully and formally defined (at least no for every kind of open issue).
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I am carrying out a Research on the effect of blended learning on senior secondary school students achievement and retention in Chemistry. Could someone
help me with materials?
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Dear Emmanuel, I suggest studying retention in the context of deep meaningful learning. In this way, retention leads to durable, lasting knowledge and skills tranfer to authentic settings, a staple of quality education. Another suggestion is applying a game-informed strategy such as playful design (playification), gameful design (gamification) or serious games (e.g. escape rooms). Here are some materials on relevant studies that should be useful.
DeLotell, P. J., Millam, L. A., & Reinhardt, M. M. (2010). The Use of Deep Learning Strategies in Online Business Courses to Impact Student Retention. In American Journal of Business Education (Vol. 3, Issue 12, pp. 49–56).
Fragkaki, M., Mystakidis, S., Hatzilygeroudis, I., Kovas, K., Palkova, Z., Salah, Z., Hamed, G., Khalilia, W. M., & Ewais, A. (2020). TPACK Instructional Design Model in Virtual Reality for Deeper Learning in Science and Higher Education: From “Apathy” to “Empathy.” 12th Annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN20), 3286–3292. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2020.0943
Herodotou, C., & Mystakidis, S. (2015). Addressing the Retention Gap in MOOCs: Towards a Motivational Framework for MOOCs Instructional Design. 16th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction Proceedings.
Mystakidis, S. (2021). Deep Meaningful Learning. Encyclopedia, 1(3), 988–997. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030075
Mystakidis, S., Berki, E., & Valtanen, J.-P. (2019). The Patras Blended Strategy Model for Deep and Meaningful Learning in Quality Life‑Long Distance Education. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 17(2), 66–78. https://doi.org/10.34190/JEL.17.2.01
Mystakidis, S., Cachafeiro, E., & Hatzilygeroudis, I. (2019). Enter the Serious E-scape Room: A Cost-Effective Serious Game Model for Deep and Meaningful E-learning. 2019 10th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA.2019.8900673
Yang, K.-H., & Chen, H.-H. (2021). What increases learning retention: employing the prediction-observation-explanation learning strategy in digital game-based learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2021.1944219
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What research should be done for blended learning, AR/VR etc in education?
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Prof. Kien Tran
Information Communication Technology (ICT) as supporting media for education (eLearning) is a relevant topic nowadays.
Best Regards.
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There are any papers or studies about the Blended Learning in Mathematics, exactly in (Calculus) ?
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The above article is very interesting and it strengthens my conclusions that this problem has been around with up for a long time - at least back to the early 1970''s when I first had experience observing new college students as a TA in grad school. I've taught off and on since the 1960's undergraduate and graduate level courses to both "math majors" and science and engineering majors. My observations were formed originally the early 1970's as the trend of more students taking calculus in high school were less prepared in the mathematical fundamentals and there was a gap in their preparation that showed up at the freshman college level. A teacher in calculus should not have to stop his/her lecture and go over the principle of mathematical induction or the basic analytic geometry of a conic section in freshman calculus. But alas - that was the case. In multidimensional calculus, the students should come in with a firm understanding of linear algebra. However, in my experience that was not always the case. That is the students had holes in their preparations and at some point those holes had to be filled or eventually they would hit a brick wall.
Calculus introduces new and sometimes difficult concepts and the students tend to have little intuition of the concepts of continuity and limits. But without developing a firm understanding and intuition of these and related topological concepts - it is difficult to grasp the calculus. If one does not have the background and facility of understand the fundamental tools of symbolic manipulation (a necessity to do all mathematics), understanding of basic geometry, the basic knowledge of set theory, mathematical induction and logic, it becomes a game of memorization and mechanics. Over time this lack of preparation in the fundamentals has grown more not less prevalent. This lack of preparations is reflected today in that many calculus sequences at the college level include analytic geometry. At one college I have taught specific courses over time, University of South Florida, there is now a required course known as "Bride to Abstract Mathematics." It is a course in logic, construction of proofs, set theory , relations and functions. That is the basic foundations that were once taught in high schools in the US but gave way with the push to present calculus in high school.
I expect we are seeing the same issues arise as subjects like abstract algebra and algebraic geometry become more and more important in applications like computer vision and robotics. It is difficult to apply mathematics to a field when ones understanding of the underlying mathematics has gaps.
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Can anyone provide me with any resources about development and validation instruments (questionnaires) for undergraduate student perceptions towards blended learning? I am currently in need of related instruments to research undergraduate students' perceptions towards blended learning in relation to student learning commitment as one of the values of the reflective pedagogical paradigm.. Thank you so much.
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Students’ Perceptions of Blended Learning and Achievement
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Dear colleagues, please share your thoughts on the introduction of immersive technologies in teaching students of the humanities?
I would like to hear about the experience of using immersive technologies in classroom or blended learning.
Thanks for the response!
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Ipad application which utilizes augmented, simulated, or purely artificial environments for learners to experience scenarios and simulations. There are many popular technologies for immersive learning experiences such as virtual reality, augmented reality and 360º video, to name a few.
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Blended learning can be defined as a method of TEACHING that integrates technology and digital media with traditional instructor-led classroom activities, giving students more flexibility to customise their learning experiences.
Some would define blended learning as a style of education in which students LEARN via electronic and online media as well as traditional face-to-face teaching.
The essence is clear: hybrid education uses online technology to not just supplement, but transform and improve the learning process.
The question is, are these technologies equally available to educators and learners?
At least for the learners, if they are in a classroom environment, the resources are the same and equally available. With online learning, those who have and can afford better technology and connectivity to the internet will have a better learning experience than those who do not have it.
Isn't this widening the gap between the haves and the have-nots? Is it fair for those in less developed areas within the same education system who are naturally inconvenienced?
What do you think?
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Well, it depends on what means "blended" Prof. Tadiwa Elisha Nyamasvisva
If blended learning means that teachers, lecturers, and instructors go to classes with some PowerPoint slides, not so well prepared, without derivations, only screenshots, and no illustrative examples, then yes, it won't help much.
There should be a combination of both, slides & blackboard, I mean only in a classroom-based education.
If an LMS is also part of the learning general environment, then more IT elements can be included. But it will depend on both types of participants in the activity called class or lecture: instructors (mentors, lecturers, teachers) & students (digital and non digital native students).
If the case is an asyncronous MOOC (8 weeks at least), also there is some dependence on the way the MOOC is designed and the way is evaluated.
Best Regards.
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MOOCS are gaining momentum and popularity among higher educational institutions over the globe due to their unique features to escalate access, equity and quality based education. Kindly suggest your opinion supported by valid text.
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Thank you so much for your explicative post, I will read the literature you refer to, Prof. Stylianos Mystakidis
For me, 3D virtual space in the virtual world Second Life is totally a new unknown tool, thank you for sharing it.
Best Regards.
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Blended Learning
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I think the challenges will differ based on the socio-economic and political backgrounds. Third world countries are still struggling with acquiring basic education (numeracy and literacy). In a country like South Africa which has a mixture of both developing and developed characteristics; electricity supply, internet connectivity, and the state's ability to provide education technology are a threat to blended learning.
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In my master's dissertation, I investigated factors that influence the acceptance of blended learning in Malaysian private institutions. However, there is still room for research and in-depth analysis; to have better and more satisfying results.
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Dear Isra,
Yes there is room for research and in-depth analysis. You obviously can do this. But I agree with Balázs Székely. If you do research on the same topic, you may be bored. You will do better to select a new topic for your PhD research.
It would be wonderful if you could write articles based on Master's thesis.
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Dear Scholars
I would like to have a reference to an authoritative or relatively well-established definition of "online education" or "online teaching" or "e-learning". I also look for definition of related terms, such as "hybrid teaching" and "distant education", "distance learning", etc.
I looked at UNESCO documents to find a kind of international set of definitions, but I couldn't find any. Does anyone have a reference or a source?
Many thanks.
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Dear RG community,
I would like to open this thread in order to have some feedback gain about the importance of creating and developing a virtual teaching portfolio (VTP).
According to Wikipedia [1] an Electronic portfolio - EP has the following definition, I unquote:
"An electronic portfolio (also known as a digital portfolio, online portfolio, e-portfolio, e-folio, or eFolio) is a collection of electronic evidence assembled and managed by a user, usually on the Web. Such electronic evidence may include input text, electronic files, images, multimedia, blog entries, and hyperlinks. E-portfolios are both demonstrations of the user's abilities and platforms for self-expression. If they are online, users can maintain them dynamically over time."
In this thread, we aim to understand the differences between a virtual teaching portfolio-VTP and a scholar blog-SB where not only we share written documentation---but also learning and teaching experiences, becomes crucial for a teacher`s career.
Thank you all.
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The big ideas behind micro-credentials by T. Blackman at The Open University & K. Jona at Northeastern University, Sep. 2021.
Two experts in flexible learning programs discuss the evolution and adoption of alternative teaching models and credentials in higher education.
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The contribution to the IT field is not very clear. Probably need to focus the discussion on the tools/ systems used for Blended Learning. , The findings need to be linked to Blended learning and the IT components. thank you
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How would you have a discussion about the TAM and blended learning without IT significance? Blended learning requires IT and users need to accept the IT. The IT in this sense is all the tools and software that users need to 'onboard' onto, not to mention the IT infrastructure required to support 'virtual classrooms'
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Are you a teacher and did you have to go online because of COVID19? We're looking for your experiences one year after the first lockdown and your ideas about blended learning
Thank you :-)
Jo
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Our country has switched to full-fledged offline classes.
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Blended learning is now a talk of the world. Some countries have already implemented this method of teaching-learning while some others are planning to do so. What is the status of blended learning in your country? Kindly share your views.
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In my country this was started since last year........there were many challenges at the primary and secondary levels.......most of all lack of devices and connectivity coupled with lack of teacher training, low parental support etc. At the university level it is much smoother and we are continuing this approach until the end of the year. No face to face......however, depending on vaccination numbers this may change soon.
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Online teaching platforms are equipped with different facilities to enable teachers and students to make the best use of the learning environment. These classes are more flexible and convenient. It MIGHT promote life-long learning and computer literacy as well. Additionally, you can save a lot of money by participating in online classes.
HOWEVER, it is not without problems. It can be difficult for the instructors to monitor students' behavior and check their contribution and progress. It may create a sense of isolation in my opinion. This image tell the story:
" In an online course, no one can hear you scream. And that causes discomfort for some online students. Studying alone with only the computer as your companion can be terrifying. There's no whispering in the back of the room, no wise remarks from the peanut gallery, no commanding presence at the front of the classroom pleading for everyone to listen. The online environment is a much different atmosphere that takes some getting used to." ~https://www.montgomerycollege.edu/
Please share the problems that you have faced as an instructor or a learner in online platforms.
THANKS Indeed
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Teachers being made responsible for more than they should
Most of the time, teachers don’t feel that the responsibility is equally shared between them, parents, and students. Unfortunately, they will have to bear a lot of responsibilities on their shoulders.
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What are the different models of blended learning in medical education?
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6 Models of Blended Learning
  • Face-to-Face Driver Model. Of all the blended learning models, face-to-face driver is the closest to a typical school structure. ...
  • Rotation Model. ...
  • Flex Model. ...
  • Online Lab Model. ...
  • Self-Blend Model. ...
  • Online Driver Model.
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After a year long of online teaching what kind of learning would you recommend fully distant learning or blended learning?
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Journal of Business Theory and Practice ISSN 2372-9759 (Print) ISSN 2329-2644 (Online) Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020 www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/jbtp 1 Original Paper Online Preparation for the Remote Global Workforce
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During the pandemic, most schools are using online teaching tools. Once the physical school begin, will we use the same online tools along with traditional teaching. Will it require advanced planning, when to use which tool? How would the assessment be affected?
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I included video clips from YouTube channels and short videos from Khan Academy when I taught physics traditional teaching courses, so, yes in a way, it was already a blended learning environment before CoV & now we are more prepared for blended and flipped classrooms philosophies than before.
Best Regards.
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We generally face problems with blended learning when it comes to students' interaction or involvement in the classoom. Of course blended learning is a boon, but when I talk about the ESL learners we generally find them not speaking, they are not able to interact owing to many reasons even if the classroom is interactive what can be the reason for this?
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سؤال جيد ومفيد... أنا مهتم بمتابعة الإجابة عنه، ومن خلاله أثرت الفضول العلمي لديّ، سأسعى للبحث فيه، وسأتابع إجابات السادة الباحثين عنه...
إلى ذلك الوقت أرجو أن تستمر المسيرة العلمية من خلال تبادل القراءات والتوصيات وتسجيل الإعجاب بالأعمال البحثية المنشورة في هذا الموقع، وتبادل الردود عن الأسئلة المطروحة، وأنا أعدكم بالقيام بذلك تجاهكم.
ملاحظة: في حالة وجود إمكانية للاقتباس من أعمالنا البحثية يرجى التفضل بفعل ذلك تكرما.
شكرا جزيلا.
Good question. I am really interested to follow the other researchers' answers, since this question made me curious about it even more. Thank you.
I hope we can complete exchanging knowledge by reading, recommending, following, and downloading our researches and works, for both of us. Also, answering the questions, so that we get the best out of it.
Note: If there is any possibility to cite from my works, then you are more than welcome.
Regards
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Does blended learning (a style of education in which students learn via electronic and online media as well as traditional face-to-face teaching) is the solution for the next phase?
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Do you think there are other forms of learning besides blended learning that will be a solution for learning during the Covid-19 pandemic?
During the pandemic, face-to-face classroom learning is limited, the issue that arises is to limit class attendance to 50% of capacity. The relevant logical solution is to use blended learning with the flipped classroom model. Namely by dividing student learning time into 50% face-to-face and the rest delivered online. That way schools do not need to add more classrooms because classrooms can be used interchangeably. But is it true that blended learning is the only way?
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Very interesting topic.
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The final qualification assessment for major programs is a strict regimen that involves different stages - oral and written exams, final project viva, internal and external review.
How are ICT tools used to translate real-life qualification assessment practices into the online qualification assessment process in a blended format? Especially due to COVID-19 quarantine measures?
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Thank you for sharing the paper, Dr. Yuliya Shtaltovna
I will read it as I promised as soon as have some time available.
Best Regards.
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What’s the difference between flipped learning and blended learning? Is flipped learning a form of blended learning ? or it is a pedagogical approach stand by itself.
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Prof. Khalid Mohammed, my guess is that for blended learning students don't have the role of individual learners, as they do have in the flipped classroom methodology.
Traditional learning converges faster to the blended learning environment, where the teacher still can have the main role.
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Thinking of all the skills that you needed to respond to the forced distance learning and online learning in the past year and ongoing today, what training do you feel you need or needed? What did you learn in the past year and looking forward, what do you see for yourself you could still improve on?
Please share your desires for digital competency development in higher education!
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For a good start training, for example, take the free MOOC couses provided by Moodle, in order to understand their teaching philosophy first, Prof. Adriaan Vervoort.
They helped me a lot to get focused.
Best Regards.
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My research is about a blended learning system (BL). I wrote this statement in my thesis but the examiner asked me to support this statement – “Traditional face-to-face learning is often deficient..” with citation. Thank you
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What are the challenges that you faced in moving towards e-learning as well as blended learning ? After the Corona pandemic hit all educational institutions in the world, What are your suggestions if the pandemic continues?
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What are the problems faced by eLearning?
eLearning’s time and place flexibility attracts more and more students to online education. However, many of them encounter serious challenges that prevent them from completing their courses successfully. Here are the 5 most common problems faced by students in eLearning and some suggestions on how to overcome them.
5 Common Problems Faced By Students In eLearning And How ...
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Can blended learning sabotage learning success?
Most organizations follow a blended learning approach for their training programs; however, there are several challenges that can sabotage learning success. In this article I will share 5 common problems of organizational blended learning and all the ways to overcome them.
5 Common Problems Of Organizational Blended Learning And ...
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What are the challenges of online learning?
#1 Online Learning Challenges – Engaging students As students are moving towards online learning from traditional classrooms, it becomes difficult for teachers to adjust to a new learning platform. Teaching online may not influence and engage students for longer periods of time.
10 Online Learning Challenges & How to Overcome These Problems
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What is the importance of blended learning?
Blended Learning provides a host of opportunities for students as emphasised above; yet we must throw light on the challenges and difficulties faced by students in this model. Importance of Physical Learning – One should keep in mind that what works for in-person training may not necessarily be ideal for online training.
Blended Learning: Opportunities and Challenges For ...
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Dear All,
Is there anyone who have a book or research paper addressing specific features of blended learning environments? or you just let me know features of blended learning environments!
Kindly share with me!
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Looks like now blending learning will be the new normal in education according to some authors, Prof. Haruni Machumu
Please check the following external post and graph:
https://blog.edx.org/blended-learning-new-normal
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Dear colleagues, please tell me how you control the academic integrity of your students in a distance and blended learning environment?
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Prof. Oleksii Nalyvaiko, in Moodle a quiz access rule, was created by Prof. T. Hunt at the Open University.
Documentation about this Moodle plugin that helps to keep academic students integrity at:
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Many universities and schools around the world have closed their campuses due to Corona (COVID‐19) epidemic. Would you please share your expertise in delivering microteaching and practicum for pre-service teachers? How practical courses are delivered as a response to COVID‐19 outbreak? What are best practices? Other thoughts
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I think the best practices for delivering microteaching and practicum under COVID-19, it can practicing by online used google classroom, zoom, google class met, and some online program. it can increase the students knowledge practicing by online technology, they must study hard because it is one challenge for them.
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I have been working on some video footages of birds flight, and I found a very interesting tool in Blender in order to keep track of the bird position and the related wing kinematics.
I am a total Blender beginner, but I saw that should be fairly straightforward to interface the software with Python in order to post-process data.
Is someone familiar in doing video tracking and data processing, and willing to share some tips?
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How important is collaboration in this current period of blended learning? Specifically within a professional development capacity.
Seeking insight and reading for my MA project
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Hi@Joe. Professional development always has a collaborative approach. Rather I will say when we talk about professional development capacity the first thing focused is collaborative approach and team work. Blended learning will create more opportunities for collaboration.
Regards
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Hi everyone,
I am looking for any recent reference about blended learning in agriculture and veterinary education. I will appreciate any help.
Regards
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Maybe you can find something in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education https://jvme.utpjournals.press/
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There are a lot of obstacles (challenges) that limit implementation of on-line (or blended) learning especially in the countries that do not have pre-infrastructure to implement this type of learning. Some of these challenges family culture, weakness in WIFI, platforms' problems, No money to buy laptop...etc. Dear in RG group, I hope to gather more challenges and methods to reduce them.
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Let me point to the other face of the same coin. How the poor think in online-learning if they are always thinking about how to buy the loaf of bread!
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Dear colleagues,
Prior to COVID-19, academics faced the challenge of an ever growing learning gap among students due to various socioeconomic pressures. Other factors include racism, segregation, a general decline in upward mobility and a downturn in the global economy. Generally, there is also an increased reliance on homework, for example, which only serves to widen achievement gaps. Isolation and self-learning also have detrimental psychological effects. For many students, particularly those from poor backgrounds, face-to-face interactions with teachers and peers offered a source of comfort and alleviated the learning gap.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the learning gap, with more students at risk of suffering from learning loss. In my previous discussions, the challenges of online learning were examined, with a tentative consensus being shown in favor of blended learning, while the shortfalls in such pedagogical models partially owing to poor digital infrastructure and internet connectivity were also acknowledged.
In this discussion I would like to know if any of you have noticed an increasing shortfall in the learning outcomes of your students? Perhaps some types of pedagogy have improved learning outcomes? Can students who are lagging in their learning be helped in some specific way at present or post COVID-19? Is there any effective way to reduce the learning gap?
Thank you for your time and best regards,
Aftab
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Quite an interesting discussion.. definitely education sector has been hit badly due to COVID 19..Lack of access to virtual teaching tools especially in remote areas has affected teaching..
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I had conducted a research investigating students' soft skills practices through learning process between conventional class (Class A) and blended learning class (Class B). Both Class A and Class B attended for 9 courses as well. In Class A, the nine courses were taught by face to face learning (Conventional), while Class B with Blended learning. Since the research aim to compare students soft skills' practices between two learning strategies, then there is no pretest or pre-survey taken. Survey was taken after or at the end of semester by using the questionnaire with likert scale 1-5, measure the practices of soft skills of both classes. And then the result was compared. Your answers will be very valuable for me. Thanks
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I think, I can get conclusion from your argumentation. It seems my research fit to non randomized sampling of Quasi experiment without pre-test or without post test only. Pre-test is not relevance to be taken due to this research investigate students natural practices of the 21st century skills during learning process between blended learning class and conventional learning. Thank you very much for your all contribution. Very helpful for me. I appreciate very much. Regard.
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I'm rooted in London, England, and most, if not all, universities in the UK have been delivering lectures and one-to-one tutorials remotely since mid-March. Since the lockdown started, I've tried at least four different online platforms: Zoom, Collaborate, Microsoft Teams and Google Meet. For my purposes, Teams has been the most successful as it is brilliant as an "all-singing, all-dancing" means of reaching students (file sharing, chats, one-to-one, lectures, screen sharing etc.).
I've also noticed that while some students struggle to engage through my online lectures, many have become more proactive and appreciate the interactive potential of remote lecturing.
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Afortunadamente, para mi no ha supuesto un gran cambio ya que estoy acostumbrado al e-learning y el estado de alarma se impuso justo después de que terminé mis clases presenciales. Con lo cual, el e-learning ha sido una gran estrategia y es lo que en mi caso ha ayudado a prevenir y a cuidarme.
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Biology has many concepts which needs proper illustration, explanation and practicals. Flipped classroom involves using online tools for pre-class interaction between the learner and the subject matter. What is the impact do think the flipped classroom will have on learning biology?
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This link talk about:
Biology teacher’s Flipped Classroom: ‘A simple thing, but it’s so powerful’
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i want to be part of this as long it improve modern trend blended learning
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This link talk about: 9 Benefits Of eLearning For Students
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Dear colleagues,
The COVID-19 pandemic has no doubt reshaped the way many of us approach pedagogy. Online and blended learning approaches have been adopted by several education institutions in developed countries. Funding availability is a key factor in determining whether new learning methods can be successfully implemented. A recent report (May 2020) published by the International Association of Universities states that there is a lack of financial (government/ministry of education) support for higher education institutions. This is more prevalent in developing countries that have seen an overwhelming drop in all campus activities. Other factors such as a lack of digital infrastructure also impede the implementation of online learning and blended learning approaches.
The pandemic is both amplifying familiar risks and creating new ones, however presents new opportunities for managing systemic challenges, and ways to build back better. Internationally, the pandemic may serve as a catalyst for the development of strategic educational inter-dependencies to leverage collective strength. As the pandemic does not discriminate demographically or geographically, it is crucial for institutions to focus on common goals that are shared.
It is imperative that contingencies are developed to comprehensively address these pressing issues, particularly in those areas of the world where internet access becomes problematic. In such situations face-to-face learning is the only viable option.
Can these challenges be mitigated? Are reforms possible? Will reforms be effective? Are education and government institutions willing to invest adequate resources? Can blended learning ever be a global solution? Will institutions revert back to the models of education that were implemented pre-COVID-19?
I would like your thoughts on this matter. Thank you for your time.
Best regards,
Aftab
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Regarding covid19 irradication the term blended learning in pedagog sesson is much useful - https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/blended-learning-getting-started/0/steps/7848
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As many HE institutions are switching to online distance learning; some in an abrupt manner, perceptions and/or attitudes of teachers/lecturers, students, administrators and technical staff vary across the board. Views and preferences on purely online, blended or hybrid learning are also changing amidst the crises; f-2-f is obviously out of the question.
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It results in a great shift in the way of teaching.
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What impact is COVID-19 having on the delivery of executive education? What impact will it have going forward? What is the experience of business schools are have had to adapt to online delivery? Is virtual learning delivery likely to become mainstream and the preferred choice for executive education?
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Dear Samuel Njenga,
Due to the development of the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus pandemic causing Covid-19 disease, the share of e-learning in teaching processes is currently increasing. For several weeks or so, the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus pandemic on ongoing teaching processes as a significant factor in the currently accelerating processes of digitization of the economy has been growing in many countries. In order to limit the development of this pandemic, classroom teaching in schools and colleges has now been suspended and replaced by e-learning in many countries. Due to the suspension of stationary didactic classes in schools and colleges, classes are conducted remotely, through various new online media through specific forms of e-learning. The growing importance and development of e-learning is also correlated with the current acceleration of the digitization processes of the economy. The processes of digitizing the economy are determined by processes "from the top", i.e. inspired by public institutions, including computerization, internetization of public offices and "from the bottom" determinants, e.g. the increase in the importance of e-commerce, the increase in the share of transactions and payments made electronically via the Internet , developing online banking and shifting a significant part of operations in many companies to remote service via the Internet. On the other hand, teachers are currently looking for answers to the following research questions: Is currently one of the key problems in the development of education is to suspend stationary didactic classes in schools and colleges and replace these classes with e-learning? Are the didactic processes carried out in a limited or full scope due to the development of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic causing Covid-19 disease? How long can such a situation last that all education is implemented remotely through various new internet media? How will the current state of the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus pandemic affect learning outcomes? There are many questions that will be answered in the future. Certainly, the current SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus pandemic will significantly accelerate the digitization of the economy, including teaching classes remotely via the Internet. In the field of remote teaching and necessary system changes, improvement of IT and internet infrastructure in schools and in the homes of users, students, etc. there are many interesting issues that can and are currently being studied. It is likely that SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus will return in the autumn of this year and in the following years. Therefore, the processes of digitizing education will continue in the following months and years. However, we do not currently know what e-learning formulas will be consolidated in the coming years and to what extent, what part of the education processes will be implemented through e-learning in the following years. We do not know this because we do not know to what extent SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus will return when the vaccine is created, to what extent in other sectors of the economy the level of digitization of economic and other processes will increase, etc.
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Are there innovative instructional learning strategy similar with flipped classroom?
What application software that are useful in flipped classroom that can sync mobile and desktop technology?
Thank you for the answers.
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Check out Voice Thread - millennial students find this program much easier to use than I did
initially. Voice Thread “lets you connect with students online asynchronously, making it easy for them to stay involved in coursework without being physically present at a certain time or place, and without sacrificing that human element of face-to-face interaction.”
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Can anyone recommend papers on the integration of transformative learning theory to blended learning models for English foreign language learners?
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Dear Ardi,
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Dear all,
I am in the process of conducting a systematic review on the use of digital technology and ICT in teacher education in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). The database searches have been completed, and I am now following up with expert input and manual searches. It would be of great help if you can suggest studies that might be relevant to the review.
The inclusion criteria are the following:
Publication type: Peer-reviewed journal articles (empirical & theoretical/conceptual)
Year of publication: 2010-2019
Population: Pre-service teachers, student teachers, teacher educators, teacher trainers, mentor teachers, teacher education faculty/staff
Research focus and activities: Using digital technology and ICT for teaching and learning in teacher education, learning how to use digital technologies for subject disciplinary teaching, professional development, workshops, courses, field experience/school practicum, blended learning, MOOCs, VLEs
Target level: Teacher education (pre-school, kindergarten, primary, secondary level)
Studies must have been conducted in one of the following countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden
Language: Danish, English, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish
Thank you for your assistance!
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Great suggestion Ari Tuhkala and thank you for the link to the publications page! I will definitely have a look for studies here.
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"There is a broad consensus that a collaborative learning approach is effective for adult learners, since they can share their experiences and build knowledge together. However, because collaborative attitudes do not always develop spontaneously in a group, strategies and techniques are necessary to facilitate collaborative learning and help learners to achieve effective results".
Citation: Marzano, G., Ochoa-Siguencia, L. (2017). Online collaborative learning: the EsCAlADE training experiment, Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Challenges for high quality of adult education (Riga 30 May 2017), 125-134
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Thank Amal for your answer. I will try wiziq.
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The use of blended learning in higher education is becoming a new normal. Despite of this effort, some faculty members use traditional face-to-face instructional model. Will then the use of blended learning totally replace traditional face-to-face instructional model?
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The face-to-face ”model” is included and possible within so-called blended learning ”model”. and both are more about teaching than learning, aren’t they? And the term ”face-to-face” is new and just there to emphasize some kind of classroom gold standard for teaching and learning - when threatening alternatives began to emerge (as distance-, e-, and online learning models). But ”blended” is a negotiated compromise between old and new. Before electrical guitars emerged, there were no ”acoustic” guitars - same phenomenon. But why not just appreciate the music?
Interesting that you mention blended learning as ”the new normal”. I think I and coauthors were kind of first with this using this term about blended learning, 2011 ( se attached paper; now over 220 citations on Google Scholar). We developed this in a paper last year, and looked forward. Also attached.
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I teach courses in blended learning environment, and I want to keep my students active and motivated to participate and share information. What helps me to achieve this goal, to assess students' online participation or just control it.
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As both a postgraduate co-ordinator for distance taught qualifications, and a distance postgraduate student, I can understand the benefit in seeing that all students are posting something in forums and are displaying the fact that they are active participants in the course. From a student perspective, however, there isn't always something meaningful to contribute (especially if you haven't been one of the first 4-5 students to comment) and it just becomes a compliance exercise, rather than a task in which we are articultaing what we have learned.
I do think that portfolios and monitoring what materials students are accessing (and how frequently) may be a better indication of thier engagement in a course.
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How do assess the spread of blended learning ? what are its cons and pros ?
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"Blended learning is a new form of training and learning programs that appropriately combines classroom and electronic learning with the requirements of the educational situation, with the aim of improving the achievement of educational goals at the lowest possible cost."
The lack of sufficient experience of some students or trainees in dealing with computers and networks , as well as the lack of parity of the devices available to learners or trainees in their homes or in any places of training they study, and the difference in terms of capacity, speed and equipment and the validity of the content of the curriculum, and the shortage of qualified cadres of this type of learning and the lack of scientific models studied to integrate learning traditional e-learning are a major problems that hinder this learning.
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What is the correlation between the blended learning and the flipped classroom ? How far the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) can accelerate their success ?
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Both are cases of ICT integration in earlier structures of teaching culture. Flipped classroom in its most primitive version is characterised by inverting places for synchronous and asynchronous activities in the course flow. Lecture watching whenever it suits the individual at home(asynchronous activity); active problemsolving, reflection and application in synchronous and often teacher-assisted co-located settings at school / campus. This is being made possible by recorded lectures mainly - which are saved, provided, transported in new ways, more flexible to learn from. But the same concept could have used a good book instead, another ICT. Read the book chapter at home, discuss it at school. Why was not that enough?
Flipped classroom can be sorted under ”blending” concepts; using new ICTs to change the teaching learning flow by (often new) ICTs providing less informational friction than before. Then in a while we find it all natural.
Blended learning can easiest be seen as all ntegration of ICTs, old and new, into the existing teaching-learning process, synchronous and asynchronous ICTs and how they can be combined and shift In the drama that is a course or other social learning expedition.
If interested in these time-related process perspectives, please find some text links below
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I would like to come up with a sound definition for blended learning which can be used. I am writing an abstract about blended learning I need need input from other people about it.
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Good question Julia, but I think the answer is not a very simple one. The main issue when seeking to define blended learning is realising that this term is intentionally broad in scope, and thus not easily amenable to single definitions that are able to describe what it is and how it operates in a generalised manner.
Instead, a better way to approach a definition for blended learning might be to tease-out what the intentions and purposes of blended learning are in the first instance, and then work from these toward a definition that is specifically contextualised to the intentions and purposes of a particular situation or school setting. Thus, seeking multiple definitions for blended learning that are more specific and contextualised is probably the better way to approach the "definition" issue, because this allows us to position blended learning in more specific ways than a single, more formalised definition would allow. I am, personally, a big fan of contextualising blended learning in order to increase its relevance and impact at the level of an individual, local school.
I have attached a recent overview of blended learning that I helped to write, and which was written precisely to show how broad and diverse blended learning is in terms of its different understandings, models, theories and applications. You may find this helpful in your search for a clearer definitions, and I hope this is the case.
I certainly wish you all the best with this important quest. This is how we all learn and grow, eh!
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Which way is best for overall impact?
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Hi Tony Yeigh , good question.
As pointed out by Chris Oliver , blended learning has many understandings and definitions, and I think the term will soon cease to be used, as it loses its meaning when both students and teachers uses these tools anyway, independent of the bein a part of a designed teaching solution or not. If we just broaden the definition of ICTs, Information and Communication Technologies in a reasonable way to include also text and books, and many ICTs in between, teaching and learning has been clearly blended at least since late medieval times.much longer if we take writing as an ICT, which there are goid resons for, and without writing we would hardly ever have come up with the idea of organised education in Sumer arnd 2500BC. The revolutionary tech of writing was the thing to teach and learn.
It makes little meaning to say that learning from a screen is e-learning or a part of blended learning, while a printed out text is some kind of old and natural learning, not e-.
What ICTs do for teaching and learning today is no big magic, it mainly decreases friction of information and makes it cheaper, faster and more accessible.. But we are entering a new phase, ICTs that processes information (which is really the thing with digital ICTs), we get learning analytics, adaptive learning and calibrated peer review, that kind of ICTs which will mean real change of teaching organisation
i have attached a couple of my texts (and co-authored texts, illustrating these perspectives If interested.
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Considering not only distance education, but also blended leaning, how can LA help teachers assess more effectively their students?
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Hi,
You may find these couple of publications pertinent to inform your interest. I have added the URLs to the full texts:
a) a 2017 study on the LA in a blended med edu course(Moodle-based)
b) 2017 sys. review by Rodriguez Triana et al. Monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended technology enhanced learning: a systematic review. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning
You can access the PDF from here
Best,
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The evaluation of blended learning course in Classroom by the following four modes. Modes of delivery - The combination of traditional learning with web-based online approaches; Technology - The combination of media and tools (technologies) employed; Pedagogy - The combination of a number of pedagogic approaches irrespective of learning technology use and Chronology - Synchronous and asynchronous approaches.
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In our approach, we look at both the teacher behaviors and the student behaviors in a blended learning classroom. In terms of the teacher behaviors, we look at how the instruction is planned and how the teacher uses formative assessment and student feedback to regroup students to meet their specific learning needs in the given classroom. We also observe "live teaching" either by video recording of teaching or by viewing while it is occurring, to assess the effectiveness of delivery and the engagement of the students. In terms of the student behaviors we are evaluating the whether students are academically engaged and at what level of engagement we see their participation. Are students actively participating and helping to extend the thinking and understanding of classmates, are they able to ask questions, are they able to check their own understanding and get the sort of assistance they need to further their understanding, and do they have choice that allows them to work in a configuration that sparks their curiosity and creativity to explore topics more deeply and to progress at a speed that keeps them interested. The tool allows the observer to provide the teacher with immediate feedback for what is working, what can be refined, and an exercise for reflection on their practice. The other observational data are cataloged and used as a meta look at the practices of the teachers as a whole to identify professional development for the whole group, a small group, or even individuals.
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What is your experience with blended curriculum? what are the key lessons did you learn that you might share?
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I integrated used blended learning in teaching in higher education institutions, and I found that it helps students keep in touch with their teacher outside the classroom and allows students to share information and knowledge with each other. In addition, virtual classes enable shy students to participate and ask without hesitation, and recorded lectures fit individual differences. The key lessons to recommend for teachers are to prepare well for blended learning and choose eye-catching and interesting visual aids, that fit students' needs and allow for integration and participation for all students. Moreover, the teacher should keep his eyes all the time on what the students are doing to keep things under control. Be encouraging, and motivate students to form groups and do assignments together to develop their performance.
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Taking into account that blended learning accommodate advantages of both traditional face-to-face instruction and digital instructional technologies. What kind of learning activities are preferred in blended learning regarding cognitive and behavioural activities? What is specific about these learning activities?
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Thank you Haruni Machumu for your question. I think your question covers an important area, and it is my pleasure to share some light onto this area. The short answer to your question is achieving cognition or behavioral changes by using blended learning will depend on the objectives of the course and the design of the activities included in blended learning. You might aim at achieving both elements, and distributing these aims along with the tasks and social media you plan to use.
Blended learning is commonly used in middle- and low-income countries and aims at using a variety of media (including face-to-face learning, online, internet, radio, social media etc.), and learning environment (including teamwork, self-regulated learning, peer-to-peer learning) to achieve knowledge, cognition skills and possibly social and communication changes. Other behavioral changes have been also studied (not commonly examined but you need to search the literature).
A good example of cognition in using blended learning, is use of simulation or computer-aided learning programs designed with tasks that stimulate learner’s cognition such as identification of problems, generation of hypotheses, collection of information or generating an enquiry plan, weighing the evidence for and against a hypothesis, making decision on basis of available evidence etc. The research in this area might look at approaches used by learners, and time spend on each task and other detailed technical aspects that need to be researched by you.
The behavioral change by using blended learning may target communication skills across learners and between the learner and the instructor. There are different types of research design covering this area and approaches for measuring changes that you might need to explore.
Look at Thukral et al 2012; Dodani et al, 2012; Duhaney 2009; Aggarwal et al 2011; Valk et al, 2010. I advise you to search PubMed for more studies in these areas. I hope my answer provide a meaningful response to your query.
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My study is related to ICT-based instructional materials and blended learning.
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Profundizo de como la neurociencia cognitiva interviene en el aprendizaje basado en simulación y en forma general en el aprendizaje
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Hi!
About the future of teaching in the information society/economy. This initiative from some academics in Oxford really made me think: https://woolf.university/#/ Or begin with this video:
A "geographically agnostic" teaching-learning concept that cuts the administration costs instead of teaching and mentoring costs.
Pros and cons? What do you think?
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Here are some Pro:s and Con:s, (and I also associate parts to own research)
PRO:s:
- It can use the power of ICTs, or more specifically AIs to automatize the university administration, and focus on the personal qualities in human communication. Instead of the idea to industrialize teaching with recorded lectures...
- It can leave all the ageing and misleading "distance-", "e-", "online-" ...learning terms behind, and just concentrate on teaching and learning communication again, in being "agnostic" to geography, choice of technology etc (if interested, see my critical data collection "Learning alphabet" below)
- It seems fully compatible with uses of learning analytics, adaptive learning and similar recent ICTs to help the teacher to understand how to help, understand and correct the student. (See my and coauthors recent paper below: "Blended learning; the new normal...)
- It realizes that lectures is not the prime things that scholars can do. Personal mentoring, feedback on student work and critical discussions are more central.
- It fits well with a time-based blended learning concept, such as the one I and co-authors have been trying to formulate (see below: A time based blended learning model).
- It can be criticised for connection to old exclusive classic education when a few gentlemen students just met at scholars quarters for discussions. Good I am sure - but scaleable to the masses?
- How is quality control handled in these one-to-one situations?
- Does this concept really need any blockchain tech, other than for keeping exam records secure?
CONs:
- Long way to implementation and recognition of such a concept. It is disruptive and this will create problems with present structures for a long time.
- The concept would gain from unbundling education even more: To separate examination from the teaching. But this means administration?
-I can see it working for a) mainly text-/content-based courses, b) for mature students that really want to learn and not just spend som social years on campus and get a degree on the way, c) for experienced scholars/teachers with good communication qualities, interested in student learning. But, when this is said - we have a lot in present higher ed that does not fit in in this cross-section.
- How are ed programmes constructed, courses established, exams defined? This makes some administration come back again, but could perhaps be dealt with? Not obvious how, though? Globally established standard courses, or just personally constructed?
- Is the power of social learning just dropped? Or is it reconstructed? It must be. also in adaptive learning, so this is a general question in future of education. (I have an old idea about this - see below and join me in speculation? ""Edu-Sync...")
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I am trying to identify the better suited institutions for the introduction of blended learning in higher educations, it is well known that institutions operate differently and all have autonomic challenges.
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Hi gentlemen your input and opinions are very much appreciated.
Thanks alot
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I am engaging in a project that require tracking employee's performance and skill development. We are told to adopt blended learning as a strategy.
Now, my question is, is there anyone who have knowledge or any related literature on how to track employee's performance and skill development via blended learning?
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Haruni
hopefully this source is useful
We have developed different training systems and each one of them is able to record the progress of the students, this might help to track skills development
best regards
Miguel Pérez R
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I have been working with data collected from higher learning students. In one of the questions, I asked the students to explain why they post in their online group discussions. The answers were diverse in such I need a theory that could help me categorize their responses
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Hi Mustapha,
I have a few suggestions that might be helpful. First, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework works well in blended and/or online learning. Second, if you're interested in creating theory from the data (due to its rich diversity), then, perhaps, classic Grounded theory (CGT) might be of interest. I've attached an article explaining the CGT data analysis process in detail. I would suggest that you look at Glaser's Grounded Theory Review journal for in-depth discussion. Lastly, Engagement theory might be a means to make sense of student motivation in online group discussions.
All the best,
-Chris
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Dr. Shu-Hsiang "Ava" Chen and I are exploring the perceptions of international students about threaded discussions with peers in online and hybrid courses.
We are currently conducting survey responses (https://goo.gl/forms/KD97ID93LuPHrUjv2), though we are interested in anecdotal or more informal thoughts in this kind of forum in addition to any formal research or literature reviews conducted by others.
Thank you in advance for any formal or informal observations you might share.
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Dear Barbara:
As once an international student, I know that sometimes the online facilitators are not always attuned to the cultural norms of international students, especially their communication customs. As such, sometimes we may experience cultural insensitivity on this platform. For example, you may be told that there is no "z" in the word "organization" because local students use American English with an "s". These articles give more insight into the challenges that international students face in the classroom that can be helpful for you:
Best regards,
Debra
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I am currently working on a blended learning project, which is predicated on the use of technology to drive the teaching/learning process. I am highly interested in what others think about the role of technology in modern pedagogy, so please indicate in your answer which of the two "driver" functions you think technology tends to produce more of for education (student disengagement or student engagement). The why question is very important, so please try to give an example or two to illustrate this part of your answer.
Cheers and many thanks!
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Your main question first:
Technology is not the driver of student engagement nor disengagement. Good or Bad learning design and delivery is.
When someone says "We need a course on this" they then have to think and answer the Who, Why, When, Where, What, What for and How of Learning. Technology based learning is a tool. Face to Face based learning is a tool. You select the appropriate tool for the job based on your response to those seven questions. The up-front time and cost of developing quality learning experiences can be surprising & daunting so it's no wonder people take short cuts.
That's why this of third space of the Learning Design/Development/Design professional (with subject matter experts, project managers etc) continues to grow and evolve. Professionalism (1) reduces the risk of poor learning experiences (2) more likely to balance the real world constraints of cost / time / resource / quality.
So when you have shovelware learning, or poor tool selection, or content misaligned with assessment, or student learning needs unmet, or abstract content then you will have bad learning experiences. These problems are not exclusive to technology based learning - it happens in Face-To-Face.
Student disengagement is perennial issue regardless of the medium. Technology has the characteristic to magnifying and multiplying effects. So technology is scaling and multiplying the reach and volume of learning that traditional education approaches can't achieve. So bad learning design / development / delivery (and therefore student disengagement) would be magnified and multiplied too.
My conjecture about your questions is this: the key difference may be with technology there is unlikely to be a 'human' last line of defence against poor learning design/development/experience and to 'save the day' from bad learning experiences.
From this last statement, it may seem Face-To-Face learning is more powerful than technology mediated learning - but remember context is all important. That multivariate learning equation has to be answered. The outcomes for the student is but one consideration: there are outcomes for the business, project sponsors, the project manager, the learning professionals, subject matter experts, the media team too that have to be considered when answering that question.
To the other questions:
Blended Learning is simply a useful transitional term (my opinion) that is useful to explain a concept to those unfamiliar or uncomfortable with online learning. It's a similar to how eCommerce was useful once but now it's just the way you do business. I look forward to the day when instead of eLearning, Blended Learning, Online Learning goes the same way as CBT and it just becomes "Learning" again.
This was the thrust behind the "Technology is just a tool just as much as a lecture is a tool" statement. Blended learning in the Higher Ed space space refers to having mixed delivery modes of which online learning (usually LMS) to achieve a set of course / subject Intended Learning Outcomes.
As a small quick example: the "inverted-classroom" is a classic example. A content heavy subjects use online materials and activities as a pre-lecture deep-dive into a topic. The lecture that follows then maps and highlights the inter-connectedness of key learning ideas.
I acknowledge the broader sense of 'Technology' can incorporate technology beyond the web and this should not be forgotten. However I find that the online dominates the discussion for it's for cost, equity and ubiquitous reasons.
I hope that helps.
/rant
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Yes, because no knowledge come from outside, but all inside that is nothing but development of soul or spirit.
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Hello,
Spiritual intelligence is an important part of multiple intelligences which refers to multiple ways of knowing how to integrate the inner
life of mind with the outer life. This forms what is known as spiritual experiences . Through conscious effort and practice, spiritual intelligence can be cultivated helping individuals reach spiritual maturity signaled by
wisdom and compassionate action throughout one's life. Notably, blended learning-that is , integration of online and face--to-face pedagogical approaches to enhance student learning experiences for promoting their engagement, motivation and retention presupposes a spiritual readiness. The main reason is that student’s promptitude for action depends on their initiative, enthusiasm and creativity in learning all of which are related to spiritual intelligence.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I would please like to know if it would be appropriate to use the Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS) to measure frustration of students in Blended Learning approach of teaching and learning with conditions relating to assigned roles? Greetings!
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The topic needs to be clarified more
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I want to blend students independent of place, but in the same interactive teaching process. Traditional young students can study on campus, but together with second-chance learners at learning centres, work places or at home. I am going to begin a design study on this subject. Experiences, examples, ideas, references?
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I just wanted to add a few points on top of Debra's useful suggestions. I believe blended learning ideas and approaches are well researched and can be used in such contexts. For example, you may refer "Community of Inquiry(CoI)" model to further inform or frame your design with researched models. As Anders already pointed out, the main issue that would be helpful for such a case is ensuring interaction between two groups to construct learning. Of course, this is the challenging issue as well. I would say maximizing the 'social presence' in the learning process is important. Hence, designing and incorporating asynchronous projects/activities(individual, paired, group) together with online discussions from every angle promote interaction and ensure effective learning.
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Moving with the current flow of digital technology, educators are expected to adopt similar trends in the classroom and this calls for a blended learning approach. My colleagues and I have actually adopted Kahoot! in our English Language courses and we have found it to be very motivating for students and it has the potential of reinforcing learning too. I'm surveying for further responses on Kahoot! use in the classroom.
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Kahoot! is a tool for using technology to administer quizzes, discussions or surveys. It is a game based classroom response system played by the whole class in real time. Multiple-choice questions are projected on the screen. Students answer the questions with their smartphone, tablet or computer. I gauge students ' understanding of a topic at the end of each lecture by using Kahoot!
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Hi,
The purpose of study is to examine students' perceptions (satisfaction, engagement, convenience, views on learning) and preferences (course, lecture, tutorials and discussions) related to a blended learning course on information security skills (Pilot testing the course before launching in 10 partner institutions).
Perceptions were measured using 5 point scale (SD to SA) and Preferences were measured on a categorical scale (2 to 3 options in each case). In both cases, questionnaire was adapted from a published study.
I have a data set (N=115) of undergrad students from 4 different disciplines and almost equal gender representation. Descriptive Statistics are attached. I have run different tests to see if perceptions and preferences differ among students with different genders, educational background, grades earned in the course, overall cumulative grades. Quite surprisingly none of the student groups showed any significant difference in perceptions and preferences.
I used t-test and ANOVA. Perception variables are highly correlated with one another (Spearman's rho: 0.810 to 0.846) and Preferences are also highly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.738 to 0.771)
One obvious possible explanation is that students, irrespective of their gender, educational discipline and performance found course satisfactory. However, it seems "too good to be true". And, unfortunately, papers with such results are usually rejected despite the fact it is what data is suggesting.
So, I am here to have your opinion.
Am I missing something or doing something wrong?
Thank you in advance.
BR
Ali
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More what I envisioned is that one goes through a process in data analysis of increasing desperation.
Try 1) I try combining X1 through X9 by simple addition. I tried var1=X1+X2+x3, and var1=X1+x7+X8+X9. I also made up a bunch of other vars that were similar. That did not give the answer that I wanted.
Try 2) I try multiplication: X1*X4, X2*X3*X7, and X4*X5*X6*X8*X9*X10
Try 3) I try ratios
Try 4) I try random transformations (inverse, exponent, roots, log)
Try 5) I am now desperate, so I start with creative functions like var1=log(X1)^cos(X2) and var2=(X1+X2)/(X3*X4)^(1/X5). That last one was close to significant, so maybe I could just tweek it a little. I'll develop the theory to rationalize the significant breakthrough later.
A never ending fishing expidition trying to find latent variables that provide significant models. This is in contrast to something like factor analysis or using existing theory to define latent variables. As Bob suggested, the significant results should be tested with another data set, and should be a suggestion for every research project with novel results.
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If blended learning aimed at enhancing language development, so which of theses learning theories are more relevant ?
Thank you
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Hi Haba!
I see connectivism as a kind of constructivism - as also social constructivism is an emphasis under the broader label of constructivism. And do not forget constructionism, which is also highly interesting in relation to ICTs and learning, and something else.
However, I think all kinds of learning theories and connected pedagogies and didactics are in a way rather neutral to the use of both classrooms and ICTs and their possible combinations. Owning Ipads does not implicate constructivism, but Ipads can help design a course in a constructivism manner. You can do very oldfashioned or even evil or stupid teaching / learning designs with ICTs or without. ICTs instead broadens our possibilities to design teaching and affect student learning under varying circumstances of all kinds. No more magic than that (but highly important anyway).
If you only have your own oral voice (no books, paper, blackboard, Ipads, LMSs or other ICTs) and 50 students to teach under the shadow of a tree - you cannot do much adaption or variation to student needs, and the teaching /learning process is probably not very effective (it is hard to even give homework).
See this thought experiment:
and this interpretation of blended learning, focusing on time and process instead of technology or place:
which simplifies thinking of blended leanring versus learning theories.
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Developing upskilling and capacity building for the Overseas Countries and Territories, and currently looking for the cooperation for these tasks.
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Dear Ahmad,
Thanks for the interest. I do appreciate your work, and I am coming back to you on this issue
Very bests
Milan
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There are video distribution solutions that destroys a video file after watching, but are there formats which can be customized to deteriorate in video quality (but not audio quality) with time? This would encourage students to watch lectures when they show up on an LMS, and not procrastinate. It could also be nice for the teacher to know that his or hers makeshift lectures, not intended to become any classics, were watchable only for a period of time. Next year the lectures will be different - but if necessary the teacher has the original video file from last year to customize in time -it begins to deteriorate after say three days, and there is only audio after a week. Are there such fomats? Used them? Is it a good idea?
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You have to examine what the purpose of the video is in the overall scheme of things. If this is important information to the overall development of a particular competency in the class, then you are defeating your purpose to either remove it or have it go bad after a few days. Students learn in different ways. Sometime a student needs to review that video more than once to fully grasp the concept. 
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I'm researching on pedagogy/methodology applied to the online/distance learning and teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 
This is not about blended learning (combination of online and face-to-face lessons). It's about virtual instruction completely. ANY kind of research suggested will be most welcomed. I've been reading a lot about virtual education in general, but I'm finding very hard to find specific research on "language learning" in virtual environments.
Thanks,
Mariel
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It is possible to make the Veterinary Anatomy as Blended learning
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Hi!
I try in my research to see "blended learning" in a longer historical perspective to get some conceptual distance to it. Otherwise it easily becomes "half-distance", "half-technical" and "half-online" teaching and learning - all of these are conceptually unsustainable, ageing concepts. In the bigger and longer context, it is about integrating a new kind of technology in teaching and learning, until it becomes so integrated you do not notice it anymore. As you already probably have the technology of printed materials integrated, you probably have email as well, and a recorded lecture. See there, already blending! It becomes more reasonable to look at ICTs in education if you for example use a time and process perspective, how synchronous or asynchronous modes are shifting along the track of the course, be they digitally enabled or not. The use of new technology creates more affordances for adaption and facilitaion designs of the teaching and learning process, they don't do much magic in other ways. Don't misunderstand me - the "blended learning" discourse has been very produ uctive, as it has enabled teachers to work under an umbrella with their experiments with new technology in teaching and learning. But we are soon beyond the blend, into vaying new solutions where we cant proceed without ICTs. Attaching my paper about the time perspective on blends, and a thought experiment that tries to go from "unblended" learning  through history until today. Then we have a new blend in front of us, a real challenge - the blend with functions of artificial intelligence (as learning analytics, adaptive learning - see my PhD synthesis on this, attached). 
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