Biomonitoring - Science topic
In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.
Questions related to Biomonitoring
Stream is undoubtedly essential for the river ecosystem. It is the source of water for the river as well as the groundwater. At the same time, it is essential to study the macroinvertebrates to know their role on the food web. But how it is beneficiary to humans or what is the social impact of this kind of study?
Just curious to know about the harmonization in scientific community regarding reporting of urinary analyte concentration in human biomonitoring studies.
Some studies report uncorrected concentrations while some report creatinine-corrected or specific gravity corrected concentrations.
1. Is there any common harmonization existing, to what is the better way to represent urinary analyte concentrations ?
2. What are the other ways to report urinary analyte concentrations in analytical research/biomonitoring studies ?
Is there a software, which can estimate the number without very difficult and extremely time-consuming work in the lab? We have to analyze ca. 200 samples each of over 1,000 individuals; so that would really help us. Thanks for your suggestions!
Human biomonitoring (HBM) is a tool of health-related environmental monitoring with which populations are examined for their exposure to pollutants from the environment. The results are also intended to provide information as to whether (further) pollutant reduction measures are needed and on the effects of existing measures. HBM plays an essential role in environmental health and the assessment of pollution levels in the population, population groups or individuals. HBM makes it possible to determine levels of contamination in individuals and, where applicable, some of the biological effects triggered by it. It is thus subdivided into human biological monitoring of exposure and biological effect monitoring.
Based on your opinion, what do you think about the importance of using HBM in human health related studies?
I'm studying the relationship between aquatic insects (as biomonitoring medium) and water quality of river. I only have the data for the number of insects/organisms based on their respective orders (ephemeroptera, plecoptera, diptera, odonata). I haven't got the information of what family they are in, so I could not calculate the actual tolerance value for each order of insects.
Is there any alternatives, modified biotic index formula or any other indices that can be calculated using only these information that I have?
Feedbacks are highly appreciated.
Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, is the comprehensive analysis of all metabolites of an organism. It has the potential to improve exposure measures and delineate mechanistic links between exposures and potential health outcome. Moreover, metabolomics has the potential to measure patterns of exposure-specific biologic perturbations. I would be happy to have your opinion on the role of metabolomics in exposure assessment science.
Kang et al. (2018) have exposed OVA-sensitized mice to formaldehyde (FA) (1.0 mg/m3; 0.8 ppm) or DINP (20 mg/kg bw/d) or a mixture thereof for 18 days to study combined effects on asthma histopathology. I am concerned about their statement about FA causing asthma and their report of effects in the lung tissue; furthermore, I am concerned about the high exposures to FA and DINP and the use of a mice model.
It is now well-established that FA is not associated with asthma or asthma exacerbation since the indoor air quality guideline of FA was developed by WHO (2010). Thus, it is indeed surprising that Kang et al. cite obsolete studies like McGwin et al. (2010) and Rumchev et al. (2002) as support for asthma caused by FA; studies with severe caveats as documented in detail in the literature (Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2010; Golden, 2011; Nielsen et al., 2013; Fromme and Sagunski, 2016), and by the US National Research Council (2011).
Kang et al. also mention studies for support of their statement like Qiao et al. (2009) and Wu et al. (2013). In these studies mice were exposed up to 2.5 ppm FA, which decreases the respiratory rate, and thus the respiratory ventilation about 30% (20% in Kang et al.), e.g. Nielsen et al. (1999). This allows rodents, but not humans, “to significantly reduce their exposure to inhaled sensory irritants” (OECD, 2017). The sensory irritation of FA in the upper airways of mice causes a reflex initiated bradypnea, which inter alia decreases the metabolic rate and carbon dioxide production, and demand for oxygen. Other outcomes are lower body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. This may initiate hypoxia-induced stress reactions and inflammation in the airways, which strongly hampers interpretation of the experimental outcome. Thus, I am concerned about the use of a mice model with such a high FA exposure, rather than a rat model, which would be significantly less sensitive to sensory irritants, e.g. Schaper (1993).
The applied internal dosage of DINP appears orders of magnitude higher than typically reported in the literature. For instance, in the German ESBHum study estimated daily median intake concentrations of DINP increased from lowest value in 1988 of 0.20 µg/kg bw/d to the highest median twice as high in 2003 (Wittassek et al., 2007). Kransler et al. (2012) reviewed the literature and estimated human exposure of DINP to be in the order of 1-2 µg/kg/bw/d, while the highest daily intake of DINP in a polyvinyl chloride factory was 26 µg/kg/bw/d (Hines et al., 2012).
The above studies and in particular the study by Sadakane et al. (2002) generate FA from a 5-10% formalin solution. Such generation can produce aerosols with FA, which may bypass the scrubbing effect of the nose and cause inflammation in the lower airways. Thus, experimental findings are dubious without documentation of an aerosol-free FA exposure. Furthermore, authors’ results contrast with a repeated exposure study in mice exposed to ≥ 0.6 ppm aerosol-free gaseous FA, which did not show an increase of inflammatory markers in BAL fluid (Wolkoff et al., 2012); see also Larsen et al. (2013). Thus, the statement by Kang et al. about asthma and FA is indeed surprising, also in view of the well-established fact that gaseous FA is considered to deposit in the nasal cavity nearly quantitatively and does not reach internal organs (World Health Organization, 2010), as demonstrated in many recent studies by exposure of 13C2H-labeled FA to rats and non-human primates, e.g. Edrissi et al. (2013); Yu et al. (2015). Further, no significant lung effects have been observed in human exposure studies up to 3 ppm for 3 hours in asthmatics (Sauder et al., 1987). Thus, I am deeply concerned about the statement by Kang et al. (2018) that FA should cause asthma. Thus, I wonder profoundly how Kang et al. can explain this obvious discrepancy. Unambiguous evidence for an association between specific phthalates and asthma is lacking; many authors are very cautious about their conclusions, e.g. Bertelsen et al. (2013); Bekö et al. (2015) and several reviews have not identified an association, e.g. (Nielsen et al., 2007; Jaakkola and Knight, 2008; Nurmatov et al., 2015; Tagiyeva et al., 2016).
In summary, there is neither experimental, epidemiological nor physiological support for an association between gaseous FA exposure and asthma. Those experimental studies that advocate for an association appear to be hampered by exposure to aerosolized FA, while epidemiological studies are inconclusive due to multi-exposures (World Health Organization, 2010). Unequivocal support for an association between specific phthalates or their metabolites has not yet appeared. Thus, I am profoundly concerned about the statements by Kang et al. In view, of using a mice model, rather than a rat model, and the high exposures of both FA and DINP, we strongly recommend to interpret cautiously the outcome of the observed combined effect, not to be used for human risk assessment.
-Bekö G, Callesen M, Weschler CJ, Toftum J, Langer S, Sigsgaard T, Høst A, Jensen TK, Clausen G. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Environ Res 2015; 137: 432-439.
-Bertelsen RJ, Carlsen KCL, Calafat AM, Hoppin JA, Håland G, Mowinckel P, Carlsen K-H, Løvik M. Uninary biomarkers for phthalates associated with asthma in Norweigan children. Environ Health Perspect 2013; 121: 251-256.
-Edrissi B, Taghizadeh K, Moeller BC, Kracko D, Doyle-Eisele M, Swenberg JA, Dedon PC. Dosimetry of N6-formyl lysine adducts following [13C2H2]-formaldehyde exposure in rats. Chem Res Toxicol 2013; 26: 1421-1423.
-Fromme H, Sagunski H. Zur Frage eines Asthma auslösenden bzw. verschlechternden Potenzials von Formaldehyd in der Innenraumluft bei Kindern. Bundesgesundhbl 2016; 59: 1028-1039.
-Golden R. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards. Crit Rev Toxicol 2011; 41: 672-721.
-Hines CJ, Hopf NB, Deddens JA, Silva MJ, Calafat AM. Occupational exposure to diisononyl phthlate (DiNP) in polyvinyl chloride processing operations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2012; 85: 317-325.
-Jaakkola JJK, Knight TL. The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 845-853.
-Kang J, Duan J, Song J, Luo C, Liu H, Li B, Yang X, Yu W. Exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and DINP aggravated asthma-like pathology through oxidative stress and NF-kB activation. Toxicology 2018; 404-405: 49-58.
-Kransler KM, Backman AN, McKee RH. A comprehensive review of intake estimates of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) based on indirect exposure models and urinary biomonitoring data. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2012; 62: 248-256.
-Larsen ST, Wolkoff P, Hammer M, Kofoed-Sørensen V, Clausen PA, Nielsen GD. Acute airway effects of airborne formaldehyde in sensitized and non-sensitized mice housed in dry or humid environment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013; 268: 294-299.
-McGwin JrG, Lienert J, Kennedy JrJI. Formaldehyde exposure and asthma in children: A systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118: 313-317.
-National Research Council. Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's draft IRIS assessment of formaldehyde. P. 1-194. 2011. National Academies Press.
-Nielsen GD, Hougaard KS, Larsen ST, Wolkoff P, Clausen PA, Wilkins CK, Alarie Y. Acute airway effects of formaldehyde and ozone in BALB/c mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 1999; 18: 400-409.
-Nielsen GD, Larsen ST, Olsen O, Løvik M, Poulsen LK, Glue C, Wolkoff P. Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy? Indoor Air 2007; 17: 236-255.
-Nielsen GD, Larsen ST, Wolkoff P. Recent trend in risk assessment of formaldehyde exposures from indoor air. Arch Toxicol 2013; 87: 73-98.
-Nurmatov UB, Tagiyeva N, Semple S, Devereux G, Sheikh A. Volatile organic compounds and risk of asthma and allergy: a systematic review. Eur Respir J 2015; 24: 92-101.
-OECD. OECD Draft Guidance Document 39. Acute Inhalation toxicity Testing. Version 2. Nov. 2017. Draft Guidance and Review Documents/Monographs - OECD.
-Qiao Y, Li B, Yang G, Yao H, Yang J, Liu D, Yan Y, Sigsgaard T, Yang X. Irritant and adjuvant effects of gaseous formaldehyde on the ovalbumin-induced hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a rat model. Inhal Toxicol 2009; 21: 1200-1207.
-Rumchev K, Spickett J, Bulsara M, Philips MR, Stick SM. Domestic exposure of formaldehyde significantly increases the risk of asthma in young children. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 403-406.
-Sadakane K, Takano H, Ichinose T, Yanagisawa.R., Shibamoto T. Formaldehyde enhances mite allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the murine airway. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2002; 21: 267-276.
-Sauder LR, Green DJ, Chatman MD, Kulle TJ. Acute pulmonary response of asthmatics to 3.0 ppm formaldehyde. Toxicol Ind Health 1987; 3: 569-578.
-Schaper M. Development of a database for sensory irritants and its use in establishing occupational exposure limits. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1993; 54: 488-544.
-Tagiyeva N, Teo E, Fielding S, Devereux G, Semple S, Douglas G. Occupational exposure to asthmagens and adult onset wheeze and lung function in people who did have childhood wheeze: A 50-year cohort study. Environ Int 2016; 94: 60-68.
-Wittassek M, Wiesmüller GA, Koch HM, Eckard R, Dobler L, Müller J, Angerer J, Schlüter C. Internal phthalate exposure over the last two decades - A retrospective human biomonitoring study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2007; 210: 319-333.
-Wolkoff P, Clausen PA, Larsen ST, Hammer M, Nielsen GD. Airway effects of repeated exposures to ozone-initiated limonene oxidation products as model of indoor air mixtures. Toxicol Lett 2012; 209: 166-172.
-Wolkoff P, Nielsen GD. Non-cancer effects of formaldehyde and relevance for setting an indoor air guideline. Environ Int 2010; 36: 788-799.
-World Health Organization. Selected pollutants. WHO indoor air quality guidelines. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2010, 1-454 pp.
-Wu Y, You H, Ma P, Li L, Yuan Y, Li J, Ye X, Liu X, Yao H, Chen R, Lai K, Yang X. Role of transient receptor potential ion channels and evoked levels of neuropeptides in a formaldehyde-induced model of asthma in Balb/c mice. PLos ONE 2013; 8: e62827.
-Yu R, Lai Y, Hartwell HJ, Moeller BC, Doyle-Eisele M, Kracko D, Bodnar WM, Starr TB, Swenberg JA. Formation, accummulation and hydrolysis of endogeneous and exogeneous formaldehyde induced DNA damage. Toxicol Sci 2015; 146: 170-182.
Does anyone know about aquatic community/species indicator of manganese enrichment?
I am looking for bioindicator for this element within water system such as rivers.
Thank you all for your help!
I'm compiling some examples of good bad aquatic biomonitoring studies for a commentary on monitoring practices. I have a couple published bad examples , but am on the lookout for more good, bad examples.
For example, in a study of power plant effluents discharged near the transition of a flowing river to a standing water reservoir, the reference sites were located in the flowing river and the assessment sites were located in the reservoir. The investigators concluded that benthic communities are different in rivers and reservoirs.
In another reference example, the investigators dispensed with reference sites all together because they were only interested in whether there were changes year to year in assessment sites, not in whether the reference conditions were different.
Another bonehead design is to use chemical detection limits that were higher than the water quality criteria that are being assessed.
I'm after citable works that can be specially discussed in open. Appreciate any leads, which may of course be sent privately.
Biomonitoring – human and environmental perspectives
22 January 2019 09:00-17:00, London, United Kingdom
We are accepting posters - deadline 20 December.
Kate, RSC Toxicology group Chair
I would like to get some suggestions regarding how water quality can be related with Water for Sustainable Development particularly in bio monitoring studies. Can anybody provide me some valuable insights.
Thanks in Advance.
Anila P Ajayan
What are the main challenges facing biomonitoring programs today, financial and political inadequacies aside? If you are in charge of producing an effective monitoring program what would you like to see improved?
In pursuit of answer for this question I thought to include few others to clarify my objectives.
In the age of data and with inflow of data from everywhere, how monitoring programs can sort out the right data? Given there are numerous organizations worldwide that generate similar information, whether is barcoding information (i.e. taxonomy), environmental and or biological data (i.e. physico-chemical and species distribution) what tool(s) is/are required to manage the information?
How efficiently monitoring programs can train their staff in taxonomy, sampling and gathering data? what are the specific needs in order to do so?
I'm looking for pressure-specific indices for fine grained sediment. In the UK we have PSI and CoFSI. Are there any similar indices in mainland Europe?
I'm (as HEAD of BIOMONITORING laboratory) looking for interested scientists to assist us in the preparation of articles and in future on collaboration work. We need qualified help in English and possible statistical analysis. Interests ornithology (population dynamics, spatial heterogeneity, climate change), ichthyology (fish populations(assemblages) and environmental parameters). Only without money relations help is welcome. The opportunity to be a co-author of articles only is welcomed. Post-docs, young PhD, PhD student from Europe and North America is welcomed.
My email firstname.lastname@example.org
In Enrichment assessment analysis, Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) value for Cd is negative with the range of (-4 to -2). The same Cd value is in Enrichment Factor (EF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) are showing negative with the range of (17.9 to 118.5 and 2 respectively). When, the accumulation is nill... How the Enrichment value and Pollution load indexes were showing Positive. Please explain anybody the conditions of my study.
I performed some experiments on wet deposition on plants but that is quite an easy task compared to designing an experiment with the dry deposition. I cannot seem to find any studies dealing with the problem to draw the inspiration from. Can you suggest some if there are? I would like to keep the concentration of the pollutant in the container stable for some time and then analyse the plant, that is all.
Thanks in advance
Hello! We are doing our thesis which is to measure muscle activity with lbp cyclers and compare the activity with no pain cyclers. It's a bit challenging for us since we are going to measure the activity while the cycler is riding in trails (Mountain biking). Does anyone have any suggetions / ideas how we could reduce the loss and the interference which are caused while cycling? Is it best that the cycler would use no shirt or which kind of results would we get if the electroids are place under shirt? We are using Biomonitor ME6000 to measure and we are using Ambu Blue sensors ( size m)
hi. im working on abundance of macroinvertebrates in seagrass community. i am using a 2D MDS to see their resemblances, which are at 60 and 80 percent. however, there are points that deviate from the groups. how should i interpret this? thanks! :D
I am looking for any reliable information about the feeding ecology of Einfeldia longipes (syn. Chironomus bequaerti)! I would appreciate very much any feeding details of this benthic larvae!
Does anyone can be write me about role of plants ( Phragmites Australis, and other emergent plants, in pollution removal in subsurface wetlands? How much percent can be role in reduction of heavy metals, N, P, other macro and micro nutrients? How much percent, minimum, mean and maximum, or range of efficiency.
Numbers of studies have been documented the bio-monitoring of PAH by Mussel (e.g., Mytilus sp., Perna sp. or Mytilopsis sp.,). Are there already some studies that documented the bio-monitoring potentials of aquatic macrophyte (e.g., algae, saltmarsh) for PAH ? Thanks for your time.
I am just wondering whether correction for multiple testing is necessary with the indicator value IndVal by Dufrene & Legendre (1997), as well as the modified version by De Caceres et al. (2010). This correction is sometime proposed (e.g. by Legendre 2009), but not implemented in the R code of packages 'labdsv' and 'indicspecies' where the issue is at least mentioned.
As I understood, one major advantage of the IndVal over TwinSpan analysis was that is was not affected by (in this case the abundances of) other species.
This advantage of unaffectedness would be lost if correction for multiple testing would be conduncted for the IndVal, since the total number of species (hence number of tests) would then affect the possibility for a single species to gain significance with respect to its indicator value.
I am interested in evaluating the potential dispersal of mayflies nymphs in streams to quantify dispersal as a structuring mechanism of metacommunities. I have tried some available dyes (such as rose bengal), but they are not being efficient.
Does anyone has experience using MP AES to analyse heavy metal?
Do you know the detection limit to analyze Pb, As, Cd in human samples (urine, blood)?
Is that true the cost of operation is very low compare to FAAS or GFAAS
Thank you for your time.
We want to mark boatmen (Corixidae) to study how individuals move within a pond. We have evidence that they move very little. We tried permanent markers but they can rub anywhere on their body with their legs, and they quickly rub off the mark. Does anyone have any suggestions about a suitable method?
I am searching for an organism that is also easy to breed in the aquarium and reproduces relatively quickly (say up to 2 or 3 months is ok). I am open to both salt- and freshwater organisms!
The article starts by saying that the biomonitoring lags behind the science, and ends by saying that the science is lagging behind the policy. Given that the policy / legislation (i.e. WFD) more or less dictates the biomonitoring, where does that leave us?
The implications of the opening section is that a wide range of methods are available to regulatory agencies, but are underused. Although the article is a good critique of existing methods, it doesn't really explain what aspects of science should be incorporated into existing monitoring straight away. The authors admit that most new methods don't necessarily relate to existing known pressures and/or require further development. What new methods are cost-effective, better than existing tools, and could be deployed in a 3-5 year timetable after an initial piloting and testing phase?
I'm looking for articles with the top result of kindly Bivalve for bioindicators, biomarkers in pollution biomonitoring from your country. Any suggestions, please?
Kidney and gut in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis?
Could you help me please to find some pepers talking about these organs in toxicity assays? or could someone explain why those organs doesn't used in these kind of investigations? because i guess that they are important (excretion and absorption), any explanation please? i'm looking forward a reply and i'll be very grateful!
I am interest if anyone has attempted to quantify, or has any evidence that fish can become accustomed to nets and 'learn' to avoid capture when sampling is undertaken at high temporal resolution (e.g. weekly). My interest is related to field-based monitoring programs in 'closed' (e.g. river pools, wetlands) or small freshwater systems involving regular, intense sampling programs (e.g. weekly/fortnightly).
I wish to know the various methods involving in the enumeration of benthic organisms in aquatic water bodies;
I'm reviewing information on the issue of low-cost methods in ecotoxicology, and I have some studies on it, such us Mills CL et al. 2006 Development of a new low cost high sensitivity system for behavioural ecotoxicity testing Aquatic Toxicology 77: 197-201 I would like to know other studies on it.
there are several advancements in the analysis and monitoring of freshwater bodies in all over world; but i need to know the current advancements in the same. like modelling, analysis, prediction, statistical applications etc., can anyone help in this regard
Could polypores be applied in monitoring the environmental pollution? Has anyone experience with that? Or know about key references, reviews or any active research group dealing with biomonitoring using polypores?
We are planning to make a basic quantitative plankton study of local surface water.
1. How to collect samples from lotic and lentic water? What should be the mesh size of plankton nets?
2. Do we need to use fixatives? If yes, which is the best one?
3. How to prepare slides for taking photograph? Do we need to any stain? If yes, which is the best one?
4. Can anyone help us with the identification of the microorganisms?
5. How to correlate the presence/ abundance of the microorganisms with water quality?
It will be really helpful for us if you can provide us with the required information. Thank you in anticipation.
It is reported that mercury levels have been increasing in fish. I was curious if anyone knew where I could find data showing mercury levels in various types of dietary fish and seafood, particularly tuna, over various years.
In my current work I have found a decrease of some trace elements (with the exception of Al) in E. prunastri during the spring season, it is possible that within three months of exposure there has been a similar condition?
Give me your opinions.
I'm studying marine and freshwater ecosystems in Khuzestan province, Iran.
The Weekly News Alert on Science for Environmental Policy of the European Commission refers to an article in the Journal 'Environmental Pollution' which suggests that trees can be used as biomonitoring tools in urban environments.
What is your opinion on using plants or trees to map environmental pollution in urban environments.
Is it a worthy alternative for the physico-chemical techniques used until now?
I have calculated MPI and BAF for the same fish for Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn and Zn. The result obtained by MPI follows the trend liver>kidney>gills>integument>muscle. While from the BAF was liver>gills>kidney>muscle>integument. According to me, both give metal load. MPI gives total metal concentrations and BAF gives them with respect to water. How can I justify this?
I am working on the accumulation of seven metals in a single species collected from a single site. I want to use both BCF and MPI, can anyone tell me if it is ok to do so? Also, can anyone tell me what I could deduce from the BCF? I know that from MPI, I can get information about the total metal load in individual organs, but I don't know about the BCF.
I am working on toxicity of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Cr from three different sites on a single fish species. From each site the accumulation of Fe is higher than the other minerals and also its presence in the water is higher in comparison. Therefore, I want to know why each concerned organ: gills, liver, kidney, muscle and integument, has the higher concentration of it?
I am looking for the amphipod Gammarus tigrinus, which is native in some parts (East coast), but also invasive in other parts of US (Great Lakes). Can anyone confidently tell me where I can find them? Or, ideally, we could make arrangements to send some over to Lincoln, NE. Any help and/or suggestion is highly appreciated.
Methodology of sampling of macroinvertebrates in large and very large rivers is definitely neglected in both, scientific literature and different kind of technical reports. The whole concept is based mostly in experience in sampling wadeable rivers. Our team has considerable data to be able to provide some proposal for the methodology (very large rivers – the Danube, Sava, Tisa, as well as large rivers – the Drina, Kolubara….). We would really like to have better platform for discussion, so, in that way, we are looking for somebody interested in collaboration. It is not an easy job, but we should try. We have to admit that without good sampling methodology, the efforts to develop assessment systems for large rivers are ineffective.
Heavy metals deposited in water by different way and reach in human body through food chain and food web. Plankton is prime source of food for aquatic organism.