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Biomass Conversion - Science topic

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If feed gas flow rate is 50 cc/min how can i calculate.
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Zakia Akter Sonia, Just divide the gas flow rate by the catalyst volume, here in cc, and multiply by 60 to refer to one hour.
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I am working on the development of biofuel and I have interest in understanding the effects of the above ratios on biofuel performance and efficiency. Additional reference materials following your inputs would be greatly appreciated to further my research. I would be glad as well to know of other relationships which exist within the elemental analysis that have effects on biofuel quality/performance.
Thanks
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Lalit R Kumar and Sandile Fakudze Thank you for the insightful responses
Cheers!
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Dear all,
I would like to ask about the in-built Aspen Fluidized Bed reactor model. This model is under the solid models framework in Aspen. I was wondering if there is any application (e.g. biomass conversion) beyond the Demo file that one can find in the Example file once Aspen is installed. I have been searching for any other application of this model in the literature without success. Can anyone provide any help in this regard?
Regards,
J.Lorenzo
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Dear J.Lorenzo,
I have the same concern. Have you managed to get an answer?
Thank you
Regards,
Suaad
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How can calculate the energy efficiency of a hydrogen produced from agricultural residual biomass gasification process in Aspen plus software?
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Hi Katerine,
It depends on the definition of energy efficiency. You can assume a boundary for the process and determine inlet and outlet energy streams.
Inlet energy streams could be biomass (m [kg/h] * LHV [kH/kg]), heats added to the system through steam or other sources, pumps power, etc.
The outlet energy streams are the produced energy in the form of syngas or hydrogen and work produced through a turbine.
Another indicator of the process performance is the Levelized costs of hydrogen (LCOH), which indicates the costs of 1 kg of hydrogen production.
Please see this paper for more information:
Regards,
Abdollah
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I need to perform Thermogravimetric Analysis with Infrared Spectroscopy (TG-IR) for my samples I have checked analyticsir.in both CIMFR and NITT instutes TG-IR system not working. other than that I couldn't be able to find any other facility in India. Someone point me in the right direction. Thanks.
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Snehalatha V 5c/min upto 800c. N2 atm.
Thank you for the reply
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The tar was generated through microwave gasification of biomass. Although all generated tars quickly dissolved in acetone, this portion of the tar which was stuck in the reactor doesn't dissolve in acetone or propanol. This stuck tar was heated at a very high temperature and thus solidified and attached itself with the glass surface.
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For such organic residues insoluble in organic solvents, the only solution to remove them is aggressive oxidation. You can try a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid or a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (aqua regia).
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Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and distillation processes in Aspen Plus.
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Hello Pali,
I have previously simulated a hydrotreating process in Aspen Plus by using an R-Yield block ruled by a calculator block. I assumed a desired output based on the carbon yields for hydrocarbon species present in the hydrotreating product (see ) and calculated the required amount of fresh H2. The exported variables in the calculator would be the mass yields for each component in the hydrotreated bio-oil and the calculated H2 input.
Another feasible approach would be to assume a specific H2/bio-oil mass ratio (I've mostly seen on the literature a value of 0.04 with a 10x excess) and using an RGibbs block in which you would pre-define the feasible output compounds. In such case, you'd need to check the predicted output matches experimental or literature composition.
In the simulations reported by NREL and PNNL, they utilize an RStoich reactor in which they define a specific set of reactions, but in case you'd like to use that approach, you would need to exactly have your bio-oil defined with the same set of compounds they utilize. You can download the NREL biomass pyrolysis simulations in https://www.nrel.gov/extranet/biorefinery/aspen-models/ , which include the upgrading section for the bio-oil.
Hope you find this helpful.
Regards
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Hi everyone. I am new here, currently an undergraduate student who is completing my Final Year Project. My project is on effects of temperature and co-solvents on bio-oil yield. I would like to ask whether is there any possible way for me to develop a simple yet comprehensive model for my experimental data?
I have 4 data points for effect of temperature and 4 data points for effect of co-solvents. I do not have data of varying time.
Thank you.
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Try to vary the time as well to determine the optimum time.
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Hello Dear Researchers,
Given the potentials, and environmental and economic issues in the field of renewable energy, which type of biomass source will be environmentally and economically superior in the future; Forest Biomass, Herbaceous Biomass, Aquatic Biomass or Manure Biomass?
Bests,
Dashtpeyma
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All of these are effective, but the problem is that in any region of the world, one may take precedence over the other.
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We need to calculate the flow rate of air required for fluidization of the bed. We have a compressor which gives air at 7 bar and a 1 bar rotameter for measuring the flow rate in LPM. How can I calculate the flow rate required for fluidization theoretically?
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Dear all,
Kindly suggest me a simplified/easy method of calculation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of agricultural biomass along with the relevant reference. We have used the NREL protocol, however, we are unable to get the results by using the given methods of calculations. I would highly appreciate if you could please send me the simplified procedure for these calculations.
With warm regards
Arush
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Dear Arushdeep
You can estimate the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from any agricultural residue using detergent system method (Goering and Van Soest 1970). Full reference is-
Goering, H.K., and P.J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fibre analysis
(apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). USDA
Agricultural handbook no. 379.
Thanks
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Hi everyone
I am doing biomass gasification simulation in fluidized bed reactor. What is the popular and helpful reference book in this area explaining fluidization, pyrolysis, gasification and reactions Kinetics?
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Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis- Practical design and Theory by Prabir Basu - Elsevier ISBN 978-0-12-374988-8
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I was looking for a formula to calculated the obtained energy yield via biohydrogen and biomethane production using anaerobic digestion process. The unit is in SI unit (x) mLH2/g VS and (y) mL CH4/gVS and energy yield unit is KJ/kg VS.
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The lower heating value for pure methane is 35.8 MJ/m3. Note that it is per normal cubic metre (1 m3 at 0 C and 1 atm.).
The lower heating value of 100 ml CH4 at 0 C and 1 atmosphere equals 3.58 kJ.
If the temperature and pressure differ you can use the ideal gas law PV=nRT to calculate which volume it corresponds to at 0 C and 1 atm.
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We are performing biomass conversion test and we are comparing the result of conventional heating with microwave heating in order to quantify the MW effect in terms of imaginary impact on Arrhenius parameters. but we found that the calculated apparent activation energy using the data from the microwave reactor much lower than the data obtained via conventional heating? is that possible and how can I explain this
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There is no accurate method to measure temperature in MW field .You can use thermocouple..or use closed reactor system ..IR camera can help but ,it measure the surface temperature .
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Which kinds of biomass, byproducts and waste are the most interesting for new research development in anaerobic digestion and gasification?
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From a more generalized viewpoint, the promising kinds of feedstock for renewable fuels should:
  • Exploit energy plants of high heating value (HHV) and low moisture content.
  • Follow low carbon footprints.
  • Be cost-effective, in terms of feedstock transportation from the source to bio-refineries.
  • Satisfy energy demand to local and remote residential areas, having no stable connection to the mainland grid.
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Ash content is one of critical parameters considered for feedstock selection in biomass conversion process. Suggest suitable technology for high ash with biomass feedstock.
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Dear Ramesh ,
I am agree with Paulo Fernando Trugilho, mineral content is more important that the % of ash in biomass.
I suggest you the article "Effect of citric acid leaching on the demineralization
and thermal degradation behavior of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Biomass and Bioenergy, 108, 371-380.
Kind regards,
Lizet
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I'm trying to implement NREL method but I could not get the good values for rapeseed stem, my glucose % is around 10%, have you had this problem?
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Hi! I have the same problem. I have check every detail (acid concentration, temperature, time, etc)... however, none of the expected monosaccharides appear in the HPLC chromatrograms.
I will to try highing the first hydrolysis step (72%) temperature.
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Do you think that future research on this topic will be more oriented to the development of new approaches to biogas and syngas generation? Or the major challenge is rather the treatment of new kinds of feedstock?
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A challenge and an opportunity is to take advantage of the synergies between anaerobic digestion, gasification and Power-to-gas. Heat integration seems to be a first step especially if you need to heat the digester, dry the digestate and/or regenerate the scrubber liquid in case of amine based biogas upgrading. Separated CO2 from AD/upgrading and gasification/methanation as input for Power-to-gas. Use the microbial consortia in the digester to convert nitrogen free syngas from gasification to methane. Lower the specific investment cost in upgrading and downstream processes by combining AD, gasification and Power-to-gas.
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I know that food waste COD ranges between 1,50,000 mg/l to 3,50,000 mg/l but whats the reason of high range in food waste?
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Because the value of BOD/COD ranges between 1,50,000 mg/l to 3,45,000 mg/l in food waste. The value of COD varies for different food wastes.so there is high O2 demand. The food waste having carbohydrates, proteins, and oil so the COD value is high. But especially the simple carbohydrate: glucose is one of the major contributors to COD that demands oxygen
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What are the indicators of biochars for possessing higher aromaticity produced by slow pyrolysis process? Generally at higher temperatures the pyrolyzed biochars show higher aromaticity. What are the ways to identify?
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as mentioned by Tamjid Us Sakib we can use FTIR to study the change (increase) in aromaticity. For example, you can plot the ratio of integrated areas at 3000–2800 cm-1 (aliphatic CHx stretching vibration) to 1650–1500 cm-1 (aromatic C=C ring stretching vibration) vs temperature to demonstrate the relative contents of aliphatic and aromatic functional groups of charcoal ( ). The ratios of integrated areas at 900–700 cm-1 (aromatic CH out-of-plane deformation) to 1650–1500 cm-1 you can be used as a measure of the degree of condensation of aromatic rings.
Raman spectroscopy (
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Special Issue Information
Dear Colleagues,
The growing demand for energy is considered to be one of the most significant challenges of the 21st century. It is important to provide energy for different sectors, such as industry, transportation, and heating systems, from sustainable sources to reduce the harmful impacts of traditional fuels not only on human beings but also on the environment. Biofuels are green energy sources that are compatible with existing liquid transport fuel. As one of the main processes in biofuel production, pretreatment is the main economic and a crucial step. The feedstock, such as biomass, may require pretreatment in order to enhance its conversion into a valuable product in terms of process yield and/or productivity. Besides this, the selection of a proper pretreatment may be mandatory for waste management. It should be noted that an efficient pretreatment technique should minimize the energy requirement, maximize the production yield, and generate less waste and by-products. Chemical pretreatment is the application of different chemicals and reagents, such as alkalis, acids, solvents, and salts. Recent advances in chemical pretreatment techniques (e.g., application of green solvents, the use less solvents, or even a combination of different chemical pretreatment methods) has led to an improvement in the recovery of biofuels.
This Special Issue on “Recent Advances in Chemical Pretreatment Methods for Biofuel Production” aims to introduce novel advances in the development of different chemical pretreatment methods for biofuel production. Papers that describe new findings on chemical pretreatment methods; the development of new, efficient pretreatment processes; or environmental, energy, or economic assessments and modeling of pretreatment processes are welcome. Review articles are also recommended.
Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:
  • the development of new chemicals and reagents for chemical pretreatment in biofuel production;
  • the modeling and optimization of chemical pretreatment processes to increase the biofuel recovery rate;
  • the development of novel chemical reagents to enhance the efficiency of pretreatment; and
  • the evaluation of pretreatment efficiency in terms of less waste generation and by-products.
Dr. Shahabaldin Rezania Guest Editor
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 31 December 2019 an APC of 1400 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
Keywords
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Pankaj Kumar Yes. your topic is interesting and you can submit. The APC is 1200 USD in 2019 and will be 1400 USD in 2020.
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Some developing countries have plenty of biomass resources, but they couldn't exploit them effectively and efficiently yet due to several reasons --not only technological aspects but also economic aspects. Therefore, which factors do you think are crucial in sustainable utilization of biomass sources in the developing countries?
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in my opinion, we first need to define the "sustainable utilization" of biomass sources in developing countries. In case that sustainable utilization entails the supplementary energy production, then the biomass characteristics (HHV, moisture content), the climatic conditions (solar radiation, water precipitation), agrarian conditions (soil type, irrigation management), and competitive land uses/landscape management for nutrition and livestock feeding vs energy crops (the so named "food vs fuel" debate), are critical aspects. Besides, the proximity of energy production sites to the (nearby, or remote) residential areas, the transportation modes of fossil-fueled machinery, the cost effectiveness and the scaling-up perspectives, are also influential parameters of biomass "sustainable utilization". In a societal viewpoint, the local workforce strengthening and the social cohesion in favour of (or social opposition against) biofuel production units cannot be undermined.
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I am trying to estimate the carbon input (of vegetal residue) to an agricultural land, based on the historical records of the yield. However, the yield (lb per acre) is the only information I have.
Is there any mathematical equation or something like that useful to estimate the biomass of a crop (for example, wheat) having the yield value?
Thanks for your time
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you can try using the Colorado State/USDA farm-ranch carbon calculator
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In forest carbon stock assessment, we usually use allometric equation to get AGB, times 0.5 to get carbon & times -44/12 to get CO2 emission (removal) value.
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Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon.
Carbon stock is the amount of carbon stored in a reservoir whether it may be in the form of vegetative biomass or
in earth or sea.
Carbon emission is the amount of carbon emitted in atmosphere by naturally or human activities.
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What are the useful material and book for modeling biomass conversion processes using relevant tools (e.g., Aspen Plus)?
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Thank you for your wonderful contribution, Bemgba B. Nyakuma.
It will be my delight to have the recommended book. My email address is:
Thanks.
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What is the maximum yield of H2 will be produced from non-catalytic SCWG of 1 g glucose in 100 ml distilled water? The assumption is no CO2 and CH4 released during the gasification process, but only H2 and CO are assumed the final gaseous products. It hopes that the presence of CO will enhanced the H2 yield via a water-gas shift reaction. 
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Thank you Dr
Sherif H. N. Elsayed
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The foremost claims in all papers related to extraction of chemicals from bio-oil or hydrothermal liquefaction condensate is that they are incredible sources of fine chemicals and that they would have applications in pharmaceuticals and food industry.
How much of these claims are practically possible to meet considering the present scale of biomass conversion is limited to power and bio-fuel production?
If the potential of biomass is so immense how is the production so limited and the interest only academic?
I have a personal interest in this question because part of my research is to do with separation of organic chemicals from bio-oil and it seems like a very daunting task with no goal in sight.
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Also check out https://www.agrifutures.com.au/wp-content/uploads/publications/08-117.pdf . A bit old but issues discussed are still relevant.
There is need to consider trade-offs. Issues of sustainable biomass production and transport costs related to feedstock economics are relevant. It could be value-adding for biomass suppliers, but "costly" for bioenergy/biofuel producers.
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In case of developing countries like India, Indonesia, Brazil, etc. a lot of agricultural residue is burnt. Biomass management/ utilization is vital and yet missing from the big discussion on moving towards cleaner energy and cutting down on carbon emissions.
In case of India, there is lack of regulation and incentive for the farmer to use the biomass residue for any alternate non-monetary applications or densify and take it for co-combustion to thermal power plants. In order to prepare the land for next cropping cycle, the quickest way to get rid of the residue is to burn all that remains in the soil after harvest.
In such a scenario, wouldn't it more prudent to create small scale/ decentralized treatment facilities for biomass? Bio-oil, syngas or HTL condensate could be generated at the site closest to biomass source and transported to a central facility for power or chemical separation. The choice of technology can be made based on characteristics of the feed.
Are the barriers to such a model technical or economical?
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There's a lot of challenges in implementing the distributed model, some include: 1) How to incentivise farmers to give up their wastes (financial?), 2) Seasonal variations in production, 3) Transportation issues associated with the remoteness of many sights, 4) Market viability of the products (biochar, bio-oil, etc.), 5) Low HHV of biomass often means long ROI for plants that are built for energy production. All of these challenges can be overcome, I should add, but there will not be a single correct model for every country/waste.
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I've previously performed the slow pyrolysis process with and without presence of H2O (steam-pyrolysis), however I,ve observed that this addition, can directly affects the amount and composition of gas samples, while i expected that, with the addition of water vapor, due to the induced feature on the surface of the bio-char, the amount of Oily products increase dramatically, but no obvious changes were observed!
Firstly I want to know that, is my expectation true? and if it is, which substance you suggest me, to use?
thanks for your consideration
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The only way to have a considerable increase in bio oil production is to move from slow pyrolisis to fast pyrolisis.
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Will biomass pyrolysis provide large scale biofuel alternatives to fossil fuels and alternatives to petrochemicals, as compared to the large scale common uses of biomass such as paper industry
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Biomass production has three main human uses: for food and fodder production; for energy, such as liquid bio-fuels; for production of materials, not only for construction and paper, but also for wool, cotton etc. Net primary production of biomass has to support Earth's ecosystems as well as the human uses listed above. Ethically, providing food for Earth's people must be given precedence over the other uses, but not necessarily providing high animal products diets. Also, using timber as a construction material to replace (some) energy-intensive steel and concrete will reduce global GHG emissions more than using bio-energy to replace fossil fuel combustion. Overall, bioenergy can only be a minor contributor to future energy--we will have to rely more on other renewable energy sources, and on energy reductions.
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I am looking for a method to assess the biomass of CCA without scraping it off the rock. Scraping CCA off the rock underwater is intense work and it often results in incomplete removal and the loss of some of the sample during the process.
Can anyone recommand an alternative?
%cover to biomass conversion tables would be an awesome way to go.
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Hey Ohad, not aware of any universal method but you may have given the answer in your question " %cover to biomass conversion tables would be an awesome way to go"... In the case you did not find it elsewhere, you may collect samples to build up your own relationship (at a given quadrat size obviously)... Cheers, JC
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Hi all,
I have some confusions regarding ultimate (elemental) and proximate analysis
1) Should the sum of all percentages be always 100 (for both analyses)?
(Figure 1 attached, doesn't make sense to me)
for balsa wood, C+H+N+S=100
for Eucalyptus, Ash+C+H+N+S+O=100
for rice husk, Ash+C+H+O=100
2) Is ash included in elemental analysis?
3) Is elemental analysis always based on dry/wet basis. what should we consider (dry or wet) if not mentioned?
4) If in elemental analysis, sum of all elements percentages equals 100, and humidity is also given (additional to 100%), then what is it, dry or wet basis elemental analysis? (figure 2)
Thanks
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Dear Sir. Concerning your issue about the elemental and proximate analysis, wet and dry basis . In the proximate analysis, moisture, ash and volatile matter are determined. There are standard tests to determine proximate analysis. Moisture is determined by drying 1gm of sample at 105o C for 1hr. Weight loss is expressed in % of initial weight of sample. The main chemical elements in coal (apart from associated mineral matter) are C, O, H, N and S. The chemical analysis is very important to calculate material balance accurately and calorific value of coal. I think the following below links may help you in your analysis:
Thanks
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Dear Friends
I am student of forestry, i want to know from experts/ researchers
How can we  Estimate the forest biomass and carbon stock in coniferous forest/ or broad leaves Forest? please mention some advance methods used in field.
Second question:
How can we find the impact of climate change on Forest growth and Forest Biodiversity?
Thanks
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Dear sir, have a look at this important manual for your queries.
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Biomass estimation in trees can either be direct/destructive or indirect/use of allometric equation. Just curious, which one yield accurate biomass estimates? Biomass can be partitioned into aboveground biomass  (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB). There are well-established equations used in estimation of BGB. In some instances. shoot: root ratio is used. Between the two which one is more accurate in BGB determination?
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Dear sir, have a look at this important manual for your queries.
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In the area of biomass gasification
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Dear Researchers
especially from south Asian countries need comments on this question?
what are the actualities why the biomass resources cant employed to produce power/energy/electricity
in my point of view adequate initial fiance, no training of farmers, lack of demonstration, no centralized approach, reliability misconceptions, legal framework, the absence of commercial services network, in some countries R & D and science and Technology development gap
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The issues is the same everywhere, the low energy density of biomass. The problem looks smaller in developed countries due to the highly developed road, railway, and sea shipping systems.
Decentralization and improving energy density could help to reach out these valuable sustainable resources.
Please find one of my paper enclosed (optimization of torrefaction from economic, social and environmental perspectives):
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How to calculate the area needed to proceed a determined amount of MSW? Or reversely, let say the area of gasification plant is given (because it's limited), can we determine how much MSW as feedstock that can be proceeded?
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I want to get white cellulose from the wood but am still getting cellulose with brown color. I used delignification using 10% NaOH.
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Chemical analysis is difficult...you can use acid hydrolysis for removal lignin residue. for bleaching you can use peroxide hydrogen...for hard wood you should using higher percent of NaOH.
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Hello Everyone,
                         Please let me know if anybody knows method that can separate levulinic acid & ethyl levulinate in GC-FID. I have used DB-5MS and HP-Wax column both but not able to separate both the peaks completely. Sometimes, the peaks are separated by 40 seconds then after few samples, they mix again. In my program I use ramp rate of 5 degC/min. I have also tried slowing carrier gas flow rate, attenuation and sensitivity but nothing really helped. Please let me know if anybody has done EL and LA analysis on GC-FID and its method.
Thanks & Regards
Ejaz
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Dear Ahmad,
I have analyzed the LA and EL with GC-FID. I think you should keep your GC-column program between 313 to 473 K. Please see the details about the GC column specifications in my article.
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I'm charcatersing galvanic sludge that will be treated using thermal plasma technique. The result of gross calorific value obtained was negative ( -24.1cal/g).  how do i explain such a result?
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 Thank you all for your contributions. The equipment used to determine the GCV of the galvanic sludge is an Isoperibol Bomb calorimeter AC350.
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Biochar is obtained from slow pyrolysis at 450 and 550C at 10C per min heat rate. Assuming 66.1% C, 2.84% H, 6.57% N, 0.6% S, 23.89% O with GHV 24.45 MJ/kg and moisture 1.74%. What could be the enthalphy for this particular biochar?
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Hi Raj,
If you have access to a software HYSYS or AspenPlus, you can simply enter the chemical composition that you specified and the simulation software to calculate the enthalpy of the biochar. You can download at a no cost a trial version of HYSYS or AspenPlus from Aspen technologies at:
Best,
Prof. Khalil
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Commonly, methodology to characterize the conversion of heated substrates is based on TG-MS, TG-FTIR, EGA-MS or EGA-FTIR but a time resolved quantitation of some components is impossible due to a lack of selectivity or sensitivity of these technologies. Therefore, fractionated collection of evolved gas and sample preparation for subsequent analysis is required with the consequence to limit the number of data points available for the kinetic analysis calculation. Because I have found only very little number of publications addressing this question, I would be interested to identify literature and expertise to get more clarity on this topic.
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Thanks for your answer Yurii
In most  cases, a mathematician can find a solution that fits the data points amongst a large panel of different kinetic models or even model-free approaches. The chemist’s role is not only to identify the most plausible solution but also to define suitable analytical technologies for the determination of the components of interest. The performance of the analytical determination is crucial in the development of kinetic models but could result in important workload that limits the number of determinations. Also, the required number of data points is directly linked to the acceptable limits of the uncertainty of the solution and here skills in stats are also needed. For this reason, I would be very interested to find publications where kinetic studies were conducted with limited amount of data points.
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Currently working on atmospheric emissions of sugar cane mills, but cannot find references to this issue.
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Thank you very much Malek, much appreciated your information.
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I need few clarifications
1) how does low HHV of feed stock is converted into high HHV of bio-crude?
2) Is HHV of biomass, yield and HHV of bio-crude are dependent on each other?
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The HHV of biocrude (and biomass) depends largely on (a) the moisture content, and (b) the oxygen content. Therefore, biocrude HHV increases as the process that generates it minimizes these two things. The first is minimized by using dry feedstock and the first and second by optimizing (usually minimizing) the oxygen exposed to the biomass during conversion to biocrude. 
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As per title above, the mass of solute-free feed is required to be known in order to determine:
x0 = kg total solute / kg solute-free feed
xk = kg difficult access solute / kg solute-free feed
where both parameters are required to complete the mass transfer models used for kinetic modelling of supercritical fluid extraction processes.
Since we do not know the specific definitive total mass solute embedded inside feedstock, are there any other solutions which I might have overlooked to determine the mass of solute-free inside the feedstock.
Your inputs are greatly appreciated.
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Hi André,
Thanks again for your time in replying my question.
To answer your question, yes - the overall extracted solute is the average of easily accessible and not easily accessible solute. However, the mass transfer model is divided into three parts (where all 3 are distinct from each other) - easily extracted part, not easily extracted part, and in-between part in simple terms.
Combining all this 3 parts will give the predicted extraction yield.
And here is the paper you requested.
It gave me a better explanation compared to other recent papers for me.
Regards,
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Pyrolysis product characterization
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The densities of of the pyrolysis gas (pyrogas) and tar vary depending on many parameters including:
1) Feedstock.
2) Inert gas (N2 or CO2)
3) Temperature of the pyrolysis.
In any case, the pyrogas density is about 1E-3 g/cc and the tar density is about 1.2 g/cc.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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The project consists of feeding a boiler with biogas produced by a digester. The biogas is treated to remove the H2S and is dehydrated.
Biogas production represents only 4% of the LPG consumption of the boiler. A priori, there is no necessary modification of the burners but we are looking for similar experiments.
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Hi
this link can help you
 0371 6809 7667‎
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Hi
I am Ranjeet Kumar Mishra from India. I am working on a kinetic analysis of biomass. I would like to know What is the inference from the reactive index during kinetic analysis of biomass.
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thank you sir
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I found in my research that biochar with the highest fuel ratio (VM/FC) has the highest calorific value and the lowest fuel ratio has the lowest calorific value. does this mean volatile matter has a higher calorific value than fixed carbon? if it does the then what's the purpose of carbonization and pyrolysis? because we can have higher fuel ratio without it. or is there something wrong with my data? I'm using palm shell as the biomass. It'll help a lot if someone could explain this
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Keep in mind that the volatile matter (VM) from the prolysis process has two components:
1) Non-condensible VM such as CH4, H2, etc
2) Condensible VM. These are essentially Tar oil which is used as a fuel and has high calorific value.
Hence, the insights from your data are correct.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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pyrolysis temperature, Gas flowrate, heating,residence time
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Dear Bello,
Your operating parameters as you listed are what you need to vary and obtain optimum combination that will help you with a desired output. Mind you that biochar derived from sawdust could have varied usage so it depends on your end product. Sometimes all you need is to reduce the volatile matter and unbounded moisture in your biomass, such need warrant just mild pyrolysis (Torrefaction process---200-300degrees) in an inert environment with lower gas flow rate say 50ml/min and your reactiion time may be 30-60minutes. However, when you need to use the biochar in an enevironment where volatile matter is not desired, you need to go to higher pyrolysis temperature environment (400-600 degreees). so the choice is yours but i will advice you to do a DOE for your parameters using Response surface methodology or Tauguchi method. It will help you to know which of those parameters are important and can affect your desired output more based on your end use.
I hope it helps.
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The conversion of biomass to fuels at 100 to 250 oC is the first stage of pyrolysis, 300-600 is the medium whereas 600-1000 oC is the final and high temperature pyrolysis. 
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Dear Abdul,
From my observation of recent in dealing with biomass of different types apart from literature . Generally, the temperature range given in your question might not be observable as we have unbounded moisture loss and evaporation taking place below 150 degrees C. Moisture loss and light volatile matter content often occur at the reactive drying stage where biomass will be unable to return to its original stage (150-220 degrees C thereabout). After which hemicellulose will begin to decompose at 220 degrees and above with partial degradation of lignin. So biochar produced at this point will still be with low energy density, high C-O and H-O  bonds and the grindability will be low. However, going to 300- 600 degrees C, you might have had complete decomposition of your biomass polymers even lignin where in the formation of condensable gases becomes prominent. For biochar with high energy density and low volatiles, you can obtain that with this stage but with lower mass and energy yield.
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The date waste is used to produce ethanol (bio-fuel) by fermentation  of date waste and the rest of the date (core) to prepare activated carbon ?
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Dear Hassen
Please look in attach file, you found research in Arabic 
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Anyone provide me the list of components (chemical )  produce From non catalytic fast pyrolysis of wheat stalk biomass 
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thank you Sir abdul majeed and Hassan  usually in analytical  fast pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic biomass,  LG is more than 20% but in my experiment it is not more than 5%. while linear aldehydes are more in comparison with other study
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ceramics catalysts are used as electrodes in microbial fuel cell to generate electricity and to treat wastewater
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Most probably, it will be based on experimental findings at different conditions.
Regards.
DR. KHAN
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Have you identified the end product (syngas) and by which instrument and technique?
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Thanks, Is it possible for you to send me the pictures (internal and external view) of your oven.
Regards.
DR. KHAN
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 For Total Solids the sample has to be heated at 105 C but for how long (hours)? I have chicken manure samples, Algal Biomass and waste from Sugar industry (Bagasse).  
Needs you kind suggestions
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Thanks Dear David for the protocol is very interesting
Dear Pervaiz there is also the APHA protocol available on the internet
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I wanted some suggestions on how to increase the C:N ratio of a biomass. My biomass sample has 51% C and 17% N.
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Demineralization could be an option to consider. Read 10.3389/fenrg.2015.00006.
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I would like to know how can I condense water vapor in a cheap way. PEM Fuel Cells are known to produce water as residue 
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The condensed water is not usually wasted, but put to some use. Condenser can be air cooled or water cooled. If your fuel cell can run at higher temperature the efficiency can be increased by using the condenser to warm up the incoming air, especially in cold weather.
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By which method moss can be utilized to produce alternative fuel? Are these methods like pyrolysis or micro emulsification?  
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Several potential methods could be used. The following list includes them and some of their distinguishing characteristics.
1. Biodiesel - in this method, the moss is harvested for its organic/vegetable oil (triglyceride) content and these are catalytically processed with methanol via transesterification to form biodiesel and glycerol. However, moss has little triglyceride content and the processing steps are complex.
2. Ethanol - in this method, the sugars in biomass convert to ethanol via fermentation and the ethanol is distilled. However, moss contains little sugar.
3. Gasification - in this method the biomass thermally decomposes, ideally at high pressure, to form H2 and CO (and H2O and CO2). The H2 and CO are further treated in a Fischer-Tropsch process to form biodiesel (or in any number of similar catalyzed processes to form methanol, dimethyl ether, or other compounds). This is probably the most efficient way to convert moss to a liquid fuel and the most technologically matture process.
4. Combustion - in this method, the biomass is used as fuel to produce heat for direct use of for use in a heat engine. This is by far the most efficient and easiest of these processes, but it does not produce a fuel per se, just heat that can sustitute for a fuel. 
Larry
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Hi! 
I'm creating a simple, dynamic model in MATLAB-simulink. The aim is to simulate the production of microalgae biomass in a raceway pond as a function of local temperature (T) and solar radiation (G).
As I understand it, the growth rate (u), expressed in 1/hr, is a function of many parameters, but by making the assumption that T and G are the only limiting factors the formula could be simplified to [1].
u=u(max)*f(T)*f(G)   [1]
So by finding appropriate functions f(T) and f(G) I would be able to calculate the growth rate as a function of time. 
But here's is my question. How do i move forward from knowing u(t) to knowing my actual biomass yield? Could I use eq [2] or [3], or something else? 
C=C(0)*exp(u*t)    [2]
C=u*C(0)               [3]
where C is the concentration (g/m3). 
Thank you! 
/ Josefin Schyllander
University of Karlstad, Sweden. 
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Slegers, P.M., Lösing, M.B., Wijffels, R.H., van Straten, G., van Boxtel, A.J.B., 2013. Scenario evaluation of open pond microalgae production. Algal Res. 2, 358–368.
this paper evaluates a model-based framework  used to study the effect of   available radiation and the water temperature effect on algal biomass yield.
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i cant find any literature about how to calculate electricity output from biomass gasification process
and can the Municipal solid waste processing by gasification to generate electric power?
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 For instance if thermal rate of your bio-reactor is 20 kw. Convert it  MJ/hr = 20×3600÷1000 = 61.2, Measure NCV of your biomass producer gas and the quantity i.e. volume / unite time, i.e.NCV of  bio gas = 10 MJ/ cubic ft.     Now  divide thermal output of 61.2 by NCV. you will get  biogas feed rate to the bio gas power plant i.e 10.12 cubic ft/hr. Now multiply this plant efficiency. if plant efficiency is 40%  then power generated will be 4.048 kw.
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I am working on the design of a bioethanol from corn plant. I am supposed to carry out the energy balance calculations but I am unable to discern the method to calculate the enthalpy of corn, its mash, etc.
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You can calculate the higher heating value of your product taking into account its elemental composition ,
HHV (kJ/kg)=3,55*C2-232*C+2230*H+51,2*C*H+131N+20600
The C, H, N content is presented in % on Dry matter of corn
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Description of reaction: Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose and dehydration of Fructose to HMF. In my case the salts affect the catalyst, hence I would like to know if there are alternative chemicals/non-salts to extract HMF from aqueous phase to organic phase?
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The HMF extraction will happens anyways, with or without salt. By saturating the aqueous layer with salt you decrease the HMF solubility in the aqueous layer and improve the extraction coefficient. Adding non inorganic compounds to saturate the aqueous layer might be a problem, since it can also be extracted by the organic layer.
Keep in mind that you can always modify the organic solvent (or increase its volume, as already mentioned) in order to improve the extraction
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I want to calculate mean proximate value of biomass. how can i ?
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Greetings,
If you have values of proximate analysis in wet basis, just divide each value by (1-%moisture). Then you can convert each value from wet to dry basis.
However, if  You have not any value, you should realize experimental tests with specific protocols as it is well mentioned in literature to determine, the moisture content, the volatile matter, the fixed cabon, the HHV/LHV and the ash content.
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We have added conc. HCL in table sugar and burnt it by microwave heating. Kindly give me detail chemical reactions and byproducts of the system after it complete burning to get pure carbon. I am physics student so need to understand this reaction for my research work...Thank you 
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(CH2O)(6n) --> 6n H2O + n( C6 )
Easily done with heat of any source.
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Can I compare the yield of production of these methods?
I mean this five 1. Photo 2. Dark 3. Combined 4. Anaerobic digestion 5. Sequential are comparable? 
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Dear Mr. Rezania,
Photo, dark and combined photo/dark fermentation are processes used for bio-hydrogen production. However, the anaerobic digestion process produces a biogas consisting of mainly methane and carbon-dioxide. While some hydrogen is produced in the initial phases of the anaerobic digestion process, these are consumed by methanogens to produce methane (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). As such, I would not include anaerobic digestion as a method to produce hydrogen.
Besides, the dark fermentation/anaerobic digestion processes are now being coupled whereby hydrogen is initially produced in the dark fermentation process and the resulting "broth" (consisting of soluble metabolites such as acetic acid) from the dark fermentation process is then subjected to the anaerobic digestion process for methane production. The biogas from both processes is often referred as hythane (hydrogen+methane).
You may compare H2 yield from the photo vs. dark fermentation process individually. You may also do a combined dark/photo fermentation process and compare the total H2 yield with the sum of the H2 yields from the single dark and photo fermentation processes.
Kind regards,
Bundhoo M.A. Zumar
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I want to compare each communities' respiration (as measured in-situ in benthic chambers), per gram organic biomass. The problem is that biomass is order of magnitude different between communities and variations in biomass are much larger than variations in respiration between communities.
i.e. when subtracting a number by a large value = small value; when subtracting a small value = large value.
If I could, I would have done a controlled lab experiment using the same amount of biomass from each community and get rid of that artifact.
My question is:
Can I transform the biomass values in order to minimize variation between communities and - artifact? I don't care much about the actual values - I would just like to compare between them (which respires the most/least per gram organic biomass?)
also, which transformation should be used?: respiration is measured by the change in DIC concentration over time in side incubation chambers. 
I expect that production of DIC over time will increase with increasing organic biomass inside the chamber, however I'm not sure how these variables behave. I expect it not to be linear. Possibly logarithmic, however I can't really do a manipulative experiment to check that.
Is anyone familiar with a study that used this kind of normalization using transformed data? Who can I cite?
Thanks!
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Thanks everyone for your tips.
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Is it possible to use NDVI to estimate above ground biomass? What options are available when in-situ field data is absent? I work in a semi-arid context.
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Dear Colleagues, could you please advise how to treat wet Blakeslea trispora biomass harvested from the fermenter before spray drying to prevent beta-carotene losses during drying and storing: what is the best composition of antioxidants to add and when is the right time to add them?
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Thank you very much.
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I would need a reference for the relation of earthworm fresh mass vs. dry mass or in other words the water content of earthworm tissue. I suppose dry mass is about 15 % of the fresh mass?
I know there is always the problem of gut content (yes / no) and of weight loss by fixation. In our case its earthworms with gut content fixed in formalin, but I would also be happy with references dealing with other conditions.
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Dear Anneke,
The lost of biomass strongly depends on earthworm species, adult/juvenile stage as well as the method of conservation (formol versus alcohol). I think the previous paper could help you, I add those of G. Cuendet (1985).
Regards,
Claire
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I found this equation below from a research:
HHV (syngas) = { HHV (H2) + HHV (CH4) + HHV (CO) } x m (syngas)
I have a doubt about the equation because there is no citation that referred to it. Please help me to find a way to calculate HHV of syngas using its mass.
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Assume 1kg of biomass can be converted to 2m3
of syn-gas (“Modeling Gasifier Mass,” 2010).
2. Standard HHV (Waldheim & Nilsson, 2001) for: H2 = 12.76MJ/m3
; CO = 12.63MJ/m3
; CH4 = 39.76MJ/m3.
3. Syn-gas composition: H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO, CO2. The total percentage of all these gases is 100%.
4. HHV of biomass fuels.
Since only H2, CO and CH4 are combustible, the HHV of syn-gas is the calorific value of these three gases:
ΔH (2m3syn-gas) = (12.76MJ/m3× 2m3× H2%) + (12.63MJ/m3× 2m3× CO%) + (39.76MJ/m3×2m3×CH4%) = 2(12.76 × H2% + 12.63 × CO% + 39.76 × CH4%)MJ/m
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I am writing my PhD proposal on biomass utilization into useful products,through the use  of nano catalyst that lower the energy conversion need for the reduction process.please any good suggestion and research idea that will help in  achieving this goal is welcome.
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Since you're working on nanocataysts, I would recommend the following technology for fuel production from CO2.
The technology is called "Photocatalytic reduction of CO2" into hydrocarbon fuels. It is also called photosynthesis. It is inspired by the natural photosynthesis in plants  whereby oxygen (in the air) and carbohydrates are produced from H2O and CO2 using sunlight UV radiation as an energy source. The useful product in this case would be the liquid fuel produced from this photosynthesis process.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil
Yale University
USA
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In anaerobic digestion why substrate to inoculum ratio most of the time taken in the basis of volatile solids?
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The methodology for assessing “volatile solids” is easy, fast and cheap compared to options such as COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological…). Therefore, it is a very convenient approach to assess organics in a sample.  If this organics comes from the “feed” or “influent” you will assume that it refers to “substrate”. However, if you sample comes from inside of the reactor, you will assume that the SV values will reflect “microbial density”.
Is it true? Nope, but it is a very good reactor operating tool.
If you really want to asses susbrate and microorganisms you would need more specific methodology, which, apart from being very expensive, they have longer delay for producing the needed result…
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Simply would you prefer to directly burn microalgae biomass for electricity and/or heating to lipid extraction, which can be converted to biodiesel as a trabsport fuel. Please consider the technology, ease of application and economical advantage. References will be appreciated.
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Combustion is easy , simple , developed  and direct  energy extraction technology. It is widely used for electricity generation. Almost 66% of global electricity generation is through combustion of  coal , gas and oil where as share of biofuels is  not more than 5%. It is cheaper in terms of cost .Renewables are not  yet competitive to replace fossil fuels.In terms of economic benefits, combustion is preferred. You can see the challenges associated with algae oil extraction from this article titled Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential at 
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I am an undergraduate student of mechanical engineering and my final research project is to produce hydrogen with SCWG method. I get confused to calculate the Carbon Conversion and Cold Gas Efficiency as two vital indices used for evaluating the performance of gasification because my research is a closed system so there is no flowing mass.
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Dear Mr. Oluwatosin Oginni,
Thank you for your answer. I do appreciate it. I am going to look for some literatures that have used this method and those parameters right away.
Regards,
Swandahru Suryo Kumoro
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I did the characterization of the  biomass. The CHN value of before and after hydrolysis of the plant biomass was compared.The hydrolyzed biomass shows an increase in C and H, but decrease in N as compared to unhydrolyzed biomass. Is that possible?
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Yes it is possible. Hydrolysis will remove easily soluble materials like hemicelluloses, extractives, proteins (N), waxes etc. As a result of that, the carbon will proportionally increase (not physically increase) due to the removal of the other components. If you measure the exact amount of biomass used before hydrolysis and after, you will notice the change in quantity due to the solubilisation of the other components mentioned above. That is the physical aspect. The chemical aspect will also change as you have observed with your elemental analysis measurements. 
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I am currently calculating the biomass for an area of Nova Scotia, Canada, and for a stock of White Spruce (picea glauca) I got around 420 m³/ha as a result based on the factors mentioned above. That sounds a bit high to me. Does anyone have any valuables to compare it to? It would be really helpful
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Dear Subrata,
volume= G * h* F
where G=basimetric area
h=average height
F= reduction coefficient, depending on specie, dimensions, etc,
For exemple with F=0,5 (common value for coniferous stands)
V=35*12*0,5 = 210 m3/ha
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Currently, I’m working on a kind of biochar derived from biomass in the field of electrical energy storage. The BET Analyzes of many different kinds of biochar in our laboratory show that the BET surface area of these kinds of material ranged from 10 to 400 m2/g. for example at the top of that,400 m2/g, is related to woody-char. in addition, the values found in the Specialized literatures in the field of biochar confirm this range of surface area. But, you can easily find articles in the field of energy storage,especially regarding supercapacitors, in which these values strongly are higher than the values they should be. I'm a little bit confused how could it possible a raw biochar has a surface area in the range of 900-1000 or even 2000 m2/g!? these values even are higher than the graphene surface area!
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I think it is practically impossible to have such a surface area for a biochar. Such a high surface area is obtained for activated carbon that were derived from either physical or chemical activation. Another thing that may have led to such a result might be a faulty readings from the surface area equipment.
Biochar cannot have such a high surface area because during the pyrolysis process, some of the pores created by the evolution of volatile matters are filled up with tarry materials and those pores are cleared up when the biochar is subjected