Science topic

Biomass - Science topic

Biomass are total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
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Could you help me find a paper on the different type of biomass?
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Thanks very much!
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Can I ​ ​get ​updated ​allometric models developed for Ethiopia to estimate above-ground and below-ground biomass?
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Usually I consult GlobAllomeTree (http://www.globallometree.org/) which is an open source database - you just need to create a free account.
You could download the raw data and then filter for Ethiopia.
Attached the complete list of allometric equations for estimating biomass (mainly AGB) of different tree species in Ethiopia.
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I need to know any method for loading of powdered metal on biomass based activated carbon?
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If you mix nanoparticles with activated carbon from biomass, then you are unlikely to get a chemical bond. It is necessary to activate the surface of the metal so that it becomes an acceptor of the ligands of ammonia, ethylenediamine, and others. Otherwise, mix d-metal nanoparticles with activated carbon in aqueous solutions of these ligands.
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According to the studies, we can know biomass (crop residues) technologies are high-water-consumed, and about 90% water consumed in cultivation phase, if we considered the crop residues are by-products of crops. And almost all studies point out we should reduce the irrigation water in cultivation phase so as to reduce water footprint of biomass technologies. I want to ask what's the meaning of these studies? The crop residues will always be whether we use it or not (Of course, the considtion we considered is that the use of crop residues would not cause food competition). Thus, in this condition, would this be better that we consider the crop residues as the waste, and the water consumption for crop residues is zero?
If we consider the crop residues as the waste, the biomass technologies would be not high-water-consumed compared to the traditional fossil fuel technologies. And we could try to figure out the really water-consumed process in whole system.
That's my problem and it's always bothered me. Hope your help, please!
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The short answer to your question is YES.
However there is more. In addition to the water footprint one should also consider the carbon (climate) footprint especially when comparing biomass (crop residues) with fossil fuel technologies.
That's why we develop and apply sustainable CIRCULAR water & energy in agriculture, food, beverages and other organic industries since 1980. This includes the advanced bioconversion of wastewaters and crop residues to biomethane to replace fossil fuels and to clean water for reuse incl. irrigation.
You can get more inspiration on our website www.modelengineering.eu .
Wishing you success with your valuable study.
Kind regards, Bruno
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Currently I'm synthesize an activated carbon for heavy metal from biomass. I need a verification on the way I wash my activated carbon after pyrolysis. Briefly here's my step on washing the activated carbon;
1. mix AC with deionized water
2. check the pH
3. remove the water
4. add acid to AC and mix for few minutes
5. rinse with deionized water
6. check the pH
7. repeat until it reach pH 7
Also, do I need to repeat the above steps until the mixture of AC and water turns clear even if the water already reach pH 7? Is there any recommendation for this process to be more efficient? Thank you in advance for your help. Really appreciate it.
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Supongsenla Ao thank you for your reply
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I am getting error when trying to react gypsum with biomass (ultimate) in a Gibbs reactor.
ERROR
RGIBBS DID NOT CONVERGE. MAXIMUM ITERATIONS EXCEEDED
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You could try just increasing number of iterations, if you haven't already, otherwise one workaround is to use an RStoich reactor and put the products into an RGibbs, which in principle should get to the same equilibrium.
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Sugarcane filter cake is one of the sugar industry waste which produce in a large quantities and has a potency to process as a biomass. What is the future idea for the utilization of sugarcane filter cake in industry?
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Piets got the right answer. You can also do power generation from the hot gases using an ORC.
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I am presently writing a python script DFT based microkinetic model for a biomass project I am working on. At the moment, I needed to calculate the DRC but I am having the challenge writing the appropriate code in python. I will be very grateful if anyone can assist me get pass through this stage.
I look forward to your kind response.
Many thanks,
Shed!
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Thanks for your suggestion Mansurbek Urol ugli Abdullaev
Actually I started with the CATMAP program, but it was not giving me the results I expected, perhaps it has limitations. So, I decided to prepare my own script with python code.
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Hiii, I am working on the determination of kinetic parameters of biomass. I want to know is there any possibility or way that i can calculate the kinetic parameters of Biomass by using Aspen plus software like other models such as KAS OFW Coats- redfern methods? Kindly  give your comment and provide some links.
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or you can estimate the reaction kinetic parameters through regression, if you have experimental/industrial data.
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I m trying to estimate the concentration of lignin in rice husk. I m using TAPPI T222 method for this purpose. On treating with 72% sulphuric acid, the husk powder is still visible. Is it correct or I m missing somewhere.
Since after this water will be added and 4 hrs boiling will be done and then protocol says to filter and weigh the filtrate. Under such condition the filtrate will have husk powder as well.
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It is not normal. Please grind their samples and extract them with methanol-water (2:1), and adjust the sulphuric acid concentration to 24 Normal.
Rice husk silica content is very high, so the lignin content must need ash correction.
Best regards
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Defining the dilution factor is very important when we are working at the level of ppb (parts per billion) or ppt (parts per trillion). Other day, I was working on plant biomass samples to analyze available Si (Silicon) in plant biomass. I have gone through several steps of dilution and became so confused about what is DILUTION FACTOR. I did several dilutions at several steps (digestion, adding chemicals, again diluting to come up with the range of AAS) and it became so complicated. As always, I approached Dr. Rafael Santos and he solved this problem very easily, I would say just in 10 minutes when I was struggling for an hour. Finally, Dr. Santos made a good explanation with their whiteboard and step by step he came up with the solution. Again, doing a Ph.D. is not just collecting and analyzing data but also needs to understand the chemistry happening in between. If you don't know how to do it then seek help. Asking someone doesn't mean your basics are not strong, asking someone means you know what you're looking for but you don't know how to approach it. I am thankful to have Dr. Santos as my mentor, peer and guide. PS: Here's complex whiteboard solution in the picture :) #ppb #ppt #help #academia #PhD #chemistry #data #AAS
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Asking for guidance is the best learning method after attempting a solution.
Sounds like you have a great mentor.
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I am thinking of doing doping of N on one of this support!
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The main role of any catalyst is to reduce the activation energy of the reaction. The catalyst support must have a large specific surface area. We need to strive for this. Until you know what will come out of graphene or tube biomass. In order not to succeed, you must obtain nanoparticles of these materials, and then apply your catalyst to them.
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what are the processes of biomass calculation? ? can you suggest me any literatures
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If you are talking on the energy content then you need to do calorimetric analysis. A device named Bomb Calorimeter is handy for this.
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In the Van Soest method, after treating the biomass with NDS and ADS, the next step is the ADL analysis by acid destruction with 72% H2SO4. But during this step, my entire sample turns black like a char. So is it normal with all types of biomass or my sample is acid sensitive? Should I get correct results after following the next steps?
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I suggest you quickly add the sulfuric acid without letting it run down the wall.
good luck
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In ecology, we generally could observe the positive relationship between plant diversity (A) and plant biomass (B). Also, we could observe the positive relationship between plant biomass (B) and soil carbon storage (C). But here, I got a negative relationship between plant diversity (A) and soil carbon storage (C). The data is collected from field investigation of grassland.
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Thank you all so much! I got it
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Algal biomass, pharmaceutical contaminant
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Ramón Piloto-Rodríguez thank you very much for your answer
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Biochar is a stabilized, recalcitrant organic carbon compound, created when biomass is heated to temperatures usually between 300 and 1000°C, under low (preferably zero) oxygen concentrations. It is produced from a variety of biomass feedstock, such as agricultural residues, wood chips, manure, and municipal solid waste, through a variety of thermal treatments, among which slow pyrolysis is the most widely used due to its moderate operating conditions and optimization of biochar yields. Due to their unique properties (e.g., high specific surface area, microporosity, and sorptive capabilities). Primarily focused on the use of biochar as a soil amendment in agriculture.
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Dear Sachin Kumari,
Biochar is a product that causes beneficial changes to soils. It also contributes to the carbon stock in soils. It is, therefore, a product that protects soil health and contributes to carbon stock. It is important to choose the type of raw material well for the production of biochar, as the contribution of biochar to the improvement of soil quality depends on the characteristics of the raw material and the production conditions. There are several works published on this subject in specialized journals.
Best Regards,
Paulo Fernando Trugilho
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In all the literature, I came across, I couldn't find the exact calculation for finding out the percentage of cellulose before and after extraction (from biomass) using ionic liquid.
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OD sample /OD standard x Conc. of standard x Volume (total) / Volume (taken) x Volume (made up) / wt of the sample x 100
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I am growing H. psuedoflava DSM 1084 autotrophically. When I compare cell dry weight produced to CO2 consumed, I find that more CO2 is consumed than expected.
I wonder if this is because my bacteria is accumulating an intracellular storage compound like PHA. It's been suggested to me, though, that such intracellular compounds would not necessarily affect CDW that much if PHA and biomass had similar carbon oxidation states. Therefore, I would like to know:
  1. What is the oxidation state of carbon in PHA and in bacterial biomass? Are they far off from each other?
  2. Could the formation of intracellular storage compounds (PHA) affect the OD-CDW correlation factor for my bacteria?
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The accumulation of PHA in cells can add to dry cell weight values and depending on growth conditions the PHA content can be as high as 80% w/w of cell dry weight.
PHA granules that accumulate in cells are excellent at blocking the passage of light. This will will affect OD measurement which is a measure of light blocking by the cell culture.
Having a variable PHA content will affect your OD/CDW correlation due to both these factors.
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Please I am doing GO synthesis using biomass in place of graphite. I have tried two different routes. The improved method with phosphoric acid and the modified method with sodium nitrate and double the amount of potassium per manganate. In each case after 12 hours of stirring when I add peroxide the reaction mixture doesn’t turn to yellow but black instead .
I did it the third time and allowed it to sit for 3 days before I added peroxide but it still turned black. The carbon content of the biomass is 70%. Please what do you think is causing this. I need urgent help.
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Dear Alhassan
the degree of oxidation of graphene oxide (GO) can be obtained by using
a combination of state-of-the-art ab initio computational modeling and X-ray photoemission spec-
troscopy (XPS). We show that the shift of the XPS C1s peak relative to pristine graphene, ∆EC1s, can
be described with high accuracy by ∆EC1s= A(cO − cl
)
2 + E0, where c0 is the oxygen concentration,
A = 52.3 eV, cl = 0.122, and E0 = 1.22 eV. Our results demonstrate a precise determination of the
oxygen content of GO samples.
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I am looking into the carbon content in algal biomass. For this work, I have done the COD tests, now I need to determine the carbon content from the COD resuls.
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The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents. https://www.google.com/search?q=cod+to+total+carbon+conte+calculation&rlz=1CAJYDF_enBR933&oq=cod++to+total+carbon+conte+calculation+&aqs=chrome..69i57j33i10i160l4.18342j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
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Hi,
We can assess WUE by biomass as well as by grain yield. Then why should we prefer one over the other? Is there any specific and technical reason behind it?
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If your goal is utilization of plant available water, consider also the utilization of biomass or grain retained moisture when processed especially when harvesting before physiological maturity. See (12) (PDF) Harvest nutrients before physiological maturity (researchgate.net) and (12) (PDF) Systems and processes for producing biofuels from biomass (researchgate.net)
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Are there any alternative methods (faster/convenient) to determine Soil microbial biomass, besides the traditional Fumigation-extraction method? Thank you
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Or a simpler method to determine microbial biomass
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This is a project am currently working on.
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@Lorena Pedraza thanks
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I have taken 0.75g biomass and hydrolyzed this in a 5 ml enzyme and buffer solution(Final), and this solution was further analyzed by DNS reagent by taking 1 ml of this and further diluted by 10 times by taking 200ul, and I have observed 715ug/ml concentration from absorption vs concentration graph. Now I need to calculate the g/g value? Could you please instruct me on how to calculate this?
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Thank you, sir. Adam B Shapiro
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Dear all,
In an table showing element contents of marine zooplankton published in 1985, I encountered two units: ug per gram dry weight (used for Fe, Cu, etc.) and dpm per gram dry weight (used for Pb). According to my literature search, values are in the same order of magnitude and should be comparable, but why would someone use then different units to express the same? Can I convert dpm into ug per gram dry weight? Can someone explain that to me?
Your assistance is much appreciated.
Cheers
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Thank you, interesting thinking.
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Hello everyone. I am currently carrying out a research project using the FAO's AquaCrop crop modelling software, calibrated and validated with data from field trials on wheat in Morocco. I have imported observed climate and soil data from my study site for several seasons, as well as creating several wheat crop files for different cultivars, based on field observations, taking care only to alter the cultivar specific and not the conservative crop parameters.
When I run the simulation, the harvest index seems to be constant throughout, no matter which of the three seasons I have climate data I use, or which planting date or water regime I specify. The different seasons, planting dates and water regimes obviously affect the amount of water the crop receives, and this should affect the harvest index (as indeed it does in the yield results I have from the field trials). However in my simulations the harvest index is always around 46%, just below the reference HI of 48%. The total biomass (and so yield) varies considerably, but not the HI. This is definitely not right, and is totally out of step with the field trial results, where total biomass and HI (and so yield) both vary depending on the season, water regime and planting date. I've attached two screenshots of my results from AquaCrop for two different planting dates for the same crop in the same year, where the second planting date receives much less water. The second date has much less total biomass but the same HI, which doesn't seem to be affected by the water stress at all. Has anyone else experienced a similar problem and have any ideas? Thanks very much!
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Dear Joshua,
Sorry, maybe it's too late to answer. In any case, it's difficult to answer/solve the issue without seeing all the model outputs. As a first step, could you share the screenshots of the 'Climate-Crop-Soil water' sheet?
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I have a data set that includes percentages of algal biomass increase in a growth medium over time. In the majority of the groups, algal biomass has more than doubled and therefore percentage increase is well over the 100% mark. Moreover, my current data does not follow the equality of variance assumption of ANOVA. Will I be able to perform ANOVA with percentage data that are over 100? And if yes, what data transformations do you suggest?
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Nutrients are vital for the life of plants. How are the available nutrients in plant biomass measured?
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Shoot (or above-ground) biomass (WS) is commonly measured by clipping the vegetation at ground level from randomly selected quadrats, while root (or below-ground) biomass (WR) is extracted from cores or trenches.
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Capacity of plant is around 2-3 m3 . After critical survey on the literature I found there is lack of ideas and suggestions on agitation of slurry inside  such mid-size digester (6-8 feet) .Many of Methods encountered on internet are practically not feasible. I request researchers to suggest for the the same.
Thanking you.
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Rishi Pareek Etiher with the help of Mechanical seal or one of the simple way is to immerse the pipeline much below the slurry level to avoid gas loss from the system.
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The question is about determining the effective particle size of biomass for a thermochemical process. can the same method of determining the fineness modulus of sand for fine, medium and coarse sand be considered here?
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Thanks.
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I have pretreated the biomass and now I am eager to know whether a CVD machine can be used for the pyrolysis of biomass to convert it into char?
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Up to me a CVD is too expensive and too easy to be contaminated to be used as a pyrolysis oven. A cheaper solution is to use a muffle furnace equipped with possibilities to feed protective gas. Or build a pyrolysis reactor and put it into a tubular oven.
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SEM EDAX image taken is of black and white . To get more clarity and to mark the identified elements, is there any method or software to redo
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Hello,
it's difficult to understand your problem:
(1) You have already a set of different grey level images?
Where each image stands for the lateral distribution of one element (peak intensity vs. position) and you want to overlay the images in colours (different colours stand for different elements)?
- The EDS software should do it (EDS is the method, EDAX is a brand of EDS devices). Ask the EDS operator for a report according to your needs. Modern software produces - by clicking a button (even if the person doesn’t know the meaning of “EDS”) - simple reports in PDF or office formats with wonderful maps, characteristic spectra and a lot of tables with numbers. You (and/or the operator) should try to understand the report.
(Usually for quantification homogenous, flat and thick samples are assumed. If your sample doesn’t meet those requirements: don't click the QUANT button: You'll get numbers, they'll be garbage!)
- You can overlay b-w bitmap images in different colours in many image processing programs. In the above mentioned ImageJ the command is “Merge Channels”.
(2) You want to create elemental maps without the EDS software?
Then you need the original data file and information about it’s structure. This knowledge exists in the EDS community for the software of many enterprises but it’s for very experienced users (the Hyperspy program has such options, but the learning curve would be very shallow for a newbie).
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Thermal behavior of ceramic materials
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You have 2 possibilities:
1- Calculation : Temperature of the Crucible should be close to adiabatic combustion temperature of the biomass which could be calculated if you have basic composition of biomass material (in terms of raw fuel - H2,C, CnHm, O2, S...) and through heat balance of the furnace: Temperature of Furnace is result between energy flux (enthalpy) provide by biomass combustion minus heat loss (fatal heat loss due to waste flue gas exhaust and heat losses from furnace walls)
2 Or You can do measurements : 2.1 Direct measurement with IR camera of the furnace walls temperature or with thermocouple place through the wall just under internal surface of wall refractories and 2.2 A high temperature thermocouple into combustion crucible or Suction pyrometer prob juste under Biomass combustion
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Microalgae considered a a noble biomass for production of high value products, food and feed, Pharmaceuticals as well as Biofuels.
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Thank you Gilbert for your valuable feedback regarding this!
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I wound like to evaluate the biomass of MRSA biofilm cultured on ex vivo porcine skin tissue. I found CV stain is not suitable. Is there any other methods I can use?
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Kindly check the following link that may be useful:
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I have different parameters, i.e. Shoot length, root length, F/D biomass, etc. Similarly, I have 18 varieties and each variety has 3 groups (Control group, Treatment 1, Treatment 2), each group contains 15 replicates. I want to s screen out some varieties. I don't know how to set this data in excel for PCA analysis. Here is a file in the attachment which gives the complete information. Please, guide me on how to set this data for PCA analysis?
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You may check this.
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Hi everybody,
I want to examine the relationship of wood density with tree growth rates expressed as (i) diameter growth rates and (ii) biomass growth rates. In your opinion, what would be the best way to compare these two relationships, for example in terms of strength and/or the slope. Any advice on R packages or functions would be very valuable.
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To run Linear Mixed models I usually use the lme4 package, lme function. Two options for the best model selection are AIC or likelihood ratio test (ANOVA). The lowest AIC is going to be the best model, but make sure that for comparing models they should be fixed with the same method, e.g., "REML". We can not compare a model fixed with REML with another fixed with ML for example. When we are choosing the model we are interested in the best structure of fixed effects, but before you should select the correct random-effect because it surely will affect your standard errors and the slopes. So first select well your random effect and then you can compare different models to select the best-fixed effect.
so you can use aic or anova, any way look the aic of the final models is important because it gives you an idea of what model is more informative when you include factors. you always can double-check with the dredge function to obtain an AIC results table.
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Hello all,
I'm quite new to this topic of research. I'm seeking advice on how to increase bacterial CFU and biomass yield on a fermenter level. The bacteria is one of the Bacillus species. The current yield is around 10^8 - 10^9 CFU/ml culture (24 hours culture duration, batch fermentation using BHI broth) and the (wet) biomass is around 7-8 g/L. I'm aiming for >10^10 CFU/ml titre and >10 g/L (or even higher) biomass yield.
Hope to get some great bits of advice here. Have a nice day!
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Thanks for your reply. If you are sure of your CFU/mL determinations I can tell you that they are actually good compared with other bacterial reports. I don´t know why your goal is to reach a growth of 10^10 CFU/mL. Did you get that reference value from the literature or previous work for your specific strain?
The wet biomass measurement that you described is not a very reliable determination. I suggest to obtain the dry biomass measurement using microfiltration membranes as I described before. With this value, you can compare with the literature in which you may find this value for your specific bacteria.
I also recommend to measure the optical density at 600 nm. Depending on the color of your culturing medium, you may need to wash with RO (distilled) water the biomass using centrifugation cycles (one or two washing cycles are ok). This will serve you as another way to compare your celullar growth with literature values.
I think these steps are ok for ensuring the proper characterization of your cell growth. I would start obtaining a growth kinetics curve of your reactor batch. From this information you will obtain the growth rate. Then you need to do the same for different substrate concentrations to obtain the growth rate equation, and perhaps the Monod-kinetics parameters (if it behaves accordingly).
From these cell-growth kinetics experiments now you will be in position to apply different approaches to try to improve your current cell yield, which may include different experimental designs, such as factorial analysis considering temperature, pH, substrates, activators, etc; as well as different bioreactor configurations.
Hope this is useful for your research.
Kind regards
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I am trying to run Reaxff MD simulation for a mixture of Biomass and Polymers but even at room temperature, pyrolysis occurs, what could have been an error in my input file.
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1. "pair_coeff * * potential.txt C H O" --> Make sure that first atom types is C, second is H, and third is O in the data file (structure.txt).
2. I don't why but it maybe replace the line:
pair_style reax/c control.txt
to
pair_style reax/c NULL checkqeq yes
3. check your initial structure if it is reasonable or not.
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does alkali pretreatment leads to increase in hemicellulose content of a lignocellulosic biomass ??
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Alkali soln. causes swelling of biomass which leads to breakdown of lignin, hydroxide ion of alkali attacks on carbon ester bond which are present between lignin and cellulose and hemicellulose....no increase in hemicellulose content
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How can i calculate the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio if i have a biomass having an emperical formula of C H1,41 O0,52 N0,02 S0,016?
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I have a biomass with the following ultimate and proximate analisys:
Moisture 51,87%
Volatile Matter 57% (dry basis)
Fixed Carbon 12,19 % (dry basis)
Ash 30,81% (dry basis)
Carbon 40,44% (dry basis)
Hydrogen 4,75% (dry basis)
Oxygen 21,13% (dry basis)
Nitrogen 0,94% (dry basis)
Sulfur 1,72% (dry basis)
Cl 0,21% (dry basis)
How can i calculate the stoichiometric air (oxygen)/biomass ratio??
biomass gasification, biomass combustion, stoichiometric air fuel ratio, equivalence ratio
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For the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for the combustion I calculate it according to the methodology of Lora & Happ (2002), in which it is expressed as a function of elemental analysis.
VO = 0.0889(C+0.375*S)+0.265*H-0.0333*O
Vo = theoretical air volume
C = % of carbon present in the sample
S = % of sulfur present in the sample
H = % hydrogen present in the sample
O = % oxygen present in the sample
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Hello,
I am doing LIVE/DEAD staining of biofilms on different surfaces and taking z stack images by CSLM ( Olympus Fluoview FV1000).
Then I am using COMSTAT to estimate biomass thickness roughness coefficient etc.
I am following the procedure detailed on COMSTAT 2.1 manual for making the stacks and image conversion and so, but I am getting different values for these parameters depending on the channel (red of green), and the two value are sometimes very different.
Is this usual or I am doing something wrong?
Many thanks
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Md. Ashrafudoulla Convert the images to 8 bit-OME Tiff. The issue will be resolved.
For more details you can follow this article:
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Hello!
I would like to count the amount of biomass for phytosociological relevés I have done on meadows last summer. I have the information about species composition, species richness, cover of herbs and graminoids and the heights of species groups. I have measured 5 heights (of randomly selected species) within each of the 4 groups of species (flowering graminoids, non-flowering graminoids, flowering herbs and non-flowering herbs). In total I have 20 different heights for each of the plots. Is it possible to count the amount of biomass for each of my relevés from the data I have? I have also counted NDVI for each of the relevés if that might help.
Thank you very much for your answers and ideas!
Simona
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Thank you! In the third article the methodology of harvesting, weighting and drying the biomass was used. I have not done that and would like to know if it possible to estimate the amount of biomass remotely just from the data I already I have.
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Mycelium is cultured on PDB medium. Mycelium biomass is extracted by simple filtration with Whatman filter paper but the live biomass contains PDB on its surface. To get clean biomass can I give the biomass an ultrasonic bath? If so, then for how long at what power and temperature?
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Dear Nihal Shahriyar . See the following useful RG link:
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An example of this; it would be silly to measure the weight of ship plus a person on it, and then measure the weight of a ship by itself and determine that the difference in weight measurements is the weight of the person.
I am having this type of problem during a gasification experiment where biomass is continuously fed into a reactor, and my load cell (which has the reactor placed on it) is unable to accurately detect the small changes in mass. The load cell by itself works perfectly fine and can measure objects with a precision of up to 0.5 grams. I can't seem to find an explanation as to why once something heavy is put on the load cell, it stops detecting small changes in weight.
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Normally the span and the precision are related in the instruments and those instruments with multiple span have a different precision for every one of them. An scale to measure 100kg is not prepared for detect 0,001g. The sensor element able to support big weights need to be robust and the fabricant need to reduce the sensitivy to make it. When the span is large the sensitivity is low, may be it is not a thumb rule but it's common
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In case if we don't get the volume equation, Biomass expansion factor and root shoot ratio for a particular species, how to calculate the carbon stock of a tree?
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Thank you sir
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What are the factors on which the adsorption of toxic metal ions by the adsorbent depends??
If so ??
How is/are the mechanism of adsorption confirmed (on what basis , physical /chemical characterization using instruments or through simulation study)
For example ion exchange/ diffusion .. .. ..
Can someone kindly explain the core concept behind the adsorption of metal ion on the adsorbent (biochar,/activated carbon)
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The adsorption of heavy metals is dependent on particle size, initial concentration, solution pH, contact time, and temperature. This is the case for adsorption in general, not just metals.
The adsorption of metal ions onto ACC (Activated Commercial Carbon) was found to be a gradual process and the quasi-equilibrium condition reached in 5 h. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The effective diffusion coefficient was of the order of 10−12 m2/s.
Regards
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I have tried to extract nanocellulose fibres from algae powder and have yielded 15% of the total biomass taken. I want a suggestion for how to extract maximum yield of nanocellulose from it.
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This other research could be useful for you:
Best,
Fran
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I would like to evaluate in the first chapter of my Ph.D. biomass availability in Togo. The one we can use to produce green hydrogen.
Thanks for helping
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Made a questionnaire
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I would like to learn more about carbon emissions, stock related assessments based on remote sensing techniques. But most of the time for developing countries it is difficult to get above ground biomass information. And it is expensive as well as time-consuming to get in situ measurements. So, what is the best remote sensing solution for this problem?
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I have been pyrolysing my biomass 3 times under the same conditions using microwave technology to compare the yield. I have noticed that the yield of the biochar changed every time. I am wondering what could be the reasons for this to happen?
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The answer is simple. Even if the pyrolysis conditions are identical, the yield behaviour is different because "biomass" is dofferent. There is vaiation in several compositional features whether the material benonged to the core of the tree or midway or in the outer region simply because the lifetimes over which they have grown are different. The density can vary by 10 to 50 % and the finer aspects of the composition, namely, cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin can be slightly different and the pyrolysis behaviour can be different. There are earlier studies in this regard.
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MODIS-NPP algorithm is valid for biomass assessment in tropical forests? or are there any better remote sensing products? (except the Vegetation Dynamics Models to estimate NPP)
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The mycelium biomass is used for heavy metal bioaccumulation in vitro settings, which will be subject to Atomic absorption spectroscopy. In order to get the dry/wet weight of mycelial biomass and to prepare samples for AAS analysis how can I separate and get clean mycelial biomass from PDB?
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I am not an expert on this. When we need to separate mycelium from broth, we use a Buchner funnel with an appropriate Whatman filter, add the broth on top, and rinse the mycelial mat with sterile-distilled water under vacuum until the rinseate is clear (rather than PDA-colored). If I remembered to weigh the Whatman filter before-hand, I can put the filter in a drying oven at 100 C, wait until it dries, weigh it, and have the dry wt biomass of the fungus (by subtracting the weight of the paper).
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Please provide me complete numerical solution
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The composition is dependent on a number on number of parameters, just to mention a few: Biomass type, gasification temperature, gasification atmosphere, reactor type and size, moisture content, oxygen content aso... .
Up to me it is impossible to give a numerical solution for this but You can search the litterature and make some estimations. Another way is to collect the gas and analyze it on a GC or GC-MS.
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Anyone who can share the standards or guidelines required for wood/biomas to produce charcoal. E.g. Moisture content values, fixed carbon, volatile mater, ash of the wood.
Thanks
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thank you
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Soil microbes help to breakdown soil organic matter and release C, N, P, and other nutrients to soil which improve soil quality and crop productivity. At the same time, this process releases CO2 to the atmosphere and high temperatures increase the microbial activity which leads to higher CO2 emission. We need to mitigate CO2 and increase soil microbial biomass to enhance soil quality and increase crop productivity, what about this dilemma? is CO2 emission will be temporary and we still need to enhance soil microbial biomass or what is happening in this process?
Thanks in advance for sharing your answer.
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To maintain a balance between the carbon sequestered by the soil and the carbon respired by the same it is vital to foster the microbial diversity in the soil, while (as it was already said), minimizing (and even better) eliminating tillage. Also the diversity of the biomass (crop residues) metabolized by soil microbiota plays a pivotal role in enhancing the diversity of soil organisms. When soils are being diminished in the soil organic sources the potential sink acts instead of being a sink acts as a source of elevated greenhouse gases. The tillage revolution of the agricultural revolution was an initial source of elevated not acting as a sink and today there are many more soils which are sources rather that sink. I am in agreement with the enormous potential for soil to become a sink practically because it has been a source for thousands of years now. Perhaps one of micro organism types which might be most important are mycorrhizae whose ability to produce glomalin glycol protein with no resistance to quick decay produces a useful mechanism for cementing carbon gains.
They are certainly the largest sinks for atmospheric CO2 and organic C. The amount of C stored in the soil depends on the balance between carbon inputs and carbon outputs from microbial respiration. Due to the terrific increase of world population from 1850 to 2022 almost 8.0 billion people nowadays, much more farmland was created mainly from forest lands with much more C stored and much more CO2, methane and other climate gases were released. With further climate warming soil microbial activity will increase even further and even more C will be released. The reverse route includes decomposition of organic material by ‘organic carbon-consuming’ heterotrophic microorganisms that utilize the carbon of either plant, animal or microbial origin as a substrate for metabolism, retaining a part of carbon in their biomass and releasing the rest as metabolites or as CO2 back to the atmosphere. Plants benefit from root exudates mainly via improved acquisition of soil nutrients mobilized by microorganisms.
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In most circumstances, the existence of a large diversity of soil organisms is critical for soil functions and ecological services. And the major short-term indicators of soil health include soil microbial biomass, particle organic matter, mineralizable N, and soil respiration. But how does the structure/community of soil microbiomes relate to the above-mentioned soil metrics and overall soil health status? Is there a clear link between the taxa/functional units of soil microbiomes and soil health?
If someone tries to explain something to me, I appreciate and acknowledge it!
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Nutrient transformation (fix to available) by Soil micro biome is one of the key soil quality indicator. Apart from that nitrogen mineralization is also an important soil health indicator. Vesicular Arbascular micorrhizae produces glomalin (glycoprotein) that is very helpful in soil aggregation and hence improve soil structure too.
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Hello, so I am trying to develop a simple model for calculating the cooling impact of green roofs, but am having trouble trying to incorporate the variable of building height. Specifically, I am trying to find the relationship between building height and green roof cooling impact, where I could calculate how a green roof's cooling effect/impact will change based on how high up it is, such as comparing the cooling effect of a green roof on a one-story building compared to the cooling effect of the same green roof on a 10-story building. The theory and general consensus I have found throughout the literature is that the higher the green roof is off the ground, the lower its cooling impact is on reducing the urban heat island effect. If we are just talking about land surface temperature here, this would seem quite intuitive, e.g. we would want the green roof cooling to be closer to the ground where people actually need it.
The trouble I am having is finding that actual quantitative relationship between green roof cooling impact and building height, such as a specific multiplier or coefficient I could use to multiply a green roof's cooling effect by to account for its height off the ground. Would anyone know if such a relationship has actually been documented in the literature?
I have seen this paper "Impact of Morphological Characteristics of Green Roofs on Pedestrian Cooling in Subtropical Climates" by Zhang et al. (2019) that concludes the reduction in green roof cooling effect the higher the building height is:
I have also seen this paper "Effect of vegetation biomass structure on thermal performance of tropical green roof" by C.Y. Jim (2012) that describes the relationship between building height and green roof cooling effect as a "height-decay function", where the green roof cooling "decays" the higher it is off the ground:
And then this paper "Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation" by Peng and Jim (2013) that describes that height decay as linear:
It is great to see that this important relationship between building height and green roof cooling effect has been well studied, and I can see that the consensus is that yes, the cooling effect of a green roof will be reduced as a function of how high the green roof is off the ground (if we are talking about its effect on land surface temperature). However, I cannot find in these papers or anywhere else in the literature what these coefficients, relationships, or functions actually are, such as a percentage cooling effect reduction per meter of building height, or something like that. I am looking for something that I could simply multiply a green roof cooling impact by to account for the height of the building. Would anyone know is such a quantitative relationship has been documented?
Thank you!
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Thank you both for your input and suggestions!
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Hi everybody,
which method/protocol would you suggest to measure biomass of samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates? There are any recent reviews? Organisms are now "stored" in 94° ethanol.
Thank you!
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Can I extract carotenoid pigment from microalgae (C. sorokiniana and D. salina) without freeze-drying?
I already searched and read references about drying process that we can use heat-drying method but that wasn't recommended because could cause degradation of carotenoid content. So if I don't have a freeze-dryer, can still extract the pigments from wet biomass?
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As many people have answered, yes you can.
If you want to see the amount of carotenoids per weight, you can determine the dry weight per culture medium, and separately determine the amount of carotenoids in the wet biomass per culture medium.
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I have % biomass increase data (3 treatments and 3 salinity variables) and would like to know which statistical test is best?
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Well, It depends on how you wanna explain based on your experimental data.
one must know how and what methods to apply which statistical best describe the experiment better.
Also Check which parameters are dependent and independent as said by
Rani P Ramachandran
either you choose one dependent and two independent etc.
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I want to relate this to the minimal filterable size of biomass combustion particulates.
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  • On top of the well known PM2.5 and PM10, there is also PM0.1 for ultrafine particles that are smaller than 0.1 µm. Of course, these are just groups of particulates.
  • On the smallest, size I think it probably depends on the ability of the instrument to detect. One work from University of Leeds (Atiku et al.) reported soot from biomass combustion of as low as 10 nm (nanometer); so clearly this is PM0.1. Hope this helps.
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Greetings
I’m looking for numbers (rather then general statments) on the energetic cost of different biomass pretreatments before enzyme digestion for sugar release. I am especialy intrested in steam explosion but will be glad with other pretreatment as well. Citable sources are best. I looked at paper but found mainly generlized statments (both stating “steam explosion is energy efficient” and “steam explosion is energy intensive”)... I do understand this is not a trivial question as the answer depends on biomass source, but still, any data?
Many thanks
Yoram
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Yoram Gerchman Steam explosion works best with the lignin based feedstocks and yes I have particularly tried this technology at a small scale for trying to digest the feedstocks for anaerbic digestion but do not have much idea about your question.
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Please who knows how I can perform pyrolysis and gasification of biomass on aspen plus or any article that is actually has a guide or instructions.
That would be very helpful.
Thank you.
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Shekinah Harry Simulation of pyrolysis is shown in these videos how you can perform on aspen software and there are many online on youtube as well
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Need to compare C emission from burning biomass and fossil fuels
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Dear Mostafa, Norbert, and Jochen,
Thank you very much for your useful feedbacks.
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How to measure Biomass of Terrestrial trees to Know C- sequestration
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@ Abhijit, the atomic weight of Carbon is 12 and the atomic weight of Oxygen is 16 . The weight of CO2 in trees is determined by the ratio of CO2 to C is 44/12 = 3.67. Therefore, to determine the weight of carbon dioxide sequestered in the tree, multiply the weight of carbon in the tree by 3.67. Biomass and carbon calculations are usually calculated together because carbon is stored in forest biomass and has a tight mathematical relationship. The amount of biomass is multiplied by 0.5 to get estimated carbon because 50% biomass is assumed as stored carbon in forests (IPCC, 2000). Biomass is defined as the total amount of aboveground living organic matter in trees expressed as oven-dry tons per unit area. It is referred to as biomass density when expressed as mass per unit area, e.g., tons per hectare.
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Dear Researchers,
This research aimed to systematically review the development studies pertaining to forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience.
According to the assessment, the findings of this research on the definition, barriers and enablers of forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience can be applied as a basis for the comprehension and optimization of the structure of supply chains in the forest biomass and bioenergy industries.
Please click/use the link below to freely access the article file:
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Thank for this interested question
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I have the proximate and ultimate analysis of biomass and using this, I want to convert it into conventional components using a reactor like Ryield but I'm not able to do this calculation. Can anyone please help me with how to do it?
Thanks & Regards,
Hari Kiran
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Hello Hari,
In my experience, unfortunatelly, this is a non-straightforward task. You need to implement a subroutine (i.e. calculator block) which performs the mass balance for the "translation" from the nonconventional compound to the biochemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). In any case, such balance is hardly impossible to be perfectly closed, so the problem should more likely be defined as an optimization which minimizes the difference between the elemental contents of the input and output compounds. As this is quite complicated to explain, I suggest that you check the following paper, which I utilized myself to perform the mentioned task.
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hello dear scientists,
I am facing problems to separating my nanoparticles from lignocellulosic biomass after hydrolysis. What happens is that: I apply nanocatalysts to perform the hydrolysis of plant residues, but I have difficulties to recover these same nanocatalysts because they adhere strongly to the biomass and when I bring the magnet barr close, the biomass decants along with the nanoparticles. My hypothesis is that these nanocatalysts enter the biomass pores and therefore they stick together, I thought of using some surfactant to remove the plant biomass but I don't know the validity of the technique. I've already tried using thames and filter paper but both didn't work. The picture demonstrates a flask with the biomass strongly adhered to the magnetic nanoparticles
Any insights or tips? Thank you for your attention
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Magnetic Nanomaterials as Biocatalyst Carriers for Biomass
Processing: Immobilization Strategies, Reusability,
and Applications
Mayra A. Mariño 1, Stephanie Fulaz 2 and Ljubica Tasic 3,*


Citation: Mariño, M.A.; Fulaz, S.;
Tasic, L. Magnetic Nanomaterials as
Biocatalyst Carriers for Biomass
Processing: Immobilization Strategies,
Reusability, and Applications.
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7, 133.
magnetochemistry7100133
Academic Editor: Lotfi Bessais
Received: 30 May 2021
Accepted: 16 September 2021
Published: 23 September 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral
with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.This paper can be found and it gives insights about your question
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I m attempting to isolate lignin from waste biomass and doing a FTIR study on it. After isolation the FTIR peaks show some noise in 750 cm-1. So I need to re precipitate it to reduce the noise in FTIR. Can anybody suggest a way to do so.
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Enosh Phillips came across this research and felt like sharing with you
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I want to screen fenugreek germplasm for early seedling growth, particularly biomass. If biomass of seedling, during early stages like 7-21 days, is associated with seed weight or size, then I can avoid evaluating certain lines based on test weight or size of seed. Or these traits unrelated. Pulse crops may be useful reference.
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Is there any way to determine the composition of biomass using thermogravimetry? I've tried DTG curve deconvolution using Origin software but was not able to get the correct composition. Can anyone please help with how to do this?
Thanks & Regards,
Hari Kiran
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Dear Hari
Thermogravimetric analysis TGA/DTG, DSC are good for studding the decomposition profile of a sample based on the interpretation of peaks related to mass loss. Based on experience using these techniques but on the kind of compounds you are testing, it is pretty possible to use these techniques for qualitative analysis, but they are not good for that.
Biomass composition could be identified by peaks in the thermal profile but only comparing them with reports. To design a good qualitative identification of biomass components, a better approach is to couple the thermal technique you are applying to Mass Spectrometry which is very strong for accurate identifying chemical molecules in your sample. Then, after your thermal tests, the mass loss corresponding to the losing of moisture, volatiles and rest of components in biomass can be identified by MS. Separation of components previous to MS (such as chromatography) won’t be necessary since the thermal treatment act as a compound separator also (see you own thermal data). Nevertheless, keep in mind that the biomass main components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) are very complex bio polymers, and cause of that, the identification of them by MS won’t be an easy task.
Best Regards
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Root length, root biomass and types of root determine the nutrients absorption, tolerance to drought and lodging and ultimately optimum plant growth and productivity. Is there any simple field based procedure to grow maize plant in field and to determine total length and biomass of root? An efficient and simple protocol may help in screening maize germplasm for root parameters.
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Dear Dr Narendra Kumar Singh,
Greetings, this stage is the most important one as its is the last stage in plant life. I have done the same stress in wheat after anthesis.
For estimating the root traits their is some software that could help in getting the data. So, try find it. Their is some free software .
with best regards
Khaled
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In our two -year field experiment, white clover pure stand resulted in higher biomass yield compared to its respective mixtures with grasses and as well as with the mixture of red clover with grasses. Although other legumes such as alfalfa and red clover pure stands resulted in lower biomass yield compared to their respective mixtures. However, overall alfalfa and red clover mixtures were more productive than that of mixture of white clover. What are the possible reasons for white clover to produce more biomass yield in pure stand but when it mixed with grasses its mixture produce lower biomass yield compared to the mixtures of alfalfa with grasses or red clover with grasses.
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THERE ARE SOME POSSIBILITIES, THE DEFICIT OF MYCORRHIZAS, UNBALANCED SOIL, AND COMPETITION OF NUTRIENTS FAVORING THE GRASSES. AND AN ALMOST NON POSSIBILITY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALLELOPATIC EFFECTS THAT SUPPRESSED TRIFFOLUIM REPPENS
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Opinion about combining rgo and carbon derived from biomass
Composite focus on watertreatment and eergy storage
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The conductivity and mobility of electrons would be the potential candidate behind the supercapacitors. If you may think about supercapacitors rGO would be ideal material than biomass carbon. The main reason would be the presence of SP2 hybridized carbon atoms with "pi" conjugation. You can use graphite as the starting material for synthesizing rGO. Also, considering the number of graphene layers in rGO, fewer layers gives extraordinary conductivity.
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In thorn forests, woody plants generally produce multiple shoots from the ground. Most of the allometric formulae are meant for the estimation of biomass of single-stemmed woody plants (usually branching above the breast height). Kindly help me in this regard. Also, I am looking for collaboration who are working on plant functional traits.
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Hi Dr Muthulingam Uday,
Please take a look at this link