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Biological Control - Science topic

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Questions related to Biological Control
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Adding living organisms to the soil for the purpose of biological control, does it change the balance of organisms in the soil?
Biological control is an alternative to chemical pesticides as they are safe for humans and their environment
But in the long run, the organisms in the soil lose the natural balance due to the predominance of one organism over another
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If you use soil from vergin soil, you can't lose any fungal microorganisms in the soil.
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Please comment and share the knowledge on the practical application of biocontrol agents for the control of stored grain insect pests?
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Respected sir,
Do you already have the cultures of some common stored grain pests parasitoids , or are you thinking of conducting a survey to find out ? I think it will be very amazing to find out some natural enemies of stored grain pests.
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Several research demonstrate the efficiency of using biopesticides made from plant extracts in a variety of forms against a widerange of diseases and pests in lab settings. Some studies even demonstrate the usefulness on land. The issue arises if this extraction uses a lot of plant material, which is highly expensive. Wild plants that grow in difficult conditions typically exhibit significant insecticidal, fungicidal, etc. properties. If the usage of these plants is promoted, it appears that this will affect the ecosystem's balances.
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The neem biopesticide can be extracted from the seeds or leaves which are extracted with ethanol.
This material is generally recognized as being non toxic and safe.
In India neem is incorporated in toothpaste I am told.
Neem is a fast growing tree that usually reaches a height of 15-20 m, and under very favorable conditions up to approximately 30-35 m. As a rule it is a evergreen tree, but under extreme circumstances, such as extended dry periods, it may shed most of nearly all of its leaves. The branches spread widely. The fairly dense crown is roundish or oval and may reach a diameter 15-20 m in old free standing specimens. The trunk is relatively short, straight and may reach a girth of 1.5-3.5 m. The bark is hard fissured or scaly and whitish-gray to reddish-brown. The sap wood is grayish-white and the heart wood reddish.
The root system consists of a strong taproot and well developed lateral roots. The lateral surface root may reach over 18 m. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is associated with the rootlets categorized neem as a highly VAM dependant plant species.
The leaves are unpaired, pinnate, 20-30 cm long and the medium to dark green leaflets, which number up to 31, are approximately 3-8 cm long. The terminal leaf is often missing. The petioles are short. The shape of mature leaflets is more or less asymmetric.
Natural hybrids between A. indica and A. Siamensis , found in Thailand on places where both species grow together, have an intermediate position regarding the shape and consistency of the leaflets.
The white, gragrant flowers are arranged in axillary, normally more or less drooping panicles which are up to 25 cm long.
The glabrous fruits are olive- like drupes which vary in shape from elongate ovea to nearly roundish and when ripe are 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm . They are green when young and yellowish-green to yellow, rarely reddish when mature. The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.3-0.5 cm thick. The white hard ‘shell (endocarp) of the seed encloses one, rarely two and very rarely three elongated seed kernels having brown testa.
Geographic Distribution
The neem is native of Indian subcontinent, it is widely distributed by introduction, mainly in the drier (arid) tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Africa, the Americas, Australia and the South Pacific islands. In India it is widely distributed in many states. In Myanmar it is very common in the central parts of the country.
In the South Pacific neem occurs in the Fiji Islands. In Australia it was first introduced about 60-70 years ago. In Indonesia, neem exists mainly in the low-lying northern and eastern parts of Java and in the frier islands to the east (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa). In the Philippines it was introduced during the seventies and eighties of the last century. In China, A. indica was planted on subtropical island of Hainan and southern china. In Nepal neem trees are found in the southern, low-lying areas (Tarai region). In Sri Lanka it is widespread in the drier northern parts of the island.
In Iran, neem trees grow along the coast up t the Chat el Arab in Iraq on the Arabian peninsula. In Qatar and Abu Dhabi neem was planted under irrigation using desalted seawater along avenues and parks. A large plantation was established on the Arafat plains near Makkah to provide shade for pilgrims.
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I am involved in a project on biological control of the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in Switzerland. As part of this project, we are doing host specificity tests of a parasitoid and, besides P. comstocki, have tested so far the following non-target species: Pseudococcus longispinus, Planococcus citri and Phenacoccus aceris. We would like to test more species of the family Pseudococcidae and are looking for someone in Europe who could give us an identified starting colony for this purpose.
Thank you for your help!
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Dear Jinan, thanks for your answer, that is good to know! Which species are those? Just in general whatever is attacking ornamental plants? Are there some dominant species? Greetings, Lukas
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What do you think for using biological control as a countermeasure against invasive plants?
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Good idea. However, you have to make sure that the biocontrol agent that you plan to manipulate will not create new problems. A first step is to make a thorough literature search to determine what is known about the host range of the biocontrol agent. A second step is to make preliminary work in enclosed environments such as greehouses so as this minimize the risks.
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Okra seedlings were raised.
Pathogen inoculation was done during sowing.
This was followed by biological control.
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Dickson quality index (DQI) = total dry mass / (Shoot:Root ratio + SQ)
Where, Sturdiness quotient (sq) = plant height / root collar diameter
How effective is it to calculate DQI when pathogen inoculation was done while seed-sowing, followed by biological control (Trichoderma/ Pseudomonas/ Botanicals application)?
Thanks!
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What are some of the best alternative biological control and or botanical insecticides used to control pest infestation of cocoa pod borer on the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean?
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Ants as biological control agents in agricultural cropping systems
  • June 2011
  • Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews 4(2):157-180
  • DOI:
  • 10.1163/187498311X571979
  • Beth Choate
  • Francis Drummond
  • ++++++++++++++++++++
  • SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DOMINANT ANTS AND THE COCOA MIRID SAHLBERGELLA SINGULARIS IN TRADITIONAL COCOA-BASED AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS Régis Babin1*, Cyril Piou1 , Yédé2,3, Zéphirin Tadu2 , Raymond Mahob2,3, G. Martijn ten Hoopen1,3, Leila Bagny Beilhe1,3, Champlain Djiéto-Lordon2
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Genetic and molecular study.
Biological  control
lab and field application study
Semiochemicals
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It is a tritrophic interaction study. One could do host plant rearing (i.e. fruits) to obtain pupa that can be raised to adults. Any pupa/larva that is parasitized could also be identified and possibly raised on a formulated diet. I guess there are also other methods available.
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What about their potential role in postharvest qualities (resistance to decay, to chilling injuries, flavors)?
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Dear Dr. Cai,
my name is Simone Prospero and I work in the team of Phytopathology at the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research (WSL; https://www.wsl.ch/en/about-wsl/research-units/forest-health-and-biotic-interactions/phytopathology.html).
I am currently leading a project in which we aim at looking for viruses in the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback in Europe. The idea behind this is to test if such viruses (if present) could be used for the biological control of the pathogen (as in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica). For this study, we screen native populations of H. fraxineus in which chances to find viruses are highest. We currently have three populations from Japan, but it would be great if we could test additional populations from the native range of the species, in particular China, Korea and East Russia.
Would you have Asian isolates of H. fraxineus to share with us or do you know somebody else who may have such isolates?
Sorry for bothering you with this and many thanks in advance for your help!
Kind regards
Simone Prospero
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Dear, Simone,
Good evening Sir.
Your project is very interesting, but I don't know exactly if the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback in Europe contains any virus in order to use this virus as a bioagent factor against this pathogenic fugus.
I hope you achieve that.
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entomologists have concluded that introduced biocontrol agents are most effective when they exhibit the following characteristics:
1-Narrow host range.
Generalized predators may be good natural enemies but they don't kill enough pests when other types of prey are also available.
2-Climatic adaptability.
Natural enemies must be able to survive the extremes of temperature and humidity that they will encounter in the new habitat.
3-Synchrony with host (prey) life cycle.
The predator or parasite should be present when the pest first emerges or appears.
High reproductive potential. Good biocontrol agents produce large numbers of offspring. Ideally, a parasite completes more than one generation during each generation of the pest.
4-Efficient search ability.
In order to survive, effective natural enemies must be able to locate their host or prey even when it is scarce. In general, better search ability results in lower pest population densities.
5-Short handling time.
Natural enemies that consume prey rapidly or lay eggs quickly have more time to locate and attack other members of the pest population. Small populations of efficient natural enemies may be more effective biocontrol agents than larger populations of less efficient species.
6-Survival at low host (prey) density.
If a natural enemy is too efficient, it may eliminate its own food supply and then starve to death. The most effective biocontrol agents reduce a pest population below its economic threshold and then maintain it at this lower equilibrium level.
which of them are the most important?
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Each of six is important and number 2 may need to be addressed more.
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I am looking for biological control research groups all over the world. I would like to have some input about which are the best in this field and where are they located. Any input will be appreciated.
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You need to be more specific on what kind of biological control you are referring to; BC for insects, bacteria, fungi...? on humans, plants.... any specific BC category of your preference? Personally, I work on BC of insect pests of crops using nematodes.
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I have collected it from field.
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Looks like Marietta leopardina ( Aphelinidae), an hyperparasitoid of Eulophid wasps. It is not an Encyrtidae
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Invasive species are an increasingly significant threat to our environment, economy, health and well‐being. Most are nonindigenous (evolved elsewhere and accidentally introduced) and have been removed from the constraints regulating growth in their native habitat. The best method of control is to prevent establishment in the first place or to quickly identify establishment and adopt an eradication programme. However, if an invasive species becomes established many of the options for removal can cause environmental damage, for example chemical control or mechanical excavation. Biological control (introduction of a natural predator/pathogen) can work well as long as the control organism targets only the invasive species. Otherwise there is a risk that the control organism might also become an invasive species. Alternatives, such as manipulating existing natural enemies and/or the environment to enhance biological control, are also being developed. Sustainable solutions are required if we are to deal with the continually growing problem of invasive species.
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Hi, I have completed one chapter. This chapter is related to the biological control of insects. I am willing to publish this Book. Kindly suggest me a journal where I can publish this chapter.
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Generally, review papers and book chapters are different in style. In both cases you must comply with scope and style of the target journal/book. The description of your document is vague. Which aspect of biological control are you addressing ? Which species or concepts are involved ? Is this new and original material ?
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I have been isolated the fungi that associated with animal dung such as cow , sheep and poultry  dung and I want to know if there any fungus which used in biological control.
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Many experiments started with local plant competition induced to control/remove spots of Japanese Knotweed (Reynoutria japonica, or Fallopia japonica). However I did not find conclusions/publications/reports.
Do you know any cryptic stories or reports with conclusion?
We would try a competition with local Salix spp. in France and avoid repetitive mistakes.
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Which is better, isolate the fungi from the plant or from the soil and use them in biological control?
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Thank you Dr Saida Messgo Moumene
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Dear all,
The goal of my project is to develop a biological control method for Dendrolimus pini with Trichogramma spec. So far, I have tried Trichogramma brassicae but it did not work. I would like to try Trichogramma dendrolimi instead but I don't know where to get them. If you are working with them or know someone who does please let me know.
Many thanks in advance,
Lana
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Please see this article about Trichogramma dendrolimi where they mention where to get them.
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Will the day come when we leave the biological resistance just like we left the pesticides?
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the days that have replaced the chemical drugs on the ocordonances (of our human health) by natural solutions and healthy diets will come that day.
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The plant came to India along with supplied wheat from USA.
Now it is widespread in each and every corner of India and some other countries.
The plant is having some dangerous health impacts.
Are there any biological control measure?
Can it be used as fodder, silage or any other means?
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Beneficial Attributes of Parthenium hysterophorus
Despite of its detrimental effects on biological diversity, crop yield and human and livestock health, the Parthenium hysterophorus possess several beneficial properties. The plant is medicinally important and may also be helpful in increasing the crop yield. This weed can also be used as raw material for biogas plants.
Since Parthenium hysterophorous possess medicinal properties, hence it can be used as remedy for several diseases. The word ‘Parthenium’ has been derived from a Latin word ‘parthenice’ which also corroborates its medicinal significance. Traditionally local inhabitants of Central America frequently use Parthenium hysterophorus as ethnomedicine. 
The entire plant of Parthenium hysterophorus has bitter taste and is stimulant and antihysteric. The plant is equally important for both homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine. In homoeopathic system of disease treatment the whole plant is collected in the flowering stage and subsequently used for drug preparation. An infusion of Parthenium hysterophorus is effective against consumptive cases and in infirmities of mother. It is used as febrifuge, emmenagogue and tonic in allopathic system of disease treatment. The decoction of root is useful in dysentery, amoebic dysentery and in hepatic amoebiasis. 
The ‘parthenin’ (a major sesquiterpene lactone) extracted from the whole plant of Parthenium hysterophorus is pharmacologically active against rheumatism and neuralgia and is externally applied in skin diseases. The juice of the leaves is effective against earache.
Parthenium hysterophorus is well known for its allelopathic properties and it has been well established that allelopathy could be used to increase crop yield, to minimize crop yield expenses and to get rid of from the use of agro-chemicals that pollutes the environment.
Seed germination is problem related to crop production. Studies have revealed that extracts and leachates of Parthenium hysterophorus leaves help in the seed germination of linseed (Linum usitatissimum). Several other aspects like seedling vigour, growth and pest management of many agricultural crops like rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and maize (Zea mays) by using extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus is in experimental stage.
The dried leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus are effective against storage grain pests. The decoction of the leaves is used as flea-repellant. Leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus yield some essential oils.
Parthenium hysterophorus can be utilized as a raw material for biogas plants, as effective binding agent to check soil erosion and as component of vermi-compost. It may also be used as a green manure to ameliorate the physico-chemical properties of the soil.
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Dear colleagues,
Now we have serious problems with whitefly in tomato at the greenhouse. Always we use Encarsia system from Biobest (Encarsia formosa, parasitic wasps) for control of these pests. Unfortunately, now our problems is increased due to damaging of sensor control system in block. Can you advise me another, more effective biological method against the whitefly in tomato?
Sincerely, Mehdi Ali.
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Kindly go through the following PDF attachments.
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I want to know how to apply calcium alginate capsules containing immobilized biological control cells for treating postharvest pathogens on fruits.
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Read this article bellow.
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i work on Baeuvaria bassiana as endophytic fungus, and trying to colonized it in plant tissues by (spying - injection - roots Soaking) 
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I agree with you Mohammad Abdulhai.
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Eradication methods need to be more fully explored. Can we here on Guam plead with the international community for assistance or offer more incentive to employ the assistance of the fully capable and knowledgeable researchers around the world to provide their professional expertise or are just going to not have any more coconut trees? Any grant resources to share? The bucket trap with beetle pheromone could be analyzed for a better design/efficiency. Where does the beetle pheromone come from? What is it's make-up/composition? Is the hormone structure for the know population isolated and characterized already/ known and readily harvested or extracted or even possibly synthesized locally? Can we play with the ratio of racemic mixing and test for an improved catch rate? Do we have ecologically relevant data/ behavioral observation of the local population to aid in our eradication design? What compound mixture is specifically currently being used and what are the challenges to its cost, transfer and storage, decomposition rate and is the attractant selected specifically to the Guam rhino beetle population? (Or is it old and nonspecific?) Regarding biological control using Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV), the preferred biocontrol agent for CRB, and Metarhizium majus is way not fully developed and another virus could theoretically be found or even designed. Is that not still an option to explore even if it failed before? FYI, CRB-Guam is a new biotype and resistant to all biological methods deployed so far... or is it just too dangerous... potentially presumably species-specific biocontrol that can possibly kill non target species? What about the cattle dung approach? What will they go for after all the coconut trees are gone? The breadfruit? why are some local palms seemingly not affected?
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You could start a breeding programme using non affected coconut palms, or you could experiment with bio- insecticides targeting the pupation, like bacillus thuringiensis. I just read that there are also attempts to clone proteins that target insect juvenile hormones.
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Growth and Productivity of some Vegetable Crops as Affected by Chemical and Biological Control of White-rot Disease.
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Interesting, you can be sure respected Arvind Singh will supply that.
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i have been using some endophytic bacteria in my research and i want to know their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen on "nitrogen free medium" i don't know about the evaluation of positive and negative strains.need suggestion from the literature or experience.
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i would be very careful in interpreting any growth on any N-free medium because bacteria that grow may have AcdS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) activity, which results in growth by breaking down the precursor to ethylene, ACC, into 2-oxobutanoate and ammonia. If you can obtain 15N, that is a good way, but in the past some samples of 15N gas were contaminated with ammonia. Another way is to check to see whether or not the nitrogenase fixation genes are present. See Schwartz et al. 2013 (Agronomy 2013, 3, 1-x manuscripts; doi:10.3390/agronomy30x0000x ) to see how we addressed this issue.
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Dear Dr. Kulkarni,
At first, I would like to introduce myself. I am Subha Das, presently based in Okayama University (IPSR), Japan, working as a JSPS postdoctoral fellow since May 2018. I mainly work on lifestyle of mycoviruses and I am also interested in mycovirus-based biological control research. After I go back to India in 2020, I would like to start my own mycovirus research there.
I am interested in mango diseases caused by fungi, and therefore would like to know which diseases are most economically important there. Like powdery mildew, anthracnose, die back, blight, red rust, sooty mould, etc. My main aim is to target the major fungal pathogen of mango.
I know many researchers who work on rice diseases in India but I have no idea about mango pathologists. In the circumstances, it would be really nice if you could introduce me to some pathologists who are working on fungal diseases of mango. I am also looking for a good collaboration for future.
Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you.
Kind regards,
Subha
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Dear Doctor K. According to Hawaii researchers anthracnose and powdery mildew are the worst fungal diseases of mango.
For disease control the use of dwarfing rootstocks would allow the management for these diseases which would probably require the penetration and coverage of the foliar and fruit. The tinne motorized spray equipment would be needed plus a program of pruning and canopy thinning on going.
The locating of mango in consistently arid conditions can be effective for anthracnose plus resistance varities. Powdery mildew does not have a high water spread requirement.
You may want to work on powdery mildew for your mycovirus approach.
Best Luck, Paul Reed Hepperly
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Intéressés par les recherches fondamentales ou appliquées sur les organismes entomophages (arthropodes prédateurs, insectes parasitoïdes, nématodes entomopathogènes, etc) ?
Participez au prochain de Colloque des Entomophagistes (25-29 mai – Antibes-Juan les Pins, France) !
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thanks for sharing the information !
Best,
Joe
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i have been looking for some events occurring when bio-control bacteria come in contact with fungal pathogen. there can be many thing involve during this kind of antagonism e.g VOCs or antibiotics produced by the bacteria but i am looking specifically for the role of antibiotics like surfactin, bacillomycin, fengycin etc. how can i prove that the antagonism in dual culture was because of the production of these products. kindly suggest me to prove the role of antibiotics during fungal and bacterial antagonism in dual culture.
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I suggest to dissolve crude extract then run through sefadex column to separate compunds from crude by their masses. Then use each collected sample with different masses for anti fungal activity. Once positive result was got, separate by hplc.
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looking for an active biological control product (bacteria and fungi) of root-knot nematode in tomato and cucumber fields under Iraq weather conditions (hot summer).
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Hello see attached info may be useful for you.
Good luck!
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How we can control aquatic weeds in water bodies, and their utilization as well
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I have a Bacillus subtilis culture isolated and I need to use this culture as a biological control. Can I use a bacteria in a water and spray in my crop?
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I think article would be so helpful:
"Biocontrol of Bacillus subtilis against Infection of Arabidopsis Roots by Pseudomonas syringae Is Facilitated by Biofilm Formation and Surfactin Production"
Regards
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I am trying to use Isaria fumosorosea as a biological control for Aphis gossypii in a greenhouse for organic cucumbers. When I mix the spores with water to spray on the plant, most of the spores are on the bottle wall. What would be the best solution to apply the spores by spraying?
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You've tried adding a drop of Tween-20? That works for hydrophobic spores, although it can be fungitoxic. There was a time when we sprayed spores in liquid Freon, but that might be illegal now. Depending on your spray rig, you might be able to use a 0.01-0.02 % water-agar solution, which holds spores more uniformly in suspension.
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Actually pink bollworm is major pest of cotton in Pakistan ans as well in China. Some issues regarding Bt resistance varities in Lepidopteran pests are main concerns now a days. My question is that which specie or strain ( Resistant or susceptible) i should use if i control this pest by biological control using different predators for further studies.
I need kind suggestions from all of you.
Thank you advancely for your kind concern about that.
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Predators play a key role in regulating pest populations (Jazzar and Hammad, 2004), and show a great potential in controlling pests than parasitoids and pathogens. You can try many predators. The most common predators include ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), true bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae and Miridae), lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, biological control by predators represents a key strategy whose potential has gone largely unrealized in many affected cropping systems throughout the world.
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I need this information for my research about biological control and would like of references.
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You might benefit from this University of Wisconsin Extension publication with a very practical explanation and some references. The summary is this bacteria has demonstrated growth promoting activity which favors health. Secondly the bacteria is very effective in colonizing and competing with pathogenic bacterial and other microbes in the root rhizosphere region. Thirdly beside the production of growth factors, competition it does produce several antibiotics which are lethal agents to pathogens and finally there is much information now developing that the bacteria can trigger the systemic acquired resistance mechanism. One of growth promoting mechanisms associated with the bacteria is the capacity to solubilize Phosphorus this is very important is the potato crop which has a high Phosphorus requirement and is grown under low temperature regimes which dampen the natural soil solubilization of Phosphorus. Hope you find some good information.
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Good afternoon.
I´m making my Master Thesis in Applied Microbiology and the aim of my work focuses on using nematophagous fungi to control infections by helminths and Eimeria spp. in Chickens.
I´m searching for articles specific for biological control in birds.
Thank you.
João Lozano
(Bsc) Animal Production Engineering
Master student of Applied Microbiology
Portugal
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Good afternoon.
Thank you very much for your share.
I think this article will be very useful for my work.
Best regards.
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I need some help to find out specified periodicals or notes journals to publish an essay or scientific note.
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I suggest the journal 'Phytoprotection' from the Quebec Society for Protection of Plants
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i wanted to analyse the effect of biocontrol bacteria on fungal hypea during antagonism by using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) but i am facing a problem of collecting the fungal hyphea form solidified agar plate in which the experiment is being conducted. can anybody suggest me a way to collect these affected hypea from the PDA plate ?
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If the biocontrol bacteria is producing extracellular active substances antagonistic against pathogenic fungi, you can extract the active substance by growing the bacteria in the suitable broth medium and incubate the active substance together with growing fungal mycelium. The disintegrated fungal mycelium could be subsequently observed through SEM.
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I want to evaluate some fungicides on some fungus as well as some fungus and bacteria used to biological control of this fungus. How can I evaluate the selectivity of these pesticides?
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usou nca ytsenFogr fungal biocontrol a
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Dear colleagues,
I need to request the Trichogramma wasps for biological control of various pests in apple trees — for example, codling moth.
Could you be so kind to inform me about the species of Trichogramma for struggle against the pest of apple trees?
Sincerely,
Mehdi Ali.
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Sugar crop research institue, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Address:
Charsadda Road, 23210, Mardan
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Ph: +92 937 929013,
Email: 1) mtahir_director [ at ] yahoo.com.
2) tasran [ at ] gmail.com
best regards
Dr. Muhammad Ashraf Khan
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Hello every body
I found Trichoderma orientale together with T. harzianum and T. longibrachiatum in agriculture soils. I am appreciated very much if kindly let me know about any references refer to the role of T. orientale in biological control
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Hi.. prof. Jawad K. Abood Al-Janabi
this link the articles maybe help you.
Good luck
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Biological control
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Hi Amer
It is possible to rear Nesidiocoris on tobacco plants within insect proof cages (T:25 degrees Celsius/ RH:70%) and feed your colony with Ephestia eggs. You would have to vacuum next generation larvae about 3 weeks later and infest newly setup cages. This is not the most effective method to produce heaps but it could help as a start. Cheers, Bruno
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Is there a possibility that Biological control agents together with IPM replacing chemical pesticides ?
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The development of any pest management strategy does not rule out any of the different control elements. The integration of all elements with follow-up of the pest, according to the processes of prediction, investigation, control, exclusion and intervention using pesticides is necessary in the event of a pandemic.Because most biological and other control factors still do not result in rapid response
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Sir i need some literature regarding the development of a biopreparation for the biological control of plant diseases.
What are the important steps to be followed in order to develop a biopreparation. Thank you.
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You could refer to
Ash, G. (2010). The science, art and business of successful bioherbicides. Biological Control, 52(3), 230-240.
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I have collected adult specimens of green lacewing (Chrysopidae). With the help of local taxonomists (not experts on Neuroptera), identified upto genus level (Chrysoperla genus), but not sure about the species. I need to conduct different research activities related to biological control on this predator; but need to confirm the species. Need help in this regard, thanks
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The taxonomy of Chrysopidae is particularly difficult and it is often impossible to distinguish species morphologically. In that case, accoustic mating signals are used to identify them to species level. Obviously, this would require you sending live specimen (males) to expert taxonomists.
You can try contacting
Dr Peter Duelli, Zoological Institute, University of Basel, Rheinsprung 9, CH-4051 Basel
or
Charles S. Henry, Dept of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut
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Dose anybody know about effective control of Cydalima_Perspectalis in forest(except BT)?such as botanical pesticide (neem oil) and another question is:what is the method of insecticide bioassay in forest
thanks
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Dear Mina,
We investigated on some plant extracts to control boxwood moth. fortunately they were effective. now we are trying to use it in forests by help of Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization in Iran, if they cooperate.
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I have a closed loop biological control system where i use a PID controller. Because the transfer function of the biological system is complex to derive, I used trial and error to tune the PID parameters. And the resulting response is nearly critical damped. What can I learn from the parameters value of PID values that I found?
Please attach any tech notes or papers. Thanks in advance.
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Hi Rex,
First of all, because we understand that you managed to control your system, I guess that, by closing your loop with a proportional gain P, you already got a stable (maybe not too good, yet not unstable) system.
Then, playing with the D and I gains gave you better performance, although not necessarily as good as you may want.
Identification is a good idea, yet this requires knowing the number of parameters that you must identify, or, in other words, the exact order of your system, which I doubt is available if you talk about a totally unknown system.
However, now you can take a Signal Analyzer and find the frequency response of your stable closed-loop plant. This would give you the graphs of Amplitude and Phase and a first idea about the transfer function (TF) of your system.
From here, there are procedures (for example in MATLAB) that allow you to compute the open-loop TF, etc.
I hope it helps.
Have Fun!
Itzhak
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I know that a variety of biological control agents have been tried in Australia. Are they working, on both new and established infestations? Have they made M. pigra less invasive? And, have any of them been used outside Australia? 
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Thanks, Archie, I missed those. 
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PLOS ONE is currently searching for an editor for a review of our paper entitled "The Dissemination of Imidacloprid from Granular Bait in Dairy Manure, a Breeding Substrate of Filth Flies and their Natural Enemies." This paper analyzed imidacloprid residues present in diary cow manure by HPLC and mass spec. The topics in the paper have implications about the environmental fate of imidacloprid, a widely used insecticide, and potential ramifications it might have on natural enemies of filth flies in dairy manure. If you are interested, please contact me by sending a message here on Researchgate. Thanks.
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I am working on Arthropods which are potent bio-control agents of insect pests in agro-ecosystems. I have 4 such Arthropods which are from different genera and having potential to control insect pests. I want to compare those predators. Is it feasible to go for RAPD marker?
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In literature, pesticide, biopesticide and biocide these terms are most commonly used in crop protection where-
* Biocide has been represented both synthetic and natural products those are able to kill or control living beings and it seems that all pesticide and biopesticide (active ingredients) could be represented as biocide
* In terms of pesticide, the synthetic product used to control pest, and lastly
* Biopesticide is natural product able to control pest
Therefore, I need opinion regarding these terms and their use in manuscript or journal article.
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I think of it this way.
Biocide: This product kills everything. Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is a biocide. It kills bacteria, insects, people, plants, and everything else that cannot escape.
Pesticide: these products are generally not biocides. They are at least somewhat selective. You can have subclasses like rodenticide, herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, and so forth. Pesticides can be synthetic, derivatives of natural products, or natural products.
Biopesticide: like pesticide but restricted to unmodified natural products. I can envision a time when some company will genetically engineer Bacillus thuringiensis. I am not sure if the resulting bt product would be a biopesticide or a pesticide.
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Tomato plants used in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) rearing got infested by the two-spotted mite. If I release predatory mite (Phytoseiulus persimilis) then will they cause any problem to whiteflies? 
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No, Phytoseiulus  persimilis do not prey on Bemisia tabaci eggs. You should try Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera; Chrysopidae), Delphastus pusillus , Harmonia axyridis and Azya orbigera (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae). They will feed  on whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults of Bemisia tabaci. Also the bug Macrolophus caliginosus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is polyphagous and feeds on eggs, pupae and adults of B. tabaci.
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Pheromone traps are widely available, easy in use  and also they are eco-friendly measures .Secific traps are used for specific insect and pest .How the traps can be used in effective way for controlling insect and pest population?
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Integrated pest management strategy will work.
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This is Myzus persicae on sweet pepper leaf  and it has two colors orange and green .
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Dear All,
Also some endosymbiotic bacteria can cause colour change in aphids
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We are working on the morphological and molecular characterization of potential clones grapevine variety Vranac, the dominant black wine variety from Montenegro.
We analyzed 98 potential clones-vines based on qualitative and quantitative characteristics. During the two-year period, the analysis was conducted and 21 potential clones were identified. We tested the ELISA test using the BIOREBA AG reagent (http://www.bioreba.ch) for the presence of GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3, and GFLV, in the absorption readings at 405 nm. In all samples, presence was established.
We are interested in how to proceed. What methods can be applied to selected potential clones to remove these viruses?
We're getting ready beforehand.
Prof. Dr Branislava Sivčev
University of Belgrade
Faculty of Agriculture
Institute of Horticulture
Chair of Viticulture
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The two most commonly used methods to eliminate viruses in grapevine are thermotherapy (35°C for 3 months) and apex micrografting.
These links might be useful :
The French Institute for Vine and Wine (IFV) offers a virus clearing service through micrografting and I invite you to get in touch with the person in charge of the laboratory (anne-sophie.spilmont@vignevin.com) if you wish to obtain further information.
Good luck !
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As you may know, cultivation of transgenic plants is prohibited in some countries. In other hand, the major plants in brassicaceae family have erucic acid in their seed oil. Then how we can produce a brassicaceae plant with 00 or 000 erucic acid without genetic engineering technology?
Canola (the erucic acid - free rapeseed)  is cultivated in over the world. Are this plans NON_GM? If yes, hoe they have been produced?
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By the way, from this web link (http://livewell.jillianmichaels.com/canola-oil-compared-olive-oil-5365.html), it indicates "Canola oil must meet specific regulations regarding erucic acid a glucosinolate content, with no more than 2 percent erucic acid and 30 micromoles per gram of glucosinolates." So, I guess today's canola oil probably is not erucic acid zero, but only low in amount. But, as Rahul Kumar has mentioned, with known biosynthesis pathway, and genes controlling this pathway, one can use CRISPR to knock out these genes and get erucis acid-free (zero) plants.
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There is a need to identify a group of arthropods from which effort should be put while scouting for candidate biocontrol agents of a given forest insect pest.
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I want to know the species which is resistant against it. It may b useful against to overcome this disease 
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Florida researchers discover possible cultivar resistance to citrus greening
 The UF researchers have identified citrus cultivars, in this case 16 citrus rootstocks, most of which show a lower rate of infection and more tolerance to citrus greening.
By Robert H. Wells, University of Florida | Sep 27, 2013(http://news.ifas.ufl.edu/.)
Results suggest classifying Carrizo, US-897, and US-942 as tolerant, US-802, US-812, and Volkamer lemon as moderately tolerant, and Cleopatra mandarin as susceptible to Las. Despite irregular growth, low rates of infection and low Las numbers indicate some resistance of Benecke to Las. Additional greenhouse experiments and field observations confirmed findings for US-802, US-897, US-942, and Cleopatra, although results for US-802 were more variable.PDF enclosed..
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This larva was found in an almond fruit.
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Look like larva of Anarsia lineatella, commonly known as Peach Twig Borer.
Management data link--
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Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean countries.  Olive leaves, available throughout the year, are one of the byproducts of olive farming; they accumulate during the pruning of the olive trees and can be found in large amounts in olive oil industries after being separated from fruits before processing (about 10% of the weight of olives). Several reports have shown that olive leaves have antioxidant activity and anti-fungal properties, So, can be used dry leaves powder  as protectants against  phytopathogenic.
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green leaves are used as organic amendment which have shown nematicidal activity. Dry leaf powder is also rich in polyphenols, flavonols and glucosides are active secondary metabolite, these are present in dry powder also, so you can try..
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As I was on my field visit I found people used "Rogor" which is toxic to human health. Can seed extract of custard apple be more effective to kill aphids but less toxic to human health?
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As part of my fungal entomopathogens based bioinsecticide development I got several Isaria fungi. Now its time to do insect bioassay with those isolates. I have gotten several journals and suggestions which provides a lot of succeptible organisms include weevils, ground beetles, plant beetles, aphids, whiteflies, psyllids, wasps, termites, thrips, and a wide variety of butterflies and moths. So Can you guys suggest me which insects I may select to start bioassay?
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I think the most susceptible insects are the nymphs of Bemisia sp. or Trialeurodes vaporariorum and aphids.
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I obtained three parasitoids from the same batch of eggs from a Reduviidae bug from Colombia possibly from the Platygastridae family. There are few published records of parasitoids in Reduviidae eggs. I would like to know if anyone knows what genus and species are? The yellow individual may be an hyperparasitoid. If you have published records  please let me know.
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Hi,
I think that you have specimens belong to Telenomus (Scelionidae, Platygastroidea), possibly T. polymorphus Costa Lima, 1943, but I  am not sure because is difficult to identify the species level using only the pictures.
Best regards,  Ovidiu 
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I am working with biological control of agiculture´s pests.
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Baba Plant Care - Natural Camelia Seed Powder
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dear all i want a soft copy of book painter book on Host Plant Resistance to Insect
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If anyone possesses this book, please kindly share with us thanks a lot in advance. 
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I also looked for studies on the effects of Bt maize on non-target organisms and most of them say that Bt maize had no apparent effect on these non-target organisms (such as honey bees, some butterfly species, etc.). What other negative effects could Bt maize lead to aside from resistance of target organisms?
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Thank you, Sir Laith Al-Ani. I haven't gone through or even saw some of the references you listed so it would really be a big help for my research :)
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I am looking for those with toxic effects on caterpillars
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This is not your question but I would by far favor Baculoviruses ;-)
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We want to work on reduce mites infestation in palm trees through study some genes that may have role in control this pest.
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You most welcome
Houda
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How can I mass rear Tetranychus urtica on an artificial diet without using plants?
I want to mass rear Tetranychus urtica in laboratory on an artificial diet without using plants. Has anyone known any method to formulate a diet that could be used?
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procedures on how to identify the Bt in a culture media
procedures on how to isolate the gene responsible for insecticidal property of Bt (B. thuringiensis)
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Dear Ngozika, my co-workerDr. Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani is expert for isolation and charcterization of Bt. You can contact with his. He has several paper about different aspect of Bt. His e mail is: gsalehi@abrii.ac.ir
Best Regards
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What is the best method of controlling the insect pests in stored agricultural materials?
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Other than insecticide-producing, more specifically other than Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis). What would be the best transgenic plants in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as from an economic standpoint?
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Good Luck
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What is the carrying capacity of Myzus persicae in potato in general?
How many aphids are considered as highly infesting?
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..
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Organic agriculture
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Not sure I entirely catch the question, but my answer would generally be 'no'. In vitro culture conditions are very specific ( usually axenic media, controlled environment with constant temperature and controlled light intensity and quality), and are not supposed to mirror outdoor conditions. Therefore, the in vitro results are indicative, but not really predictive of in vivo trials.
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I observed one pupa of genus Striglina(Lepidoptera:Thyrididae), found 8 cremasters at the pupa‘s end. But I don’t know if other species of this genus are all the same, who has researched them? Can you give me some lectures, especially in 3 tea plant pests, Striglia suzukii, Striglina glareola and Striglina scitaria, in China.
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