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Biofuel Production - Science topic

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If feed gas flow rate is 50 cc/min how can i calculate.
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Zakia Akter Sonia, Just divide the gas flow rate by the catalyst volume, here in cc, and multiply by 60 to refer to one hour.
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How do i know the % purity of crude glycerol from biodiesel plant waste?
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Dear Rossa,
You must examine the crude glycerol using one of the various techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC), or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). based on the results, calculate the Glycerol percentage compared to the whole solution.
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unless using the edible materials what else can be the sources for biofuel production
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Brewers spent grain
Food waste
Bread waste
Starch waste from industrial side streams etc
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Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a global environmental concern because of their severe threat to biota. However, limited studies on the elimination of MPs pollution were reported. The conventional treatment methods such as coagulation, sedimentation, screening, and flotation were not suitable for MPs owing to their smaller size than plastic items. Hence many methods for MPs treatment, including AOPs (direct photodegradation, photocatalytic oxidation, and electrochemical oxidation) and biodegradation, have been examined.
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The flow diagram
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Pretreated lignocellulose releases sugars during "Enzymatic hydrolysis" and those sugars can be used to produce biofuels. Can someone explain how can we determine the "amount of buffer" which needs to be added to the reaction mixture containing pretreated biomass and crude enzymes?
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The amount of buffer is a process choice. If you choose 10% solids in your process, you will end up with a more dilute hydrolyzate. If you choose higher solid loads you will have a more concentrated hydrolyzate. Choice alternatives influence other steps such as separation.
That said, when determining your process you will need to know the moisture content of your biomass to calculate solids content always on a dry basis and the the enzyme load you want and finally the buffer mass/volume.
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Hi,
I am currently looking for an industrial process that can use some intensification in the separation part of the process. I am very interested in intensified separation for biofuel processes (bioethanol/propanol/butanol), intensified methanol production using pressure swing to produce CO from CO2 from the revers WGS reaction, intensified carbon capture,...
If anyone has experience in these fields and can inform me if one of these could be a good dissertation, I would like to hear it! I am also curious for other processes that can use some intensification to reduce energy use/cost...
If you have any info you can also send me a message!
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Question intéressante
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I am currently conducting my thesis on production of biodiesel. I have already conducted analysis on it using GC/MS and it was successful. I used n-hexane as a solvent to extract the lipids from the feedstock (a seaweed (macroalgae)) and then i reacted it with excess methanol. I was then left with 2 layers that were separated by a separating funnel. I am having concerns with regards to how well methanol dissolves the biodiesel and which layer was with biodiesel. As to my knowledge since biodiesel is more polar it will reside in the polar solvent, therefore in the methanol layer. Could someone confirm this or provide me with a paper that may help explain this?
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I thank yes
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In my thesis I used hexane to extract lipids from macroalgae followed by reaction with methanol to perform transesterification. I then left them to separate leaving 2 layers and wanted to ask if it is possible to wash both layers with chloroform and then separate the chloroform from both layers. It should be noted that in these 2 layers there is still methanol and hexane.
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Hi. You can check the solubiliy of biodiesel in chloroform (organic solvent) in the following book:
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I determined the calorific value of bio-diesel with the help of bomb calorimeter. Is there any other methods are available to find calorific value?. thank you.
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I wanted to analyze the rate of enzymatic saccharification in my pretreated biomass my usual vendor is having some issues with delivery due to COVID 19. So, I usually buy from MP Biomedicals. Since that is going to set back my work even further, I decided to look for other options and found the pricing to be unbelievably high. Just wanted to know if such crazy high pricing is normal for beta-glucosidase used in biofuel production. Maybe I am looking at the wrong options. Please let me know there are other affordable options from beta-glucosidase purchase.
Thanks in advance.
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Beta-glucosidase is not yet chemically synthesized and is therefore made available through the rigors of microbial fermentations with the usual HIGH PRODUCTION ECONOMICS that attend all microbially-directed productions. It just has be expensive if the industries that go into its manufacture are to stay in business.
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I cordially invite researchers to contribute an MS on “Value Addition in Biofuel Production Using Innovative Breeding Techniques” for the forthcoming edited book entitled “Technologies in Breeding Field Crops” (Springer Publication). Kindly send your email id for a formal invitation.
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If we do slow pyrolysis for some organic material "wood' as example and then we condense the vapor we will get the liquid of tar and bio-oil
Question is :
If we do pyrolysis for the produced liquid tar and bio-oil: Will that enhance the properties of the produced bio-oil?
as example its stability and its heating value
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For engineering applications there is a wide range of products depending on conditions and feed stock characteristics. The reaction products are categorized into three groups: permanent gases, a pyrolytic liquid (bio-oil/tar and other organics) and solid (charcoal). The process can be adjusted to favor production of the desired form. These three products are of interest as they can be used as feedstock for chemical production or as sources of fuel.
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Any significant progress in the design or innovation of solid catalyst for biomass hydrolysis and sugar fermentation into alcohols in a biorefinery? If yes, I would like to have some recent updates regarding that subject. Thank you all
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Thank you for your answer,
Pedro Nakasu
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I am doing my thesis and would like to extract triglycerides from Olives or Olive Oil. I will be analysing the amount of triglycerides that are present in the olives or Olive Oil I will be testing. I would also like to extract them so that I may convert them to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters for biofuel. Does anyone know and/or have any papers that I may use? Thank you.
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Hi;
I worked on Nigella sativa oil, and I isolated the neutral lipids by soxhlet and then by chromatography on silica column. In the most nonpolar fractions, I determined the triglycerides using HPLC-ELSD detector. I haven't published this last part yet. for the extraction steps, please read these articles. I will be at your disposal if you have any questions.
Widad Sobhi
1- Sobhi et al., 2016. PEffect of lipid extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the liver ATP reduction and alpha-glucosidase inhibition.
2. Sobhi et al., 2011. Hepatotoxicity and Langerhans Islets Regenerative Effects of Polar and Neutral Lipids of Nigella sativa L. in Nicotinamide/streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
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Basically I need a strain to transform it with some exogenous gene, I need a strain which should grow fast in less than a day, should have protocols to transform it, can be grown in an open system i.e municipal or agriculture waste, to convert it into biomass. the biomass will then be used for biofuel production. remember there should be high lipid content in biomass of that strain...
kindly guide me with such a strain which i can use in my project.
thanx in advance
#Microalgae #Metabolicengineering #biofules #Geneticengineering
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My opinion, based on work over bout a decade, is that trying to choose a strain is a waste of effort. If you grow it in open tanks, wild species turn up, and by an large, it does not matter. If you want microalgae that grow fast, it is wrong to go after biodiesel. To grow fast, it needs plenty of nutrients, but in a nutrient-rich mix you get protein-rich algae. There are lipids in there, but they tend to be bonded to something else, such as with phospholipids or lipoprotein. I found that with one batch, the extracted yield was about 1% lipid. If you were prepared to carry out extensive hydrolysis the yield of fatty acid went up to over 20%.
My choice of professing method was hydrothermal liquefaction. The lipids give you diesel straight away, but there is also a rich petrol stream and a number of valuable chemicals . The work-up, unfortunately, is complicated, but I believe right now there is no process that can make fuel from microalgae economically without getting a good financial return form the remaining 80% of the algae.
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Based on your expertise, what are advantages and disadvantages of producing H2 or CH4 from renewable sources (wind, PV etc)? I am mainly interested in collecting different points of view, e.g. local pollution, global climate mitigation, energy engineering and mitigation of peak demand, economic aspects, social impact, policies, quality and safety of the final product, regulatory barriers.
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ew There are no miracles. In fact, there are two initial sources of so called "renewable" energy - solar and gravitational (Earth's rotation energy, for example). The whole question is how much waste will be allocated in the specific process of its fixation. For example, harvesting of "solar energy" produces a significant amount of waste (production of the elements themselves, copper conductors, heat, etc.). For strange reason, if the waste is concentrated in another place (where the elements are produced, for example), the technology of "solar energy" is considered to be "nature-friendly". As to the substance of the matter, the use of “conditionally renewable energy” to produce a source of non-renewable energy does not seem to me a reasonable idea. In addition, it should always be taken into account that any energy conversion has limited efficiency ...
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The world is trying hard to switch into Electric Vehicles right now and not many research units are focusing on IC Engines anymore. At the present scenario, is there any known Post-doc position vacancy likely to be applied for, in Engines field.??
Kindly do Share your expertise in this.
Thank You.
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Hi,
Getting a research position in IC engine or in any specific field is completely dependent on the hiring professor at a particular institute. If he is having funding and project, then he would probably hire a candidate at any level (graduate or postgraduate). However, there are still lots of scope in engine and fuel research and it is not possible for the electric vehicle to replace it completely considering the economy, reliability and other factors. In India, almost all old IITs and IISc are having very good engine research labs. You can contact individual faculty through email. I hope this will help you.
Thanks!
-Arnab
IIT Madras.
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we have a double-chambered MFC that produced an OCV that reached 220 mV in 1 h, and was getting higher. after 24 hours the OCV dropped down, and I don't know why.
I want to measure the generated current first to plot the I-V curve, then the power density curve.
  1. Is the OCV drop because we didn't use an external resistance? when should we start applying it to the MFC? can someone explain it in details please.
  2. How to decide whether to use a fixed resistance over time, or to use a range of different resistances to carry out these measurements (I-V Curve, Power density Curve)?
I'm using a digital Multimeter for recording Voltage across either fixed or varied resistors.
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Dear Nedan,
The drop in voltage during the OCV evolution is due to the fact that the substrate is depleting. The substrate, such as organic compounds, has been utilized by the microbes to generate electricity in MFCs. Hence, if you are using a bioelectrochemical system in a batch mode, I strongly recommend you to perform feed (substrate) injection until two sequential equal peaks in voltage are obtained. Depending on the experiment, It is impossible to say the exact time for achieving two consecutive equal peaks in voltage (It may take several days to several months).
Variable external resistances are suggested to obtain polarization and power density curves.
For more information, I suggest the following article.
Best Regards,
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Ash content is one of critical parameters considered for feedstock selection in biomass conversion process. Suggest suitable technology for high ash with biomass feedstock.
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Dear Ramesh ,
I am agree with Paulo Fernando Trugilho, mineral content is more important that the % of ash in biomass.
I suggest you the article "Effect of citric acid leaching on the demineralization
and thermal degradation behavior of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Biomass and Bioenergy, 108, 371-380.
Kind regards,
Lizet
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Hello, I am try to measure the voltage and current of a solution (typically PBS or other nutrient media) with bacteria like E coli with mediators like neutral red dye or methylene blue. Typical electrodes I'll use is two carbon or copper and aluminum combination in a single compartment setup. I know E coli K-12 shouldn't conduct current compared to other electroactive bacteria, but I'm just trying to get an understanding of setup. I've been using a digital multimeter and I can usually get a voltage measurement, although it is low and varies with the electrodes I use. However, I haven't been able to get reliable current measurements since I'll get fluctuating readings of my multi meter and I don're really know what to make of it. i read papers where this simple tool is used for current and voltage so I'm not sure what I am doing wrong. Thanks.
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Hi Jaqueline,
even without knowledge of your setup but provided that your equipment itself is faultless, I guess it's safe to say that the fluctuations of the current are not caused by the multimeter.
My first suspicion is that your setup for voltage measurement causes a very low current through the solution (or, in an erraneous setup, the amount of current might have no impact at all, sorry for the imputation ;-) while during current measurements a considerable current is flowing. If so, this current could cause a change of the density of bacteria (and/or of other ingredients) in the neighborhood of the electrodes, resulting in a fluctuation of the mean conductivity.
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I m doing research on biofuel production from lignocellulosic biofuel. I have Cellulase Enzyme from Aspergillus niger (Sigma), is this sufficient for the hydrolysis process? If anyone knows the detailed protocol about enzyme used method please recommend me for the process.
Thanks in advance!
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״Sufficient" in what way?
I suggest you read some of the vast literature on the subject. Things like which biomass, what preatreatment etc could make a huge different.
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I would need some references for documentation related to biofuels production from such plants. Thank you!
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The following link shows Libya soybean meal production by year
Best Regards Laura Bulgariu
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Is there any report of leguminous plants used for biofuel such as bio-ethanol production?
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Liquid biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol are derived from different biomass feedstocks. Let's know learn about less water footprint technology used for liquid biofuel production
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Several recent studies have indicated that green algae as a fuel source fall under the banner of renewable energy sources, especially after the ever-increasing price of fossil fuels. It is growing fast and has limited impact on the environment and does not affect the global need for food such as wheat, corn, and sugar. The most important characteristic of the use of algae as an alternative to fuel that it does not need land suitable for agriculture, it can be cultivated in the deserts, it does not require freshwater and high nutritional value.
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I, Dr. Rachan Karmakar, have done my Ph.D. in 2018 in the field of energy and environment. My areas of specialization are as follows-
1. Biofuel production and characterization
2. Analysis of emission from engines
3. Waste water treatment
4. Algae culture and algae-based technologies
I did my masters in Environmental Science. I have 12 original and published papers including three conference papers (more to come out soon), three years of paid eaching experience and six years of research experience.
I am looking for a post-doctorate position in USA and other countries of America, India, UK, Japan, South Korea and other countries with good research facilities.
Please find my CV attached.
If you are interested to supervise me kindly get back to me or give your email id. I shall contact you through email then. My phone number and email id are given below and in the first page of my CV.
I request every one to help me by sharing and recommending this question, if possible, so that this message can reach maximum number of people and an expert, who can offer me a postdoc, receive the same.
Thanking you,
Sincerely,
Dr. Rachan Karmakar
Phone: +91 8437525941
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Why you are not apply at abroad ?......
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Biodiesel can be blended with other fuel to produce blended biodiesel fuel base on weight basis or volume basis. What is the parameter needed to consider in blending activity? 
Kindly please assist and share any reliable journals on this issue. Thank you.
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Biodiesel blending procedures vary according to blending method, feedstock, and blend percentages. In all cases, blends need to be confirmed with a density check in order to ensure they meet specifications, which require a density between 0.86 and 0.90. Typically, values fall between 0.88 and 0.90.
Cold weather preparatory recommendations are equally important when storing conventional distillates as well as biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Blended Biodiesel can be stored below ground in a majority of climates. Above ground storage—for both distillates and Targray biodiesel — should be protected with insulation, agitation, kerosene blends or heating systems in areas where below freezing temperatures are common. Precautions may include protecting tank piping and pumping equipment.
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Why the food waste or natural media can be used to algal growth or biofuel production. It will reduce the production cost of biofuel
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Hello, algae is autotroph organisms you can't use organic food waste to feed them. For use food waste for algal growth you should at first convert the organic waste to inorganic for this you can use methane fermentation.
By methane fermentation you can produce gas methane from food waste, which will be your first energy source and then byproduct of methane fermentation you can use to feed your algae.
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Why they are important for biorefinery?
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Feedstock improvement will reduce overall cost for production of raw materials as well as processing cost. NS : Feedstock improvement focussed on development of GM biofuel crops for higher biomass yield or designer biomass composition (ie., based on final products focussed in the biorefinery
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Dear All,
Can I explain oscillatory baffled reactor for liquid bio-fuel production to a layperson? Moreover, what is a potential benefits of the oscillatory baffled reactor to society? What is the potential benefits or wider impact to society?
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understanding of matter depends on interest. things are not 100 percent advantageous
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recalcitrant, biotechnology, biofuel production
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Muhammad Afzal:
H. Zabed is absolutely right.
Conversions of lignocelullosic materials are carried out treating the former by an acid hydrolysis [ Vela´squez-Arredondo HI, Ruiz-Colorado AA, De Oliveira Jr S. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: energy analysis. Energy 2010;35: 3081-7. ] and the latter by an enzymatic hydrolysis, after basic or acid pretreatment as performed with other precursors [ Quintero JA, Montoya MI, Sa´nchez OJ, Giraldo OH, Cardona CA. Fuel ethanol production from sugarcane and corn: comparative analysis for a Colombian case. Energy 2008;33:385-99; Sun Y, Cheng J. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 2002;83: 1-11; Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ, Stroeve P. Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 2009; 48:3713-29. ]. Depending on the efficiency of these ethanol production processes, approximately 50% of the biomass can end up as recalcitrant biomass. Such recalcitrant biomass refers to the solid residue that cannot be converted to fermentable sugars in the process of ethanol production from lignocelullosic materials [Romero-Anaya, A.J., Molina, A, Garcia, P, Ruiz-Colorado, A.A., Linares-Solano, A, Salinas-Martı´nez de Lecea, C. Phosphoric acid activation of recalcitrant biomass originated in ethanol production from banana plants, Biomas Bioenergy, 2011;35:1196-1204 ]
Best regards
Vit
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suggest optimization method used for property optimization of liquid bio fuel mixture for designing optimized liquid bio fuel for diesel fired boiler
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Good work if results true obteind
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I have contacted many suppliers , but either they have stopped the production or no one is replying back. If anyone knows any contact. Please help me.
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Good
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In regards with bio diesel
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Good
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I would like to carry out research on Enzyme supported magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst systems for Biodiesel production. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and free enzyme based catalyst have main problem of catalyst separation and regeneration. Heterogeneous catalyst solves this issues but active sites of surface molecules can produce leaching in harsh reaction conditions and also it requires centrifuge and filtration techniques. This may give a chance to increase the cost of the products . This is the main challenge for any chemical reaction system. So I am considering Magnetically recoverable nano catalyst or enzyme hybrid catalyst for biodiesel production. This kind of catalyst system can be overcome the challenges of catalyst separation and regeneration of the homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme based catalyst system. I provided the challenging issues of biodiesel production to my Prof. But Prof. is not satisfied, my Prof. needs more challenges issues/Breakthroughs in the field. I tried my best level up to my knowledge. I cannot fulfill the requirements of my Prof.
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Differential gene/protein expression profiles on same cell line always shows varied results, why does this happen?
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Next-generation biofuels are toxic to microorganisms producing them, thus adversely affecting the production yield. The expression of efflux pumps presents a promising strategy for many biofuels like the longer chain alcohols, alkanes, alkenes and cyclic hydrocarbons, however recent studies show evidence that these are not effective at exporting short-chain alcohols. Could there be methods to make these efflux pumps less specific to solvents and still perform their function?
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i.e. the use of vegetable oil or any bio-oil to undergo hydrocracking to produce biofuel.
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Is there someone works on bio-jet? I need to know how can measure the quality of extract oil and ho can decided for which purpose can this oil us (bio-gas,bio-diesel and biojet?
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Can anyone tell the conversion levels used in a commercial FTS plant for a one pass reaction. And the same if you produce methanol in a commecial FT plant.
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I am working on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel synthesis from rubber seed oil. I am proposing a pseudo-first order rate equation since the methanol will be in excess. I needed to test the proposed rate equation with available published data from literature
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What do we feed the termites (soil feeding) with to produce more methane gas?
What type of environment can we create for the termites to enable them produce more?
How do we capture the gas produced by termite?
What is the quantity of methane gas that can be produced per termite/day?
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I'm studying for biofuel production via hydrodeoxygenation and deoxygenation method.
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I want to know which substrate is very economical and the cheapest source for biodiesel production.
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we are in developing abrasion resistance of warm screws which are using for squeezing palm oil fruit ( containing some sand and other hard particle from farming lands). Because of their heavy weight (around 500kg) it is not reasonable to change whole material with high alloy steels or cast irons.
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I am doing WTW analysis of Bio-diesel and Bio- CNG  Using GREET Model. 
Can anyone provide some methodology which can be utilized to quantify Biogenic CO2 emissions?
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i need process detail, composition of citrus peel, composition of fermented products, pretreatment and hydrolysis of citrus peel.  
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membrane technology steadily increases as it covers a wide variety of chemical and physical applications mainly because membranes offer ease of operation, economic viability for smaller unit operations, low energy cost, compactness, and so on. Generally speaking, membrane is attractive because of its unique ability to permeate specific components pass through it. What is the role of microbiology and microbiologist? 
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Thank you very much
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hi everyone, well, I am going to start my research work on tobacco plant for the purpose to increase oil contents for biofuel production by microorganisms but I am not that much familiar with it, can anyone please help me with this issue? I will be grateful as I am fresh Ph.D. scholar. thanks 
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Iam working in a project that testing the local plastic water tank to be used for AD in household level. I wonder if there is an optimum volume of this from experience worldwide. The tank volumes available range from 0.150 to 10 m3.
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Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common causative agent of nosocomial infection and many species have been found to perform fermentation for biohydrogen production. are there possibilities of applying this microorganisms in the future in industries fro biofuel production.
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Yes, it just that the application must be controlled, confined and restricted to a particular area in order not to pose threat to the environment. Because it a known opportunistic pathogen, it's application will be highly cost effective, considering the gene manipulations that must be carried out. It's application could be embark on only if there is no other organisms that can do the work. It could turn to profit loss.
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The increasing demand for biofuels and their production in the developed world drive not only grain prices up, but the effect is felt most acutely in developing countries where grain comprises a larger share of food budget/expenditure. In as much as the rich benefit from comfort in using bio-fuels, are there any safeguard/measures to help minimize or if possible prevent the trade-off links
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It was nice to get an answer for my question? However, you didn't show if it works or not? Did anyone succeed to get bio-fuel from olive pomace or not? And what was the quality of this biofuel? Is it as good as bio-jet?
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Is there some one works on Jatropha oil as bio-jet resource?
I'm looking forward to have a partner works on Jatropha oil as bio-jet resource to join to our research group and set up proposal for FP7, 2014.
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I need to assess  CO2 emission factors (KgCO2/ Kwh of energy input) for a gas boiler, a steam reformer, anaerobic digester, fuel cell and an water electrolysis. 
anyone could help me with a method or documents?
thank you 
best regards 
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By solving operation point the main handicaps are cost and efficiency, are there any applications which are closer to the solution for these problems?
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I would like to know the opinions of professionals about the production of second generation biofuels and to find out if Jatropha is one of the second generation feedstocks.
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Even though there are numerous research papers in production, utilisation of various biofuels, with variation of many operating parameters, I can find very less information in actually using the tested fuels for practical use. What could have been the reason behind all?
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@Robert Istvan Radics Thank you for your suggestions. It is indeed a great pleasure reading your recommendations.
@Sumit Dhawane I think your perspective is quite good. I also agree to the fact that production of biofuels is a main problem due to unavailability of feed stock in cheap rate (difficulty in mass production).
@Sandeep Kumar Duran Thank you for your opinion. And yes, as a researcher, we need to focus on the part of optimising the production and effective use of the biofuels under study.
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Dear everyone,
Recently I am working on bioethanol production from waste. I isolated cellulase enzyme from local fungi in Indonesia, however enzyme purification seems not so easy because I could found mycelium of fungi under microscope. When I conducted for hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose, I could obtained glucose in high purity. However, when I did fermentation with food grade yeast, I just obtained less than 1% of bioethanol by using GC analysis with n-propanol as internal standard.
Could anyone kindly give any advices and references for me to know the reason as well as improve my experimental condition?
Best regards,
Kurniawan
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Production of Bioethanol from Agricultural Wastes Using Residual - MDPI
www.mdpi.com › pdf
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As current research on microalgae cultivation and biofuel production is booming,  weather micralgae is an option for future sustainable transportation 
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Than you very much Selva Selvarajah sir for your detailed answer and guidance 
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I am working on an experiment to produce bioethanol using seaweed hydrolysate as a substrate. However, there are two sugars present (Rhamnose and Glucose), the yeast strain I have is Kluyveromyces marxianus  K-21. This yeast strain is able to utilize glucose, however, for Rhamnose I am not too sure since I have not carried out the experiment but on some studies it is not able to completely utilize fully Rhamnose. I have searched journals and papers about strains of yeast that are able to utilize both, such as Pichia stipitis and Candida shehatae but I am not sure specifically which strain is able to utilize both or just be able to utilize Rhamnose. I am really looking forward to your expert opinions. Thank you!
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Hello Dan.
Firstly, Glucose and Rhamnose are different kind of sugars. Glucose is an hexose, and Rhamnose is methyl-pentose or a 6-deoxy-hexose.
As far as I know, "natural" yeast strains usually have one only metabolic pathway. For instance, the majority of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to use hexoses and produce ethanol. However, if you need to utilize both compounds (hexoses and deoxy-hexoses) it is likely that you will need a genetically modified microorganism (capable to ferment both) or perhaps try a cofermentation process (where you use two microorganisms in order to consume both Glucose and Rhamnose).
Sadly, I am not sure of what kind of microorganisms can ferment Rhamnose.
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I am using 500ml GL45 Media storage bottles. 
I want to be able to collect the gas via ballons or let it run through a scrubbing solution as per my choice. 
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It's not just a  a question of DIY . If you want accurate measures you need
a) Follow an established protocol, like the IWA draft (although it still contains some flaws) http://wst.iwaponline.com/content/early/2016/09/19/wst.2016.336. Otherwise you risk amplifying the instrumental error.
b) It's better to employ an instrument like the AMPTS, that has automatic datalogging and normalization of the volume in real time. If the budget is limited, then the u-Flow cell is a good option. See www.bioprocesscontrol.com . Normalization error can be as high as 12 % if done on manual basis.
c) For a comparative table of commercial and self-made instruments, and their corresponding error margins, see chapter 2 of my book: https://www.crcpress.com/Managing-Biogas-Plants-A-Practical-Guide/Rosato/p/book/9781138626614
d) finally, it's better to buy a reactor kit already done and tested rather than toying to build one oneself. You will save a lot of time and money, not to say the risk of publishing wrong data if you micro-leaks, whicha re always impossible to find when you have handmade reactros. The guys at Bioprocess Control have a good assortment of models from batch 500 ml to continuous 10 liter. I personally work with batch 500 ml for research and batch 2 liters for industrial tests.
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Ozone was bubbled into HA + NaOH solution through a diffuser airstone using REDOzone Sterilizer RZ-380MG with an output of 400mg/hr.
Is it possible that ozone output was lacking and therefore zero order reaction ?
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To me the curve you obtained seems very plausible and as the Humic Acid concentration decreased more than 20% in 2h you did for sure get some ozone into the solution.
You don't describe how you measured the humic acid concentration in the experiment. I don't think that you can expect the degradation of humic acid to obey first order kinetic in general. Humic acid isn't a single substance but a complex mixture of many organic molecules with different structure and functional groups.
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I need to screen microalgae most suitable for bioethanol production. 
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The colorimetric anthrone method is commonly used to quantify starch.
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Dear All,
We are interested to develop a bioethanol miniature plant. Is there anyone who knows any company or institution that can built this type of plant?
Thank you.
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Hello Safri, 
The ethanol production from starch is well studied, if you want to use cassava, try to focus in residual biomass to give a value added to that.
I send you two papers of this.
Good luck!! 
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Hi, i am working on microbial fuel cell design and feasibility study for industrial application. and i am having hard time to find any case study or practical waste water treatment in big scale. some suggestion please. thanks to all.
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You will hardly find information about "Big scale" MFCs as there are simply no large scale applications so far (to my knowledge). For MFC systems "big" means > 10L and here are some paper officially describing the "biggest" systems:
Best regards
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Now a days there is increasing interest among researcher and scientists to convert agriculture products to value added products. For example, agriculture by-products are used as substrates for Solid state fermentation to produce nutrients enriched feed for animals and also these by-products are used for producing various enzymes to which is used industrially. But the value addition of these by-products add extra cost to the final produce. What is your view in the above context. 
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Very  good question.Best example is the conversion of farm residue into compost , serving two ends meet , called development of wealth from waste..But you need some effective bio-enhancers..
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I am working on the production of biodiesel through solar energy as heat. However, I have to mix the content by electrical energy which is the drawback in my approach. I would like to transfer the synthesis of biodiesel totally on solar energy rather than using any other form of energy. Is there any approach that can mix the reactants in the flask.
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From the coupled  system, we can calculate the amount of heat requirement and heat release
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Hi,
When cultivating algae for biofuel production, how do you calculate the CO2 reduction? 
My proposed system is based on an integration of a Raceway pond for algae cultivation  to a heat and power plant. The flue gas from the plant is used as carbon source which leads to a CO2-sequestration effect.
In the next step, the biomass is used as a fuel, leading to new CO2-emissions, but also leading to a reduced need for fossil fuels. 
So my question is, how do I calculate the total CO2 reduction? 
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Biogas production can reduce the pollution potential in wastewater by converting oxygen demanding organic matter that could cause low oxygen levels in surface waters.  Nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorous are conserved in biogas effluents and can be used to displace fertilizers in crop production.
While combustion of biogas, like natural gas, produces carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, the carbon in biogas comes from plant matter that fixed this carbon from atmospheric CO2.  Thus, biogas production is carbon-neutral and does not add to greenhouse gas emissions.  Further, any consumption of fossil fuels replaced by biogas will lower CO2 emissions.  
iogas is used as fuel so you can use the calorific value of biogas instead of natural gas and calculate the 1st and 2nd law efficiency of power plant. However if you want to calculate the biomass conversion efficiency then you have to use stoichiometry. 
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Text snapshots from relevant blogs & white papers:
New supplies of feedstocks must be developed, such as trap oil, DAF oil, camelina, jatropha, etc. in order for the biofuel industry to grow appreciably. Not many noticed that Mexican and Brazilian jatropha oil were conditionally approved as RIN-producing pathways by EPA for biofuel in 2015.
...
The US produces about 2 billion pounds (263 million gallons) of yellow grease annually. This production level has not grown appreciably in the last 5 years.
In 2015 the biodiesel producers used 1.254 billion pounds (165 million gallons) of yellow grease. Thus 63% of available yellow grease was used for domestic biodiesel production.
In 2015 the US exported .58 billion pounds (73 million gallons) of yellow grease, primarily to Europe for biofuel production. Thus 28% of available yellow grease was exported.
Therefore, only 9% of yellow grease was used domestically for purposes other than biodiesel, a surprisingly small number.
Currently, tallow is used mainly as livestock feed, and also for the production of soap, lubricants, paint and varnish in a limited quantity. If the majority of tallow is diverted from the current application to fuel production, it may cause indirect effects such as the use of other crops and materials to replace the diverted tallow. In this study, the indirect effects are not considered.
Yellow grease is a mature market. It may not have that much more room to grow. Biodiesel currently uses half of yellow grease produced (EIA; Swisher 2015). This amount of yellow grease is enough to produce about 140M gallons of biodiesel. While yellow grease use in biodiesel production has grown quickly, it is unlikely to continue this rate of growth. An 8%/year increase would provide feedstock for an increase of 11M gallons of biodiesel a year. This increase would come from reducing the amount of yellow grease going to animal feeds. The amount going to biodiesel may continue to increase, but the size of these increases is going to tail off as it becomes difficult to bid yellow grease away from other uses.
...
Animal fats have been a major contributor to biodiesel with a total of 986M pounds of feedstock in 2014. Animal fats are a small part of animal value, so there is not going to be much price response. Per capita consumption of meat in the United States continues to trend downward (ERS 2015). Consistent with this, Table 7 shows a slight downward trend in the rendering of animal fats. There is little potential for increasing the total quantity of animal fats, so biodiesel would have to bid animal fats away from other uses. These other uses include livestock feed (especially poultry), pet foods, and the oleochemical industry as well as edible products (Swisher 2015). Swisher describes pet foods and aquaculture, where fats and oils are replacing fish meal, as growth areas for the rendering industry.
We predicted that soybean oil, corn oil, and tallow will be used in industrial products based on their low price and availability. Increased use in industrial products is a direct result of increased demand for biodegradable lubricants and oils.
... we took an average of the relatively flat soap production over the last five years and projected a continued trend of constant production. The remaining industrial uses (fatty acids, paint and varnish, resins and plastics, and other inedible products) were averaged over the 30-year period of available data (1980-2010) and assumed to remain constant as we were not able to identify any trends for these categories (USDA-ERS, 2016f).
...
Inedible corn oil consumption was previously dominated by use in livestock feed but has been used increasingly as a biofuel feedstock over the past five years. However, inedible corn oil production has been relatively flat since the end of 2013 and is expected to remain flat as extraction yield improvements and the number of producers fractioning out corn oil have leveled off (Jessen, 2013).
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Increased meat production will also have the effect of increased tallow consumption in livestock feed. In addition, increased consumption of lubricants, one of several industrial uses of FOG, will increase the consumption of tallow. Overall, increased production is expected to outweigh increased consumption resulting in about 53.5 million pounds or 7 million gallons of biodiesel equivalent growth in availability per year.
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[White/poultry fat]"other grease" availability for biodiesel production to increase by about 23 million pounds or 3 million gallons of biodiesel equivalent per year.
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The amount of yellow grease used in biodiesel has steadily increased over the past five years and was the second largest input for biodiesel production in 2015 (Figure 2). However, this trend is likely a result of bidding yellow grease stocks away from formerly prominent uses in livestock feed and export. We predict that yellow grease consumption in livestock feed will remain constant as a result of constant production, and that other FOG will be used increasingly in livestock feed. We also expect that yellow grease exports will have dropped to zero by 2016 and will remain at this level. Thus, total consumption and total availability for BBD are expected to remain constant throughout the projection period.
...
**BBD imports**
Imports necessary to meet the RFS mandate are expected to increase year over year as the deficit between available feedstock and required volumes increases. In 2015, the United States imported roughly 334 million gallons of biodiesel and 204 million gallons of renewable diesel (EIA, 2016b, c)
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A continued RFS BBD requirement increase of 100 million gallons per year compared with an average of 31.5 million gallons of increased FOG availability per year will result in exceedingly larger deficits over the projection period... Based on a continued 700 million gallon gap between the BBD mandated volume and BBD needed to fulfill the total advanced and renewable mandate (EPA, 2016a), we expect a deficit of 1.274 billion gallons in 2018 that must be imported; an amount more than double the 2015 BBD import levels. Increased BBD requirements greater than increases in domestic feedstock production will put pressure on feedstock commodity markets and negatively affect other domestic sectors that depend on these resources.
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the analysis is fine, I'd add my view about it: there are feedstocks that cannot be part f any food, these are cleat feedstocks for biofuel or biolube, there are feedstocks that can be eaten, these must enter the cycle of bioproducts in a sequence of first food, then fuel.
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I am looking for a published reliable source (FAO/any research article), from where I can get the calorific value of all the agricultural crops like rice,wheat, pulses and oil-seeds of all kinds etc. Also it will be great if the recommended article has breakdown of this calorific value-into proteins, carbohydrates etc.
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Dear Anjali,
you can find a lot of data on the content of protein, carbohydrate, etc. in the following publication:
Møller J, R Thøgersen, A M Kjeldsen, M R Weisberg, K Soegaard, T Hvelplund and C F Børsting (2000), Fodermiddeltabel - Sammen-sætning og foderværdi af fodermidler til kvæg (English: Feeding component table – Composition and feeding value of feeding components for cattle), Rapport nr 91 Landsudvalget for Kvæg. Foulum, Denmark
You need to enquire the library at the University of Aarhus (Denmark) to get the report. Also, please note it is in Danish.
Hope it helps.
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I am going to perform an experiment using Very high gravity ethanol fermentation medium to monitor the residual glucose, cell number and ethanol production over a hourly period. I performed the experiment before, however, the yeast did not grow well on the agar medium that I used ( YM agar), as a result of this, I am wondering if when also culturing the yeast they should also be spread on Very high gravity ethanol fermentation agar medium. If so, how much agar should be applied?
The basal fermentation medium contained 40 g of glucose, 5 g of yeast extract, 4 g of (NH4)2SO4, 0.3 g of MgSO47H2O, 0.3 g of CaCl2H2O and 1 g of KH2PO4 per liter of deionized water. 
Looking forward to your response.
Thank You.
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I apologize the medium that I will use is  basal fermentation medium consisting of 40 g glucose, 5 g yeast extract, 4 g (NH4)2SO4, 0.3 g MgSO4 7 H20, 0.3 g CaCl2H20 and 1 g KH2PO4 per litre. I want to monitor reducing sugars, ethanol, and cell numbers. The problem is I don't know what agar I can do spread plating on. Should I just add agar to the basal fermentation broth? and if so what amount?
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