Science topic

Biofeedback - Science topic

Biofeedback is the process of becoming aware of various physiological functions using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. Processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception.
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1- Surgical excision followed by diet, biofeedback, APC and Sucralfate
or
2- Endoscopic debulking followed by diet, biofeedback, APC and Sucralfate?
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In adults, a quarter of SRUS may appear as polypoid lesions. Rectal prolapse can be seem in about 1/5 of SRUS in adults.
Topical sucralfate, salicylate, corticosteroids, mesalazine have been reported to be effective. Surgery is considered only for patients not responsive to conservative measures and biofeedback.
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My long term study of patients with fibromyalgia and diffuse type 2 occupational overuse syndrome during use of sEMG biofeedback shows that there is a symptomatic difference in pain
during splinting of muscles causing deep ischemic pain and the release of muscle tension which brings about numbness, pins and needles and deep throbbing pain. I am looking for an objective measurement to verify this
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The Treaty of Sleep Medicine, of the Spanish Sleep Society, published by the Editorial Médica Panamericana, is the first book written in Spanish on this discipline. In it, the subject of fibromyalgia and its relationship with sleep disorders is deepened with scientific evidence. The symptoms and discomfort caused by this disease are usually complex and difficult to approach, and they usually require the intervention of different professionals in the field of medicine and health: PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA ASSOCIATE PRIMARY SLEEP DISORDERS MORE OFTEN THAN GENERAL POPULATION.
Let's describe some key points to understand it a little more.
The characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia are pain and fatigue. However, the majority of patients also have cognitive, mood and sleep disturbances, which is why these episodes have also been included in the diagnostic criteria for the disease.
The mechanisms involved in the development of fibromyalgia have an effect on sleep disturbances, but remain a source of research at the present time.
Fibromyalgia patients associate primary sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, periodic leg movements during sleep, and restless legs syndrome) more often than the general population.
Fibromyalgia patients frequently have mood or anxiety disorders, which in turn are accompanied by sleep disturbances. There seems to be a relationship between pain, mood disorders, and sleep disturbances.
There is no drug specifically approved for the treatment of sleep disturbances in fibromyalgia. However, duloxetine, pergabalin, and laamitriptyline are the most recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Sodium oxybate, a drug used for daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden and usually brief episodes of bilateral loss of muscle tone during wakefulness), has performed very well in studies of fibromyalgia patients.
Melatonin is a molecule with the ability to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm and circadian rhythms or biological rhythms (oscillations of biological variables at regular intervals of time), so it could have beneficial effects in the treatment of fibromyalgia. This element has the ability to decrease the cadence of sleep and promote its continuity. Although at present there are favorable results due to its use –always under medical prescription-, the number of studies carried out is small.
Failure to achieve restorative sleep night after night, or systematically suffer from other sleep disturbances is related to a clinical worsening of fibromyalgia, so appropriate treatment can improve the overall symptoms of the disease.
If a dream is a wish, the fibromyalgia wish may be fulfilled by dreaming.!!!
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Hi
1. We want to buy a new system. I am familier with Vicon and Qualisys mocap systems. Coda motion and motion analysis systems are also under consideration. Does anyone has experience with Motion Analysis Inc and Coda Motion mocap systems? Which one you is better for a general purpose life science motion analysis Lab?
2. In Vicon systems we are limited to the vicon plugin gait model mostly. As I know bodybuilder is not an easy to use software but I do not know about the new software developed by Vicon, procalc. Do anyone worked with procalc? What about the skeleton builder of Motion Analysis ?
3. We have a limited space (9 by 6 meter room) and I also want to know if having 3 coda trackers could do the job as 8 cameras of other systems ( because of budget limitations we can atmost buy 8 cameras for passive systems or 3 active trackers each having 3 embeded cameras ). We can not put the trackers in 120 degree distance around the center of capture volume and I am not sure if 3 trackers would be enough.
4. Also I want to know which system is the best for real time data streaming to matlab or labview. We want to use the system for giving real time kinematic feedback to the subject and use the system for biofeedback test and  training also for augmented and virtual reality base rehabilitation purpuses.
Sorry for asking 4 questions in one comment. And thank you for sharing your ideas
Bests
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I just came across this old question; I am sure you have your answer by now but since others might Google "Vicon vs Qualisys" and land on this page, I share my opinion. I have worked with both Vicon and Qualisys and in my experience Qualisys was easier to work with. The Vicon system I used had active LED markers which at first sound great because each marker blinks at unique frequency hence not confused with the other markers. After I used it I realized that wiring was more challenging that I had thought (e.g. wire entanglements impede user's motion etc) more importantly if the power to the marker is interrupted you'd loose the LED marker in your data. The latter problem did not seem so prominent during data collection however when I was analyzing the data, I discovered that the data were missing on many long (3 sec or longer) time intervals which would make it impossible to interpolate. I did not experience either of the abovementioned issues working with a Qualisys system with passive markers.
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Interested as part of a larger project in Brain-Gut connection, how to measure anal sphincter pressure pre-post surgery (largely colo-rectal) biofeedback to evaluate changes resulting from biofeeback effects.
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I wonder if it's possible to do with electrical impedance analysis? Would have to be calibrated with a gold standard though.
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I hope to soon have a ridiculous amount of data from about 80 hours of 16 channel EEG recordings. I will also have 160 productivity/performance indicators along several dimensions, each associated with half an hour of recorded EEG signal. Note that the frequency of aggregate data generation is about five orders of magnitude higher than the frequency of the productivity/performance data.
Is there any halfway plausible way to extract, from this vast amount of data, features of these waveform time series that have the strongest relationship to my productivity/performance measures, without imposing strong priors on the nature of those feature? Like, I could do spectral power by electrode, but if the I impose that structure and the real best predictor is anticorrelation between two regions, I’ll never catch it. Maybe some kind of two-phase unsupervised/supervised learning structure? Or if anyone knows of a catalog of features that had been found to discriminate between those with high vs. average to low productivity, self-discipline, etc., I’d be interested in that. I have looked for, and failed to find, such a catalog in the past. (I am more interested in executive function than intelligence for this purpose).
My ultimate goal is to create a neurofeedback filter for personalized productivity enhancement. Against the desire for weak or unspecified priors, I also have a bias toward filters which are not pure black boxes; which is to say, if I am to train my one and only brain against some measurement, and maybe offer others an opportunity to do likewise, I’d like to know what that measurement is.
If I succeed in doing this, I will almost certainly be doing the data analysis with R.
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Nice Contribution Eugene Veniaminovich Lutsenko
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Hello. I want to measure HRV before activity, during activity and after activity. Each measurement will take 5 minutes. I have limited budget and i m searching for a portable device. And it must be reliable for scientific research. I've found some alternatives like shimmer ear clip, polar watches, polar chest strap and some finger and you may offer me different devices. What is the best option for me?
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To study HRV in a scientific research environment it's important to record the ECG. The ECG is the basis for heart beat detection and once its saved by the device you are able to check, whether all heart beats are correctly identified.
We made good expierence with Hexoskin Hx1 and Faros 180°/360°.
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Need a detailed explanation or understanding of respiratory biofeedback devices
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One of the types of biofeedback used for respiration of capnometry. For some people, looking at end title CO2 levels and using that as a feedback signal can be helpful.
For disordered mechanics of respiration, surface electromyographic feedback can be used to train accessory muscles etc that are used in disordered respiration.
Respiration belts used on the chest and abdomen are also very commonly used.
There are many diseases and apps that are sometimes called biofeedback that don't take any physiological measurements at all, and instead work by instructing the user how and when to breathing. Though most would not consider these to be biofeedback, they are sometimes used for the same purposes.
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2 PREFACE
The concept behind the development of a Psychecology game (PEG) prototype is that authentic game-play based on the most current cognitive research and the principles of dream analysis identified by Carl Jung can promote individual and collective psychological atonement. The dynamic for achieving at-one-ment or coherence is grounded in the scientific hypothesis that universal reality is quantum electrodynamic (QED). According to Jung, such QED patterns called archetypes of the unconscious are projected as ubiquitous mediated images that—even on the scale of pixel patterns—have the same narrative architecture, the same dramatic QED structure. Images tell both objective and subjective stories on multiple atomic-molecular-universal scales. Therefore, “contextual meaning” imbedded within the narrative architecture of story images according to rules of steganography can be induced in game players according to Carl Jung’s Compensational process. This induction is the essence of Jungian dream analysis in which the psychiatrist suggests (amplifies) the symbolic meaning imbedded in the symbolism of dreams. When a dreamer has insight as to this meaning hidden in dreams, insight becomes therapeutic. Moreover, according to Jung, it is not the psychiatrist who heals. Instead, the dreamer heals self with meaningful insight. (Abdullah Alabdulgader, Rollin McCraty, Michael Atkinson, York Dobyns, Alfonsas Vainoras, Minvydas Ragulskis, and Viktor Stolc, 2018; Martin, Howard, ND; Garling, Caleb & Cully, Antoine, 2015; Mortier, Richard, Haddadi, Hamed, Henderson, Tristan, McAuley, Derek, Crowcroft, Jon, 2015; McCraty, Rollin, 2004; McCraty, Rollin, Atkinson, Mike, Tomasino, Dana, and Tiller, William, 1998)
Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The word steganography combines the Greek words steganos, meaning "covered, concealed, or protected", and graphein meaning "writing". GAMING CULTURAL ATONEMENT: COHERENT REFRAMING OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS 3 Images abound in our experience: Dreams, memories, fantasies, the mind’s eye, television, technological monitors (Information & Communication Technologies—ICTs), and real-life (waking dreams). All images can be understood and researched according to principles of steganography and correlated with algorithms depicting a unified QED field or a Jungian dreamscape. (Schafer, Stephen Brock, 2017; Schafer, Stephen, Ed., 2017; Schafer, Stephen, 2012). Though steganography is an ancient concept, it is already being researched in terms of a digital context. (Radcliff, Deborah, 2002) With further research, steganography could be refined for the sophisticated purposes of dream-image analysis leading to therapeutic induction. Because these multiple perceptual dimensions can be correlated and measured with the proposed PEGs as dream analogs, learning, healing, and individuation can be facilitated in natural ways by amplifying cognitive-experiential dynamics. Most important, PEGs can be used as neurobiological research instruments to discover appropriate QED ethical patterns in a superconductive mediated reality.4 The paradigm shift into such a superconductive mediated reality is not presently being addressed in meaningful ways, but PEG research could clarify the trajectory of civilized moral evolution in timely ways. PEG research could provide hard science relative to fostering heroic citizenship in players with mediated biofeedback. Applied to content of the Media-sphere such biofeedback could teach 3 Neils Provos, a Ph.D. student in computer science at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, decided to do his dissertation on steganography. Provos developed detection and cracking tools to analyze images for signs of steganography, such as overly large files and uneven bit mapping. 4 The term “superconductive” will be explained more fully throughout the proposal, but research such as that of Danah Zohar has established a hypothesis that what physicists understand as superconductivity exists neurobiologically at body temperatures. More recently, the research of Stuart Hameroff and Sir Roger Penrose has provided strong evidence that consciousness, itself, originates at harmonized quantum levels in neural microtubules. GAMING CULTURAL ATONEMENT: COHERENT REFRAMING OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS 4 and heal collective
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Have you considered "coherence" as measured by heart-rate-variability as an indicator of gamer morality during game-play?
No, no I haven't.
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What is your idea concern using the biofeedback based techniques expedite such recovery processes in incomplete SCI patients?
Best,
H. Kobravi
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Hi Matija
Thank you so much for you guidance. I would be delighted if we can have a cooperation in near future.
Best
Hamid
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Biofeedback is a method that uses the mind to control a body function that the body normally regulates automatically, such as muscle tension, heart rate, pain perception or stability... The biofeedback therapist will then teach physical and mental exercises that can help patient control the function. Can these exercises also be effective for involuntary actions such as stress? If yes, By which method?
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A colleague and I are interested in using EKG-based biofeedback for a new study. Neither of us has much experience with cardiac measures, so we're looking for equipment recommendations. Specifically, we would like a system that will allow us to detect changes in heart rate and/or PEP following a visual stimulus, which will be used to give onscreen feedback to the participant. We're planning to design our own program, so we'd like to find something that doesn't require us to use the company's proprietary software.
I've seen a lot of people recommending the Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 for EKG, but it looks like that can only be used to collect data offline. Can anyone recommend a good system that could be used for biofeedback?
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This is not a straightforward task unless you're a reasonable engineer.
You can't get PEP from just an EKG signal, so let's confine this to HR: you need to a) measure instantaneous HR, b) process it in close-to-real-time, c) display it close-to-real-time, and potentially d) give pre-programmed instructions or feedback simultaneously to c). I don't think commercial biofeedback systems have this amount of flexibility, as they tend to use pre-programmed protocols. 
I think http://openbci.com/ is your most realistic possibility. 
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I would be very intersted to hear of any research/practical clinical experience you have had.  Particularly what impact you feel there was on overall outcome.
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Hello Lise, 
You may already be aware of this, but I thought I'd mention that Sally Archer, who is a speech and language therapist based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust, did her PhD research on surface EMG biofeedback in dysphagia rehabilitation in acute stroke. 
Sally has a ResearchGate profile, but you will also find her contact details on NHS Mail. Her thesis is accessible online through the King's Research Portal at King's College London. 
Best wishes, 
Tino
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Hi,
is there anybody doing research in the field of biofeedback? I am a psychologist and biofeedback trainer and have a question to which I can't find any papers in pubmed:
RSA is a well known pattern of rhythmic changes of the pulse frequency (pf) dependent on breathing. PF increases with inhalation and decreases with exhalation. The explanation is that with inhalation the sympathetic nervous system gets stronger and with exhaling the parasympathetic. That's clear. But my experience after a couple of years training with different patients is that this pattern is just the first step towards a really balanced state. Very important is that the puls volume AMPLITUDE also changes with breathing. It Increases with exhaling and decreases with inhaling as the parasympathetic nerve system (=exhaling) relaxes the vascular muscles leading to an Increase of pulse amplitude.
As an attachment a picture out of my biofeedback-system. The first line is the raw puls curve I get from the pulsplethysmography, next line is the pulse amplitude, then the pulse frequency and last the breathing curve where increasing means inhaling and decreasing exhaling.
Does anybody know this pattern and maybe some literatur concerning this issue?
Thanks, Wolfhard
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@Patrik, thank you very much for all the papers! I have just red them and a lot of others and so I know something about the physiologic basics of the phenomen. But my question remains unanswered wether there is someone else besides me who traines this waveforms with biofeedback.
@Javi, yes indeed, and it seems that there is a component within this area independent of intersubjectiv variability. The 0.1 Hz is a little mysterium, in Yoga it is well known and I think it is not a coincidence that it is just the rhythm of the normal clock. 0.1 Hz is 6 times per Minute, five seconds inhaling, five exhaling. Our nervous system runs best when we run at the same speed as the clock.
@Josephine: I don't understand what you want to do. but biofeedback as a placebo seems a little bit strange for me.
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looking for reasons why skin conductance is limited. While at the same time other autonomous parameters (blood volume pulse,...) respond in a contradictory manner.  
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During therapy session, hardware data aquisition instruments, can prove electrodermal activity in brain.  This is proof to clients of change in mental status, as well as indicator to therapist of helpful training.
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Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: A pilot study.
By Polak, A. Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Vol 40(1), Mar 2015, 25-31.
Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review.
By Schoenberg, Poppy L. A.; David, Anthony S.
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Vol 39(2), Jun 2014, 109-135.
Neurofeedback.
By Wyckoff, Sarah; Birbaumer, Niels
Hofmann, Stefan G. (Ed); Dozois, David J. A. (Ed); Rief, Winfried (Ed); Smits, Jasper A. J. (Ed), (2014). The Wiley handbook of cognitive behavioral therapy (Vols. 1-3). , (pp. 273-309). Wiley-Blackwell, xx, 1439 pp.
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I observed an unconvenient delay with the RMS calculation method (window = 0.375 ms), even without overlapping. 1) There are principles for using the RMS method and 2) Reduce this delay using the linear envelop would be a relevant way?
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We have used even 750ms delay in calculating MAV of EMG and also envelope with a Bayesian model. Subjects never claimed the system is sluggish. If your biofeedback does not need fast responses you can get away with a lot of delay. 
Kia
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Have anyones used the ProComp2 (Computerized Biofeedback System From Thought Technology) to assess skin conductance response? Is a good device for research?
regards
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It's reasonable. Specifically, the accuracy seemed reasonable, but I never cross-compared it with another device. The raw data is available but the native software isn't any good for analysis. Unless they've changed it since I used it. What are you using for analysis?
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Has anyone good ideas for control conditions in a RCT evaluating the effectiveness of a VR-based relaxation training?
Background: The intervention includes 2 weekly session of 30 minutes relaxation training for 4 weeks. I am going to measure the physiological response during each training, so the control group should have an activity with the same general conditions, without inducing relaxation or stress.
- I have thought about "quiet time" but since the study is supposed to include 8 interventions I am affraid this control conditions might lead to a large dropout in the control group. 
- Another idea was to use neutral video clips, but I am not sure about the content of those clips
Any good ideas / experiences on that?
Thanks a lot to all of you :-)
David
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Hi David,
Happy to try and help too. What would the relaxation training involve? As I'm sure you know, a good active control group should be as close as possible to the group of interest but without the key component. If you'd be happy to share a little more on what happens in the training then that would really help. For example, what is the VR component of this? At the very least I'd suggest your control will need a VR component too (especially if you want to reduce expectation effects).
All the best
Matt
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I am planing a study investigating the usefulness of VR supported relaxation. I am thinking about using physiological parameters (skin temperature, skin conductance, heart rate, respiratory rate) to directly measure the effect of the relaxation exercise. 
For what I know some of those measures are sensitive to movement, especially the skin conductance. 
Has anyone experience with measurement of those parameters while applying VR?
And would you recommend any other parameters to directly measure the effect of the relaxation exercise?
Thank you very much for your help!!
Best regards, 
David
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Hi David, psychophysiological measures have been a main component to all of my work which has included simulators, VR, desktop, and "real life" scenarios.
The primary measure I have used has been EDA (skin conductance) and more recently heart rate measures from PPG (primarily HRV). 
I currently recommend the Empatica E4 for a relatively robust sensor which can be worn during VR use (including HMDs).  Using a wrist sensor like the E4, which also grabs temperature and accelerometer data, allows you to correct for physical movement to a certain degree if necessary (temp for physical exertion, accel for movement artifacts).
I would agree with your use of both HRV and EDA.  EDA should be a strong measure for relaxation, assuming you're not having participants perform other tasks which have been shown to confound data.  E.g., if you're interested in relaxation (operationalized as arousal via EDA) then you would not want to have them perform excessive physical activity, extremely difficult mental exercises, or place them in sickness inducing virtual environments.  HRV then can be used to help clarify some of those findings as it measures both sympathetic & parasympathetic responses and you can use the EDA data as your window into just the sympathetic.
Depending on your experimental setup, you could also grab things like accelerometer/gyroscope data from your HMD to look for head movement (I would anticipate lower movement = more relaxed, but I have not done this work before). 
Additionally, I would suggest using some post-treatment self-report to help add another measure.  Just from a quick scholar search, there was a relative study from 1975 (in link below).  Also attaching my MS thesis which discusses EDA as a measure of mental effort and sickness.
Happy to discuss further if you'd like! Good luck!
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I showed him the announcement of the Tesla Model 3 because he was curious. And I just see a tiny arousal in the data. Then I showed him videos of the 1g acceleration of the model S. Same here, he had less arousal than I thought.
Yesterday I recorded his GSR with comedy videos and he laughed. Still, his variance was similar to the image case. I think I placed correctly the electrodes on his fingers, also because I made different attempts.
So far I never saw something like this, I know that some people have less variance than others, but I am worried by the values of my dad.
I also have a reading of my mother, but she was tired so the low variance in her case could be justified.
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There is quite a few things that can produce results like this. Unfortunately it is not always easy to identify which is the causal factor.
Firstly there is individual differences: Some people just are non-responders,
Secondly: If the starting level (tonic) is quite high then the response level (phasic) will look very low because of a ceiling effect,
Thirdly: The equipment and software could have the wrong filters causing the responses to not be seen correctly,
Forthly: The skin preparation and cleaning procedure you are using could be creating noise/bad connections.
I find the biggest responses come from a surprise/jump try that to see if you can get a response.
Good Luck
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We are especially interested in: EMG, skin conductance and blood circulation measurements.
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Thanks a lot Joost Lowyck
Regards
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I mean, I know it depends also on the location and the type of pain (headache disorder, neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain).
I'm looking a basic solution (2 channel) with software to start using it both for research and clinical use.
One channel could be use for eeg and the other? (e.g. muscle tone, skin conductance/impedence, blood pressure, breathing, heart rate variability).
Any suggestion?
Sorry if that is a little bit broad question
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Hi,
absolutely right, depends on the kind of pain.
puls volume sensor at the temple for certain types of headache works for most patients.
a huge part of the patients who can be treated with biofeedback have chronic musculosceletal pain. EMG for tension related muscle pain, usually upper (trapezius) and lower (erector spinae) back as well as neck pain. another group of patients that might profit from biofeedback along with physiotherapy are pain patients with tension related pain or pain due to asymmetrical posture or gait after injury. Not sure how your machine is set up, but for EMG which is very effective, you might need 2 channels.
other measures:
most patients in a psychotherapeutical setting tense up because of psychological stressors. that is often accompanied by an increase in heart rate. that might be another variable to control that is not directly linked to the direct physiological cause of the pain. so by teaching subjects/patients to control their reaction to stress it might help them to alleviate pain.
hope that helps a little
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I am developing a study with the following KP schedule:
80 Trials total with 5 Trials of 100% KP, 5 Trials of 80% KP, 5 Trials of 60% KP, 5 Trials of 40% KP, and 60 Trials of 20% KP.
I calculate this to be 32.5% KP.  Is this a good faded KP schedule?
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knowledge of performance (KP) is responsive information related to the source of errors, how to correct,  how much the performance changed?
so when you design schedule, i think you should consider the trails with the concept of  KP
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The Terms HRV BF, Heart Coherence BF, Respiratory BF and RSA BF often seem to be used synonymously. However, different authors stress different aspects of the intervention. Furthermore, the best respiratory frequency to increase HRV (around 0,1 Hz) doesn't always seem to be the best frequency for HR/RSA Synchrony/Coherence. Are there clear distinctions?
And what is the difference in calling the respective Intervention "... Biofeedback" or "... Training"?
Thank you.
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Hi Dominik,
You're quite right, many terms are used synonymously, another title that you may have seen is Baroreflex Biofeedback or Blood Pressure Biofeedback. Readers may be limited to discerning the focus of the intervention (and thus the appropriateness of the title) from the reported methods in each study. This is due to a number of factors including (non-exhaustive); the explosion of Biofeedback related studies around the world with differences in publication requirements between research areas, a predominance of proprietary Biofeedback methods for intervention studies (e.g., Heart Math). You will mostly see measures of parasympathetic cardiac activity (e.g., RMSSD) as dependent variables. Again this is due to a number of factors, but perhaps most of all because of the link these measures have with central and peripheral physiology.
The aim of these interventions is to enhance parasympathetic nervous system dominance and alleviate sympathetic over-activation. As you well know, this can be achieved via slow (~0.1Hz) rhythmic breathing which will increase HRV via RSA. Increased HRV (broadly) is indicative of, and causes increased Baroreflex activity (blood pressure variability) which is widely considered the main therapeutic mechanism underlying these approaches. Herein lies the problem because the following can be termed in many ways; prescribing or training respiratory patterns or frequencies to increase RSA levels and HRV amounts to exercise blood pressure variability or Baroreflexive mechanisms.
From what I have seen Coherence and related terms are attributed to proprietary methods whereas HRV and RSA are closer to clinical terms, although they may all be very similar in delivery. I have found Baroreflex Biofeedback and similar to be more common in clinical publications. Respiratory biofeedback could vary from simple respiratory rate feedback (i.e., during tasks/induced stress Vs relaxation), or also include HRV and/or blood pressure variability measures.
Delivery techniques vary between self-initiated and prescribed methods which may also play a part in the terms used. For example, some interventions increase RSA by asking the participant closely following HR changes with their respiration, whereas others will require participants to simply follow a breathing pacer. In both cases HRV may be the dependent variable and respiratory rate the independent variable, however the method to achieve the desired physiological effects differ. These differences may go some way to distinguishing Biofeedback from Training, however, as far as I know there has yet to be a consensus on the correct way to distinguish these. Arguably all Biofeedback techniques require training, or some form of bespoke education and learning.
Regarding optimal frequencies, it appears that maximal HRV measures (especially those expressed in Time Domain) may occur at around four breaths per minute, as opposed to six breaths per minute (0.1Hz). This does not necessarily suggest that Baroreflex activity is optimally exercised at four, which is perhaps indicated by drops in RSA as you've noted. Other issues include the ratio of inhale to exhale and breath volumes, both of which have have received little attention.
I hope this information helps, apologies for any poor spelling and grammar. Feel free to ask other questions. For further information I suggest you see 'How and why does HRV biofeedback work' Lehrer & Gevirtz (2014) and the 'Neurovisceral Integration Model' by Thayer et al., (2000).
Regards,
Mike
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Just sat in on a presentation arguing that neurofeedback could affect positive clinical responses in patients who made little progress with other short-term therapies. Even suggesting that these modalities have shown results with persistently suicidal patients treated on an outpatient basis. 
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For reported research, there are various studies regarding "neurofeedback" or "EEG biofeedback" at the NIH's Entrez PubMed Website. The best bet may be to enter an advanced search with the specific condition, e. g. depression, PTSD using each of the terms in quotes above. Though, they may not specifically refer to Acute Inpatient Psychiatric participants. Specific studies include the Peniston Protocol. I think his original research was in a VA hospital. You may also want to try the Clinical Trials Network for NIH for current or recent sutdies.
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Hi dear all!
In our study we are showing the participants (as potential customers) various types of advertisements and recording their response (microsiemens values) simultaneously thorough Hrv and Electrodermal Activity. I am curious to find out what the microsiemens values would be for instance when the participants like or dislike the ad? In other words would the microsiemens values increase or decrease and how in these emotional states (of like / dislike)? How would we be able to determine like or dislike by looking at microsiemens values? I would be happy if you could provide info about the above.
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I believe that those values only provide information in terms of the intensity of arousal, from which you can't directly infer the valence. However, there is strong empirical support for the fact that negative emotions have stronger arousal responses than positive ones, since negative emotions (or affect) normally instructs the body to react, the so called "fight or flight" reaction. Good luck with your interesting research.
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I have done a short review of biofeedback and addictions treatment. I have not noticed any current studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in addictions. I am interested as I am a Licensed Clinical Alcohol and Drug Counselor and a MSW candidate.
Please provide links to resources. Thank you.
Don.
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Ed Boyer from UMass has published on use of biofeedback on craving --see below.  there are additional publications in this area.
Preliminary efforts directed toward the detection of craving of illicit substances: the iHeal project.
Boyer EW, Fletcher R, Fay RJ, Smelson D, Ziedonis D, Picard RW.
J Med Toxicol. 2012 Mar;8(1):5-9. doi: 10.1007/s13181-011-0200-4.
PMID:
22311668
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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I need some advice on how to start.
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Hi, you can have a look in the first chapter of my thesis for an introduction on emotion recognition in the context of brain-computer interfaces: doc.utwente.nl/82072/1/thesis_C_Mühl.pdf
We also recently published a special issue and an freely available survey on the topic: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbci20/current#.VBK-c2OM3Sk
The research was not done in a car, but the general issues with physiology-based emotion recognition (in the wild) are the same and should be interesting. I always also like to recommend Fairclough's work on psychophysiological inferences (references in both docs above).
Hope that helps!
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Has anyone used of heart rate variability biofeedback or monitoring in inpatient psychiatry?
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Does this device provide the raw EEG signal or alpha, beta, etc. waves? Does it collaborate with MATLAB?
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Methodology and structures for research on bio- and neurofeedback systems.
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I have done it , thank you,