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Bioethics - Science topic

Bioethics are a branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
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Hello, how are you? I am a student at the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jo sé de Caldas in Colombia, I have a bioethics project in which I have to ask a question and get the answer from researchers. I would be very grateful for your opinion
What do you think is the importance of bioethics in today's science?
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Bioethics offers ethical guidance in a particular field of human conduct.
Bioethics not only provides a guideline to medical professionals about clinical decision-making, advancements in medical technologies, but also playing vital role in policy changes and legislation in recent years.The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care.
Bioethics is mainly be confronted by biopolitics and biopower,
with respect to control ‚all life on this planet‘ by ‚tech-know-logical tools‘.
Biopolitics is a term that refers to the intersection and mutual incorporation of life and politics.
Espero que esto satisfaga su consulta.
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1.A Study to Assess the Awareness of Justice, Equality and Equity -Amongst Homeopathic Practitioners in Practice Premalata Rotti, Kiran Patil, Girish Moogi, Rinku Porwal DOI Number: 10.38020/GBE.7.3.2019.146-150
2.Awareness of Patient’s Rights Amongst the Teaching Faculty of Non-Medical Teaching Institutions in Belagavi Rinku Porwal, Vishal Koulapur, Somshekhar Pujar, Girish Moogi, Kiran Patil, Premalata Rotti DOI Number: 10.38020/GBE.7.3.2019.141-145
these from
"Global Bioethics Enquiry"
An International Journal Of The UNESCO CHAIR IN BIOETHICS (HAIFA)
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I think this an author is of greater value.
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Hi,
I am a Ph.D. student in bioethics. My main interest is animal ethics.
For my Ph.D. thesis, I will study ecological utopias from a bioethics and animal ethics perspective. My aim is to see, understand and discuss how utopian writers placed animals in their works. I will then discuss my findings in the light of animal ethics literature.
To do that, I concluded that I should be using one of the qualitative research methods since I am not interested in quantitative findings (how many times the word animal is mentioned, how often it was mentioned, etc.)
Now, I am swamped into the theoretical mess of methodological approaches. Although I want to simplify it since I am only interested in animal ethics findings, I just want to approach the qualitative study as an instrument.
I did many readings and the draft conclusion for my methodology is that:
  • I will not adopt any qualitative approaches since my research does not fit into any of them (ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, narrative research, case study ... )
  • I will adopt a purposive sampling approach to decide on my sampling.
  • I will use document analysis as my data collection method. (Is this the correct term?)
  • I will use qualitative content analysis as my data analysis method. (or should I use thematic analysis?, or are these the same?)
Am I right with these selections?
Is there any conceptual/nominal/theoretical mistake?
Are there any subcategories to these approaches that will better fit my research?
If you think that approach wouldn't work, what would be your suggestion for a newbie in QR like me. (Although I am new in that particular area, I still want to carry out scientifically rigid research)
Thanks a lot, everyone,
Any help is much appreciated.
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It does indeed sound like you want to do a content analysis, which can range from a more deductive approach, where you use pre-defined codes, to a more inductive approach, where you create the codes during your coding process. A middle approach its known as "hybrid" content analysis, where you begin with an initial set of codes and then add to them as your do your analysis.
In terms of thematic analysis, Braun and Clarke have recently defined their preferred approach as "reflexive thematic analysis," which relies on a strictly inductive approach.
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Dear colleagues,
as a sexualities researcher, I am faced with a difficult question regarding the complex dynamics between seeking ways in which evidence-based science on human sexual orientation (e.g. on the normalcy of homo-/bi-sexuality, understanding of unchangeability and immutability in the domain of attractions; proven harmful effects of sexual orientation change efforts - SOCE; minority stress and stigma influence on LGBT+ people's well-being, etc.) collide with the prevalent doctrines perpetuated by various Churches (e.g. by Catholic Church, etc.). For example, in most of the Catholic discussions or written sources, I continue to see distinguishing between one's sexual orientation (as a trait) and the seeming (and seen as sinful) choice of acting upon this "drive" or "impulse".
By making this distinction, one is faced with a view in which human (homo/bi)sexuality is represented as (a) suppressible and (b) possibly changeable.
Here, I would like to ask you, fellow scholars, if you have some resources, references, results of your research as well as consequent suggestions in which it may be possible to find fruitful grounds for progressive discussion with a capacity for reconciling this schism between scientific evidence on (a) understanding of sexuality as human natural physiological need similar to hunger or thirst (Maslow 1987 Motivation and Personality), and (b) unchangeability of sexual orientation and harmful practices of SOCE which is backed by several position statements by respected scientific communities like World Psychiatric Association (Bhugra, D., Eckstrand, K., Levounis, P., Kar, A., & Javate, K. R. (2016). WPA Position Statement on Gender Identity and Same-Sex Orientation, Attraction and Behaviours. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(3), 299–300. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20340)
In this view, the religious (normative, moral) requirement of suppression or alteration of someone's sexual orientation and proscribed partner selection effectively restricting homo/bisexual individuals' potentials for forming and sustaining long-term relationships (and in this view acting upon their physiological desires) poses a substantial barrier to their well-being as well. The significance of these questions surpass individuals or interindividual psychology, they foray into law, religious freedoms, bioethics and so much more.
I am sure that many have asked themselves similar questions, so perhaps this discussion will also benefit other scholars.
Sincerely,
Michal Pitoňák
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Thank you for your response Lukasz Dominik Kaczmarek . In this respect, I wonder whether the church does, in fact, distinguish between the voluntary and respected priests' devotion to celibacy and the enforced moral requirement of non-heterosexuals to suppress their sexuality which would otherwise be viewed as sinful? I see there is both normative/moral difference as well as distinction in motivation and role of individual's choice.
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To issue a permit for clinical trials, it is necessary to obtain approval from a number of expert bodies - the Commission on Bioethics, the National Medicines Regulator ... often the applicant has to apply separately to these expert bodies.
How necessary and effective are single window mechanisms for authorizing clinical trials?
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Hi,
Clinical trials form one of their agendas but they are lot many things which are also priorities. I don't think that anywhere a single-window system exists. clinical trials are of diverse nature and permissions have to be obtained from several departments.
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I have been reading certain publication that mainly talks about Artificial Intelligence and how it affects behavioural capability in general (DOIs:10.1007/s10676-021-09598-8, 10.1177/2057047320950636, 10.2196/22845, 10.1007/s41649-018-0061-0, and so on). Along with the exponential progression of AIs in certain applications (Such as, but not limited to, Chatbots programmes).
It seemed somehow apparent to me, that there have been emotionalization towards AIs, such as employing it as friend. Of course the depicted AIs in popular culture references and sci-fis are, well of course still currently in the realm of "Sci-fi".
But seeing the progression, along with the prolonged isolation from social interaction (mainly due to pandemic) in many countries. How should we view such term? Especially towards the notion of self-consciousness, humanization, and of course biological realization in human-bots interaction?
Is it something that we must stay neutral, look forward upon, or perhaps an inevitable shift that will forever change how we view the norm.
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Rafal Rzepka Thank you for the note!!
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Hi, I would like to start a conversation concerning genetic testing. What do you think what the advantages and disadvantages of genetic testing from the point of citizen’s and country’s view are? I would be glad for any texts and responses :) Thanks in advance!
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Genetic diseases can run in families. Genetic testing helps in identifying the underlying cause in many families. Before testing we need to try to find out the possible inheritance pattern from family history or constellation of clinical findings. This would help in making a specific diagnosis or keep few differentials and go for advanced testing. Secondly, find out which test really needs to be done? For example, if child with intellectual disability or autism comes, the preferred test would be a chromosomal micro-array; as per prevailing recommendations. Thirdly, appropriate counseling needs to be done regarding the expectations and limitations of test. Fourth, if cause is identified and disorder causes significant morbidity and mortality, a prenatal diagnosis in next pregnancy or rarely pre-implantation diagnosis can be planned to facilitate prevention in the family.
Cons: Genetic testing may not be able to give an appropriate cause or diagnosis in some cases. In such cases, maternal illness during pregnancy may be responsible in few cases, or pregnancy or delivery complications may be underlying reason. Further advanced evaluation may be required in few cases which may be financially not feasible. In these cases also appropriate genetic counseling and alternative options and follow ups should be advised. Sometimes, a positive report may add to the anxiety especially in adult onset pre-symptomatic testing; and good counseling and consultation with psychiatrist may be required
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Is anyone aware of any organizations that one may apply to for help sponsoring distance learning education in bioethics?
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As part of the available forms of financial support for the development of education conducted remotely via the Internet, e-learning programs are being developed in some countries by government subsidies for schools and universities. On the basis of these financial subsidies, universities and schools can purchase modern IT equipment, computers, laptops, more modern IT systems, etc. enabling the effective implementation of e-learning.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Analysis of these scores will be helpful for understanding learner's needs and effectiveness of teaching session.
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Hello, Why not? I agree with the answer put forth by José-Ignacio Antón.
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Do you think sociobiology as a science is alive? I give an example of my book, which describes the subject of study, methods of sociobiology. Everyone's opinion is important. I would like to make a translated version of the brochure in English, if this is of interest to researchers
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So important Science and if it's applied, then too many complicated social issues will be solved...... So impressive question dear dr. Pushkin 👍🌷
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Bolivia es un país en el que no existe legislación que regule la existencia o las funciones de un Comité de Bioetica hospitalario o asistencial. En función a su implementación, quiero establecer qué requisitos deben existir para facilitar o canalizar su implementación.
Este es un medio social y profesional con poca sensibilidad por la problemática ética en la práctica sanitaria.
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Estimado colega Daniel,
La pluralidad de visiones si bien es necesaria en un Comité de Bioética, no es suficiente. Requerimos supervisar nuestro propio equilibrio dinámico
de ser "agentes morales" y "agentes epistémicos" a la vez, revisando permanentemente las coordenadas teóricas, prácticas y metodológicas de la Bioética y del quehacer bioético.
¡En horabuena!
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In our country, approval for a clinical trial of a drug is issued by the national expert organization in the field of drug circulation (which is an analogue of the FDA, EMA and issues approval for conducting clinical trials of drugs) and the National Bioethics Commission.
Currently, a situation has arisen that the national expert organization refuses to issue approval for a clinical study of a combination of drugs. It refers to the fact that this is scheme of treatment (i.e. a treatment method) and not a drug. Is it necessary to obtain the approval of a national expert organization for the circulation of medicines (analogous to the FDA, EMA in a country) for a clinical trials of a combination of drugs, or in this case, the approval of the National Bioethics Commission is enough? Or is it necessary to obtain the approval of another expert organization?
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What is expert or authority? International FDAs and NIH, and majority on biomedical scientists, still do not understand the Definitions of “PD” , “Synergy” and “Addititve of TwoDrugs”! Do you understand? If not, please read Chou TC, Pharmacological Rev. 58: 621- 681, 2006, or visit www.combosyn.com. Thanks.
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I have a Bioethics class that I don't participate a lot due to my limited knowledge, Can someone help me creating a discussion question related to autism please?
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Dear Joao,
I corroborate Ira's say.
However, what I understand from your question is that you want to discuss on autism in Bioethics class. Don't you?
That means ethical issues about Autism or ASD in the class of biology.
Is it correct?
If it is, then you would find almost every thing under the sun may swirl around ethical aspect of ASD, e.g. marriage, procreation/child-birth, education, career, treatment, society's views about ASD and people suffering from it, co-morbid diseases accompanying ASD, etc.
Secondly, your statement also declares that you have limited knowledge to start a discussion. I wonder dear, limited knowledge itself is the basis or need to start any discussion. Anyone who has adequate knowledge of the subject he/she would not start discussion but would start teaching that subject! Am I correct? What do you say?
So question crops up eventually that 'Is it limited knowledge that bothers you or shyness or low confidence or lack of skill or ability to communicate' hold you from active participation in class.
Hope, I have done justice to your question.
Please let the people in this group know about your progress in class.
All the best.
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The society expect too much from clinicians but how much society is contributing towards achieving the goals of bioethics as it is adding costs to treatment to clinicians
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As a patient's family member, I flew from the US to Taiwan to visit my mother in the ER. For near a month, my mother had two tubes inserted and had clear conscious. But, she could not say any word before she left the world with me. How painful for both of us and how cruel the reality was?
To me, as a healthcare provider, it's my personal responsibility to find a way to solve patient's health problem. To this point, I achieved my self-request to solve my patient's health problems in a cheaper and immediate improvement. If I do not think its my responsibility for my patient's health, my medical skill will never reach my current level. That I can treat many cases that both MDs and acupuncturists mistreated or do not know how to treat.
Dear Satish Narula , if you are me, face your Mom could not say any word to you before she left the world. Or, even she got qualified TCM treatment could be without any pain, recovered and still alive, what will you feel and would like to say?
There are chances for you to learn alternative treatments instead of "no solution". Will you like to put extra effort to change yourself in your practice?
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This U.S. Federal Government, specifically, the U.S. HHS, should be making housing available for all PLWH who are unable to provide such housing for themselves. This a basic concept that become a bioethical issue by promoting Testing and Prevention through Treatment campaigns and that those who have entered care should be kept in the best physical and mental as health as possible. Knowing that the system is failing these persons is tantamount abandonment. I would set up housing facilities spaced where most needed and offer food, hygiene, integrated health-care, medication compliance assistance, job training, substance use harm reduction, if needed, and a legal review of their cases to evaluate if thy have been the victims of some form of housing discrimination.
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I agree, integrated health and social service needs should be a priority for people diagnosed with HIV. Unfortunately, many communities simple do not have the funds to support housing needs for everyone who needs them. The majority of people who are homeless are in great need of behavioral health (mental health and substance abuse) treatment, or treatment for a physical condition, such as diabetes, or HIV.
Chronic illness impacts a persons ability to work, this leaves millions of people without a safe place to live and the number is growing. People who are homeless are often unable to access health care and treatment, unable to adhere to medication if they did have access, and unable to eat nutrition meals.
Our health care system is broken for the most vulnerable in our society. The health system functions well for some, but the cracks in the system for others are wide and getting deeper by the day.
System level changes are needed to impact the health and wellness of those in our society who need it most.
#Systemthinking
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What are the international laws applicable to Do it Yourself Labs? Do they need to be registered bodies?
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The answer to your question depends on whether there is a legally mandated national research ethics framework in place in the country in question. Usually, where there there are national research ethics laws in place, all research must then comply with such laws and ethics guidance, whether the labs are independent or not (see e.g. http://www.nhrec.org.za/). In some countries the national ethics guidelines only apply to government-funded research, meaning that private research is exempt from such guidelines, which is an unsatisfactory situation. I am not a lab expert but I imagine that the answer also depends on whether these labs work with human biological specimens, or organisms that impact on human health. In either scenario, monitoring and compliance are important (see https://www.home.nla.org.za/)
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In this month, i mean Nov-2018 Chinese pioneered human genome engineering by editing genes in two babies using CRISPR technology?
"
He Jiankui defends 'world's first gene-edited babies'
This raises serious BIOETHICAL CONCERNS. i need your views on that
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"Genetically modified babies given go ahead by UK ethics body
The Nuffield Council on Bioethics says changing the DNA of a human embryo could be ‘morally permissible’ if it is in the child’s best interests(https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/jul/17/genetically-modified-babies-given-go-ahead-by-uk-ethics-body)
"The creation of babies whose DNA has been altered to give them what parents perceive to be the best chances in life has received a cautious green light in a landmark report from a leading UK ethics body.
The Nuffield Council on Bioethics said that changing the DNA of a human embryo could be “morally permissible” if it was in the future child’s interests and did not add to the kinds of inequalities that already divide society.
The report does not call for a change in UK law to permit genetically altered babies, but instead urges research into the safety and effectiveness of the approach, its societal impact, and a widespread debate of its implications.
“It is our view that genome editing is not morally unacceptable in itself,” said Karen Yeung, chair of the Nuffield working group and professor of law, ethics and informatics at the University of Birmingham. “There is no reason to rule it out in principle.”
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But the report drew immediate criticism from some quarters, with one lobby group accusing the authors of opening the door to the unrestricted use of heritable genetic engineering, and an age of genetic haves and have-nots"(https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/jul/17/genetically-modified-babies-given-go-ahead-by-uk-ethics-body).
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Have any researchers or the rule makers thought about the following questions?
1.      All of the western research rules are so perfectly ruled and get respect, the trust of the general public. However, have you ever question why there are organ failures in the western medicine, but not in the Chinese medicine?
2.      Why the severely sick patient's number increased so quickly and age going down also scared people?
3.      Have you ever analyzed a drug's needs how long to be expelled from a patient's body?
4.      Have you ever thought about a drug's lifelong accumulation impact to a patient?
5.      Does the ethic is only limited to do the research itself or should extend to be responsible for the long-term health damage to the patient?
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Thank you for response, Dr. Mah;
This was my point: Once one grants the immorality of slavery, the other specific questions are moot. People can discuss them, but in doing so, they often miss (sometimes on purpose) the larger moral point.
And I emphasize that I was responding to your "real ethic rule" characterization. If I misunderstood what you were asking, I apologize.
Regards
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I need to know about the task of bioethics in the last five years.
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I'm afraid you'd have to narrow this down a bit - there are "main" authors in bioethics on any given topic whether it is reproductive ethics, neuroethics, enhancement, genetics, research ethics, resource allocation, clincial ethics, and many more - do you have a specific topic in mind? 
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Researchers wants data availability for research and NCDRC / SCDRC are duty bound to issue instructions to all members to mention date of institution and date of disposal in each judgment. But it is not happening in all judgments including NCDRC/SCDRC judgments. This is the Limitation of Research on medical negligence cases that necessary data is not available for study.
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Timely disposal and backlog can be used as a performance indicators for Consumer Courts
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The book is written by healy 2006
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You're referring to the book by Kieran Healy, published by the University of Chicago Press. Academic books are generally not published on an open-access basis, unlike some journal articles, and you should not expect to download it for free. If everyone did that, academic presses would go bankrupt and authors could not publish their books in the first place. 
Your project sounds important, and I wish you well with it.
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In the attached file I send my opinion on abortion in general. If you want to discuss I can replay
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What is at stake is the value attached to human life.
If we accept that an intrauterine life has no value, we quickly have to admit that the extra uterine life hasn’t too. The same arguments are used, which are (obviously) not ethical arguments. They are demographic, social, economic…arguments.
We must be careful about the arguments we accept, because they can turn against us.
Slippery Slope ...
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Could anybody provide me with articles about the impact of Islam or religious beliefs on ethical behaviour in the forensic science workplace such as crime laboratory/ crime scene?
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i am interest to take any project to research the animals.....
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Sangeetha,
All vertebrate animal research requires approval from your institution's animal care and usage committee.  However, this is not necessarily true for invertebrates such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and worms or nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans).
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Submit a response (500-800 words) to the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (JBI) for inclusion in the 13(1) issue to be published in March 2016:
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Bioethics emerged in the 1960s as an interdisciplinary field of inquiry concerned with the moral, social and religious issues and more recently with the health and treatment. In pluralistic societies, where the flux of immigrant and refugee has grown, interaction between patients  from different ethnic backgrounds and health workers are becoming routine. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem on a global scale. In Canada Few cases of XDR tuberculosis were imported. Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis was incorporated several years ago.
Xiang case had surely a dormant bacilli in his lung and was not detected upon Visa emission. The cost of MDR TB treatment is more than 50 000 $ and this cost is up to 200K in case of XDR TB. Active and contagious Tb patient must rest and not allowed to leave by air. Positive AFB smear, mainly for MDR or XDR TB, must be isolated in separated and negative pressure room, until smear conversion to avoid transmission of resistant bacilli. In other hand, the hosting country must bear the cost. In ideal scenario, the temporary visitor/worker, like Xiang must suscribe to insurrance protection to cover his outcome loss upon invalidity. More importantly, most of developped contries must integrate a principle-based analytic framework to allow screening and efficient treatment of latent TB. The results of testing should not influence immigration outcome, but be used to mandate medical review and consideration of voluntary preventative treatment.
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The Israel Medical Cannabis Authority plans to create mixed material sorted by chemical composition (CBD and THC) and impose this material on patients in place of the natural strains. Since this move is based upon a. very incomplete knowledge of the entire chemical composition of the natural strains and b. based on an untested hypothesis that only the measurable THC and CBD are relevant and c. based on considerations external to the welfare of the patients who are satisfied with the natural strains and used to them and d. therefore this constitutes a breach in continuity of care, I believe that imposing such untested matreial on patients constitues human experimentation without consent. Anyone out there with an opinion or literature to cite?
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You would need to specify more on the proposed legislation to say for sure, but medical marihuana is doubtful in itself in clinical setting, as there is very little evidence of efficacy for any condition. I presume the move is an attempt at shifting the public from herbalist formulation to something of pharmaceutical quality. The only thing I can say here is that any intervention should be judged on available evidence of safety and efficacy. So far cannabis-derived products are mostly based on pre-scientific faith in "the natural" remedies. I don't think this is acceptable as it is not acceptable with other medical interventions. As commenters above said if we are talking of research protocol it needs to be judged on it's merits.
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Steven Pinker recently wrote an op-ed arguing bioethicists should 'get out of the way' of biomedical progress. (https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/07/31/the-moral-imperative-for-bioethics/JmEkoyzlTAu9oQV76JrK9N/story.html)  He seems to be worried that the research ethics pendulum has swung too far in the 'protectionism' direction, delaying the development of numerous life-saving and life-improving interventions.  But is he right?  Pinker is light on the details, but are there topics or subfields where his criticisms are particularly apt?
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'get out of the way' of biomedical progress.
A laudable sentiment except for one major flaw.  Ethicists do not stand in the way of medical progress they stand in the way of unethical behaviour.
If Prof. Pinker thinks that 'medical progress' can be made in a world motivated by greed, pride and arrogance then he is mistaken.  Progress 'at any price' is not progress.  Those involved in medical research are not simply driven by a desire to rid the world of its evils, to conquer pain and disease.  Money, ego and fame are potent influences on behaviour.
Bioethics are the gatekeeper to protect us all from the foibles of corruption.  Biomedical science is now sadly acknowledged to be the most corrupted of all sciences.  No one should stand in the way of progress but we need ethicists to make sure that it is progress that we are talking about. 
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Eric Racine, a bioethicist, notes: “Naturalism is a controversial stance [in bioethics] because it is customary to view ethics and bioethics as normative and prescriptive fields and therefore different from empirical sciences, which are descriptive and explicative. The reluctance to acknowledge naturalistic commitments, however, can impede methodological and empirical progress in bioethics” (2008, 98). Addendum to that:
"His [Seedhouse’s] belief that no distinction can be drawn between the ethical and empirical aspect of medicine is both wrong and dangerous Whether or not there is a fundamental metaphysical distinction between facts and values, in clinical practice one can and must distinguish the two dimensions…Failure to do so results in muddled thinking. Hume´s naturalistic fallacy is rife in medicine…[he] encourages the powerful body of opinion, which believes that medical ethics is just a matter of opinion…"(Toon 1995, 47).
I know Strong Naturalism, or bioethics as developed by Potter in 1970 doesn't have a good way to counteract a highly relativized medical ethic. Pragmatic Naturalism offers a slightly better model for medical ethics. But also falls short as it will marginalize weaker societal voices. “Thus, as Bellantoni notes, religious experience must, for pragmatic bioethics be at least discounted, if not fully discredited (2003).” (Tollefsen, Cherry, 2003, 541). Then finally, “[I]n the absence of something authoritative to guide moral choices, the phenomenon of moral assertion and argument becomes rather ominous. If moral assertion and argument are understood as oriented towards some standard by which it is to be measured as successful or deviant, then participants in the practice of moral assertion and argument can understand themselves in a common undertaking, aimed at resolving itself into the correct, or right answer. Where there is no such standard, by contrast, assertion and argument become more and more the mere expression of will, and the attempt to manipulate others into accepting one’s own personal dictates.” (540).
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If I understand the question - I would say, methodological naturalism (understood as exclusion of the supernatural from consideration) has done very little to relativize bioethics.  One might think that, by abandoning talk of God in bioethical work, one cannot ground universal, objective moral claims.  But secular ethics has developed a plethora of resources in an attempt do just that. Consider, for example, Rawlsian demands for publically-accessible reasons justifying (basic) laws, which exclude supernatural claims that some will reject.  Rawlsians hardly end up being relativists at the normative level (whatever their metaethical commitments) - they ground universal moral claims using the entirely natural procedure of reflective equilibrium.  And principalism, which for better or worse is dominant in practical bioethics, is also entirely naturalistic while eschewing relativism.  Secular bioethics is very interested indeed in justifying objective moral claims without appeal to God.
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Dear everybody, 
As far as I'm concerned, case report doesn't require ethical approval and/or informed consent if researchers can protect the right to anonymity and confidentiality of the patient.
I searched and found that the authors usually don't need any informed consent or/and ethical approval for publishing their article(s) (or they didn't state that information?). Nevertheless, I also found some "outside" ones, they mentioned about informed consent in their article.
This is an example: http://www.jogc.com/abstracts/full/201309_CaseReport_2.pdf (The woman whose story is told in this case report has provided written consent for its publication.).
Do I miss something? Could you please give me a big picture about this?
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You should acquire informed consent by those involved in the study, even if you believe that the anonymity and confidentiality of the patients is being ensured. Research on anonymised data sets have shown that by combining the anonymised data with other open information sources, then deanonymisation is often possible. This risk may be especially large if you talk about a rare disease. It is therefore better to be on the safe side and acquire informed consent by the patients, which they most often will accept doing.
Here is one example of a paper on deanonymising anonymised users:
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Physicians most of the time take risk and plead innocence when something goes wrong during a medical act, in criminal discipline they say they have a "dolus bonus", is that truth ? Never a physicians will practice a crime during a procedure. How we can explain the great amount of deaths by iatrogenic diseases and medical errors ?  
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Dear Andre: in Argentina, if yo probe that a medical act was performed by imprudence, negligence or without due expertise it can be considered  a criminal ofense, whether it only provokes physical or psychological damage (art. 94 Criminal Code)  whether it ends in patient's death. (art. 84 CP). From long ago we are discussing medical doctor's criminal responsability in those cases. Some of us believe that criminal process is usually used as a way to preconstitute probes (as it comes before civil suit) and as a way to pressure for an arrangement in civil suit (if you are found guilty in criminal process then you can´t argue civil responsability, you just argue money compensation)........this situation makes medical doctors feel really afraid of liability and fell in a bad medical practice which is called "defensive medicine"........medical doctors feel that nobody is going to sue them because they do things in the patient (studies and medical procedures, even though they may be not necessary) but somebody can sue them because of what they don't do.........Argentine society is a very controversial and one, and generally speaking, sues a lot.
Cheers. Susie.
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Given the various kinds of health care problems we face as a result of an aging and growing population, is it possible to address medical rationing concerns without, at some point, necessarily reducing such considerations to economic (i.e. basic supply and demand) questions? That is, given the reality that we live on a finite planet with finite resources, must basic economic considerations always be present when we make decisions that directly affect human life and human well-being within the context of our health care systems?
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Pat
John Rawls' Theory of Justice is a masterpiece of liberal theory regarding distribution and there are literally hundreds of articles about his theory. Start there!  Relative to bioethics Beauchamp and Childdress' Bioethics is a great text for getting you up to speed on this big issue. A more conservative approach can be found in Englehardt's Foundations  of Bioethics.  These three will give you a great sense of how large the problem is .
Most hospital emergency rooms deal with this on a triage basis and tend toward taking care of seriously ill patients on a "first come first served basis"  This is basically a lottery approach to distribution but looks really bad if you do not adequately fund the ER or if your patient population is so large and so ill that the concept of "minimally  decent" becomes totally unworkable.  
Try to narrow your focus to a question like "how do you define minimally decent funding for an ER" in a poor part of a city.  You will find that defining "minimally decent" is brutally difficult. 
Try taking a look at a technological approach to distribution. In this arena you eliminate the human providers and replace them with data gatherers  connected to IBM's Watson.  Watson can diagnose better than most docs and he can monitor ongoing care better than most nurses and he can manage millions of patients at one time.   It feels a little inhumane but inhumane care is better than no care and subsequent death. This might meet our budget requirements.
Good luck
Brendan
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I've submitted a research article that deals with new biomarkers, and is based on samples received from cancer patients. The patients didn't give the blood for this project, however they consented to use the samples for research purposes. The journal asked me an ethical clarification, because I'm working with human material. Can anyone help me with this? If there is any document for exception of ethical clarifications please send it to me.
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The following are some suggested ethical guidelines....
1. The study should not affect adversely in any way to a race, ethnic group, social strata, community or geographical region,.  it may result in social stigma, isolation, healthcare benefits etc because of the study results 
2. All the samples must be de identified  and no personal identifiable information  be included in the study.
3.Bioethics committee of  your Institution  should approve use of samples for the study.
4. ALL SAMPLES ARE CONSIDERED EXEMPT FOR "INFORMED CONSENT"  IF USED FOR NON PROFIT BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AIMED AT IMPROVING THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING OF THE COMMUNITY . That means you need formal approval from your agency  but you do not need individual consent forms to be signed by the patients/ subjects.
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After reading the Supreme Court's decision on the Myriad case, I am wondering how easily cDNA can be made patentable.
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OK, the Supreme Court said native DNA was unpatentable under 35 USC 101, but that cDNA was. Simple as that. Except that Prometheus v Mayo hinted that subject matter that was obvious over the unpatentable product of nature might also be unpatentable, e.g. cDNA. The story is not yet closed. The attorneys for AMP missed the boat.
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Are animal models still needed in biomedical research to understand normal and abnormal function, from gene to phenotype, and to provide a basis for preventive or therapeutic intervention in human diseases?
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Please view the website, pcrm.org for their section on replacing animals in research, http://www.pcrm.org/research/.
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Nanomedicine is one of the many applications of nanotechnology for monitoring or treating physiological conditions using nano-scale designed devices, particles, materials, drug delivery systems etc. Since nanomedicine implies dealing with how these tools and devices interact with complex biological systems, one could anticipate there are many issues to consider during their design, manufacturing, and delivery.
I would like to hear your opinion about this and have some input on why nanomedicine can be considered unique.
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Dear Dr. Rechiuti,
The way I see it, nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology for diagnosis, treatment and management of human health. Hence it's not possible to compare nanomedicine, to other nanotechnology based medical applications since they would de facto fall under the category of nanomedicine. But in case I got it wrong and your question was the application differences between nanomedical and other nanotechnological based studies, then I would rather go with the answer: targeted solutions, theranostics (therapeutics + diagnostics) and personalized medicine . Nanomedicine practices allow us to,
-Target specific sites, cells, tumors, tissues etc. (either using, smart assembly, DNA or RNA recognition based solutions etc. or dyes, quantum dots etc.)
-Theranostics to monitor (bioimaging) and threat the diseases simultaneously.
-Personalize medical care in order to threat patients individually based on their specific needs&conditions.
However, so far very few successful studies have been published and there are many experimental, clinical and ethical challenges.
On another note one should also mention the device aspect of nanomedicine, which I believe to be the most practical one. With the development of semi-conductor technologies, micro-nano fabrication methods and combining them with microbiology, it is now possible to design and produce lab-on-chip test kits. DNA and/or RNA based nanosensors are rising stars of this field to detect certain diseases in short time, low sample volume and high yield. I am certain that in the future supermarkets will be selling a lot of lab-on-chip kits next to pregnancy and blood type tests.
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How select order of authors in case where one person designs experiment (aim, goals, materials and methods), order chemicals/kits, select statistical tests to perform and prepare manuscript while the other run assays and statistical analysis. Is there a quantitative method/model to show what is the value of selecting kit versus running experiment with this kit?
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In mathematical papers we always list the authors in alphabetical order. This makes life simpler :)
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Doctors predict that in 5-10 years, babies will be tattooed with integrated circuits that push medical data to the cloud.
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Dear Ziad abu-Faraj
I do agree with you that humans are loosing our privacy bit by bit with the advancement of technology. However, Technology has positive impact on our life and makes our life easier.
So we should be ready to adapt the new technologies. At the same time, we have to make our system more secure so that misuse or unethical of data could be avoided.
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In 1997, former chairman of the President's council on bioethics, advanced the idea that “in crucial cases…repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason’s power to fully articulate…” (The New Republic).
I suspect that few ethicists working today take this position at face value. Still, there do appear to be tangible concepts that are commonly defended on the basis of intuition alone - human dignity is one such example.
Do those who would reject any role for emotion and intuition in moral judgment throw the metaphorical baby out with the repugnant bathwater (cf. Jones, The depths of disgust, Nature, 2007)?
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Bill, I think your perspective is a good one... and I agree with it. My point was simply to point out although we have in our modern society raised logic, intellectualism, and science to a high degree, should never delude ourselves to believe that that they can function independent of our values. So going back to the original question about the "wisdom of repugnance," and whether there is a place for emotion or intuition in our morality... the answer has to be YES.
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These bioethical issues raise diverse opinions as well as arguments that need to be analysed from an ethical perspective so that right kind of decision making ensues.
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In Indonesia some generic drugs on the essential drugs list of both WHO and Indonesia should be available, but in practice they are not and have to be procured by unusual routes. Does anybody have any experience with similar situations in other countries?
The last few years, 6-mercaptopurine as well as Methotrexate were sometimes unavailable, causing interruption of maintenance treatment for children with leukemia. It has been proven that such interruptions cause increased relapse rates. What can and should we do about this situation?
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My personal view is that stockouts of generic drugs are unfortunately to be expected, and happen in the US (http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/11/health/policy/supply-of-methotrexate-a-cancer-drug-may-run-out-soon.html?_r=2&) as well as Indonesia.
Original manufacturer firm exit upon brand expiration and generic firm entry can reduce supply capacity, low profit margins in the eventual generic production & distribution business are insufficient to sustain adequately stocked supply chains and inventories (and sometimes inadequate to sustain good manufacturing practices), and longer supply chains are also common.
This is, as always, reducible to a trade-off between greater investment pre-expiry versus less post-expiry, between more expensive, more restricted but more reliable access before versus after expiry, and ultimately between welfare gains among the current generation of patients benefiting from generics versus welfare losses among future generations from lower innovation in the present.
Practical solutions for Indonesia might be to think about some investments by Indonesia in home-grown generic manufacturing, a regional cooperative to share capacity and overcome local stockouts, having the government look at purchasing excess EU stock (or US http://www.goodrx.com/methotrexate) perhaps under foreign aid programs, or using charitable foundations to fund this very worthwhile and affordable investment in a sick child's future...
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Scientists are responsible for solving and understanding physical mysteries.
The scientific method outlines the steps in scientific inquiry where the meeting of reality and scientific vision occur at the level of the experiment. The solving of physical puzzles requires experiments for obtaining proof from the physical world and as validation of the scientist’s hypothesis. Results from scientific experiments orient scientific understanding into the direction of current dogmas or novel perceptions. This brings up interesting questions:
Are most scientists really interested in searching for the truth when conducting experiments or validating what they believe to be true? How does the competitiveness of science interfere with this process?
What does a scientist do when an experiment confers results that differ from the dogma they have been taught or are trying to establish?
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I respect all scholarly responses and agree with them in large part. However, I have to raise certain points:
1. Are most scientists really interested in searching for the truth when conducting experiments or validating what they believe to be true? My answer is no. Otherwise phenomenon of fake researches has not occurred. Most scientists are conformal and dare not deviate from so-called “normal science”. If one dares, either his research does not see light of the day and rubbished or scoffed at. Therefore, in Kuhn’s view normal science is dogma. Fake researches get published because of their conformity and one get rewards in the form of job contract or research funding. It is in this way that competitiveness of science interferes with this process, that is, in the production of research in a “publish or perish” culture in academia or research organisations. Those whose researches that may expose the incorrectness of concepts instilled by normal or mainstream stream science as these researches turn out in a cultural revolution against the wishes of the establishments or may cause harm to corporate who are profiting or amassing wealth on researches whose results sooner or later may be harmful for humanity in general, the researchers of this kind are silenced anyhow.
2. The scientific method outlines the steps in scientific inquiry where the meeting of reality and scientific vision occur at the level of the experiment, but anybody can claim that conventional scientific methods is hundred per cent foolproof. In my view it gives results which have been already anticipated as experiments, and data which are to be recorded and their interpretation all are theory-laden. As such, to expect novelty or discovery is to hope against hope.
3. This point is not a point but to share some views. First is a View and Counterview from:
Discoveries depend on patience
Less than 800km from where a new pope has just taken office, a physicists' conference has been taking stock of the God particle. Its spokespersons have pronounced a 99.9% certainty that the new particle discovered in Cern's Large Hadron Collider last July is indeed the Higgs boson, or the key to how matter acquires mass. But whereas last year's pronouncement was greeted with great excitement even by laypersons, this year's has fomented a yawnfest. While this is par for the course when it comes to the relationship of high science to mass audiences, in no way does it impair the significance of Cern's work.
Because the funding of expensive projects like the LHC and Nasa's Mars rover can collapse without taxpayers' support these days, scientists try hard to seek a mass connect, in language attempting to bridge the gap between their ivory tower and the general economy. Complexities can get lost in the process, such as the fact that the LHC team has now analysed 2.5 times more data than was available in July, and the very reason the Higgs boson was dubbed the 'goddamn' particle (a sobriquet later sanitised) was because it is so hard to isolate.
Gazillions of apples had taken a fall before Isaac Newton came along to ask, why do apples fall? Gazillions of gravity experiments later, man stepped onto the moon. In all the years in the interim and beyond, applied probability has enabled applications in fields ranging from genetics to computer vision. Given that what we are really awaiting is a new law of physics, intended to be eternal and universal (till the next discovery) — the wait for confirming the Higgs boson hasn't really been that long. As Captain Kirk told the Triskelions, 'All your people must learn before you can reach for the stars.'
COUNTERVIEW
Meghna Roy
Scientists taking us for a ride
It's not for nothing that Nobel prize-winning physicist Leon Lederman once described the Higgs boson as the 'goddamn particle' — later changed by clever publishers to 'God particle'. That conferred on the scientists' quest an aura of deep mysticism and insight, even making it seem like a spiritual quest, when the reality is that modern science is so abstract and esoteric that it hardly offers anything meaningful in human terms.
Let's take the latest burst of excitement over the Cern scientists declaring to the world that they are now 99.9% certain that the Higgs boson they discovered is actually the elusive 'God particle'. Just a few months earlier, however, celebrations had broken out in the scientific world when they told us they had detected the same particle with 99% certainty. Mark that it's not still 100% foolproof. More research and insight, the Cern scientists say, will be needed into the findings to establish beyond any measure of doubt the existence of the Higgs boson. So what exactly are we celebrating? More uncertainty and confusion? Six months down the line, we may again hear from the Cern scientists about new discoveries about the Higgs boson that could change the entire debate. Funnily, like now, even then the public would be struggling to comprehend a fraction of the scientific terminology.
Scientists may even turn around and say that their research is not meant for easy comprehension by all and sundry. But then why treat each discovery as such a spectacle, even when we're not even very sure about what's being talked about? It's actually much ado about nothing, because scientists need large sums of money to fund their esoteric research. Therefore hype, as in clever coinages such as the 'God particle', is needed to con the taxpayer into paying for all the expensive equipment.
However, in my country most people including scientists have religious bent of mind, nevertheless bloggers theist or scientists in the West have no better opinion:
Is not discovery and confirmation of Higgs Boson is to justify zillions of funding and continuation of funding as well as Nobel Prize? I need not to agree with this view, but I do agree that current researches are reason of this scepticism?
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The British newspaper "The Guardian" reported a couple of weeks ago (27 October 2012) that a gay man who several years ago had donated his sperm to a lesbian couple was now held accountable and told to pay up for the two children that he helped to be conceived. Apparently, if he did the same today, he would not be liable. What happened is that the lesbian couple separated. The children now live with one of them, presumably the biological mother, and the other visits them from time to time, but does not support them financially. In that situation, the mother sued the sperm donor, and he was sentenced to pay. Now, the question is of course whether that is morally justied. Never mind what the law says, can we really believe that he is morally responsible for the children, in the sense that he has a moral duty to contribute to their subsistence?
At first glance, this seems to be case of gross ingratitude. The donor was friends with the two women. They wanted to have children and asked the man for help. That's what he did. He did them a favour. As a friend. It was never intended that he have any part in bringing up the children or contributing financially. The only thing that was expected of him, as a gift to his friends, was to hand over some of his sperm.
However, not everyone sees it this way, as the letters of Guardian readers prove that were published a week after the original article. One reader wrote: "They are his biological children. He helped bring them into the world. He has a duty to cover their costs. He should have been less cavalier with his sperm." Another commented: "This isn't a question of gay rights, it's a question of responsibility for another human being / is a donor really any different to a man who has a one-night stand, which ends in pregnancy (wanted or not)? To reduce the conception of a child to 'doing someone a favour' is an appallingly cavalier attitude. Of course he should pay for the upkeep of his children. If he wasn't prepared to, he should have done us all a favour and kept his sperm to himself." Not much sympathy here.
So the question is whether biological fatherhood really is morally so important that it makes the biological father responsible for any children that may result from the use of his sperm, independent of the circumstances. In this particular case, of course, the donor was aware that his sperm was to be used to conceive a child, but he also had an agreement with the mother that he would have no further obligations, that his only contribution would be the donation of his sperm. Does this agreement count for nothing because biological fatherhood overrides all other considerations? But why should biology be seen as having such paramount importance? Underlying the comments by those Guardian readers also seems to be the intuition that sperm is not the kind of thing that we should be allowed to sell or give away. It is not a commodity. But again, why exactly is it not? Is it because, as Monty Python put it, "every sperm is sacred"?
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Since morals don't exist apart from communities I think the question is "what do we want the responsibilities of a sperm donor to be?" I'd be curious to see if laws protecting good samaritans could be expanded to cover sperm donors.
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In your country or globally?
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In essence, ethical decisions are not algorithmical. However there are recommendations around ethical issues as pregnancy interruption. take a look to this: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=2400
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I am an emergency medical guardian/attorney.
The challenge is the tendency to try to "cure death" among some medical professionals. The resultant pain to the patient and their reaction to it, i.e. pulling out a breathing tube, should be taken into account in the treatment plan. Thoughts?
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Equating non-treatment with murder is extreme. Most of the jaw will need to be removed, and the patient will have to be strapped down during the entire rehabilitation because he has a history of pulling out his breathing tube. The cancer has been there for about twenty years, and he will almost surely die of something else first.
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I would like to do some research with a design similar to this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820554
What would be the best strategy of pursuing this in a sound, bio-ethical manner in a developing country like the Philippines? I am aware I would need to collaborate with a psychiatrist, but beyond that are there other hurdles that I might need to consider? Would the cost be prohibitive for a modest research budget?
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Thanks for all the valuable procedural and methodological advice. To give you some context regarding my question, my research on creativity is actually pointing me towards the hypothesis that there might be a functional trade-off to the cognitive enhancements delivered by drugs like Modafinil. Please see my attached mini-proposal for just a bit more background.
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From ethical point of view, Is it necessary to have consent when conducting a retrospective study?
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The conventional wisdom is that for "research" and publication, IRB approval is required. For internal process improvement projects, it is not. For retrospective studies, exemption should be the first course sought, particularly for studies based on administrative data, since it is usually highly impractical to obtain consent for past events. How would one obtain consent for a ten-year retrospective study of antibiotic use in community-acquired pneumonia?
I am increasingly of the contrarian but growing view that IRBs are the single greatest impediment to effective clinical research.
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The doc is at http://aoir.org/documents/ethics-guide/. The guideline seems to draw mostly on US-based literature and approaches and practices common within Northern America and thus may need an extension. Please also write whether you believe the document will hold for needs and practices in your field, especially if you work outside communication.
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I agree, that document is very US-centric, not only literature. That`s it can not be discusse as universal. The European perspective is quite different.
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What kind of Bioethics is more appropriate for resolving moral conflicts related to public health in Latin America and other developing countries? Bioethics of protection or intervention?
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The major issues for clinical research in developing countries is to ensure that participants are not exploited by developed countries for research projects that would not be permitted on research participants in developed countries. It would help if they simply insisted that researchers met the requirements that would be applied if the resesarch were done on participants in the researchers's own country. Also they should ensure that if a product is available for research purposes, it continues to be available to the research participants after the trial is complete and that the participants are aware of the possibilities for commercial application of the product or the results, and are fully informed about the results of the research...