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Bioengineering - Science topic

Polymer synthesis and materials processing in supercritical fluids.
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may I ask about if there is any human gene expression only depends on core promoter,which no need upstream any enhance and regulator ?
As I am wondering, if there are some gene, they are in modulation function, which also they are in very upstream of signal for a cell, therefore their core promoter 's binding affinity is strong enough stablizing the transcription complex, and so no need enhancer and upstream regulatory protein .Thank you so much
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Core promoter has many co-activators and co-repressors in the regulatory network. When DNA stability is endangered because of an inherited mutation of a genome stabilizer protein, coactivators continuously upregulate the regulatory circuit of core promoter. When there is a transient, environmental danger for DNA stability, coactivators transiently upregulate the expression/activity of core promoter, and later, corepressors may silence the increased activation rendering it to the normal level.
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I have some lists of gene IDs from multi species, I want to have their compiled FASTA format files for each species. it looks tedious to copy each accession and collect FASTA seqs.
Batch Entrez is giving me error, may be because the identifier is related to other database.
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in my case for 1st gene list having TAIR identifiers i got their FASTA seq file from TAIR < download < bulk data retrieval < sequences.
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Logistics seeks both to address real-world problems and research questions and to unite terminological, conceptual and methodological research aspects. In the last 20 years, biological research has developed extremely powerful methods and tools for fundamental and applied research. There is furthermore an increasing desire to build integrative research platforms that combine interdisciplinary and multi-level data to the structural complexity of biological systems. How much attention do you give to logistics for your research plans? Do you think logistics supports research methods, innovation, quality, value, and impact as well as training and participation opportunities for students as well as for practitioners? If so how and if not why not.
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Andrew Lewis - You've made excellent points with clear analogies - thank you! I agree with your synopsis that "Transitioning biological understanding to this next level is certainly in large part a logistical problem" and that we must strive to the "coordination of manpower and computational power resources being put towards the pursuit of understanding things at this level."
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I want to know which institute's in India offer synthetic biology courses>?
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Dear researchers, Can tell me about modern, rapid and reliable technique for isolating macromolecules from plant sample ?
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Is it possible to use Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Biological and Medical Sciences to search databases for potential candidate drugs/genes to solve global problems without first performing animal studies?
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We hypothesize that future generations of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies specifically adapted for biological sciences will help enable the reintegration of biology.
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Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling, which are closely linked and reciprocally regulate each other, are among the well-known cancer hallmarks. Studies have reported use of Onco-metabolites to metabolically reprogram the epigenetic of cancer. I was wondering what might be major limitations of such techniques?
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Hello. This topic is not exactly my field, so I cannot give you a satisfactory answer. I will be happy to follow all the news and discussions in this field.
Regards, Zlata Felc.
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Dear all,
I am looking for a research work that implemented an uncertainty or statistical framework to study the impact of the geometric parameters on the fracture response.
I appreciate any help.
Thank you in advance,
Moj Ab
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Heart Rate Variability is a well known and useful concept in Biomedical Engineering and Medical Sciences. Breath Rate is a lesser researched field and a newer measure Breath-Rate Variability is introduced recently to quantify meditation effect.
It is gaining attention of researchers as BRV has a number of novel applications. What could they be.
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Breath rate variability (BRV) as an alternate measure of meditation even over a short duration is proposed. The main objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that BRV is a simple measure that differentiates between meditators and nonmeditators.
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I know that this depends on the rheological factors of the medium, but if you know any, please let me know.
Best Regards,
Roberto Novais
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You have to calibrate according to your growth conditions.​ Make​ a​ standard​ caurve and​ compared batween OD and​ cell​ counting
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For example, DNA has functional groups such as methyl groups and nanoparticles can interact with them and alter them. I was wondering if we have any technique by which we can quantify them or maybe do a qualitative analysis. Any leads would be great, Thank :)
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I would like to get some pointers as to how DST-INSPIRE faculty fellowship proposal needs to be written. If anyone has a sample copy or an approved (old but shareable) it'd be great to get some information about the format.
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As per the reviewer's comments on my proposal, I would suggest you start your proposal with small tasks that you can complete on your own without having any collaboration, then you move from smaller tasks to bigger on that should be of high national importance. Use Govt. reports on your fields, I mean what are the current national problems, how your proposal will be helpful to solve them, what kind of instrumentation you will need, if it requires fieldwork, then explain it. for the 4th and 5th years you can explain the large-scale applications of your proposal. I hope it will help. wish you good luck with your application.
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I need practical protocol in detail. I do not know when endogenous respiration reached. The concentration of oxygen changes during time, and the oxygen uptake rate is dissolved oxygen variation per time. This quantity (dissolve oxygen variation per time) changes During time and is not constant, so when can I measure exogenous and endogenous respiration rate correctly? How do I measure the endogenous respiration rate? I think when endogenous respiration was reached; the concentration of oxygen did not change. So how can I measure changes in oxygen during the time?
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Of course you can; however, the test I mentioned to you is a standard tool to evaluate biomass behaviour in degrading a 100% readily biodegradable substrate (acetate) and can be used to obtain COD fractionation from wastewater streams as well. In the case you use different substrates (such as those you mentioned), you will obtain a different exogenous response that probably will include an initial rapid degradation of fastly biodegradable organic matter and a successive slow degradation of slowly degradable matter. So it could be difficult to observe the restoration of endogenous respiration in a short time, as is commonly observed with acetate.
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HI All,
I'm doing a survey as part of an Audacious program (https://www.startupdunedin.nz/audacious), which essentially is a StartUp initiative at Otago University. I'm curious to understand what level of programming do biologists these days need during their day to day research.
For all the biologists out there here are some questions to start the discussion on this topic:
1) Have you done any programming till date? If so which language did you use and for what purpose?
2) How have to overcome programming limitations? For example, did you get the work done through bioinformaticians, or sought help from your programming friend, etc?
3) Have you used online biological databases for your research? If so, which one?
4) How much of artificial intelligence have you used in your research? Do you see AI potential in your current work?
If you have anything else to add, please feel free.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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I am Yacob Mathai
I have discovered The Purpose of Temperature of fever and Reason,and why our body acts against Facts of Physics in fever, which is not known to medical science.
This discovery is a life saving discovery.
As a result of my discoveries and researches on fever, two of my abstracts have been selected worldwide in more than 275 conferences for Oral Presentation.
I was not able to attend majority of these scientific conferences due to lack of money and sponsorship.
I have no personal benefits from these discoveries, but I take it as a service for the wellness of mankind to avoid millions of deaths every year due to fever and unscientific treatments done to cure it.
Due to my poor financial status I have not been able to attend several scientific conferences and meetings which I have been invited since 2006.
Review Article published in  Advances in Bioengineering &amp; Biomedical Science Research   journal (Adv Bioeng Biomed Sci Res, 2018 Volume 1Issue 1) and Mini Review published in Journal of Nursing &amp; Healthcare (JNur Healthcare, 2018 Volume 3, Issue 3, ISSN 2475-529X)
 I was a keynote speaker in 4 prestigious international medical conferences.
1. 23rd Annual Congress on Paediatrics & Neonatology, November 05-06, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand.
2. 7th International Conference on Public Health and Community Nursing,
September 19-20, 2018 Singapore.
3. 2nd Global Summit on Paediatrics & Neonatology on June 25-26, 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
4. World Immunology Congress-December 14-15 ,2017 Dubai, UAE
The participated delegates found the Fever hypothesis presented by myself as the
most logical and analytical method for understanding and treating fever. 
I am not a medically qualified person.But I have so many papers about fever,Inflammation and Back pain .In this situation How I will get travel grants.
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Participating in prestigious international scientific events, with secured travel grants, is important for academic accomplishments, and career development. It demands systematic planning, and efficient management of resources. The following article, along with a list of major travel grants, demystifies the application process involved in event participation, and in obtaining funds to attend it. Also, provides few hints on how to get organised, so that the experience of attending scientific events abroad can be smooth, and productive with lasting memories.
Vijayakumar M V. Communication skills to secure research and travel grants. Indian Journal of Science Communication. 2019, 18: 27-31.
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I measured optical density using Bioscreen C (labsystems)
I inoculated sludge from sewage treatment plant to the 3 different substrates and added nutrients. And I found some problems in my data..
At the whole wells, the OD increased sharply simultaneously, and decreased after the log phase.
As I know, when the bacteria stop growing, the OD values are maintained, but not decreases.
Is this kind of phenomenon can happen?
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Dear Soomin,
as you are measuring optical density (and not cell number oder dry cell mass), the drop in OD may be caused by cell morphology changes or cell lysis due to nutrient depletion, as well as changes in the medium absorption throughout the process.
Best
Michael
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Interested in knowing molecules with two or more sulfonic/phosphonic acid groups without a common endpoint (excluding phytic acid) and are available from natural resources or utmost commercially available.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
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Dear Nagapradeep N. that's a really interesting technical question. As an inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field. In fact, without running a detailed internet search, no such compound immediately come to my mind (at least no naturally occurring ones). For a very good overview on the chemistry of organic phosphonates (including bis- and tris-phosphonates) please have a look at the following useful review article:
Phosphonic acid: Preparation and applications
This article is freely available as publiic full text on RG.
The situation looks much brighter when it comes to commercially available compounds of this type. For example, please check benzene-1,3,5-tris(phosphonic acid) and benzene-1,3,5-tris(sulfonic acid).
Good luck with your research!
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I am specifically aiming to study the nanomaterial-nucleus interaction and having a hard time finding good softwares which can help me in the same. Any suggestions would be helpful. Thanks.
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I recommend to use ANN(artificial n euron network ) combination to RSm(response surface methodology )
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I am trying to dissolve EtBr powder in water at a concentration of 2mg/mL and I still have some residue left even after mixing well. Any suggestions on how to dissolve it completely?
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  1. Prepare 800 mL of distilled water in a suitable container.
  2. Add 10 g of Ethidium bromide to the solution.
  3. Add distilled water until volume is 1 L.
  4. Stir on a magnetic stirrer for several hours to ensure that the dye has dissolved. Wrap the container in aluminum foil or transfer the 10 mg/mL solution to a dark bottle and store at room temperature.
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According to Kokubo's instuction for preparing SBF (Simulated Body Fluid) pH should be increased from 2.0 to 7.4 after adding Tris to the solution. I added all additives one by one, and the pH became 1.8-1.9 right before adding Tris. But then after adding Tris it didn't increased.
Does it mean the Tris composition is wrong? or Should I consider something especial in adding Tris?
(The Kukobo's paper has been attached.)
Thank you so much in advance for your replies.
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The original SBF solution, which can be named c-SBF, is a TRIS-HCl pH-buffered solution (pH = 7.40 at 37 ºC) that can be prepared as indicated at Table 5.1 (p. 206) of the following reference:
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Does the term "contrast bath" imply any random time-temperature combination of hot and cold water or it is a specific combination of repetitive alternate spells of dipping the affected body part in cold water at a specific temperature for a specified duration followed by dipping in hot water at a specific temperature for a specified duration?
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Dear Mr. Shanker Lal, I largely agree with the earlier responders. A contrast bath is the immersion of the extremity under consideration alternatively (for a minute or two) in hot and cold bath for at least 15 min per sitting. Though the literature suggests water in cold container to be between 10-15 degrees C and water in hot container to be between 35-45 degrees C, it may be kept at the tolerance level of the individual.
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Glass microfiber filter is chemically stable, stable at 500ºC, mechanical strength etc.,.  wouldn't that make glass microfiber unsuitable for VSS. While Ashless filter paper leaves no ash after firing at 500ºC. which one of these is the ideal one.
Kindly provide the details about this as it is a bit confusing matter.
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0.45 mili micron fiber paper is good option.
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We know HRT of fresh cow manure to produce biogas is more than 25 days(Ambient temperature around 30 degree centigrade) . But biogas can be produced in around 2-3 days during activation period (initial period of bio-digester activation). I installed the system, put fresh cow manure in the system and start to get gas in 2-3 days.
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Bashu Gautam basically the balloon or the bag or the fabrics used for these type of bag digesters are usually quite thin and the temperature is maintained by exposing it to the air/atmosphere at the same time the L/D ratio is completely different in this case and more bacteria gets more surface area and thus the gas enhancement or production is seen more in this case
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I've used phyre2 to model the protein for the simulation using Gromacs, but later I found that 2/3 proportion of the structure ( except for IDR ) had been already determined by X-ray crystallography.
The known structure contains Zn2+ to stabilize the structure of the entire protein, so I doubt phyre2 can predict decent structure. How should I model the structure of proteins using a known structure as a part of it?
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Whether Acoustic Vibrations can be used to damage / fracture the CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19) structure ?
Acoustics with resonance frequency of the COVID-19 can be used to prevent this Pandemic ?
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Hi, I am wondering that if variable X is directly proportional to Y and when graphed together have a significant linear correlation of R2=0.97-0.99.
Where, let's say:
X(t)= (Y(t)/a)(b(t)+c)
Where a, c are constants. Although b(t) is not a constant the relationship between X and Y remains linear.
If Z= ln(X2/X1)/t2-t1
Would it be correct to assume ln(Y2/Y1)/t2-t1can be used to get values for Z as well?
Are there any papers that follow this sort of idea in engineering/mathematics and have been used in science such as bioprocess engineering?
Thank you very much for spending time reading this.
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No, I suppose not. The problem of scaling could be an issue except one is at ease with transpositions.
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We are looking for a biocompatible immiscible liquid (with water) with low viscosity & surface tension to enable flow in a microchannel system. Most such liquid tend to have some limited mixing at interface with water based solutions at varying temperature and pressure conditions. We are looking for something that provides least mixing at such varying conditions.
Thanks in Advance.
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There are some perfluoronated fluids that are very biocompatible. They should be quite immiscible.
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What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
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Hi Folks,
I am looking for the efficient protocol to transform D. hansenii either chemical transformation or electroporation. I have already tried a protocol described by Minhas et al. 2009 (10.21769/BioProtoc.3352), but it did not work. It will be really appreciated if any suggestion or opinion will come.
Thanks in advance.
Looking forward for the discussion.
--
Nilesh
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What is the most relevant website to predict the thermostability of peptides?
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What about BPC157, its 15 amino acids long. By your theory it should be fine being heated up to 120C temporarily?
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Dear Researchers,
How can the smooth end of an enzymatic cut be turned into a sticky end or vice versa?
Reagrds
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Thanks for your reply.
I want to know how to turn a blunt end into a sticky end.
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I would like to know what are the protocols, assays and theory to study a nanomaterial interaction with cancer stem cells (and not normal cancer cells).
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Dear Anish Hiresha Verma,
Stem cell transplants commonly are used to treat leukemia and lymphoma, cancers that affect the blood and lymphatic system. It also can help patients recover from or better tolerate cancer treatment. Nano sized materials have particular advantages for cancer treatment with distinct features relative to low molecular weight drugs. These properties are being effectively exploited for improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs resulting in both enhanced anticancer activity and reduced systemic toxicity.
When we apply a magnetic field externally, these nanoparticles starts spining. Nanoparticles must attach to the surfaces of cancer cells, by which it induces the spinning to mechanically destroy the cell membranes. The drug molecules carried by nanoparticle are released in the extracellular matrix and diffuse throughout the tumor tissue. The particles carry surface ligands to facilitate active targeting of particles to receptors present on target cell or tissue.
Refer
Ashish
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I am not a graphic designer!
But now, I am looking for a Windows-based software to help me in the easy drawing of sophisticated 3D illustrations in the field of biomedical engineering and biomedicine.
* The most important criteria for me are to be user-friendly, as well as to be easy to learn and work.
* Moreover, that would be great if systematic tutorial videos of this specific software will be available on the web (Lynda, Udemy, etc.) to learn how to design complex structures (DNA, blood vessels, etc.) and organs (lungs, heart, etc.).
I do appreciate your useful comments and wonderful suggestions in advance! especially those who have previous experiences in illustration of images in the field of Bioengineering.
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Dear Mohsen, I recommend yo using CorelDRAW and Illustrator. Also, yo can use Biorender, this is a online software that helps you create scientific figures in minutes.
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What are different coil shapes used in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation? What are their differences (in induced current)? Do they have different applications?
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Hi,
Actually, the influence of inductance value in a coil on TMS is eddy current strength. In addition, the coil design in physical configuration can affect the TMS distribution or depth. The TMS coil with eight shapes is commonly used in clinical application due to better high resolution than the round coil.
You can refer to the article below. Good luck!
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Applied bioprinting challenges are very broad, spanning equipment to applications and all of the physical and biochemical sciences in-between. What do you consider to be the biggest or most important challenge of bioprinting today?
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Dear Cory,
Couple of basic challenges are observed with 3D bioprinter are;
1. Weak in higher resolution and speed and so this is deprived in performance to enable better interaction and control in the 3D microenvironment.
2.Availability of natural bio-link, hence cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are not sufficiently enabled.
3. Non-availability of scaffold material which is essential for differentiation and interaction .
4.No appropriate vascular system and so beyond the thickness tissue may not develop properly.
Ashish
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Several G- bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium and E coli, have been engineered to treat cancers. One of the main things been found is that those bacteria can specifically colonize tumor tissues at a ratio as high as10000:1 over health organs. Bacteria also proliferate selectively throughout tumor tissue. What makes those bacteria specifically target tumor cells?
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Dear Yijie Daniel Deng,
Bacteria can produce and release bacterial toxins, immune regulatory proteins and proapoptotic proteins specifically into tumors, reducing tumor growth and volume. Bacteria are perfect vessels for targeted cancer therapy. Conventional chemotherapy is limited by passive diffusion, and systemic administration causes severe side effects. Bacteria can overcome these obstacles by delivering therapeutic proteins specifically to tumors. Tumors have several mechanisms to evade detection by the immune system. Bacterial accumulation in tumors creates an infection that attracts immune cells to tumors, overcoming the escape mechanisms of tumors.
Mechanisms
There are five key mechanisms are known to promote preferential bacterial accumulation in tumors.
(i) The immune system is one of the main mechanisms that ensure tumor specificity. Tumors are privileged environments that avoid detection by the immune system, and which allow bacteria to colonize. Tumors evade the adaptive immune system by impairing antigen presentation.
(ii) Other mechanism is the evasion is reduction in level or complete loss of major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-1) which is necessary for antigen presentation. Expression of phage lysis protein E in Gram-negative bacteria forms a pore connecting the inner and outer membrane. This pore releases the bacterial cytoplasm and leaves a bacterial membrane shell that can be loaded with therapeutic compounds and proteins.
(iii) Induction of TNF production increases blood flow and entraps bacteria in tumors. Increasing the TNF response has been shown to increase bacterial accumulation and spread in tumors, indicating that controlling the initial inflammation can increase colonization.
(iv) Toll-like receptors (TLR) expressed by cancer cells are activated by bacteria. TLR4 is activated by Gram-negative LPS, and TLR2 is predominantly activated by Gram-positive bacteria. This counterproductive mechanism suggests that adaptation of bacterial LPS to limit TLR activation will increase the efficacy of bacterial cancer treatment.
(v) Bacteria have several secretion mechanisms that can be used for the release of recombinant proteins. Salmonella, for example, uses a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) to deliver proteins directly into the cytoplasm of host cells.
Ashish
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Hello. I am currently working on a project which involves silk fibroin. The problem is , I'm facing gelation in different steps almost each time. I made 4 attempts till today. At the first attempt I was able to obtain %8 silk fibroin but on other 3 attempts I faced gelation problems twice at dialysis stage and once at autoclave. I'm sharing the protocol which I use. I hope you can give me some advice on the issue.
1. Prepare 5 grams of cocoon shell on a petri dish. (Cut them into small pieces)
2. Add 4.24 mg NaCO3 in 2 liters distilled water, dissolve the NaCO3 and heat the solution to 90 celcius degrees.
3. Add the cocoons to the hot distilled water and wait 30 minutes while stirring.
4. Take out the silk and put into a new beaker inside 2 liters of distilled water (at room temperature) for washing.
5. Wash at least 3 times for 20 minutes. (I'm washing it 4 to 6 times and I rinse the silk with distilled water with squeezing it between water changes) (I make sure that the soapy feeling is lost)
6. Put the silk into a petri dish.
7. Let the silk dry at 37 C for 24/36 hours.
8. Take the silk out and weigh it. Cut the dry silk into pieces.
9. Prepare lithium bromide (9.3M) solution and put 4x of the silk's weight:
-The amount of LiBr: [(86.65x9.3)/1000]x4x(Silk's weight)
-The amount of distilled water: 4x(Silk's weight)
10. Dissolve LiBr in distilled water with magnetic stirrer and add it onto the silk in a 50mL beaker.
11. Put the solution into 60 C incubator for 4 hours. (I waited 4 hours for first 3 attempts, then I waited 6 hours at my final attempt which solidified while autoclaving)
12. Put the liquid solution into dialysis sacks ( Sigma-Aldrich D6191-25EA; 12,000 Da MWCO) and tie the sack from up and down. Leave a little space on top.
13. Hang the dialysis sack in 2 liters of distilled water and open the stirrer.
14. Change the water in regular intervals (after 1h, 3h, 6h, 10, 20h) and rinse the LiBr for 2 days.
15. Open the sack and put silk fibroin into a glass bottle.
16. Autoclave.
17. Take 1 mL of autoclaved silk fibroin and put into a centrifuge tube without closing the cap. (Note the weight of centrifuge tube and the silk fibroin)
18. Put the tube into the incubator (60 C degrees) overnight.
19. Weigh the tube. Calculate the amount of dry matter and then calculate the percentage of silk fibroin.
Details:
-The lab's temperature is around 26 C degrees.
- I use different stirrers to avoid heating the water at step 5.
-The liquid I obtain after LiBr application is very viscous compared to the videos I watched.
-The cocoons are present at the lab for 4 years and they are being kept in room temperature in a drawer inside a plastic bag.
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Dear Tayfun Dikmen,
Generally, Gelation involves the formation of self-similar aggregates with a growth rate that increases exponentially. Apply initially couple of constraint conditions. Some of points are advised enlisted here.
(1)Freeze-drying- this will give gel a foam with a porosity of 80.90%, a water uptake capacity of 90% and a swelling index of 8.5-10. Gelation time and the properties of hydrogels and porous foams could be controlled by the ratios of RSF and non-solvent concentration as well as by the type of non-solvent and incubation temperature.
(2) PH must be between 2-4. If less than 2 it will defiantly form gelatin as pH is negative concentration of hydrogen algorithm. RSF (regenerated silk fibroin) hydrogels and porous foams can possibly be used for the encapsulation of cells and/or for the controlled release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
(3) Concentration must between ranges 0.5-10gL-1. Nonsolvent concentration can control the porous foam.
(4) Temperature between 5-70 0 C is advisable.
(5) Turbidity, rheology, light scattering and circular dichroism are other issues. Custody minimum turbidity will avoid early gelation.
Ashish
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Isolation and screening of bacteria for cellulase production. 
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For cellulase precipitation with ammonium sulphate, the cmc in cultre media should be low viscosity or medium viscosity? As high viscosity cmc remains in the pellet after precipitation?
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I want know what type of PPE and mask has been used by various region and why that particular Region using these particular PPE. And in future what type of PPE they are expecting to use. For example in Bangladesh we are seeking a PPE that can be reuse upto 10 time Against COVID-19.
THANKS in advance for your cordial answer.
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Hi
Please check the following work. I believe it will help you.
Regards
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I want to detect relative movement between fingers with wearable sensors. Which could be an appropriate technology for this?
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Dear Arpit,
I think yes. For a sport players hand motion, flex sensors (FLEX SENSOR BASED SENSOR SYSTEM- The classification capability of this system can be improved by utilizing a fuzzy logic data analysis algorithm) is enabled to the Hand Monitoring Module (HMM), which can measure the player's finger flexion angle to determine the corresponding grip type. As a result, the ability to determine the grip type allows the coach to train players to use the appropriate combination of grips to perform a winning badminton stroke. Using a glove-based apparatus to gather data on two-dimensional and three dimensional motions with accelerometer and flexible sensors is quite useful to detect finger motion.
References:
3. Saggio G, Riillo F, Sbernini L, Quitadamo LR. Smart Materials and Structures. 25, 13001 (2015).
Ashish
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As we know that some researcher are suggesting the diffusion of corona virus by nanomaterials. it may be that corona virus can be deactivated by spinel [AB2O4] nanoparticles. i want know some points, which is given below-
  • What will happen, if we put corona virus in the magnetic field created by the nanoparticles?
  • Corona Virus size is similar to nanoscale particles size, so, Is there any probability to change the structure of corona virus by attaching spinel nanomaterials ?
  • can spinel nanoparticles stop the reproduction of corona virus?
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Respected Ashish Sir, I am very thankful for giving content related to MnFe ferrites soft materials and its applications. We will study on this.
Thanks
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I want to design a circuit that can record mice brain's signals.
The signal to be recorded includes the local field potential and the action potential of rat brain nerve cells.
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Yes, for example, look at the website for BlackRock microSystems, as well as TBSI. I think some labs as well might have designed their own devices.
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Hello everybody,
I am a bio-engineer student looking to do an internship with a biotechnology company but i am out of options and less experienced on how I should go about it. I will to be put in the right direction and path which will favor my career.
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It depends whether you are bachelor/master degree student. Anyway, the best start is to email tons of biotech companies asking for internship, with an attached CV ( even if it is empty, go for it ).
If you do not have contacts, this is the best way.
I found 2 internships in uni-academic field in this way, spending a week to email all the european institutes in order to find someone willing to take me in my internship.
Of course, it depends also whether you are self sufficient or you want to be paid, this is something you should say on the email.
In my case, my first internship was paid by my researcher, the second was funded by me thanks to erasmus money.
Good luck!
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I am planning on performing expansion microscopy on relatively thick (300 um) tissue slices and doing a post-expansion stain with some nanoparticles. It seems that the expansion process should make the tissue more permeable, but I am having trouble finding a direct description in the literature which supports or goes against this intuition. Does anyone know whether or not a post-expanded tissue has greater permeability than an untreated fixed tissue sample? Note: my nanoparticles are rod shaped and have dimensions of 27x60 nm, but I could also try spherical 5 nm nanoparticles if needed.
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I have been using expansion microscopy for 2 years now and in my personal experience, small things such as DNA oligonucleotides can be introduces post-expansion (typical length scale of 13 nm). However, longer incubation and wash steps are needed to hybridize oligo's and remove non-bound oligo's. Knowing this, I think your 5nm particles can penetrate for sure to the center of the expanded sample, however you might need to incubate longer to cross the larger distance. However, the exact pore size of the expanded polymer has not been described and also depends on the amount of crosslinker added (for a typical expansion gel this is 0;.15% N,N methylenebisacrylamide)
Hope this helps.
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Are there any commercially available test system/walking simulator to test
(1) ankle foot orthotics
(2) knee braces
(3) knee ankle foot orthosis
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Yes, there are many lower body exoskeletons commercially available.
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see new SH-waves in my ResearchGate profile.
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My pleasure Dear Prof. Aleksey. It is a question that really deserves attention. Regards
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We always remember the most important research in our life since we find it was the critical step toward successful academic and scientific career. For me it was the first paper published in 1991 while I was a student in PhD program. Actually, it was published in a very important international journal as shown below. I do not know if you remember that important paper you published?
Zakaria Al-Hassan (Al-Qodah), Viara Ivanova, Elena Dobreva, Ivan Penchev ., Non-porous magnetic supports for cell immobilization, Journal of fermentation and bioengineering 71 (2), 114-117, 1991
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Dear Dr.
The most important research in my daily and professional life is a study on plant phytochemistry.
Best regards
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I want an initial direction, like how can I use IMU sensors on knees (e.g upper leg and lower leg ) to estimate body state e.g running, walking, climbing, etc. The basic idea I have is to use 2 IMU sensors on knee position (upper and lower leg) , and to get data or make a data set of it. Then process it using deep learning e.g CNN or ANN etc. But point is..are there data sets available on which I can test CNN etc to see either it works or not. Need guidance about data sets, from where could I get IMU knee based data sets, so that I can focus on my algorithm only.
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It seems you are trying to solve a classic problem of human activity recognition based on body-worn sensors. A very good starting point for different datasets, mainly based on acceleration only, is this paper:
I wouldnt recommend using a naked CNN for testing. A classic machine learning approach with a proper preprocessing, some good extracted features (e.g. simpe statistical features, PCA or Codebook) and a classification that supports the understanding of the problem (e.g. kNN or SVM). Good luck and have fun trying :).
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Hi,
I was wondering if commonly used tagging systems (like FLAG, Streptag or His) can be used as a docking site for knocking down -or even knocking out- tagged proteins
The goal would be to add a third-party molecule/fusion protein that, upon recognition of the tag, could deplete the tagged protein.
Thus, we could have a potential conditionnal KO model by repurposing old/unused transgenic model/cell lines.
I read some stuff about targeted proteolysis and degron systems for example, but i haven't find anything that could be used with common tags.
I'm thinking about using it in mamal primary cell culture or human transformed celle lines.
Does anyone have an idea about it ?
Thanks,
Pierre-Louis
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My guess is that you may want to synthesise a short peptide that could bind to your tagged protein. Of course you want the correct epitope that will bind according to your desired specs and will cause reduced expression. You could predict the sequence of the peptide perhaps by using a modelling software. I could be wrong, of course.
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It would really help if you can help me understand how do we decide on any cell lines, in my case cancer cells.
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LNCaPs are widely used.
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Can someone give me a reference where I can find the definition of log reduction of bacteria (due to UV-C irradiation) in terms of disinfection? In other words, how much log reduction is required for disinfection?
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A single log reduction is a 90% reduction of organisms. A two log reduction is a 99% reduction of organisms, followed by a three log reduction (99.9%) etc.
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Hello,
I was trying to model my Dean flow fractionation system by using Comsol. As it is known there are 2 main effects at such a system for particle separation: Dean vortices and net inertial forces. I modelled my microchannel and first I solved it for only fluid flow, then I added my particles by using particle trajectories module. However, I realized that Comsol does not really takes inertial effects into account. For this reason, separation never occurs in such a model. To solve this problem, I think it is necessary to introduce the inertial effects as an ODE. At this point I have some problems:
1) How I can model a force which changes throughout the geometry? I think it is necessary to define a coordinate system in the microchannel to reference distribution of intertial forces throughout the microchannel crossection. There are so little tutorial about this topic at Comsol's website.
2) We still do not know the exact formula of the net inertial forces. In such a situation how one can write a ODE to model this forces?
I have asked a similar question to the Comsol Forum several months ago, but I could not get any answer. I appreciate any kind of help (any tutorial, example, comsol file etc.).
Thank you in advance.
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you'd better learn particle tracing module in Comsol. You will find all types of forces needed to simulate the particle separation in a fluid medium. It has also the possibility of adding your favorite force field!
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Hi everybody
I'm using abaqus dynamic implicit solver to analyze hip joint. There is not problem like this with static step. but i have to use time depended loads. so when i use dynamic implicit; there are stresses only in force applied area but no stress or displacement in anywhere else. i also tried with dynamic explicit step and concentrated and pressure loads but the problem didnt solve.
i've used frictionless surface to surface contact and fixed a region far from load applied area. and material properties defined by mimics software.
i'll also add a photo and abaqus files fore details. thanks alot for your help.
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Chee Loong Chin Thanks a lot for your helpful answer.
Units were not consistent. The mimics soft had defined density in g/cm3 but because distances was in mm; the consistent unit for density was tonne/mm3.
Problem solved and thank you again.
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As the Guest Editor of the special issue of the flagship publication of IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Computer, on "The Next Wave of Machine Learning Applications," I invite submissions of path-breaking uses of ML. Details and CFP below.
Keywords: Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Biotech, Quantum Computing, Social Innovation
Please also let me know if you wish to serve as a reviewer for this special issue.
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No madam, the focus is only on the cutting-edge - next wave of ML / DL applications.
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I'm setting up a new temperature system using PTC-10 with RG-01, however, I couldn't find any useful information on the internet about it. I would like to find out how to extract temperature information from sensor and how to control the system from a software (ex. using NIS elements).
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Great Ron Reiserer ! Thanks
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Autopsies show that there are two abnormal structures in the brain with AD called plaques and tangles. Plaques are made from a protein known as Beta-amyloid and tangles are made of Tau protein. These proteins also exist in a healthy brain. What make them to lose their normal function and cause the cell death?
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more: to me, the question is "what makes some brain more resilient than others, bearing the same amount of toxic [misfolded] proteins ?"
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Some of you must have read about the new FDA approved genetically engineered salmon (they call it bioengineered salmon). As they mentioned, it can grow twice faster than the natural ones and it reach the commercial size in 18 instead of 36 months. I will not start the debate about if it is safe for human to consume it or not specially on the long run (of course many will say it is approved by FDA), I would rather prefer to discuss its impact on the environment. You may know that the salmon fish consumes 5 kg of fish/1kg to produce 1 kg and it takes 36 month to reach the commercial weight. With the new bioengineered salmon, it means that the double amount of fish will be consumed in half of the normal production cycle (18 months). Wouldn't that harm the environment and contribute more to the depletion of the marine resources of other species? Some will say it will be grown in special fish farms...but what if some of the eggs of such bioengineered salmon were leaked by somehow to the sea, what is the impact of such leakage on the natural balance of marine environment??????????????????
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It is indeed worrisome if you look at the salmons as a single entity but considering the individual species the scenario may just look a bit different- For example, if you consider the Sockeye Salmon, then conversion of 5 Kg of food to add 1 Kg of biomass concept falls short since they are almost exclusively planktivorous. Salmons grown is commercial captivities are most fed on ground fish meal. Faster rate of growth does not always translate to larger feed consumed but also to the metabolism of the animal to how efficiently the feed in being converted to biomass. In nature different fish populations have different rate of growth and feeding ratios and the faster growth rate of certain species haven't put a dent in the population in the slow growers in nature.
The introduction of bio-engineered salmons will normally or exclusively come from fish farms where they won't impact the population of their live prey in any manner. Release of genetically modified salmon to the wild with the hopes that the genetics remain the same over a period of interbreeding with natural salmon is a risk the companies responsible for the development of the GMO salmons won't take, in my humble opinion. In nature the fast growth rate of these salmons would be their biggest downfall compared to the conventional ones. Since they are not be released in nature, I don't believe there is any threat of ecological imbalance owing to them.
Eggs from such modified salmons will never get to the ocean since they spawn in freshwater. The only threat comes from the open sea net or sea cages in terms of competing with natural salmon for food, but due to their limitation in free locomotion, the effect is also minimalised. If they are to be grown in hatcheries with recirculating aquaculture systems, even this threat is also marginalised. There are many negative impacts of salmon farming on the environment using sea cages as evidence by a large volume of data but that is an entirely different issue. Growing GMO salmons may actually expedite the damage but the damage is already being done to the salmon's natural population even today with the culture of conventional salmon sand rectification stands entirely on the shoulders of the policy makers and farm owners.
In essence its all about time and we need to wait and watch the extent changes brought about by this new addition to the GMO animal horde. Its rather irrational to vilify something new simply because of the fact that its new and unconventional. If its proven to be detrimental, how long do you think it will take to disappear from the shelves?
Regards,
Dr. Abhishek Mukherjee
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I've been researching strategies for the humane genetic engineering of a freshwater seahorse for some time now. I've found some research into developing an artificially convergently evolved specimen based on freshwater pipefish with scoliosis, however, it seems this is a dead project. These animals will likely suffer severe health issues and other unknown consequences.
I'm now curious if it's possible to approach this from the opposite direction. The H. kuda is a euryhaline organism, capable of surviving in dilute seawater ~15 ppt [G. V. Hilomen‐Garcia 2003]. This same study showed it was feasible to push this down to even 10ppt and 5ppt. Is it possible to selectively breed specimens which show adaptations to the lower salinity (most likely represented by a lower increase in total body water) while simultaneously decreasing the salinity to < 2.5%?
If possible, has this been attempted in a controlled environment? It seems vastly more feasible to prepare a saltwater species for a more dilute environment than vice versa.
Moon Jellies have adapted to survive in completely freshwater lakes (which is counterintuitive when their organs rely so strongly on a proper salinity).
In addition, I'm curious the biological affects of different salts on saltwater fish: particularly between Marine Salt vs Aquarium Salt. It would be interesting to know if a euryhaline would function the same in a saltwater environment comprised of Aquarium Salt, rather than Marine Salt. If they do, then a very slightly brackish salinity (which several freshwater fish can thrive in) could bridge the gap between a hybrid estuary environment and freshwater. (I recognize these are vastly different and Marine Salt has other components besides NaCl.)
This thought came from calculating the salinity (ppt) of slightly more than the recommend 1tbsp Aquarium Salt per 5gal -- which comes out to about 1ppt (1.25tbsp per 5gal).
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Where fish blood has been accurately measured for concentrations of salts in it, all fish I am familiar with have a salt concentration in the blood between 14 and 18 (the units used to be "parts per thousand") no matter whether they are marine or freshwater species. Freshwater species have to dispose of extra water and retain salts while marine species have to dispose of excess salt while retaining water. Estuarine species have some ability, often limited, to do either as needed. Several species of pipefishes are estuarine and capable of persisting, or even thriving, over a wide range of salinity with a few species capable of living their whole life cycle in either freshwater or marine water. None of the seahorses seem to have this capability. From what I have read, even H. kuda is not truly an estuarine species. They die in water where the salinity is less than 18 which suggests to me that they are incapable of switching their kidney function to retain salt and expel excess water. I think that without a major change in genes (mutation) controlling renal function no amount of selective breeding will get them over the threshold.
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I need to learn cmc value of popc but ı did not any informantion about cmc of popc if any one who know value of popc , ı will request your helps.
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CMC of DOPC in stripped soybean oil was around 650 μM at room temperature
B. Chen, A. Han, D.J. McClements, E.A. Decker. Physical structures in soybean oil and their impact on lipid oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58 (22), 11993 (2010)
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in order to prove the veracity of an microrganism aggregation, I need to know if some substances around the cells are in fact polymeric extra-cellular substances (EPS), so id like some kind of methodological where I can easily prove, the ideal is something like a substance that reacts to SPE and visually can be proved.
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Please see ex question through Researchg that was asked by Tran-Ngoc-Phu Nguyen, National Chiao Tung University
How do I exactly measure extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge?
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There are different ways to produce IgG.
One is using intact IgG from blood/plasma donors. The other one is using genetically engineered/recombinant methods which use yeast cell as host.
Which one is better? What are the ads/disads? Which one is more common? and why?
I would appreciate it if you could refer me to some helpful papers.
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For me it is not clear that he needs a polyclonal antibody.
You are right Alex, yes, they are still produced, but the trend is to go away from products made from material from human sources, because of the risk of viral impurities, etc. It is less the known viruses, but the unknown ones, like HIV that suddenly showed up on the radar in the 80s.
In large-scale manufacturing of biologics, unless it can absolutely not be avoided, all compounds, media & feed components, cell lines, etc. are free not only from human but even of animal-derived components.
Many old vaccines and biological drugs would no longer obtain marketing authorization by health authorities, if submitted today. They are all, so called, "grandfathered drugs", only still allowed, because over the many years of use they have shown to be reasonably safe.
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I have a fluid mechanics questions. Suppose that we a submillimeter needle that is already inserted in the soft tissue. water can run through this needle if the pump is on. suppose we turn the pump on. Waterjet with initial velocity of v0 starts to cut a channel in soft tissue. There is also backflow as this cuts the tissue (backflow from the same cut channel). my question is what happen to the velocity of the waterjet when it hits tissue and goes through backflow. Is it time dependent? Is it depth dependent? Experiments showed that it is velocity dependent since the depth of cut reached from 0 to say 4 mm in 30 second and after that it increases with the order of like 0.01 mm. So it got me thinking that velocity is depth and time dependent. My pump provided volumetric flow rate Q ml/min so the average velocity of waterjet at the nozzle is v = Q/A.
I have developed a mechanics based model for waterjet based on tissue properties and waterjet needle properties including velocity of waterjet. However for Q = 50 ml/min and 0.32 mm needle the velocity is approx. 10 m/s. including this velocity in model predicts a depth of cut in the order of meter which it should be in the order of mm. How can I include the effect of depth and time in my velocity. Any help is greatly appreciated.
Please also see the attached cartoon for a simple demonstration.
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The infiltration process in the tissue is a time dependent process. Su, you should make a transient model for the calculation.
What software you use?
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Hi All,
Thank you for all your support.
Thank you chandra mohan , Christian Janiesch and Ramin Sedaghat.
Looking for more published projects where students can get benefited by referring these documents.
Please share the docs directly into genotech.in@gmail.com or reply me here.
Regards,
Ranjan
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Hello, there were many aspects in microbiology which need more detail study till now we have information only about 5% of total biodiversity of microorganisms. So 95% is future work!
Good luck!
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  • Relationship between crude protein content and keratin 
  • Any existing mathematical expression or equation relating these two?
  • Hair keratin extraction
  • Crude protein
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I am looking for different methods of mammalian stem cells freezing and thawing. Both in industrial and laboratory scale. Would greatly appreciate your input.
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You can consider using trehalose along with electroporation ( Dovgan B, Barlič A, Knežević M, Miklavčič D. J Membr Biol. 2017 Feb;250(1):1-9. doi: 10.1007/s00232-016-9916-z.)
Take also a look at the resent reviews, e.g.,
Regards
Gintas
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Can I fabricate same height of main channel(h=5um) and narrow channels(5um) which is joint between two main channel(5um) through multlayer lithography?.kindly give valuable suggestions.thanks
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As said by Max, go for one layer, it should not be a problem at all. If you are planning to use mask photolithography, you might want to use a high resolution mask (like chromium).
Good luck
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I need to insert RFP or GFP gene into E. coli genome to have permanent fluorescent cells.
Is there any helpful kits and recommended chromosome position for this purpose?
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You can pretty much insert it into any location that is not an essential gene. Just be sure the copy of the RFP gene has a promoter that works in E. coli, or insert it in the right orientation downstream of a known promoter that is either constitutive or regulated in a way you can manipulate.
If you don't require any specific cell genotype, I know that strains with RFP or GFP in the chromosome have been created numerous times, so you might just do some literature searches and try to get such a strain before building it yourself.
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I have studied a series of articles which are related to increasing memory or focus.
I am going to design a mixed drug containing various supplements including DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid), Citicoline , Acetyl-l-Carnitine (ALC) , Phosphatidylserine (PS) , Vinpocetine , L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine , vitamins, minerals, nanomaterials, traditional nutrients like Bacopa Monnieri , Huperzine A , Ginkgo Biloba , so on.
I need to know, is it possible to mix all (or some) of them or not?
My main aim in this study is to increase memory by different methods such as:
Increasing Blood Brain Barrier permeability to nutrients.
Increasing cell respiration of brain mitochondria.
Improving nerve cells which are damaged in Nerve-racking events.
Improving Gut Microbiota balance connecting to the gut-brain axis.
Increasing blood pressure to brain.
etc
I am looking for a motivated supervisor and researcher to start this project. Necessarily, I need your valuable comments about the project.
Is it a novel plan?
Is there any obstacle on the way of my proposal?
Can I start the animal trial on mice or rat?
Would be the drug useful for Alzheimer patients or other mental disorders?
Any helpful comments will be appreciated.
With Kind regards,
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Hello, exact answer on this question equal to PhD defence.
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In telecommunications, a transmission system is a system which transmits a signal from one place to another. The signal can be an electrical, optical or radio signal.
Can we consider some of the human body systems as transmission systems and then model it using telecommunications' concepts for better understanding?
If we do, can someone please provides some examples of these systems and determines their basic elements(message, transmitter, medium and receiver)?
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Dear Mahdi,
This question is an interesting one as it invokes the analogy between the electrical communication systems and the signal transmission in the human body.
Any communications system consists of information sources, transmitters, transmission medium receiver and communication destination.
At first i would like to speak about the signal transmission medium in the human body. The main medium of the transmission in the human body is the water.
Water is a dipolar material and serves as a solvent for the substances supplied to the human body. It solves the slats including sodium chloride and forms an electrolyte capable to conduct electricity by its positive sodium ions and negative chlor ions. So, the electricity conduction is an ionic conduction. The generation of electrical signals is by electrochemical effect.
The system responsible for the sensation is the nervous systems where it generates the electrical signals in form of electrical pulses and transfer it from the a part of the body to the brain or from the brain to an intended part of the body. The brain is responsible for processing, taking actions and storing the signal in its memory cells. Th humans tried to mimic the function of the nervous system by introducing the so called Neural network.
The information is generated by sensors at skin of the human body. It is generated also by the ears and eyes. All of these sensors work as transducers converting the nonelectrical signals int electrical signals conducted by the Nerves to the central spinal cord then to the brain and back from the brain to the different organs to control them.
So the brain can be considered a source an destination of the information. It also stores and process the information to take decisions.
Signals also are generated by the transducers and some of them work as a destination. The communication system can be considered wire line one transmitting base band signals directly through conducting wires.
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Hi, 
To get an idea about the resistance change due to deflection and debonding effects (of the gauge from the substrate) due to low adhesion, I need some analytical models.
Generally speaking, for the deflection-resistance part there are some geometrical models that consider classical beam theory and debonding can be modeled with Coherent Zone Model (I think).
I would appreciate, if you could give your opinion and suggest more concrete models for those objectives. Also which software (COMSOL, Ansys..) would be the best to simulate such structures?
Thank you,
Bartu
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Hi,
You can try ansys APDL/Workbench. in ansys you can create a cohesive zone material (CZM) and specify the debonding parameters also there are several concrete models with various failrue criteria
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I build a chamber (10ul) in a PDMS for PCR application but when I heat the chamber (after 5-6 cycles), evaporation occurred and vanish the liquid in the chamber.
It seems the inlet and outlet of the chamber have leakage.
Is it possible that the vapor leak from above of the chamber (2mm PDMS)?
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Dear Mohammad reza,
welcome,
So, it seems that the PMDS is permeable to the vapor the material enclosed in it.
May a remedy is to seal the surface of the chamber by coating it with thin film of noble metal like gold.
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  1. i am very interested in your lung bioengineering project. have you performed any animal lung transplants using a bioengineered lung?
  2. would you direct me to the 2 pilot studies that you mentioned in the description of the lung bioengineering project?
Thanks
Ihab Abdelfattah, MD
Cardithoracic surgery dept, cairo university hospitals
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hi everybody .. I just want to know what is the best way to extract protoplast from wheat plant and wil be so thankful if you provide me a previous certified article or study.
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Your welcome!!