Science topic

Biodiversity - Science topic

The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
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Com o objetivo de fornecer uma visão sintética dos avanços das pesquisas em cenários futuros para a BAP, apresentamos neste capítulo alguns resultados recentes. Para tanto, selecionamos alguns estudos para exemplificar cenários futuros para a região, relacionados principalmente às mudanças climáticas e ao uso do solo. Assim, podemos avaliar quanto...
Article
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Inoculation with soil from different ecosystems can induce changes in plant and soil communities and promote the restoration of degraded ecosystems. However, it is unknown how such inoculations influence the plant and soil communities, how much inoculum is needed, and whether inocula collected from similar ecosystems will steer soil and plant commu...
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Noug ( Guizotia abyssinica (L.f) Cass) is an important edible oil-producing crop. Ethiopia is the center of origin and diversity for noug and thousands of noug accessions are being maintained at the Gene Bank in Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI). The crop is grown mainly for edible oil and the by-product named as noug-cake is widely used as an...
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Key message Our results indicate that nitrogen deposition is likely to adversely affect forest bryophyte communities, having negative impacts in terms of increased dominance of nitrophilic species at the expense of N-sensitive species and a decrease in evenness. Context Elevated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) has long been recognised as a...
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Climate change, urbanisation, chemical pollution and disruption of ecosystems, including biodiversity loss, affect our health and wellbeing. Research is crucial to be able to respond to the current and future challenges that are often complex and interconnected by nature. The HERA Agenda, summarised in this commentary, identifies six thematic resea...
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Aim: We investigated taxonomic and functional beta diversity of bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean olive groves subject to either intensive or extensive management of the ground cover and located in landscapes with different degrees of complexity. Location: Andalusia, southern Spain. Methods: We partitioned taxonomic and functional beta dive...
Conference Paper
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As known, that the presence of bees in forest areas is an important factor for their survival and productivity. Beekeeping activity upgrades forest ecosystems, maintaining their biodiversity in terms of flora and fauna. The purpose of this work is to research of the need of beekeepers for Education and Consulting, regarding the principles that appl...
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Urban forests are responsible for a lot of benefits, and can be used as a tool to ex-situ conservation of native species. Our study investigated a public urban forest aiming to provide subside to management projects in order to allow the accurate fulfillment of social, aesthetic and ecological functions displayed by trees. Our survey was conducted...
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The joint effect of forest edge (FE) heterogeneity and management intensity of the adjacent farmland on FE insect communities is still poorly understood. In this study, a pairwise design was established, consisting of 36 Western European lowland FEs, with each of the 18 FE pairs containing one improved and one nearby non-improved FE. Half of the FE...
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There is now considerable evidence that the natural environment provides health and well-being benefits in urban environments. However, little is understood about the role of ecological quality in maximising well-being gains. We examine the relationship between the accessibility of public natural spaces of high ecological quality and two measures o...
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To assess how sandy beach biodiversity is influenced by the effects of environmental features and urbanization, we sampled the macrofauna in the whole across-shore gradient of 90 beach sites in Southeast Brazil. We found that morphodynamic features were the main drivers of macrobenthos, but urbanization-related variables, such as number of beachgoe...
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Calls for urgent action to conserve biodiversity under global change are increasing, and conservation of migratory species in this context poses special challenges. In the last two decades the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) has provided a framework for several subsidiary instruments including action plans...
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The establishment of scientific and reasonable ecological function regionalization (EFR) plays an important role in giving full play to regional advantages and realizing the benign development of resource exploitation, ecological construction, and environmental protection. However, the existing EFR lacks the identification ability for the leading f...
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Marine life is currently facing intensive human activity and large-scale environmental pressures, including pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia at a local scale (human activity), and ocean acidification and/or ocean warming at a global scale (climate change). The responses of marine species (including physiological, behavioral, and molecular lev...
Article
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Eutrophication is a common phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems caused by human disturbance and is regarded as one of the major threats to biodiversity in rivers throughout the world. However, no consistent pattern explains the relationship between eutrophication and biodiversity in rivers. In the present work, we explored fieldwork in connection to th...
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threatened with extinction, resulting in a sampled RLI of 0.914 for all species, 0.968 in marine and 0.862 in freshwater ecosystems. Our sample showed fishing as the principal threat for marine species, and pollution by agricultural and forestry effluents for freshwater fishes. The sampled list provides a robust representation for tracking trends i...
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Subterranean aquatic biodiversity loss has exceeded that of surface aquatic systems, and cavefish are a predominant indicator of biodiversity loss. The karst subsurface environment and its biodiversity are generally considered to be fragile and extremely sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hydroelectric projects. Subterranean biodiversi...
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Species extinction risk status is critical to support conservation actions. However, full assessments published on the Red List are slow and resource intensive. To tackle assessments for mega-diverse groups, gains can be made through preliminary assessments that can help prioritize efforts toward full assessments. Here, we quantified how incomplete...
Article
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Tributyltin (TBT) is known as an endocrine-disrupting chemical abundant in the aquatic environment. In the present study, zebrafish fish embryos were used to observe the chronic toxicity of TBT. Fish embryo toxicity analysis was carried out for different TBT concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.2, and 3.1 ng/L) and fertilized eggs were used to test...
Article
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Islands host a disproportionate fraction of global biodiversity and provide ideal systems for investigating the factors affecting patterns of biodiversity. However, islands are also vulnerable systems and epicenters of biodiversity loss. Clarifying the processes that affect patterns of island biodiversity is important for achieving biodiversity con...
Conference Paper
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The clock theory of biodiversity migration sphere/non-sphere of Aral-Caspian seas is a big circle(s)/non-circle(s) of a sphere(s)/non-sphere(s) of a clock(s) made by a line segment as a water line from Caspian Sea to Aral sea in order to recreate its dead biodiversity as a measure of new variation at its and Earth's ecosystem. The artificial determ...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Shifting climate zones are the most extensively tool for measuring the global and regional climate change, so understanding how they evolve is crucial to improving our ability to diagnose and predict climate change and its potential ecological influences. Previous studies have focused on the area‐based shifts between differen...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Stomatal conductance regulates the ease with which vegetation extracts water from the soil and releases it to the atmosphere. It thus helps determine the total evapotranspiration and plant uptake of carbon, which in turn significantly influences many aspects of ecosystem function, ranging from regional water resources to biod...
Article
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The pervasive loss of biodiversity in the Anthropocene necessitates rapid assessments of ecosystems to understand how they will respond to anthropogenic environmental change. Many studies have sought to describe the adaptive capacity (AC) of individual species, a measure that encompasses a species’ ability to respond and adapt to change. Only those...
Article
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Temperature overshoot pathways entail exceeding a specified global warming level (e.g. 1.5°C or 2°C) followed by a decline in warming, achieved through anthropogenically enhanced CO 2 removal from the atmosphere. However, risks to biodiversity from temperature overshoot pathways are poorly described. Here, we explore biodiversity risks from oversho...
Article
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This research makes a brief review of the limnology of lakes in wetlands in the Western Amazon, associating physical-chemical and morphological aspects to the biodiversity of black-waters lakes and whitewaters lakes. Lakes in these areas can show different patterns of vertical stratification, both in dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature....
Preprint
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Erysiphales, otherwise known as the powdery mildews, are an important and speciouse order of fungi that infect plants. Knowedge about the species composition and distribution of these fungi within the U.S. in general, and within Indiana, is limited. In the present study, we examined all historical records and literature, as well as new and historic...
Article
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China is known for its abundant plant resources, but biodiversity conservation faces unprecedented challenges. To provide feasible suggestions for sustainable conservation, we used the species richness algorithm and complementary algorithm to study distribution patterns of 34,082 seed plants based on 1,007,196 county-level distribution records. We...
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The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing. Air temperature is rising two to four times faster in the Arctic than the global average, with dramatic consequences for the ecosystems. Polar zooplankton species have to cope with those increasing temperatures, whilst simultaneously facing increasing competition by boreal-Atlantic sister species advected into...
Article
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The quality of soil and water, as well as the preservation of biodiversity, are negatively impacted by intensive agricultural systems. High biodiversity regulates how intercropping evolves. Contrastingly, monocultures are used in intensive agriculture systems, along with substantial inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. One strategy for bo...
Article
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Interannual fluctuations in the structure and the composition of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the pelagic waters of the Strait of Sicily (SoS, Central Mediterranean) were investigated, trying to relate them to the observed variability in oceanographic conditions. Plankton data used in this study were from 16 summer surveys carried out in the SoS...
Preprint
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Biodiversity loss and climate change are urgent, interlinked crises, driven by human activity. The solutions to these crises therefore lie in changing people's behaviours, at both individual and societal scales. In this chapter, we introduce the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), a comprehensive framework for systematically designing, evaluating, and ch...
Article
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O artigo discute como o chamado design especulativo pode ser vinculado à extrapolação tecnocientífica, uma importante característica do gênero da ficção científica, para cotejar e prototipar cenários potenciais e modelos imaginados, porém viáveis, de futuro. O trabalho sublinha importantes nuances entre diferentes abordagens ao design especulativo,...
Article
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Within-species variation is a key component of biodiversity and linking it to climatic gradients may significantly improve our understanding of ecological processes. High variability can be expected in plant traits, but it is unclear to which extent it varies across populations under different climatic conditions. Here, we investigated seed trait v...
Article
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A pesca é uma das atividades mais antiga do mundo, praticada pelo homem desde os primórdios da humanidade, quando o homem começou a viver em sociedade, formando povoado as margens de rios, lagos, lagoas em busca de alimentos abundantes. A pesca tornou-se uma paixão mundial, sendo uma das atividades de lazer mais praticada no mundo. A pesca recreati...
Article
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Eutrophication is a key threat to aquatic biodiversity around the world, but especially in the Cerrado biome that has undergone intensive land use conversion and fertilizer use. In this study, we investigated how water conditions and different taxonomic and functional indicators of phytoplankton communities responded to eutrophication over time and...
Article
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Primates, represented by 521 species, are distributed across 91 countries primarily in the Neotropic, Afrotropic, and Indo-Malayan realms. Primates inhabit a wide range of habitats and play critical roles in sustaining healthy ecosystems that benefit human and nonhuman communities. Approximately 68% of primate species are threatened with extinction...
Research
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Serie de Guías Audiovisuales de Biodiversidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra Esta serie de guías nace de compartir intereses, motivaciones y conocimientos con la población local del departamento Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca. La Guía de plantas de vegas de Antofagasta de la Sierra recopila información de 61 especies de plantas vasculares que hem...
Article
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Genetic resources for food and agriculture are the biological basis of world food and nutrition security and they directly support the livelihood of people.The rapid loss of genetic diversity (genetic erosion) is a worldwide concern and is particularly severe among crop landraces. Farmer’s varieties or landraces are the most valued genetic re...
Article
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RESUMEN Vacío del conocimiento: La presencia de leñosas en el cultivo del café (Coffea arabica L.) contribuye a múltiples beneficios en las funciones ambientales, productivas, socioeconómicas, biológicas, etológicas, protectoras, estéticas, entre otras, del cultivo. Sin embargo, en el sur del departamento de Nariño se presenta un limitado conocimie...
Article
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The Angiosperms are the best known and most diversified group in Senegal. However, even if a lot of work has been done on this group, more needs to be done. The main objective of this work is to contribute to a better knowledge of the biodiversity of dicotyledons in Senegal. More specifically, this work seeks to propose a determination key for the...
Article
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Opinion article which explains the links between the biodiversity crisis and climate change. The article provides nature-based solution guidelines for IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature).
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Citizen science is increasingly recognised as a useful approach to contribute to biodiversity awareness while generating data and creating meaningful interactions among citizens and professional scientists. In a number of countries, academic institutions have led the way in developing ladybird projects, incorporating citizen science, to increase di...
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How does the composition of a collection of individuals affect its outcome in competition with other collections of individuals? Assuming that individuals can be different, we develop a model to interpolate between individual-level interactions and collective-level consequences. Rooted in theoretical mathematics, the model is not constrained to any...
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Solving complex problems, from biodiversity conservation to reducing inequality, requires large scale collective action among diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal. Research relevant to meeting this challenge must model the interaction of stakeholders with diverse cognitive capabilities and the complexity of the problem faced by stakeholder...
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Biological systems are subject to a dramatic increase in invading species in the 21st century due to increasing globalization around the world. In the near future, these species will cause more extensive ecological as well as socio-economic damage. Biotic invasions will result not only in a reduction of the original biodiversity, but also total los...
Research
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Serie de Guías Audiovisuales de Biodiversidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra. Esta serie de guías nace de compartir intereses, motivaciones y conocimientos con la población local del departamento Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca. La guía de aves de Antofagasta de la Sierra recopila información de 72 especies de aves de la región. Nosotros registra...
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This article is about snakes and their importance to the environment.
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Most environments favor defection over cooperation due to natural selection. Nonetheless, the emergence of cooperation is omnipresent in many biological, social, and economic systems, quite contrary to the well-celebrated Darwinian theory of evolution. Much research has been devoted to better understanding how and why cooperation persists among sel...
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The genus Cottus contains more than 60 species that are common in freshwater bodies of northern Eurasia and North America. Despite the abundance of species, this genus has been insufficiently studied in Eastern European rivers and lakes. The new taxon Cottus cyclophthalmus sp. nov. was found in the Neman/Nemunas and Venta river systems (Baltic Sea...
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Resumo O texto caracteriza o protagonismo histórico da biodiversidade amazônica e explica sua desvalorização em meio urbano e rural por ação do desenvolvimentismo e do avanço da mercantilização da terra rural na região. O texto apoia-se na análise documental, revisão de literatura e em cartografia sobre Belém e Mocajuba, cujos casos demonstram que...
Preprint
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Seamounts have long been hypothesized to be biodiversity hotspots for benthic organisms, but there is limited empirical evidence to support that notion. The present study sampled meiofauna from different deep-sea sites in the Southeast Pacific Ocean (seamounts, abyssal plain, trench, island) to assess causative factors that influence meiofauna and...
Article
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Accurate checklists of species are essential for evaluating their conservation status and for understanding more about their distribution, biology and ecology and, therefore, the first step in order to effectively protect them. According to the existing literature, the Greek seas are rich in chondrichthyan biodiversity and herein, we update the mos...
Preprint
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Rapid urbanization is a major cause of habitat and biodiversity loss and human-animal conflict. While urbanization is inevitable, we need to develop a good understanding of the urban ecosystem and the urban-adapted species in order to ensure sustainable cities for our future. Scavengers play a major role in urban ecosystems, and often, urban adapta...
Book
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Los invertebrados conforman el grupo más abundante y diverso entre los animales marinos, no obstante, son menos apreciados y estudiados en comparación con los vertebrados. En el Pacífico sur de México, formado por los estados de Guerrero, Oaxaca y Chiapas, está comprobada la enorme diversidad biológica terrestre que contiene; no es así el caso sobr...
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Surveys and diversity studies of ants in urban areas in the Philippines are very few. The present study examined the composition, diversity, and relative abundance in the highly urbanized National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines. A total of 4,765 individual ants, belonging to 21 species, 22 genera and 6 subfamilies were identified. The find...
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From 4 biodiversity repositories (GBIF, NHM, SpeciesLink, and BNDB), 407,570 occurrence records for 10,390 species of plants, animals, and fungi were analyzed to support the identification of areas for conservation and biogeographic studies in Ecuador. The species were assigned to 1,773 higher taxonomic groups to assess the support of endemic areas...
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Introdução O presente estudo insere-se na linha de pesquisa da Bioética Ambiental. Apesar da relevância do tema, ele não aparece no cenário político como proposta nacional ou internacional, dando a perceber que o mesmo pode não representar um problema para a sociedade, mas na verdade, ele não aparece porque ele questiona toda uma lógica de produção...
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Masungsong LA, Alcala AA, Buot IE Jr., Belarmino MM. 2022. Classifying fifty-seven Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) accessions into six species using leaf architectural traits. Biodiversitas 23: 4006-4017. In gene banks, there are myriads of accessions that need to be studied, grouped, classified and organized to the proper taxon and hence, be able to manag...