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Biodiversity and Conservation - Science topic

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Forests are the biodiversity wealth of natural ecosystems and a key factor in the wealth of the planet's biosphere. However, this natural wealth is rapidly being eroded by human civilisational activities. The scale of forest fires has been increasing in recent years. The increasing scale of forest fires is a result of the ongoing process of global warming. In some regions of the world, forests are also being burned in order to acquire more land for the cultivation of agricultural crops, which is usually carried out under predatory and unsustainable farming practices. It is well known that forests are one of the key factors in reducing the rate of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, an important factor in slowing down the greenhouse effect and consequently also in slowing down global warming. It is therefore essential to increase the scale of forest fire protection.
The following questions are therefore becoming increasingly topical:
How to protect forests from fires?
What is your opinion on this subject?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz
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Remove all forest litter (dead branches from lower parts of trees). It provides the "fuel" for the next "wild" fire.
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Do humans who eat food prepared in a restaurant face a higher risk of contracting an illness than those who eat packaged food?
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Thanks for nice question and very well answered by Prof Barbara, would like to add that : Food can be contaminated when it is handled, stored or prepared incorrectly!, Care in processing, transport, storage, preparing and serving of food is necessary to reduce the risk of contamination. The holistic approach of your question should be investigated in each country due to their own conditions probably.
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Is anyone aware of bibliometric software that are open source? I am looking for something in the league of Leximancer.
I plan to undertake the extent to which policies in Kenya are supportive (or not) of biodiversity conservation in smallholder agroecosystems.
Thanks for your help in advance.
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I usually use VOSviewer and the bibliometrix package (biblioshiny online version) the R software.
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Hello,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: fischer.carolin@uni-jena.de
Thank you and kind regards,
Carolin
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Hi there Carolin,
sounds like a great topic for a BA thesis :-) I'm interested in your project - potentially also in participating as an interviewee. What precisely are you investigating in your research?
Feel free to contact me at Julius.Riese@web.de
With best wishes from Berlin,
Julius
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As you are aware, climate change has a dual impact on many approaches and sectors, both positive and negative. As a result, most of the time, the positive impact of climate change on biodiversity conservation in the agricultural ecosystem is unclear and lacks a researchable area. If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
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There are none because we have seen globally, biodiversity is being lost and increasingly threatened through a range of anthropogenic actions.
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I am doing a research related to the link of biodiversity conservation and climate change policies. I wonder if you can share your experience on how an economic instrument help link biodiversity conservation and climate change policies?
Many thanks
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We did projects on Planetary boundaries, socioeconomic factors and biodiversity. We found high correlation between resource use and biodiversity losses. The papers are under development.
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Capacity building and sensitization of people particularly young minds towards biodiversity conservation and its sustainable utilization needs more efforts to engage and inspire the large number of people. In this context, the role of conservation education has emerged very effective to address the issues of long term conservation. Considering the importance of education in conservation related issues, various projects have been initiated to involve young generation particularly students in participatory conservation programme all across the globe including India. The aim of the conservation programme was to sensitize the young minds towards science and addressing the issue of biodiversity conservation.
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This practice exists in our country. Here is a link to my book, though it is in Russian
Regards, Sergey
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What innovations have been used in recent years to help protect the environment?
Please reply
Best wishes
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All the ones that don't work best; but they make money.
Lou
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Dear colleagues,
What are the most prominent ongoing debates in the fields of landscape ecology and biodiversity conservation? I can name several, e.g. SLOSS, habitat amount vs habitat configuration. What are other examples? Maybe some latest controversies in the literature?
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Water and soil pollution
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I know, the question is a bit simplistic. It is also not only about the plants, but more about the photosynthetic organisms ... However, in this time of global biodiversity crisis, we are constantly confronted with prioritizing. Recently I read somewhere that in the Arctic, the photosynthetic algae should be taken care of and not the polar bears. Also in temperate regions, where the habitats are under enormous pressure, shouldn't we pay the greatest attention to the producers/plants? On the local level (local administration, journalists) I am constantly confronted with the question: who do we save first? With this somewhat provocative question, I simply wanted to know/hear what researchers from various fields will say about it (or against it).
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No, all life is essential.
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Does exists a "standard methodology" to define a species like a flagship species?
I know some methodologies are based on surveys, but I would like to know if we have others types of methodologies? (e.g. number of public papers discussing on a species in a country, number of pictures takes in a specific area, etc...)
Actually, I search a methodology based on social data to quantify the interest of species for considering them like flagship/iconic/emblematic species.
Do you think, facebook, instagram, twitter could be sufficient for that?
Does exists a package to search directly keywords in google search?...
Thanks for your help,
PL
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Interesting question. Not sure what you mean by what defines one, as a flagship species is simply any species that generates a strong emotional response and by doing so helps protects many other species or threatened ecosystems, etc. But I'm sure you already know that. I've never heard of any standard methodology for identifying flagship species, but then I've never formally looked either. Seems many current flagship species have that designation as a by product of their long history of generating a strong emotional response in others prior to conservation efforts and conservationists have simply used that knowledge to advantage, e.g. polar bears. Using social media as you suggested might help uncover which species are much loved in various countries/parts of the world then seems one could overlay the ranges of those species with where conservation need is greatest? Kind of like a hotspot approach, i.e. where they looked globally for high rates of endemism then overlaid that with threatened areas due to human impact globally to come up with the hotspots.
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Mostly Jim Corbett is been discussed as an Man Eater Hunter. I am interested in this second segment studying him by humanistic point of view.
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You have a good biography by BOOTH, Martin. Carpet Sahib: A Life of Jim Corbett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
There is another book that I have never accessed by GUPTA, Reeta Dutta. Jim Corbett: The Hunter-Conservationist. New Delhi: Rupa and Co., 2006.
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There are several options for improving the institutional framework for biodiversity incentives:
(1) decentralization of resource management decision making to local levels
(2) engaging and reorienting government institutions
(3) establishing new national and international institutions
(4) establishing functional linkages between key institutional actors
Are you agree with this? any more to add?
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This is an interesting topic of discussion, but I fear it is not possible to make great extrapolation of advice from one place to another. Decentralization of resource management decisions to local levels, for instance, seems fine and make sense. But, it can be a double-edged sword, as highlighted by Girma Kelboro. Local people is usually much more aware of their needs and the resilience of local environment to disturbance (for instance). However, local authorities are much more exposed to conflicting pressures with other local actors. In many developing countries, where most struggle for biodiversity is concentrated now, people who act outside the law (deforesters, garimpeiros, drug dealers) often have the means to coerce by the threat of violence or are more likely to corrupt local minor authorities in the front line, which can end up decreasing law enforcement. In these cases, decision making centered at federal institutions may be more resistant to these pressures. Anyway, a leadership committed to conservation can make a big difference at any level (as mentioned by R.T. Corlett), but a great leadership at national level is invaluable. The disaster of the environmental administration of Brazil under way is a sad example. They are acting specially in your points 2 and 4 in a bad way.
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When talking to visitors of our museum/zoo, some of the most frequent questions asked are "Why is keeping species from going extinct an activity worthwhile to pursue?" or "Why does it matter if this midge or that tick is going extinct?".
While most biologists will probably reply that species have very specific roles in their ecosystems and thus the extinction of one species can probably affect others, too, or that each species is part of the richness of our nature (a value in itself so to speak), some non-biologists are often not that easily convinced (especially when you refer to species not very attractive to the human eye). What even more hampers an easy answer is that more than 99% of species that ever existed have died out in the course of evolution. So what is all that conservationist effort, to 'preserve the current state' all about? Changes in biodiversity and mass extinctions have always happened, so why don't we let it just happen now (to put it insensibly)? There are also some human related arguments, for example "we breathe air and thus need plants of some sort". But that does not mean I need every plant species on the planet to produce oxygen, crops will do that, too...
I would like to hear your thoughts on this to have some good arguments at hand when dealing with the next inquisitive visitor. ;-)
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A watch can work without the glass covering the clock face. A watch surely can work removing one of the tiny gears from the inside. And will probably still work if you remove a different tiny gear instead the one we mentioned before. You can also wet a bit the clock, and hopefully it will work without much problem...
But a watch will probably fail if we remove too many pieces or damage it too badly... And then you will have to buy a new one.
So, the World is a watch, and biodiversity are the gears that keep it moving.
How many pieces we want to remove or how much damage we want to apply to see if it stop working?
The problem is that buying a new World is not in the immediate schedule!
And so, that is why conserving biodiversity matters.
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Hi,
I coordinate the sending of PAID solidarity corps servants by French government for NGO doing direct action for conservation into the world.
The servant (often with M.Sc in science), are paid (480€/months, during 10-12months, get insurance and stipend for the travel).
The NGO provide accommodation and real mission in conservation.
If you know NGO needing free motivated manpower, please contact me.
CONSERVATION in ACTION! =D
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Hi Dr. Beaune,
Take a look at Oceânica NGO from Brazil > https://oceanica.org.br/
As the Oceânica website is only in the Portuguese version I sent the Annual Report 2019 in the English version. If you are interested please contact: contato@oceanica.org.br
Kind regards!
~Guido
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In all six Zelkova tree species mature fruits fall with the entire twig, and the dried leaves that are still attached function as a parachute, carrying the fruits a few metres away from the parent tree (see attached pictures, first photo: twig of Zelkova serrata from Taiwan, second: dispersed twigs of Z. abelicea from Crete). 
Does anybody know other similar examples of such dispersal mechanisms in other trees/woody species?
For more images of fruits, and more details on the relict tree genus Zelkova see www.zelkova.ch and the publications available on this webpage.
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We have published new research paper on this topic (see the attachment).
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A relict species population is a population that currently occurs in a restricted area, but whose original range was far wider during a previous geologic epoch. Threatened plant species with small geographic range and small population size are most at risk of extinction and the highest priority in urgent conservation programs. As for the relict endemic species, which witnessed during the past 50 years a significant decrease in the geographical area and population size, it is one of the most important primary goals of conservation, whether in situ or ex situ. In some cases, ex situ conservation is the only available solution to protect a species from extinction and to ensure the possibility of an attempt to return to the wild after its extinction after the improvement of the surrounding environmental conditions. Unfortunately, some species depend on the range of environmental variables so small that by changing the organism cannot adapt to and it becomes extinct. For example, in the cases of plants that depend on the availability of a constant and continuous water source throughout the year, they are subject to a significant collapse in the absence of that water, especially in desert environments. The question now is, how can we increase the chances of conserving these species through in situ practices, given the weak opportunities for long-term financing?
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Natural products are capable to adjust with adverse conditions. Yes, the capability of them varies with their species. When we can save the seeds with our technology, we can recreate the condition of their growth. In my point of view, extinction, of course the natural one, is very normal. That is the way of generation of aa new species. But extinction that is done by human greed is the problem creator.
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Hi,
we decided to go back to our origins and relaunched the Parrot Researchers Group. The mission of the Parrot Researchers Group (PRG; formerly known also as Working Group Psittaciformes or as Research Coordination Committee on Parrots) group is to establish and promote research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies to the parrots of the world. To achieve this, the PRG
1) Promotes parrot research,
2) Establishes research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies,
3) Identifies and addresses barriers to effective research and conservation of parrots (Psittaciformes).
The PRG is characterised by a regional approach, being organised in four regions (African, Australasian, Neotropical, and Indo-Malayan), a Wild Parrot Veterinary Section, and a Secretary Office that coordinates joint work.
You can read more about our specific objectives in our homepage:
or in the attachment.
We (405 members to date) are currently looking for more researchers to join the group. If you are interested, please, get in touch with me or any of the regional coordinators.
Any questions?
Looking forward to work together.
All the best, JUAN
Dr. Juan F. Masello
Justus Liebig University Giessen
Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics
Personal information, projects and publications
Burrowing Parrots & behavioural ecology
Penguins & energy landscapes
Prions & evolution
The Alliance of World Scientists
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Hi, thank you for your message. I've just sent you instructions per e-mil. Please, let me know any questions. Looking forward! Cheers, JUAN
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I work as an environmental analyst and work with biodiversity conservation in 2 Brazilian National Parks located at the southern end of the Atlantic Forest Biome. In addition to native forests, these national parks conserve areas with southern Brazil grasslands. I need to define local bioindicators to monitor biodiversity conservation in areas with southern Brazil grasslands.
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We know that diversity studies have a key role in the selection of conservation strategies, what implications does beta diversity have due to the species turnover or nesting in the selection of these conservation strategies?
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I recommend you:
Socolar, J. B., Gilroy, J. J., Kunin, W. E., & Edwards, D. P. (2016). How should beta-diversity inform biodiversity conservation?. Trends in ecology & evolution, 31(1), 67-80.
Lazzari, N., Martín-López, B., Sanabria-Fernandez, J. A., & Becerro, M. A. (2020). Alpha and beta diversity across coastal marine social-ecological systems: Implications for conservation. Ecological Indicators, 109, 105786.
Rother, D. C., Liboni, A. P., Magnago, L. F. S., Chao, A., Chazdon, R. L., & Rodrigues, R. R. (2019). Ecological restoration increases conservation of taxonomic and functional beta diversity of woody plants in a tropical fragmented landscape. Forest Ecology and Management, 451, 117538.
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What are potentially huge yet unexamined questions/problems related to pollinator conservation? What basic knowledge do we lack? What knowledge do we have but fail to apply? Do we need to learn more about biology and ecology of pollinators or we should rather focus on undertaking conservation activities (and what kind of activities/actions specifically)?
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@Michal Filipiak Your question has one associated question as to whether pollinators really need conservation?? If so, then how many pollinator species have become extinct thus far, and whether new pollinator species have also evolved and added to our ecosystem??
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Although many academic papers have pointed out that shark conservation is an international issue that requires multi-nation collaboration, public media still commonly attribute this problem to a single nation, China, and see shark finning as the major, if not only, reason for shark's being forced to the edge of danger. They believe racism is the "weapon" and key to the solution.
Even worse, quantities of news comments and even news reports themselves are full of racism.
What the news industry and the public think of shark conservation is vastly different from what the academic field has found. There are two types of shark conservation, one of the folk concept and the other of academic.
In folk concept, shark's situation is all due to China, and shark fin soup is the only reason for massacring sharks. The public pay no attention to the bycatch problem of tuna fisheries, nor do they criticize sports fishing that targets endangered mako shark.
It has been obvious that in public-oriented shark conservation publicity, racism has been quite ubiquitous. Just open some news link on Facebook ot Twitter, and you may easily find racist comments that believe all Chinese are bad to sharks. I tried to rebute them but they refuse to listen.
But racism is vicious and it can not help any vulnerable species. How to help provide a comprehensive view of shark's situation and help remove racism in shark conservation education?
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Thank you for pointing this out. On a related note, it seems that science practiced by some in the Western countries (e.g., US, EU) perpetuate the colonial roots of the natural sciences. For example, coral reef researchers from the US going to the South Pacific doing field work and then telling the locals how to manage their reef fisheries. Without capacity building and collaboration with local scientists and fishers, this behavior is tantamount to intellectual piracy stealing the nation's intellectual legacy.
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Since, TOFs are important natural resources that contribute significantly tothe national biomass and carbon stocks and also to the livelihood of people in many regions of the world.
Dear researchers,
Please recommend some of the best species with the facts and stats...
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I am looking for potential collaborators for a project that seeks to assess the ecological importance of specific tree species of Borneo. I invite interested specialists to message me. 
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Sure. Any off site work, please reach-out.
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19 whose source has been linked to yet unknown 'bird species', many people presumably have/may develop aversion towards. What is the plight of some wild animals [even some domesticated ones] given legal protection for many animal species of most countries are either non-existent/omitted/inadequate more so under "Wildlife Acts"?
What are the likely implications to animals protection rights and animals diversity/biodiversity conservation?
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Don't think that situation would be very hopeful about protection of animal rights unless protecting the rights of humanity.
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Alguém possui alguma informação sobre as áreas prioritárias para a conservação da biodiversidade, estabelecidas pelo Ministério do Meio Ambiente do Brasil em 2004? Diferente daquelas já disponibilizadas no sítio oficial do governo, que constam no seguinte link: http://areasprioritarias.mma.gov.br/processo-de-avaliacao-2004
Alguma coisa parecida com os procedimentos metodológicos adotados na época ou uma publicação que discuta e descreva as áreas selecionadas? (sem ser as tabelas básicas de descrição e o map original).
Does anyone have any information on the priority areas for biodiversity conservation, established by the Ministry of Environment of Brazil in 2004? Different from those already available on the official government website, which are listed in the following link: http://areasprioritarias.mma.gov.br/processo-de-avaliacao-2004
Something similar to the methodological procedures adopted at the time or a publication that discusses and describes the selected areas? (other than the basic description tables and the original map).
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I think everywhere, because species are usually endemic to local areas
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While shorfin mako and longfin mako have been listed as endangered species, their jaws are still welcome in shark jaw market with poor regulation, as a great number of people ardently display photos of their mako shark jaw collection on Facebook, Twitter and somewhere else. I find that while shark fin trade has drawn much attention, shark jaw trade, despites its popularity, has not been a highlight.
It is really hard to find a paper on the species composition of shark jaw market.
Even worse, some game fishing fishermen killed the living mako sharks and keep their jaws for trade or self entertainment.
Shark jaw trade of endangered species is as harmful as shark fin trade, and maybe even worse. It is because the harm of shark jaw trade has not been revealed to the public, while shark fin trade has been notorious. And some people even find excuses for their collecting endangered shark jaws, such as "this jaw is from a shark that dies a natural death" or "I got it from a legal aquarium".
Do you have any suggestions on mitigation of shark jaw trade of endangered species? Or have you ever studied this problem?
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Hi Li, the shark jaw trade can be reduced by providing information and awareness to public and relevant authorities.
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Some people argue that it is completely acceptable to trade non-endangered sharks species, such as bull shark and blue shark by-caught by fisheries. They hold that even if these sharks are still alive and stand high chance of surviving by-catch if released, it is still okay to kill them and trade their fins, meat and jaw.
What do you think of this problem?
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Hi Li Chen.
He considered that James Des Lauriers is right in what he raises; fishing for any shark species should be restricted and regulated, even if not in danger. It should be analyzed that only intensive fishing is not the only factor leading to the danger of extinction of certain shark species; we must also consider climate change and ocean pollution. Set of factors that in a relatively short time can dramatically reduce shark populations in the world.
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I am developing a research related to forest regeneration and biodiversity conservation in a dry forest in Brazil. However, I did not get any funding from local agencies. I'm trying at Rufford Grants. But, I would appreciate it if someone could suggest other potential opportunities for me.
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Thank you very much, Dan Hending
Cheers,
Jakelyne.
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I have published an article titled "Compare the Biodiversity Conservation Effectiveness between Regions based on a Reference Condition", it's aimed to compare the biodiversity effectiveness between different Biological Effectiveness Function Zones in China. In China it really have its practical application value, Because The Ministry of Ecology and Environment measures the performance of local government departments by quantitatively assessing the conservation effectiveness of BEFZs and then adopts appropriate policy and funding investments according to the results. I wonder whether our research has application for Other countries? Thanks.
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Yes, if it was correctly replicated :)
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What are the basic identifying characteristics or features of a freshwater swamp forest.
And what will be the appropriate tools to identify a forest or come to a decision about a forest that, it is a freshwater swamp forest.
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Distinct characteristics of a swamp forest could be:
i. Have got specific emergent or submerged woody and non-woody plants which can be inclusive of trees adapted to this ecosystem.
ii. The region is green throughout the year because of the availability of water all the seasons (GIS tool and google earth maps can be used to prove it).
iii. Root types are normally buttressed in most of the plants.
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The Amazon forest is on fire and the whole world will suffer the climatic consequences. The main cause of forest fires in the Amazon rainforest of Brazil and Bolivia are the deforestation policies promoted by the anti-environmental presidents Jair Bolsonaro and Evo Morales. We need to do something to stop this. In the long run, these policies will destroy even large-scale rainforests in the region. We are coming closer to the point where there is not enough rainforest left to produce the rain that sustains those forests. The vast Amazon basin will tip into a drought state, which would be devastating for wildlife, the indigenous people, the global climate, and agriculture in the region. Is there something we could do to stop this ecological disaster before is too late ? What is your opinion about this important subject ?
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The Brazilian government should give more importance to the environment, placing in the management of the Ministry of Environment more qualified people from the environmental area to allow the analysis and creation of environmental projects focused on the sustainable development of existing communities in the Amazon (Indigenous and other inhabitants of the area). ) through the rational use of forests (agroforestry, sustainable extractivism, creation of Conservation Units for sustainable use, etc.) not allowing the use of the area for agriculture, livestock and mining that require deforestation and vegetation burning. The Government of Brazil should provide more resources for environmental supervision to hire more technicians and logistical support for the control and monitoring of what is being done within the forest. The Amazonian Forest must be preserved in a sustainable way so that, besides protecting the high biodiversity present in this ecosystem, it can bring benefits to the natural communities that live in the region, thus not allowing any action that may conflict with the rational use of the forest.
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I have 10 million dollars to invest in biodiversity conservation or restoration. I am looking for an average annual return of 5% over 10 years and can accept a medium level of risk. What financial instruments are available to make such an investment?
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Habitat restoration with indigenous species only. Finding out ways of economic evaluation of various ecosystem services in order to create public awareness about importance of biodiversity conservation. Employment of locals and efficiently training them to protect endangered species.
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Trees in urban system provide a variety of ecosystem services including biodiversity conservation, removal of atmospheric pollutants, oxygen generation, noise reduction, mitigation of urban heat island effect, microclimate regulation, stabilization of soil, groundwater recharge, prevention of soil erosion and carbon sequestration. The important roles played by green spaces are social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects of sustainable development. Urban green spaces can be a comprehensive tool for long term protection of environmental sustainability through improving the quality of life and air quality, increasing property value due to their amenity and aesthetic characteristics, and reducing the energy costs of cooling buildings.
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I think to answer the first part of your question we should consider different criteria such as urban policy, urban economics, urban climate, etc. Regarding the second part of your question, I think it would be important to consider the feature of urban green spaces like the cooling effect of urban green spaces, which has a significant role to improve the physical and psychological health of residents.
I have two studies in this case maybe that would be useful for you.
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Do you have any idea for to do research on this species? Maybe unexplored yet or needs more further study? Thank you so much ♥️
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Aaron Baxter has published on diamondback terrapins in estuaries of Texas :
google his names and terrapins for several pdf reports of his studies. Best, PZimba
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I am pretty confused about the use of taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness.
Taxonomic diversity can be defined as the average taxonomic path between randomly chosen individuals. It takes into consideration taxonomic differences and heterogeneity (species richness and evenness). Why should we not just decide to use taxonomic diversity instead of Simpson’s index/Shannon index when we know the taxonomy of each species? Moreover, isn’t calculating the taxonomic diversity across different areas more appropriate than other beta diversity indices such as Jaccard Similarity?
Taxonomic distinctness can be defined as the average taxonomic path between two individuals from different species. I don’t understand the point of this index. It doesn’t give us information about the heterogeneity (which taxonomic diversity does), but at the same time it is not an index of the how the different species are related taxonomically (which is delta+). Which information gives us? When is the use of taxonomic distinctness more appropriate than the one of taxonomic diversity? 
Thank you for anyone who will help, I really appreciate it!
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The taxonomy is the identification and description of taxa with the objective of locating them in a system. Biological diversity is by definition the analysis of variability at any scale, be it ecological or biogeographic (to point out the two extremes). The taxonomy is born from the need to identify living beings and find an order that allows to develop in a coherent way the studies in any branch of biology.
In biological diversity, the objective is to establish the state of relations between living beings in a given territory, determine the degree of balance of these relationships and their causes. This with the objective of determining the changes of the biota in each territory. Therefore, the taxonomy is in some way to the biological sciences, all of them, like metrology to physics.
The biological diversity is based on three fundamental pillars: alpha, beta and gamma. Interestingly, the best-known indices of biological diversity are those corresponding to alpha diversity. These study the equilibrium relations between the living components of a given territory (community, landscape, biome, etc.). But most of the time, beta diversity is ignored, that is, the degree of relationship between a set of territories (the amount and form in which taxa share), and most ignore that the patterns that determine that diversity Beta depending on the individual combinations is the gamma diversity.
When we study the genesis of taxonomy, we discover that this science arises from the need to order the supposed chaos in the associative identification of living beings. But the need arose from very ancient in all civilizations and biological diversity was born from ecology. Linne uses the conceptions of Greek philosophy, but the Mayans, the Chinese, the Hindus had theirs. Whittaker, father of biological diversity, part of his studies in the plant communities of a mountain and deepening, found that the relationships there were much more complex and difficult to interpret than he had thought
It is easy to understand that biological diversity is a science with its own paradigms, where taxonomy provides the system that allows it to develop. Therefore, they have absolutely nothing to do with each other
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I have an impression that as time goes by, the gap between conservation science and practice is increasing. Since the practitioners (such as PA rangers, NGO staff with no research background, people in the decision making bodies, and simple interested people) are and will be at the same knowledge level, conservation science is getting more and more sophisticated. High quality literature frequently reporting the findings or providing suggestions that itself requires specific qualifications and skills to be understood.
As an example, most of the decision makers, and great deal of conservation practitioners in Georgia never reads articles published in leading conversational journals. What about other countries?
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I agree that this is a problem.
Part of the issue is that we often know what is needed to address conservation problems but are not able to address them (due to lack of funding, or political will, or trade-offs with other issues) but we still think that describing the problem in greater detail can help ...
I have written a bit about this in the past, e.g., :
As have others, even referring to such research as a "displacement activity" e.g.,
So, depending on the problem, research isn't always able to help that much, but we think that "raising awareness" is worthwhile in any case. It can be debated. Sometimes awareness is important (though in itself it seldom solves a problem)
When I worked in a research station in Uganda we ensured we had regular meetings with park staff and others to ensure we agreed what research questions we looked at, and that we examined practical choices and their implementation. Journals prefer big broad generalizations that have mass readership, but addressing local problems requires a lot of attention to local contexts. The result is that when we do locally useful research it is arguably too site specific for the most prestigious journals (few will cite them). I have tried so I know the challenge. So how can students be encouraged to write these types of articles?
e.g.
Presumably if funders, journals and universities gave more attention to practical outcomes and encouraged researchers to work more closely with practitioners there is plenty that could be done. Then the focus needs to be on trials and application much more than simply claiming to do "useful research" or raising awareness.
see, e.g.,
So, how to fix it? A change in incentives can help lead a change in practice.
At the same time, I don't think we should address this in terms of labels like "good" and "bad" research: there can be value in "pure" research or research that raises awareness. I say this because these discussions often get polarised as if we need some types of work and not others--and I dont think that that is the case. Rather we need many kinds of research. We do need to understand the implications of the changes in the world etc. as well as addressing particular problems in particular places. So we need a nuanced approach. But certainly a shift in the overall balance, with diversity and greater encouragement for an emphasis on helping in practice, would be good.
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If we want to study an area of tourist interest for bringing it under the concept of Eco-tourism, what parameters should be selected? Or what aspect we have to study and analyse? What changes are expected to convert tourism in to Eco-tourism?
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Ecotourism can be defined by three core criteria: nature, learning and sustainability. The ecotourist market has been segmented by the nature and learning criteria only. It has been assumed that ecotourists are environmentally concerned and therefore sustainability is a factor in their decision-making. However, little empirical research has confirmed this assumption. This study surveyed 243 respondents participating in an ecotourism experience in Australia. It identified ecotourists according to the nature and learning criteria as per previous segmentation studies. Pro-environmental attitudes were measured as an indication of their support for sustainability. Results revealed no significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes between those identified as ecotourists and those considered non-ecotourists. While demand exists for nature and learning experiences, compliance with the sustainability criterion seems to be no more a factor in ecotourist decision-making than for mainstream tourists. Implications are that market segmentation research should consider all relevant criteria when segmenting a market for a particular product to ensure supply matches demand. However, demand for certain products can be created by innovative marketing practices. This would enable the ecotourism industry to respond to the market's demand for nature and learning, but also influence the behaviour and structure of the market with regard to sustainability.
Narelle Beaumont (2011) The third criterion of ecotourism: are ecotourists more concerned about sustainability than other tourists?, Journal of Ecotourism, 10:2, 135-148, DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2011.555554
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I am interested in contributing to a more collaborative, participatory, and engagingly more cooperative nature / biodiversity conservation model in Gorongosa National Park (in Mozambique, Southeast Africa) where Western nature conservation practitioners coexist and sometimes conflict with indigenous stakeholders over whose model dominate. Any suggestions, be they on literature or life experience on these matters?
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Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is viewed as "native science" developed across generations in particular localities and within given social-ecological systems. Such a knowledge system may act as a livelihood strategy and is also intended to positively contribute to biodiversity conservation. Given that biodiversity losses continue unabated even where TEK may exist, its relevance/impacts are questionable. In that case, several pertinent questions arise despite status of biodiversity being dependent on several area-specific factors. For instance: 1) Is TEK system reliable to help conserve biodiversity? 2) Is it sustainable? ......Please feel free and give your opinion and where possible empirical evidence/publications in support of your assertions.
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For sustainability in the social - ecological system, a balance needs to be met. However, biodiversity is often lost because of imbalances in the nexus. Give an opinion on whether economic growth through anthropogenic activities largely drives biodiversity losses more than others.
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As you may know there are several compilations of classic papers in Ecology (e. g. Foudations of Ecology). I am trying to find such a volume or classic papers about morphological abnormalities in Neotropical frogs.
Please share your opinion and/or any sources. Thanks
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Your welcome!
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Assess the state of conservation of natural resources and drivers to guide decision-making;
Analyze the conservation gaps of protected area systems in relation to their capacity to protect biodiversity and carbon stocks;
Propose participatory natural resource management tools adapted to socio-economic contexts
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Hi,
It may also be worth mentioning that in addition to the already stated responses, environmental subsidiarity should be considered in any reconciliation intervention between biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources in Africa.
Best wishes
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Question is not clear
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Preservation of endemic species and threatened species constitutes a very important part of the conservation of biodiversity. Most of the endemic species grow in protected areas or areas with greater human impact. Determination of biological, ecological, and proliferation of their features would contribute to raising awareness and educating students and people interested in conserving biodiversity in Albania and beyond.
The study will also affect the acquisition of a new and very important experience for our country as a country of democracy in development.
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Dear Olawale Festus Olaniyan, Olawale Festus Olaniyan, Shah Nawaz Jelil
Thank you very much for your sincerely and veryvaluable suggestions.
I will prepare an application and send to any of funds you suggested me.
Marash
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Defining phylogeny and biodiversity and communicating with one another can be used to protect biodiversity....
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As a geographer/geomorphologist with interest in nature (karst) protection, I'm dealing with one Natura 2000 site in Croatia under heavy pollution pressure. It is a sinking river in contact karst area exposed to pollution from nearby dump site and sewerage - consequences: pollution of river (destruction of water fauna), its ponor and underground stream possibly up to the distant karst springs. One of the basic problems is in bad delineation of borders not including larger catchment area (small city, suburban area with important percentage of arable land - a lot of anthropogenic pressure) but only small part of river bed. So it is completely inefficient because it does not prevent or reduce the pressure on the protected water habitat of interest. Second problem is that most of Natura 2000 sites in Croatia are poorly managed or not managed at all (no management plans), with badly determined borders/areas drawn without enough scientific fundamentals so their efficiency is questionable in many cases.
I'm searching for any updates on this topic - newer articles with examples. I'm interested in various habitats, not only karst and water, but all good examples of bad decisions in delineating Natura sites and repercussions to habitats, flora & fauna.
Maybe we can start some collaboration in this topic...
Thank you.
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Hi.
In my opinion, Natura 2000 network has a great importance in the Canary Islands. There are some areas not protected by local laws in 1994 ("Red de Espacios Naturales de Canarias"), but they have been designed as Natura 2000 protected areas, so (at least for the moment) were saved from any important threat. In any case, it's true that some Natura 2000 protected sites are under different types of threats, like new tourist complexes in the surroundings, increasing human presence, alien predators of local fauna (mainly cats and rats), invasive alien plants, etc. One of the main problems in the management of such areas is the low degree of surveillance or wardening inside them, mainly in coastal sites (the situation is much better in the forests), as we have an important proportion of our territory under legal protection and is necessary to have more people working in the protected areas.
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Kumasi, the second capital town of Ghana was formerly known as 'the garden city of Africa', a fitting brand given to it by the Queen of England in the hay days of colonialism. Today, sadly, due to massive anthropogenic activities, the greenery of Kumasi is gradually being scrapped off. Policy makers are thinking of a massive afforestation project. Is this the only way to go to avert the wanton destruction of the greening? What other effective strategies do you think must be undertaken to green the community? Any practical suggestions from the eco-humanistic approach? Kindly share your great views, respected colleagues. Thanks in advance.
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It is difficult to change in the short term, care attention to long-term concern for the cultural development of local people, greening effect can be presented.
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As far as I am concerned, the protection of geodiversity worldwide is much "weaker" than biodiversity conservation. Why is this so considering that geodiversity significantly affects biodiversity. Recently, some changes are noted in higher attention toward geodiversity, but it is still far behind the attention given to biodiversity with incomparable more protected areas of biodiversity. In the studies of protection (national parks, other protected areas), usually the part that explores and evaluate abiotic factors (geodiversity including hydrography and climate) is very small compared to biotic ones. Any change in the latest time or in some countries?
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From a legal standpoint, biodiversity is the core element of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB), one of the most significant international law instruments and without a doubt the most important one related to protected areas. This document is so important for PAs because it has being ratified by all Member States of the United Nations, except the USA, and because it has established progressive targets for the creation of PAs in each country (creation of PAs for protecting biodiversity, of course). Also, the CDB has led to important modifications in national legislations, especially the creation and adaptation of their protected areas legal statutes in order to protect biodiversity. As a consequence, most countries create protected areas especially for protecting biodiversity.
The CDB was so successful because it treats biodiversity as an economic asset, and it provides governments with a great argument for the creation of PAs.
Of course, the protection of geodiversity (especially in the form of beautiful/picturesque landscapes) is a well established objective of many types of PAs in many countries' legislations, and in international law UNESCO recognises some of those PAs as part of the World Heritage. But the World Heritage Convention does not set goals for the creation of those PAs, as the CDB does.
I would argue that culturally, geodiversity is not so attached to the idea of nature or wilderness, the elements PAs traditionally seek to protect. What I mean is, for many people geodiversity is something beautiful and culturally relevant, but not necessarily something important to be protected for scientific or economic reasons. This has changed a lot in the last 30 years, but this perception still is present among policy makers.
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Some people write the greatness of wetlands for soil carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. Others dictate the potential of wetlands for rice cultivation. Many countries in Asian continent uses rice (which is cultivated in wetlands) as their staple food. Thus, which use of wetlands is recommended? How to compromise these benefits?
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Dear Birhanu,
It is difficult to find a "fit all" rule to solve this problems. I would say......It depends! It depends on population growth and pressure to secure affordable and nutritious rice. It depends on the scale of rice production and methods (traditional/ecological versus conventional). The bottom line is that we need to protect wetlands around the world for a variety of reasons and ecological services they provide, as you mentioned in your question. It remains ultimately, the responsibility of specific governments and stakeholders to strive for a good balance between wetlands conservation and crop production.
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Taxonomic bias in research papers is well established, but the underlying drivers are poorly understood. As professional scientists, we are under enormous pressure to publish, and the type of sophisticated research that appeals to the top journals often requires a well researched study system. This potentially limits research on understudied species. Moreover, limited resources mean that scientists study what is practically convenient rather than the species in most need of research. We are also motivated by personal biases, with many of us drawn to work on charismatic/iconic species.
We are currently constructing a conceptual model to better understand the drivers of taxonomic bias in conservation research, and I would love to hear about people's experiences of why they ended up working on a particular species.
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Back in 2000 I had voiced my opinion on the subject for an Eartwatch issue. I have attached it here. To tell you the truth, I am even more convinced today of what I said back then. Relating to your question - my answer is "convenience." The other problem is that today academia advocates teaching students to be robots - ask a question, go out there and the answer in order to get your degree. There is no real Naturalist's approach. Hence, natural history studies also suffer and it is impossible today to publish any such, in my eyes VERY important studies, without fancy fangled statistics. Sorry if I got carried away.
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Hi,
I encounter this species every spring while completing surveys around the NSW Central Coast. This species is listed as vulnerable under both the NSW Biodiversity Conservation Act and the Commonwealth EPBC Act.
Its a beautiful little plant, but I often hear botanists complain that this species is too common to be considered rare, and therefore should be delisted from each of the acts.
I'm interested in what other botanists think about this. Particularly, those with knowledge of plant population dynamics and evolution.
cheers,
Gilbert
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Some measures of biodiversity conservation result from the need to gain some benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services. What are the best method to evaluate these benefits to society? Thanks.
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Dear Albert,
You can also check the ipbes website for useful documents and downloads:
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I am looking for information on Impatiens mexicana, particularly recent observations or color pictures.
Species was published by Rydberg in 1910. It is regarded as endemic for Veracruz state; other sources give distribution both in Veracruz and in Oaxaca states.
I found following papers dealing at least partially with this taxon:
Sosa V., Vovides A.P., Castillo-Campos G. 1998. Monitoring endemic plant extinction in Veracruz, Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 7,11: 1521-1527.
Soto M.E. 1999. Balsaminaceae. Bioclimatologia de Flora de Veracruz 13: 30-50. Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Barringer K. 1991. Balsaminaceae. Flora de Veracruz 64: 1–8. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos, Xalapa.
Martinez y Perez J.L., Chazaro Basanez M. de J. 1991. Notas sobre el genero Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) en el centro de Veracruz, Mexico. Revista Biotam 3,2: ????.
Best regards Wojciech Adamowski
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The identity of the plant images available through Google search are not reliable for scientific use.
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Hello, i am doing some researches to see how we can integrate
land-use planning in national strategies of biodiversity conservation. I need to know differents experiences of others countries. Some countries in west africa, with the help of technical and financial partners, are at the stage of definition of regional schemes of land use planning. With the climate change and biodiversity lost, we want that land use planning be a way to protected environnment
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It is land use planning that will sustain the carrying capacity of a soil and define the sustainability to facilitate the preservation of natural biodiversity...
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I am conducting my MSc Thesis work on potentials of urban green infrastructure for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation to provide tangible information on climate change mitigation issues
regards
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Thanks all for your nice clue to my knowledge gap in my project
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Hello guys,
Can you send me some papers which published on Science or Nature journal about ecological integrity or ecological connectivity and biodiversity conservation.
regards,
BIN
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Dear Bin,
Please have a look at these useful PDF attachments.
Good luck
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suggestion of good reads about the rich endemism in western ghats
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Please have a look at this useful PDF attachment also.
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Dear colleagues,
In recent days an article was published in the Washington Post trying to sell the idea that we, humans, should not work towards preventing the extinction of as many endangered species as possible, and that we should only focus on saving species that might help us survived as species as longer as possible. This is the article:
Our colleague Dr. Alexandre Antonelli is organizing a rebuttal and everyone is welcome to sign it. It is currently aimed as a short commentary in the Washington Post, but I believe it might be possible that this would lead to a larger perspective piece in a scientific journals. Please take a look at the short 750-words manuscript and feel free to sign if you agree with the text. To do so, please use the following link and open the corresponding documents: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1VJuKuXDP62NQcBdIuIkCi-LqMyRbORv2?usp=sharing
Best regards,
Eliécer
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With my question, I wanted the community to become aware of the initiative to fight back the dangerous and erroneous arguments published in the Washington Post and to gather more signatories. I like when commenters make arguments against the Washington Post piece, but I honestly find unhelpful to make comments about Pyron. Let's focus on ideas/arguments and ways to push back those arguments in the WP article that could be used by insane governments and corporations to continue devastating biodiversity.
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To describe ecological interactions of a plant with all the different components. A software that can add photos. For a blog post or even an article to be submitted for publication!
Thank you!
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I have used www.draw.io, as suggested above, to produce flowcharts used in articles. I found it to be easy to use and I liked the result.
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As human populations increase so do demands for forest products and services. With the world’s natural forest shrinking or increasingly unavailable for timber production, planted forests are expected to fulfil more of these demands. Planted forests are often provide multiple ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, enhanced water supply, and reduced pressures on natural forests although these aims are often contested.
Therefore it is important to discuss - can multiple ecosystem services be provided by planted forests, and to what extent?
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Plantations can address these ecosystem services (and perhaps more):
Provisioning: Energy, fiber, food, water
Regulating: climate regulation, carbon sequestration, water purification, erosion control, pollination
Cultural: Recreation, reflection, aesthetics (all based on various human values)
Supporting: Soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, water cycling
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This is about  to measure the economic benefits of biodiversity conservation, particularly beneficial that provides for scientific research.
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I am working on Biodiversity and climatic change, there are may research papers which can help.
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Here’s a convoluted question.  First some back-ground.
Over the last 20+ years, we (Indiana TNC) have planted a 2,500+ acres of forest on ex-agricultural land across Indiana (USA).   In all cases, these forest restorations were performed to restore ecological processes (primarily nutrient removal from surface water and to increase groundwater recharge rates) or to buffer biodiversity conservation areas (primarily by reducing edge to volume ratios in fragmented landscapes).  I want to understand if carbon sequestration creates “added value” that can be used to further justify this rather expensive program.
Without investing in new data collection – I’m looking for approaches that will get me reasonable sequestration estimates for these projects.  
How would you approach this?
Information that I have in hand includes precise acreages planted – date of planting, planting densities, species mixes and we can probably get soil type easily.  I also have solid estimates of “standing biomass” for all forest types across the state (note that these do not include below-ground biomass estimates).  From this data, I can get above-ground estimates for “mature” forest (~80 years old).
What I’m really missing is below ground biomass estimates and accumulation rates, and accumulation rates in general during the initial decades of forest establishment.  And then, ideas on how to apply such info to my specific plantings….
I’m looking for your good ideas on how to approach this (in other words, if you’re just trying to impact your scores – stick a sock in it).
Thanks,
John
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Thanks Jeffrey - I'm already engaged with a similar resource pool at Purdue but the data and models get sketchy during the "establishment years"  and there is almost nothing available for soils between the start date (low carbon agricultural fields) and the "mature forest stage".  It's not just buried wood and roots - soils in our regional forests have between 3-8% C by weight).  It's figuring out how to best fit the curves (or lack of curves) that baffles me.
Kenneth - you didn't upset me so much as irritate me.  I'm not looking to save the world, just want to quantify the sequestration achieved by the couple million trees we've planted.
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The belief in animism posits that the things in nature, thus, plants, animals, water bodies and so forth are inherent with spirits or souls and as such are not to be abused or wantonly destroyed. In what philosophical ways can this cultural belief practiced by many ethnic societies in Ghana be harnessed for biodiversity conservation in the modern quest for new strategies to mitigate the deleterious attitude of biodiversity degradation.
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Simply the attribution of a living soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena.
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Dear all,
I'm looking for an example of a country that possesses both the source and the recipient habitat of an invasive species, except Israel and Egypt..
It may be marine, terrestrial, faunal or floral organism.
I'm mainly interested about the conservation management-actions taken by the country.
In other words, how to protect a species in one place, and cull it from the other.
Thanks in advance,
Nir Stern
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute
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Also the snakes I metioned from Spain meet your requirements.
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Attitude questionnaire on biodiversity conservation. 
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Dear Danilo,
Thanks for your question. I have not come across a template questionnaire for biodiversity conservation but researchers geared towards soliciting for attitudinal responses to biodiversity develop some for the use of such purposes like what was cited by Hafidha. I think it would be a great research goal to develop a well-structured questionnaire that could be used as a model/ template for ascertaining the attitudes of people regarding the use and conservation of biodiversity.
The link between the behavioral patterns of people and the use and/or conservation of biodiversity is important to be looked into. After all, the driving force behind our decisions regarding the bio-resources in our environment rests in the values, moral principles that mold our attitudes. A questionnaire that journies into this domain in biodiversity conservation research would be a remarkable achievement and a giant data collection tool for researchers in this field.
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Conceptual test for biodiversity conservation. 
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Not a test, but there are a number of parameters that allow assessment of the effects of different conservation measures or different anthropic pressures.For example the size of a population, the extension or reduction of a habitat of species; structural changes in the ecosystem through the disappearance of some components, etc.The most common parameter for biodiversity  is the species richness, it is measured by different estimators- for example the Cholemman curve.
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Hi, All! I am looking for papers related to the methodological framework to compare policy architecture at the country level, preferably in environment and biodiversity conservation, but examples in other fields also can be useful. I am new on this topic, so any information will be useful. Thanks in advance!
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Hello guido
I am sorry. I have no information on this aspect.
Jairo
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Going with official records dating from British Regime
Whether it is Bharathpur Bird Sanctuary or Vedanthangal Bird sanctuary
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Arun:
You may also like to have a look at this link:
Best
Syed
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I am conducting a survey which i will use as primary research for my extended project. 
If you can you may, State which of the following is the most destructive fishing practice. You may also give a reason why you choose that.
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Hi Alex. I fear that the answer depends on what you understand by "destructive" and what are you focusing at when assessing the effects: endangered species, community-wide effects, ecosystem services, or other.
Destructive can be translated into a number of attributes as being non-selective in the target, persistent in its effects, or effective in removing individuals. From this perspective, explosives and cyanide are the less selective and effective, while ghost fishing is the most persistent and less effective.
When one comes to focusing on response variables to assess the severity of the effects, shark finning remove top predators that are both important in structuring the community, can eventually lead to the alteration of ecosystem services (for example through releasing prey fishes and thereby altering the balance between coral-dominated and algae-dominated ecosystems) and generally endangered.
Still one can put the question in the perspective of wide-scale management for conservation purposes. Then other practices like bottom trawling (cited in the previous post) and also drifting nets would have higher impacts. The former because of its spatial extent and pervasive effects through communities and ecosystems. The second because its impact on charismatic species like dolphins, whales and turtles, which raise public concern and trigger in-the-field actions.
Possibly a multivariate approach in which you combine the scores given under different criteria for each activity, tailored for the societal values rooted in your study area, would provide a more complete albeit perhaps not definitive answer.
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Protecting the right of the local community/country to use their own genetic resources available in  a particular area is an important element of environmental and biodiversity conservation.  However, one of the biggest biodiversity conservation challenges faced by southern peripheral countries is biopiracy and related issues. I am doing some research works regarding that. Could you pleases help me to fin out suitable research works based on that
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It appears that recent real cases of economically significant biopiracy are actually relatively rare. Of the four cases cited by Efferth in the first reply, one represented within-country (cross-cultural) 'piracy' (not applicable to international law), two were for products not yet proven to have any significant economic value, and then there is the decades-old poster child, Madagasar phytophora. The $5.4 billion quoted by the UN is mostly for long past issues (worth resolving, but not relevant to current piracy).
What is rarely discussed is the massive cost to legitimate researchers that result from now-widespread export permit polices that are likely to have very little actual desired impact, and are based more on anecdote and paranoia that on actual cases. For example, current restrictions on bio-material export would have no effect on the ability to patent tumeric (cited by more than one paper above), a cat that got out of that bag centuries ago.
Someone needs to produce a database of (all?) proposed biopiracy events of the last 20 years (since it is current piracy that these policies are meant to prevent), along with estimates of the actual economic loss associated with each, not just someone putting in for a patent that ends up going nowhere (which is the fate of most of the bio-material patents). Maybe such a list is already out there; if so please share it here.
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I am looking to collaborate with a project that involve topics in my study field as mammal ecology, camera traps, management, invasive species, ecosystem restoration and conservation. I have a few weeks in May 2017 and I am open to collaborate in any country of southeast Asia.
Thank you.
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Hello Sebastian,
I am a marine mammal researcher based in the University of St. La Salle in Negros Island, Philippines and a friend of Dr. Liao. I've been involved in some terrestrial fauna research as well, and I have colleagues working for a foundation involved in terrestrial fauna conservation. Unfortunately our website has little information as of the moment, but you can e-mail me at makoy28_delapaz@yahoo.com.  
Regards,
Manuel
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