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We are currently doing an undergrad thesis and we are planning to assess the presence or absence of species in each elevation (our variable for community) during a certain month. We were able to find ideas like the coefficient of community but this only allows us to assess two communities.
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You might try looking at amphiban/reptile studies, as many have been done at various altitudes for populations in vernal pools. I don't have such a paper on hand, but you can search for that, and they all contain some type of corrleation factor. Joell
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Foresters usualy use a clinometer to calculate the tree height. These can be quite expensive to buy, but I don't know if using smartphone apps is accurate enough for measure canopy height. Do you recommends using automatic clinometer apps for field research ?
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I was using "Smart Measure version 1.7.7" for measuring height of trees planted along streets within settlements. I am moderately satisfied with the precision. I found the optimal distance to carry out the measurements from a distance about 2-4 times of the tree height. In most cases, however, I was not able to measure from the optimal distance because buildings, parked cars, etc. made it impossible.
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How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
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Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Roman Bohdan Hołyński,
Thank you for your response. Yes, of course population growth has been going fast for hundreds of years. This issue has been pointed out since the beginning of the first industrial revolution in the 17th and 18th centuries. We now have the fourth technological revolution, the problem is many times larger and still the same questions. Until now, technological progress, including in the field of new technologies increasing the efficiency of agricultural production, has solved the problem of feeding the rapidly growing population. On the other hand, however, in the least developed countries, the scale of poverty and food shortage is becoming a rapidly growing problem. In addition, climate change causing droughts, forest fires, soil barrenness, pest infestations etc. exacerbate these problems. Until recently, technological progress seemed to solve the key problems of the development of civilization. However, in recent years there has been more and more evidence to challenge this thesis. If the process of global warming accelerates in the next decades, the above problems will quickly worsen and the technological progress will become insufficient to solve them. Therefore, our view on this issue is very similar.
Thank you very much,
Best regards, Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of The importance of biodiversity, the environment, environmental protection?
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Dear Ally Tausi,
That's right. The biodiversity of natural ecosystems is an important determinant of the surrounding natural environment. It is therefore necessary to improve the techniques and systems for the protection of biodiversity, because this will largely depend on the condition of the Earth's biosphere and climate in the near future.
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
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In my opinion, in recent years, the possibilities and needs of using new information technologies, ICT, Internet, Industry 4.0 in the field of improving nature protection systems have been growing. For example, these technologies can be combined with satellite analytics of changes in the state of biodiversity of natural ecosystems, changes in the level of pollution of the natural environment and other types of impact of civilization development on nature.
I invite you to the discussion,
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Due to the current civilization progress in recent decades, acceleration of the development of industry, automotive, urban agglomerations, intensification of agricultural production, etc. and related greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, ozone layer depletion in the atecologicalecologicalmosphere, increase of environmental pollution, growing problem of smog in urban agglomerations, the increase in pollution of the seas and oceans to which unsorted waste is thrown away is cut out as part of the predatory economy of tropical forests in the Amazon and other largest natural forest ecosystems.
In addition, the secondary effect of global warming of the Earth's climate is the increasing, more frequent weather anomalies, including drought, leading to steppe and desertification of areas that were previously natural forest ecosystems or areas exploited by agriculture.
As a result of the above-mentioned processes, every year many species of flora and fauna disappear forever.
As a result, natural biodiversity diminishes, which for millions of years evolved evolutionally on Earth.
In this way the natural resources of the planet Earth are irretrievably in decline.
In view of the above, the issue of environmental protection and biodiversity is one of the most important challenges of humanity in the 21st century.
Classical economics must change towards a green economy based on the strategy of sustainable pro-ecological development.
Therefore, I am asking you for the following query:
How can environmental protection and biodiversity be improved by using current ecological technologies?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Make laws and adhere to them.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
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Best wishes
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Dear Bharath Setturu,
Thank you for the link to the interesting publication provided:
My Village Biodiversity: Documentation of Western Ghats Biodiversity through Network of Students and Teachers.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hello,
I am wondering if anyone can conduct an ESIA study or does it have to be a person with specific credentials. Does it also have to be certified. If yes, what certifications are available.
Thanks a lot!
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EIA includes a chapter on Socioeconomics which covers baseline, impact and mitigation due to the project. The Management Plan of EIA is supposed to include the actions desired to improve social status around the project when it comes up.
SIA, similar to EIA is different from 'Socioeconomics' in the sense that it is a detailed evaluation of social status both current, impact due to proposed activity, suggested mitigation as well. More importantly, the management plan here should be elaborate addressing specific action by the project authorities.
Both the exercises goes through the 'Country's Regulation' process prior to approval of the said activity.
There are EIA consultants who include Socioeconomics expert in their team to take care of EIA requirement. However, there are special agencies like, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), India who specialise in SIA.
Hope this meets your requirement.
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I am analysing diatom biodiversity of marine lake. Samples have been taken from high wave energy, low wave energy and moderate wave energy locations of the marine lake. I am using the Hill Series to graphically represent my data. For each of the three communities, I have calculated species richness, S (q=0), effective number of common species, eH' (q=1), and effective number of highly abundant species, 1/D (q=2). My data looks like this:
Community. Low Wave Energy. Moderate Wave Energy High Wave Energy
S 10 19 11
eH' 1,69124292 6,49758264 2,10265956
1/D 1,30682481 4,72615576 1,47050205
However, I need to do statistical analysis to determine if there is significantly higher diatom diversity in the moderate wave energy community compared to the other two communities. I have found online resources explaining how to calculate, i.e. using hutchersons t-test, the differences in diversity using shannon and simpson index, but I cannot find any relating to the effective versions of these indices (i.e. eH' and 1/D).
Does anybody have any advice. Should I just say the differences in shannon diversity and simpsons diversity are significant, or should I find a way to analyse the differences of effective shannon diversity and effective simpsons diversity. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!
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You can follow the approach of Chao et al (2014): plot the diversity curves for q=0,1,2 and use the Confident Intervals to tell you whether the differences are significant or not. I think it is the most straightforward method. Hope it helps.
Chao, A., Gotelli, N.J., Hsieh, T.C., Sander, E.L., Ma, K.H., Colwell, R.K. & Ellison, A.M. (2014) Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies. Ecological Monographs, 84, 45-67.
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Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
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I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Dariusz Prokopowicz Environmental degradation, ecological imbalances, and loss of biodiversity have occurred throughout the world. There is intense pressure on natural resources. One way is to alleviate such pressure. The second approach relates to implementation and adoption of government supported participatory community approach; this will enhance effectiveness of programs related to protection of environment, ecosystem and biodiversity.
Best regards, AKC
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Biodiversity is diverse in virtually unlimited degree, which results from the essence of processes of evolution of species, filet lines and entire ecosystems. It is thanks to the millions of years of evolutionary processes on Earth that there are so many different natural and highly diverse ecosystems in which different species of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms adapt to life in different and very diverse geographical and climatic environments.
The largest biodiversity of ecosystems and species functions in natural environmental environments in which ecosystems have evolved without human impact through millions of years of climatic and geographical conditions enabling the development of various life forms. These types of high biodiversity sites can be found in unpolluted rainforest ecosystems in tropical forests, in temperate climates and in coral reefs.
Unfortunately, human civilization activity contributes to the successive and accelerating process of biodiversity reduction by dying out species of living organisms. The areas of natural natural ecosystems are decreasing, including those in which the greatest biodiversity is diagnosed, such as the rainforests of the Amazon. The protection of naturalistic ecosystems and thus the protection of the planet's biodiversity is the most important challenge for mankind in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What do you think is the importance of biodiversity in natural ecosystems?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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I agree Danung Nur Adli
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Dear RG Colleagues,
I hope you're doing well.
In my region, I noticed that an area contains a very rich flora and fauna biodiversity. I am trying with a team to establish a complete inventory within a year.
My question is what are the main steps to create a new protected area, whether at the scientific or administrative level.
Creating Protected Areas solution aims to increase the amount of conserved land by establishing new government protected areas, indigenous managed territories and private protected areas.
Best regards
Abdenour
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Julius Riese Grégoire Moutardier Dear Colleagues, Thank you for your contributions.
I am trying to make the best work plan.
Waiting for other contributions.
Thanks
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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… the practical integration of food security and biodiversity conservation is most challenging … Fischer, J., Abson, D. J., Bergsten, A., Collier, N. F., Dorresteijn, I., Hanspach, J., ... & Senbeta, F. (2017). Reframing the food–biodiversity challenge. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32(5), 335-345.
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What disciplines, areas of contemporary economic systems, industries, etc. will in the 21st century develop the model of sustainable pro-ecological economic development according to the concept of green economy?
In connection with the progressing global warming and the increase in the risk and frequency of climate disasters, it is necessary to implement pro-ecological reforms as soon as possible into economic processes. First of all, renewable energy sources should be developed, replacing the classic energy based on the burning of minerals. In addition, it is necessary to improve the technology of automation and robotization in the processes of waste segregation, recycling and re-use of various types of raw materials. Also, electromobility, ecological agriculture, zero-energy construction, etc. should be developed.
In recent years ecological innovations have been created mainly in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, treatment of polluted water, reclamation of a devastated natural environment, energy-efficient construction, electromobility etc. However, more and more eco-innovations, new technological solutions, technical improvements which is part of sustainable ecological development, is also created in many other fields of science.
In view of the above, are examples of pro-ecological undertakings, technological improvements compatible with sustainable ecological development or ecological innovations that are also created in one of the following or other related fields of science, for example: Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Anthropology Theory, Medicine, Electrical Engineering , Artificial Intelligence, Genetics, Business Administration, Risk Management, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Automation & Robotics, Climatology, Agriculture, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Medical Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Ecosystem Analysis, Power Engineering, Construction, Food production, Forest ecology, Biology, Geoscience, Government Programs, Behavioral Sciences, Biodiversity Assessment, Green Architecture, Greenhouse, Waste, Household Products, Information Society, Innovation Management, International Entrepreneurship, Internet Technologies, Knowledge Creation, Bioelectric Energy gy Sources, Business Model Innovation, Cataclysmic Variables, Chromatography, Clean Energy, Cleantech, Climate Prediction, Collaborative Innovation, Commercialization, Computational Intelligence, Computer Science and Engineering, Conservation Biology, Consumer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Creative Economy, Crisis Communication, Cyber Security, Data Analysis, Database Administration, Development Cooperation, Digital Ecosystems, Economic Ecoindicators, Ecosystem Ecology, Energy Industry, Ecological Modeling Ecological Economics, Ecological Indicators, Discovery, Earth Sciences, Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm, Econometric Analysis, Economic Integration, Economics of Innovation, Ecosystem Engineering, Electricity, Electronic Systems, Energetic Materials, Energy Technologies, Environment, Environmental Biodegradation, Flora, Food Consumption Life Sciences, Logistics Management, Materials for Sustainable Energy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Nanomaterials, New Media Technology, Recycling, Physics of Global Warming, Plant Protection, Predicive Analytics, Production Planning, Project Development, Public Economics, Public Policy, Public Policy, Sociobiology, Space Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development Strategies, Technology Forecasting, Transport Economics, Water Resources, Weather Forecasting, Wildlife Conservation, World Economy, ...?
In view of the above, the current question is: What areas of knowledge will be involved in shaping sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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In order for the pro-ecological transformation of the traditional brown economy to a sustainable green economy / circular economy to run smoothly, it is necessary to increase the scale of implementing the principles of sustainable development, develop social environmental (ecological) responsibility, carry out pro-environmental reforms, create and implement eco-innovations in economic processes, etc. in various sectors. and economic sectors. In addition, the process of achieving the sustainable development goals should be carried out in the formula of integrated, correlated pro-environmental processes of implementing green business ventures and investment projects implemented in various industries and sectors of the economy. It is necessary to develop pro-environmental state intervention, under which the state should inspire, co-finance, motivate and integrate the implementation of green economic ventures.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hello,
is it possible to use the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine which of the analyzed variables best separates the different groups (which are already known)?
For example, I want to understand how 3 different croplands are different in terms of ecosystem services provisioning. So, I decide to measure 4 variables for each ecosystem (Soil Carbon, Dry matter, Biodiversity, and GHG) and then I run an LDA analysis (on PAST 3.4 here)
I get this result (see the attached picture). Here clearly the Grassland seems to be more different than the other two croplands (because it is more displaced than the other two croplands on the X-axis).
Would it be correct to conclude that this grassland differs most from the other 2 crops and this seems to be determined by its level of biodiversity?
Thanks (and of course, these data are not real. That's just an example)
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Hello Matteo,
It would be correct to say that the centroid (mean on the linear composite of the variables forming the first discriminant root or function) for the grasslands group is further from the aggregate (all cases) centroid, or from the centroids of the other two groups. However, the display doesn't inform you as to what variable(s) are most influential in the function.
For that, you'd have to look at both: (a) standardized function coefficients, and (b) variable-function correlations (sometimes called loadings or structure coefficients). If variables are uncorrelated, then standardized function coefficients alone will let you know the relative magnitude of emphasis being placed on each variable in the function. If correlated, then you have to look also at loadings to be sure that you're not letting collinearity confounding your interpretation of relative emphasis as also indicating importance. So, the information presented isn't enough to presume that a single variable (biodiversity) is the reason for the separation in group centroids.
Good luck with your work.
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Estimating abundance of black bear using sign surveys.
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Hi Muhammad. You may be able to set up a study design or sampling grid similar to a genetic study? I have included a link below.
Another study also evaluated incidence of bear-excavated termite colonies (holes in mounds or in the ground) as a potential index of bear density for sloth bears.
You could also use camera traps (trail cameras) combined with track plates? It’s better to combine techniques when possible, especially with non-invasive survey methods. So if that’s a possibility for you, it may be worth exploring.
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Dear entomologist colleagues, just wanted to find out if any of you have ever conducted and published on insect bioinventories without collecting insects? Is it defensible to do catch, ID and release type studies? Or photographic type observational studies? Or would you say that there is absolute no substitute to collecting?
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For some insects (most orthoptera), you can study them acoustically. It is then possible to carry out counts by counting for example the number of singing males. The same is the case for most cicadas. The answer also depends on the geographic area concerned. In Europe, for example, almost all odonate species can be determined in the field and can then be released, but in tropical areas, to distinguish between certain species, collection is compulsory.
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How do I predict biodiversity changes under different climatic scenarios? What kind of models are applicable in southern Africa? Where can I get them? 
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It is obvious from these answers that can be a variety of approaches.
This paper way (on Research Gate too) among others as I said can be one of the such a path to be use.
All the best. Doru
Natural and anthropogenic driving forces as key elements in the Lower Danube Basin–South-Eastern Carpathians–North-Western Black Sea coast area lakes: a broken stepping stones for fish in a climatic change scenario?
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I am looking for potential collaborators for a project that seeks to assess the ecological importance of specific tree species of Borneo. I invite interested specialists to message me. 
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Sure. Any off site work, please reach-out.
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I am trying to ID fairy shrimp but am unable to find any lists or keys to use.
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Jiri, you might have luck with this outdated guide:
Belk, D. 1975. Key to the Anostraca (fairy shrimps) of North America. The
Southwestern Naturalist 20 (1): 91-103
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Catastrophic reports and publications about the rapid loss of species numbers are becoming increasingly frequent. Furthermore, the biomass of common animal species, such as insects or birds, is also being hotly debated.
In contrast, the loss of plant species and their biomass is much less frequently reported. Does anyone know of well-documented reports or publications on massive local or global plant losses and/or massive plant biomass losses?
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Great, thanks for this valuable document and your remarks.
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A (wide accepted) view is that, when we try to address on the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships, the multifunctionality index should be calculated by a set of activity indicators, rather than static measures. Is it constant for various kinds of ecosystems or for different trophic levels of organisms? Or this is just a blind simplification.
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Abhijit Mitra Thanks! Frankly, I'm not sure at which level of scales to consider this question is more suitable. Maybe, it depends on how complex the target researching system you are facing. For instance, if I focus on the kind of dryland or even desert ecosystem, regardless of local, regional, or global scales, I think some static indicators depicting soil fertility could be more important than some indoor measures of their abilities on metabolizing. In this case, activity measures is more like a potential under feasible conditions, rather than the real ability that the dryland ecosystem can support (water holding, high plant germinate, et al). However, for the other side, in a system of wastewater treatment plants, the ability about organic matter decomposition deserves more lights.
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I have been working on a project to collate species occurrence data inherent from unpublished student theses in an integrated database (currently published in GBIF) and still working on a systematic protocol of data validation. Expert review is really subjective and I got many findings that said "expert" estimation were not always more consistent than amateurs, student, or even public enthusiasts (feel free to message me for the papers I collected regarding this), thus my team was still struggling to find a way. Our current method is just independently evaluate the scientific names through taxonomic checklists and the geographic distribution were validated through available published literature mentioning the geographic distribution of each species. We occasionally ask experts but as we are working on many understudied taxa and geographical area, there was not many around.
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I suppose it all depends on your study species. For the most part, I think experts in most fields are able to identify the species they're most knowledgeable about with relatively high accuracy, given they have enough information in the photo and geographic location to do so.
It's usually when someone gets a bit overzealous and identifies something to the species level when given minimal information and just going off of an educated guess for species most likely to be in the area.
It also depends on what the question for your study is. If you're doing an SDM for a species, you could always thin the records to about 100 and then self-verify (if you're confident in your abilities to do so). You could see if the species occurrence data has any corresponding NCBI molecular data and use DNA to verify species.
If you're using a dataset of 1000 + (or some other number where it isn't feasible to self verify each account) from inaturalist, you could query the data with >3 verified ID agreements with no "maverick" or disputed IDs. The likelihood of obtaining false positives should decrease with user agreement on a species identification.
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The Amazon forest is on fire and the whole world will suffer the climatic consequences. The main cause of forest fires in the Amazon rainforest of Brazil and Bolivia are the deforestation policies promoted by the anti-environmental presidents Jair Bolsonaro and Evo Morales. We need to do something to stop this. In the long run, these policies will destroy even large-scale rainforests in the region. We are coming closer to the point where there is not enough rainforest left to produce the rain that sustains those forests. The vast Amazon basin will tip into a drought state, which would be devastating for wildlife, the indigenous people, the global climate, and agriculture in the region. Is there something we could do to stop this ecological disaster before is too late ? What is your opinion about this important subject ?
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The Brazilian government should give more importance to the environment, placing in the management of the Ministry of Environment more qualified people from the environmental area to allow the analysis and creation of environmental projects focused on the sustainable development of existing communities in the Amazon (Indigenous and other inhabitants of the area). ) through the rational use of forests (agroforestry, sustainable extractivism, creation of Conservation Units for sustainable use, etc.) not allowing the use of the area for agriculture, livestock and mining that require deforestation and vegetation burning. The Government of Brazil should provide more resources for environmental supervision to hire more technicians and logistical support for the control and monitoring of what is being done within the forest. The Amazonian Forest must be preserved in a sustainable way so that, besides protecting the high biodiversity present in this ecosystem, it can bring benefits to the natural communities that live in the region, thus not allowing any action that may conflict with the rational use of the forest.
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In the context of climate change predicted for the 21st century, which is a derivative of the ever-faster global warming process, is the conservation of biodiversity of entire biological ecosystems the key issue of nature protection?
Please reply
Thank you very much
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Actually your question says loudly that the answer is hide in it. Yes, we all want natural environment with healthy biodiversity. But who cares ? our biodiversity degrade day by day. Many species are disappeared due to loss environmental conditions. 1st thing is that the main reason of loss biodiversity is deforestation for personal and govt. benefits. 2nd is the destruction of habitats. last few decades the earths temperature is rise. if we not controls our behavior to destruction then we not conserve our biodiversity.
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Hi,
I would like to build a species accumulation curve using specaccum function in R vegan package.
The entry table should be a classic community table species by sites. However, instead of sites, I would use subsequent surveys in a given study area (conducted with the same methodology) and incident data (presence/absence). Is this supported? And, more relevant, do you think this has a theoretical support? References welcome.
Trying to answer this question, I came across iNEXT package that allows incident data. I have still the same doubt about sites/surveys.
What is the most flexible and performing of the two functions?
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ottimo Giacomo ...io purtroppo non ho mai iniziato ad usare R...
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I am not sure about how to interpret different values of the Simpson's index of diversity. For example: if I have two communities where
1-D (community 1) = 0.92
1-D (community 2) = 0.89
the first community is about 3% more diverse than the second one. Does this mean that the two communities are very similar or that they substantially differ?
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Simpson's (and Shannon's) have an important drawback as the values are not directly comparable. Firstly, because they are unitless, it makes the comparison challenging. Secondly, and more importantly, if the true diversity of one community is twice as that in another community, the values returned by either index don't. Thus, the 3% difference in the values you show not necessarily means that true diversity of one community is 3% greater than the other. A better approach is to use Hill numbers, which are related to these popular diversity measures. For more information you can read Host and/or Chao for details. Hope this helps!
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I am pretty confused about the use of taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness.
Taxonomic diversity can be defined as the average taxonomic path between randomly chosen individuals. It takes into consideration taxonomic differences and heterogeneity (species richness and evenness). Why should we not just decide to use taxonomic diversity instead of Simpson’s index/Shannon index when we know the taxonomy of each species? Moreover, isn’t calculating the taxonomic diversity across different areas more appropriate than other beta diversity indices such as Jaccard Similarity?
Taxonomic distinctness can be defined as the average taxonomic path between two individuals from different species. I don’t understand the point of this index. It doesn’t give us information about the heterogeneity (which taxonomic diversity does), but at the same time it is not an index of the how the different species are related taxonomically (which is delta+). Which information gives us? When is the use of taxonomic distinctness more appropriate than the one of taxonomic diversity? 
Thank you for anyone who will help, I really appreciate it!
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The taxonomy is the identification and description of taxa with the objective of locating them in a system. Biological diversity is by definition the analysis of variability at any scale, be it ecological or biogeographic (to point out the two extremes). The taxonomy is born from the need to identify living beings and find an order that allows to develop in a coherent way the studies in any branch of biology.
In biological diversity, the objective is to establish the state of relations between living beings in a given territory, determine the degree of balance of these relationships and their causes. This with the objective of determining the changes of the biota in each territory. Therefore, the taxonomy is in some way to the biological sciences, all of them, like metrology to physics.
The biological diversity is based on three fundamental pillars: alpha, beta and gamma. Interestingly, the best-known indices of biological diversity are those corresponding to alpha diversity. These study the equilibrium relations between the living components of a given territory (community, landscape, biome, etc.). But most of the time, beta diversity is ignored, that is, the degree of relationship between a set of territories (the amount and form in which taxa share), and most ignore that the patterns that determine that diversity Beta depending on the individual combinations is the gamma diversity.
When we study the genesis of taxonomy, we discover that this science arises from the need to order the supposed chaos in the associative identification of living beings. But the need arose from very ancient in all civilizations and biological diversity was born from ecology. Linne uses the conceptions of Greek philosophy, but the Mayans, the Chinese, the Hindus had theirs. Whittaker, father of biological diversity, part of his studies in the plant communities of a mountain and deepening, found that the relationships there were much more complex and difficult to interpret than he had thought
It is easy to understand that biological diversity is a science with its own paradigms, where taxonomy provides the system that allows it to develop. Therefore, they have absolutely nothing to do with each other
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In recent years ecological innovations have been created mainly in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, treatment of polluted water, reclamation of a devastated natural environment, energy-efficient construction, electromobility etc. However, more and more eco-innovations, new technological solutions, technical improvements which is part of sustainable ecological development, is also created in many other fields of science.
In view of the above, are examples of pro-ecological undertakings, technological improvements compatible with sustainable ecological development or ecological innovations that are also created in one of the following or other related fields of science, for example: Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Anthropology Theory, Medicine, Electrical Engineering , Artificial Intelligence, Genetics, Business Administration, Risk Management, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Automation & Robotics, Climatology, Agriculture, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Medical Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Ecosystem Analysis, Power Engineering, Construction, Food production, Forest ecology, Biology, Geoscience, Government Programs, Behavioral Sciences, Biodiversity Assessment, Green Architecture, Greenhouse, Waste, Household Products, Information Society, Innovation Management, International Entrepreneurship, Internet Technologies, Knowledge Creation, Bioelectric Energy gy Sources, Business Model Innovation, Cataclysmic Variables, Chromatography, Clean Energy, Cleantech, Climate Prediction, Collaborative Innovation, Commercialization, Computational Intelligence, Computer Science and Engineering, Conservation Biology, Consumer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Creative Economy, Crisis Communication, Cyber ​​Security, Data Analysis, Database Administration, Development Cooperation, Digital Ecosystems, Economic Ecoindicators, Ecosystem Ecology, Energy Industry, Ecological Modeling Ecological Economics, Ecological Indicators, Discovery, Earth Sciences, Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm, Econometric Analysis, Economic Integration, Economics of Innovation, Ecosystem Engineering, Electricity, Electronic Systems, Energetic Materials, Energy Technologies, Environment, Environmental Biodegradation, Flora, Food Consumption Life Sciences, Logistics Management, Materials for Sustainable Energy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Nanomaterials, New Media Technology, Recycling, Physics of Global Warming, Plant Protection, Predicive Analytics, Production Planning, Project Development, Public Economics, Public Policy, Public Policy, Sociobiology, Space Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development Strategies, Technology Forecasting, Transport Economics, Water Resources, Weather Forecasting, Wildlife Conservation, World Economy, ...?
In view of the above, the current question is: What areas of knowledge will be involved in shaping sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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(1) Energy - production, transport and distribution of power/electricity: renewable energy (solar & wind); smart grid solutions; decentralization of production; advanced storage (battery) solutions.
(2) Electromobility - small affordable BEVs (200 km range, fast charging); Emopeds, Ebikes, Escooters; long haul trucks; ferries. maybe small planes.
(3) Lighting - LED-based solutions.
(4) Biotech
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I would like to conduct a vegetation survey using the Braun-blanquet cover-abundance scale to get an insight into the composition of plants as a supplementary data to my research.
As my study area will include large coniferous forests and alpine forests, a transect will be too time-consuming and unfeasible to carry out.
My current sampling design is to divide my study areas into grid cells of 1km by 1km and do plots at the intersections. I'll have one central point at the intersection point of the grid and from there, do four plots of 20m radius each, in each compass direction.
Given that I have no priori information as to the landscape of my study area, will my sampling design work? Is there another more efficient way of surveying large forests?
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You may incorporate point centered quarter method (PCQM) and step line transect for vegetation and woody species respectively.
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What is the best method to estimate the species richness of birds if we have multiple bird surveys from a single site?  Same method  (line transect) is employed, with same effort in each survey.
Is species accumulation curve useful in this case, considering each survey as an effort?
And should we use the same curve for migratory species (which are only at that site for few months) and resident species, or we should use different curves for both?
 
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In the following manuscript an interesting and very efficient method is proposed, because an integrated methodology of sampling, rarefaction and extrapolation is proposed to compare the species richness of a set of communities based on samples of equal integrity (as measured by the coverage sample) instead of equal size. This method produces less biased comparisons of wealth between communities, and manages it with a smaller total sampling effort. In the work hypothetical and real examples are proposed to demonstrate these advantages.
Chao, A., & Jost, L. (2012). Coverage‐based rarefaction and extrapolation: Standardizing samples by completeness rather than size. Ecology, 93(12), 2533-2547.
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From January 2014 to December 2016, I conducted monthly field trips in three different areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh to investigate how butterflies survive in an inner-city habitat. I have found that the species richness (I did not count the species abundance) is declining with time.
Presently, I have:
* monthly species-specific data of three continuous years (36 continuous months) of the three different areas
* Four environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine hours)
* Pollution level
* IUCN Red List status
* Land-use analysis of these three different areas
Now, I am really confused considering the proper way to link these pieces of information! Could anyone of you please share some ideas?
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Look at the Material and Methods section. Perhaps it could help?
Best,
Guy
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Hello researchers!
I'm currently undertaking a project that seeks to asses the distribution of a minute gall midge, Arthrocnodax fraxinellus, and its associated parasitoids (Aphanogmus spp.) in Europe.
I'm asking for material of ash cauliflower galls (Aceria fraxinivora) on ash (Fraxinus spp) as the gall midge feeds on the mite in the larval stage.
Material from the following countries are of interest:
Austria
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Estonia
Finland
Greece
Iran
Kosovo
Latvia
Lithuania
Macedonia
Moldova
Montenegro
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
Ukraine
I have attached a PDF with details about the project - please have a look.
Thanks in advance!
Simon Haarder
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Hello again!
Did anyone have luck with obtaining galls of Aceria fraxinivora?
Best regards,
Simon
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I am currently working on a paper describing a new technique to add to IUCN methods of species conservation assessment and need references to countries that use the IUCN methods to produce their national red lists. So, please, if you can provide references for countries that use this method, they will be highly welcomed.
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Canada - specifically the federal government (e.g., Parks Canada), provincial governments (e.g., Conservation Data Centres/Natural Heritage Programs). Also, non-governmental organizations like the Nature Conservancy of Canada (check out some of my ecoregional assessment reports), WWF Canada, and The Nature Conservancy (US).
Here are some useful links:
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I am trying to find the right collar for a study on spatiotemporal habitat use in an urban habitat so I compare different options and I am interested in reports of people who currently do apply them or have already applied them in the field.
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Sorry that I missed this topic. The belts for wild boars of Vectronics works very nice in our study area. Drop- off works great after four months as we would and also per base station the belt dropps well. To get the data per SMS by bad coverage and 2G network works very well.
The pinger signal is very loud, maybe to loud and also very broad (150.100 you can also hear on 150.000 and 150.200. That is for other tagged animals in the same area maybe a bit to much.
Collars of E-obs works also nice to mention an other brand, but they didn't make them for wild boars, foxes are the biggest animals to collar with their equipment.
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I am finding the solution for decide the status of plants species in a particular area that is locally engendered or abundant or rare by help of remote sensing and geoinformatics. is there any method for that ?
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In addition to other responses, you might find the review article below useful for your study:
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Species diversity can be calculated through available indices after going through precise data collection however , we do not have any universally accepted index which could be used to compute biodiversity in any system.
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Please have a look at this useful link.
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I'm currently working on the alkaloid composition of the skin secretions of salamanders and am trying to test whether this composition differs between different populations.
In line with previous research on alkaloid profiles in poison frogs, I tested for differences among populations using an ANOSIM. Since I work with relative concentrations (a.k.a. proportions), I thought it was more appropriate to construct an Aitchison dissimilarity matrix for this analysis.
I was further interested in seeing which exact compounds were responsible for differences between the populations. A SIMPER, often associated with an ANOSIM, seemed perfect ... but SIMPER in R uses Bray-Curtis dissimilarities.
I was wondering if there is an alternative for SIMPER that uses other indices of dissimilarity? Could a PCA do the same?
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GIlles, although this doesn't answer your question, just for your information, SIMPER and ANOSIM have serious issues since it is very difficult to determine whether differences are attributed to within-group or between-group variation, which may provide misleading results. You may want to look Warton et al. 2012. Distance-based multivariate analyses confound location and dispersion effects. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 89--101.
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I collected 23,000 beetles at 24 carcasses (and controls 20m away from carcasses), located in the Bridger-Teton National Forest. My project looks at how mountain lions support beetle biodiversity through predation on ungulate carcasses. Each carcass was set up with pitfall barrier traps, collected once a week. I'd like to do a Shannon's Biodiversity Index to look at the change of beetle evenness and richness over time across the carcasses, and combine all the data (since each carcass was set up and collected at the same time relative to when the kill was made). Is the Shannon's Biodiversity Index the 'best' index I could use for this project? Or could I use difference statistics that may be better for this study? One note, the first few weeks after a carcass was killed, almost 80-90 percent of the beetles were of the same species (carrion feeders), then they dwindled over time and 100s of new species came. So diversity will definitely change over time, but I know different statistical analyses can adjust for dominate species.
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This sounds like an interesting dataset, from which you could ask many interesting questions.  But I would second the suggestion to more carefully elaborate those specific questions so that you can use them to generate unique testable hypotheses.
"Evenness" as a metric of community composition over time is most useful if you have additional information about the ecology of the members of that community.  In your case, that environment (a carcass) could be rapidly changing in quality or suitability for those different species of beetles, and reducing that information to "evenness" might obscure some of the life history details that explain population trends on a carcass (e.g. some species prefer less or more advanced stages of decomposition).
You might be interested in comparing species accumulation, per carcass, using as covariates environmental variables you might have collected from carcasses or their locations.  
You could test hypotheses about what stage of decomposition has the greatest rate of species turnover, using the aforementioned effective species number measures elaborated by Jost.
You might use rarefaction to compare percapita species richness of carcasses at different sample sizes.
I would say that with such a rich information base, and so many tantalizing directions you could take, that it would be very easy (speaking for myself :D) to get sidetracked or overwhelmed.  It always helps to come up with a short list of questions and construct hypothesis tests aimed at answering them, before rolling up your sleeves and writing code.
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Are there any softwares or online calculators that calculate a handful of indices at once?
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The vegan package for is pretty easy to use and can calculate a number of different indices by default.  You may also direct the software to calculate indices of your own construction.  If you are interested in species turnover, rarefaction, accumulation, or simply wish to decompose the diversity within your dataset into additive or multiplicative, vegan is a powerful tool.
However, just crunching a buncha numbers doesn't necessarily elucidate your questions, nor do they confidently test all of your hypotheses.  "Diversity" can refer to a number of independent (or interrelated) measures of community structure.  I would highly recommend works by Lou Jost (and others) that disentangle some of these interrelated measures and provide conceptual clarification for the use of particular metrics.
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A group of colleagues and I are looking for a full list of the diversity indexes that have been published in order to carry a review and analysis about its redundancy. However, the references he have found (Moreno, 2003; Villareal et al. 2004; Magurran & MGill, 2011; Morris et al. 2014 for example) only provide only a list of the commonest. May anyone suggest me a sort of references I could use to enrich the list of indexes we could use to carry our analysis?
Thanks in advance,
Carlos A. Ordóñez-Parra
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Carlos, You may want to check Jost 2006 Entropy and diversity, and Jost 2007 Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta diversity. These describe 'effective number of species' or Hill numbers. These are quite useful and come around several issues of traditional diversity indeces and are pretty straight forward to compute, these are also related to traditional indeces such as Shannon or Simpson.
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Plant species found on different phytogeography lead to speciation and sometimes endemism also.But some morphological similarity will exist even though they were different species from the same genera. Then how geneflow occur in western ghats, eastern ghats, north and north eastern part of indian phytogeographical zones eventhough they consist of barriers like  geographical gaps, plateaus and mountains ? is they have some other factors for speciation and endemism ?
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Since the question is of a rather general nature the answer is also of a general nature. In conventional terms biogeographers have addressed such patterns in terms of the ancestor arriving before the current barriers or overcoming the barriers and dispersing between. One has to analyze case by case. The Winkworth et al paper is a good example of the age of taxa being under represented as molecular ages only give minimal divergence estimates so their model of recent evolution is suspect.
I would predict that many of the species and higher taxonomic differences between the regions of India go back to early Indian evolution, at least to the Oligocene/Eocene collection between India and Asia. 
I nice tectonic example for India in animals is the frog family Sooglossidae found on the Seychelles and Nasikabattrachidae found in Western Ghats that forms a clade. The ancestor of these two groups would have inhabited the Seychelles-Western Ghats region before the Seychelles existed as islands or before Western Ghats existed as mountains. Interestingly geologists recently confirmed a sunken continental basement beneath the Seychelles region.
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due to the each taxonomic level is important in the distinctness indices I need to take the best decision and I have few organisms in my database.  
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Use "Morphospecies"_ makeup categories based on morphology and define them
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I have been working on samples of Ostracoda from Great Britain caves. I have this specimen identified according to Meisch (2000) key as F. latens. But the size is only 0.5 mm, all other characteristics fits with species description.
Could I be wrong?Thanks
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Thanks Chiara and Susanne :)
I will contact them.
Best wishes,
Nataša
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May you please assist with revised genus and species names and functional groups for beetles that were previously described in Zimbabwe. The list is attached hereto?
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Dear Dr., I have prepared my answer for many of your insect names. I jus try to send you my long response where I name for Coleoptera, at least Family Under-family and tribe. Please await that I join my answer. a-panis@orange.fr André Panis from France. Sincerely yours.
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Any methods to rank the conservation status of any plant species, other than diversity indices and Important value Index?
Thanks in advance.
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Diversity index usually involve calculations of number of species and number of individuals of that species. Are there any indexes that involve using percent cover (for plants) instead of number of individuals?
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Hi Julia,
You can use percent cover in the calculation of Simpson's index D. To do it just substitute the number of individuals (ni) of the ith species in the equation with the coverage of the ith species and use total cover C of all species in the sample in stead of the N which is the total number of individuals of all species in the sample. Have a look at page 56 of the attached paper where I used coral cover in stead of coral numbers to calculate the index.
Cheers,Tomas
ps: this is a good primer to understand Simpson's index:
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I am going to Gran Canaria and planning to collect some invertebrates. Do I need permission for that and what should I do for getting the permission? I will collect for natural history museum of Estonia.
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I don't know, but I guess that the answer is yes. In any case, if you are visiting someone else's country, it is a good idea to ask, and to keep in touch with local biologists: don't be a scientific imperialist!
There is the La Laguna University on the Canaries. Google its website and find an ecologist/entomologist staff member and ask. I think you would find a helpful attitude, and some hot tips about good places. There are National Parks/nature reserves where you would need consent anyway, for sure
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If there are any method to estimate  the number of species for a island or archipelago based on sampling surveys. 
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 Dear Hu,
you can estimate species richness metric via a variety of ways as long as you have implemented sound data collection procedures for your tree species of interest. One of such softwares which can be used to estimate species richness is a freely available program called EstimateS which calculates various estimators of species richness, which is accessible in website at http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates (Robert Colwell’s).
You can also use modeling approach as explained by Andrey. Best regards.
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I've found one reference (McCafferty 1997) that reported the earliest fossil evidence of the mayfly family Baetidae, dating from the Lower Cretaceous ca. 120-135 mya. They could not id the source material to Baetis sp. though. I've so far been unable to locate any follow up to this estimate, or a specific estimate for the genus Baetis.
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I have read already dozens of book chapters and papers on the notation of Anne Chao et al. on how they define abundance based diversity data and incidence based diversity data. Abundance based means that for an ("plotless"?) area there is a complete (?) count of, let´s say all tree species and their respective number. Incidence based data refers to the case when I have sampling units spread across an area and list the species in these sampling units. Then, the information on the species is reduced to presence/absence and I count in how many plots a species occured in order to have some kind of information on the species frequency.
However, what do I do if I have counted all tree indivduals of trees in let´s say 30 plots? That was done for three different regions (which I want to compare), I counted about 5000 individual trees, in total and now one tells me that I have to reduce the count to 0/1? Or is it allowed to pool the data (see Gotelli and Colwell 2001) and sum up all individuals for one region? Is this then still a "true" abundance data set? Am I corrupting any rules then?
I hope that someone has a good explanation :)
Cheers
Gotelli, N. J., & Colwell, R. K. (2001). Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology letters, 4(4), 379-391.
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Dear Rodrigo,
that is pretty helpful, and an interesting topic, too (biodiversity ~ restoration). Most interesting is the fact that Tropek et al. used relative cover for the vascular plants. This is something I always was afraid of, as the methods clearly (?) depend on abundance "counts". Anyway, this is another problem :) Actually, I already asked Chao and Jost etc. but never got any answer. What a pity. Thanks for your thoughts! I will now pool the dataset and refer to Gotelli & Colwell 2001 and Tropek et al. 2010.
best regards from Hamburg
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To maintain the equal sampling area in each 100m elevation band, I performed rarefaction and extrapolation of species richness data using iNext package. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the 15 rarefaction curves are overlapped and it is difficult to determine via diagram if the extrapolation gives some real picture of extrapolated species richness in each 100m elevation band. So, is it possible to remove the confidence intervals from the rarefaction and extrapolation curves? Or, is there any other easier package (preferably in R) for the rarefaction of the species richness data?
Any suggestion would be of great help!
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The reason why your CI´s are probably overlapping is either
  • because you have too few data per curve
  • you have too many curves (some will then always overlap
  • or you use the wrong method -> try to use "sample coverage" instead of sample numbers. 
For the latter see Chao, A., Chiu, C.-H., and Jost, L. (2016). Statistical challenges of evaluating diversity patterns across environmental gradients in mega-diverse communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 27, 437–438.
If you simply want to remove the Confidence Interval, just type "se = FALSE" in your plotting command...
See ?plot.inext
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It is well-known that different aspects on the same mountain may possess quite different enviromental traits or even species pools (e.g. in the northern hemisphere, the southern slope of a mountain is generally warmer and often drier than the northern slope of the same mountain). It is thus reasonable to infer that there may be different elevational patterns of species richness along different slope aspects on a mountain. However, such an effect seems to be ignored and most studies on elevational richness patterns generally survey one aspect on a given mountain. Could anyone recommend some related publications or does anyone have related studying experience in this field?
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I have only to offer an indirect case. The number of endemic plants in this case increases with elevation; only for a few endemics incoming solar radiation (a more fundamental environmental variable) predicts the distribution (Table II in the attached); aspect (a crude proxy for slope aspect) is not predictive for any endemic here.
However, the number of endemics is probably not correlated with the total number of plant species at the square km resolution (the two botanical gardens with the local species of the research area are likely to show the maximum value).For the entire research area my guess would be that the highest number of plant species per km square is reached in the open deciduous oak forest (sub-mediterranean) below 1000 m, but relative few endemics are found here. 
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I am comparing tree species diversity between two land-use types. Is it enough to just use shannon and simpson index?
I have read about pielou and sorenden index and it looks like it could add some additional information about the community, but I am not sure.
Should I just use the first two indices or add the last two for some additional insights into the tree community. The study is from tropical Africa.
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Najeeb, you can use both Shannon and simpson indices for measuring alpha (within community diversity). The two indices they provide measures of the different components of diversity. The Shannon index reflects the manner in which abundance is distributed amongst the different species constituting the community. The index is based on the relative frequencies of species in the population, thus taking into account both species richness and evenness. However, the value of the index is most strongly related to species richness. Simpson’s index on the other hand, is a dominance measure since it is weighted towards the abundance of the most common species in a sample rather than providing a measure of species richness. It reflects the probability of any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large population belonging to different species, thus the index is less sensitive to species richness.
However, there is no point taking the reciprocal of both. Shannon index has a direct relationship with diversity (i.e. the higher the index, the higher the diversity and vice versa) unlike the simpson index in its original form which shows higher diversity for a lower index. You only need to take the reciprocal of simpson index to allow for a direct relationship with diversity.
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My focus is to establish the  extent ( in measurement; meters) of riparian zone significant width  for managing amphibian populations in protected and managed forests.
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Hello Adomako,
Here are a couple of papers from Western Canada. One from Coastal BC and the other from the boreal mixedwood region of Northwest Alberta. Should be lots of relevant work cited within as well.
Matt
Richardson, J. S., Naiman, R. J., & Bisson, P. A. (2012). How did fixed-width buffers become standard practice for protecting freshwaters and their riparian areas from forest harvest practices?.
Hannon, S.J., Paszkowski, C.A., Boutin, S., DeGroot, J., Macdonald, E., Wheatley, M., Eaton, B., 2002. Influence of varying riparian buffer strip widths on abundance and species composition of amphibians, small mammals and songbirds in the boreal mixedwood forest of Alberta. Can. J. For. Res. 32, 1784–1800
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I want to study about new species exploration, identification from ecological hot spot of western ghats. Can you anyone help me? Thank you very much for reading my question. 
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I am not sure what it is that you want to do, If you have lists of species from two (or more) adjacent areas, broadly with the same habitat, you can see how many species are in common, and how many are unique to one area, There are many indices of similarity and difference that may be used: which one will depend on the exact question you want to answer, and on the quality of the data.
One problem with all such studies, especially with "hard to find" species, is that your inventories for each area may not be complete. There are methods for checking this.
The standard book dealing with these problems is:
Magurran, A.E. & McGill, B.J. (eds). 2011. Biological Diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. OUP, Oxford
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From January 2014 to June 2016, through the continuous field trips, I have listed all those butterflies which were spotted. Now, I have analysed the land area management of Dhaka city which contains over 17 million inhabitants. The total species number is 136 and a good number of them are Endangered and Vulnerable according to regional IUCN Red List 2016. How can I synchronize these data? Is it possible to make a conservation management plan with the help of this research? Please help..
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Field data are always useful to draw CM plans. In fact, it often happens that CM plans are incomplete because information that actually existed could was not incorporated to them. The papers below show three such cases (for various taxa) where Management Plans, field data, and literature or IUCN data all had occurrence data that were absent from the other sources, resulting in partial knowledge and therefore less-than-optimal plans. Data synchronization was accomplished through database mining and GIS analytics. Methods are explained in the papers.
The difference between the amount of knowledge in a plan, and the amount of existing knowledge that could have been put in a plan, should become a priority especially when endangered species are present. The fourth reference (link) below is a draft for a document dealing with this type of gap analysis.
Regards
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Ecoacoustics has become a tool to assess biodiversity of calling animals using Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) of soundscapes (for examples, search for the respective keywords https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?type=publication&query=ecoacoustics&tabViewId=57865c2140485491311aff27&previous=researcher). Several projects host accessible recordings, allowing re-analysis and data-mining for vocalisations of certain target species (my personal interest: Orthoptera). However, it seems there is no federated database allowing one-stop access to distinct servers - acoustic data servers are fragmented, or even unstable, and  I did not even find a comprehensive list of available sites.
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I would like to add that there is a difference between sound (species-specific recordings) and soundscape files. The information associated to these two categories of files are little bit different and sound libraries are not all adapted to receive soundscape recordings.
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As part of a review of relative prey mass (prey mass/snake mass) in snakes, I am gathering unpublished data. If you have some data that you are willing to share, I would need average relative prey mass of the snake species, the number of prey items it is based on, and the average SVL for the species. Thanks for your time!
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I have data for around 10 european  (mainly croatian) species. I collected it for a local publication but it was never published. Maybe we could talk privately?
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I am intending to study fish species diversity in a Ugandan lake, in order to determine fish species which may be threatened and recommend conservation actions.
A species becomes threatened due to a number of factors including predators, effects to the food chain among others.  Therefore it is equally important to advise me about the methods I can use in biodiversity survey and analysis of the whole lake ecosystem.
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What methods can be used to study threatened fish species in a lake/species diversity of a lake?
This is a seemingly simple question – until it is unpacked into its components.
1) Threatened Species: 
IUCN defines this in various categories, Information below from: IUCN. (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iv + 32pp.
Depending on which of the categories that you think you have, the methods used will differ.  A responsible scientist will err on the side of caution and use the least intrusive and the damaging (both to the fish and to the habitat).  Your basic premise is that as few as possible, if any fish should be killed in the study with less as you move from VU to EN to CR.
2) What is a lake?
 Limnologists in the past have attempted to define this based on thermal stratification as shallow lakes differ in ‘physiology’ from deep lakes.  We have shallow water bodies of 2 metres called lakes and we have water bodies of several 100s of hectares called ponds.  The areas of the lake, depth of the water, the amount of rooted vegetation in the littoral areas and the circulation pattern of internal currents are some criteria that would determine the type of methods used.
3) The type of fish
If you have some knowledge of the target fish species and you are interested in just that population, you can select a sampling method that would be appropriate to the fish and habitat.  For example, if you threatened species is known to be a bottom feeder, then use of near surface gill nets would probably be a waste of time.  If you are looking at the entire fish community, you would have to use a suite of methods.
There are several documents which give options and toolkits that are readily available on the internet.  I suggest that you visit the following websites:
For a DNA based approach see paper below and their reference list:
Hänfling B1, Lawson Handley L1, Read DS2, Hahn C1, Li J1, Nichols P1, Blackman RC1, Oliver A2, Winfield IJ3
Environmental DNA metabarcoding of lake fish communities reflects long-term data from established survey methods. . Mol Ecol. 2016 Jul;25(13):3101-19. doi: 10.1111/mec.13660. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
1Evolutionary and Environmental Genomics Group (@EvoHull), School of Biological, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, University of Hull (UoH), Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK.
2Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK.
3Lake Ecosystems Group, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK.
4. Species Diversity
 Species diversity is usually measured using indices – it is a good idea to go back to basics and consult Whitttaker (1972) to find out which of the many available is best for you.
Whittaker R.H. 1972 Evolution and Measurement of Species Diversity. Taxon
Vol. 21, No. 2/3, pp. 213-251
Published by: International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) DOI: 10.2307/1218190
5) What type of Diversity ? below from https://www.reference.com/
Alpha diversity is the first part of a three-tiered scale for measuring the biodiversity of an area. An area's alpha diversity is a measure of the diversity of species within an ecosystem. Obtaining this measurement usually entails walking the ground and counting or collecting representatives of each species encountered. Alpha diversity is subtly different from the other two measurements, known as beta and gamma. Alpha diversity deals with species in a single area, while beta diversity is a measure of the difference in diversity between ecosystems in a given area. Gamma diversity is an expression of the overall diversity of an area regardless of the ecosystems where the species are found.
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As i am doing litter decomposition study and the nutrient release pattern i have done N,P,K analysis from all the litter samples. But as the rate of the decomposition mainly depends on lignin and cellulose content i want to estimate the content in the litter sample. But at my institution i dont have facilities to do so. Can any one help me regarding this. I have several procedures but none i can apply here. So either i have to send my sample to somewhere or just give up and try to publish whatever i have. I can go to any lab for my work and within India and willing to pay whatever it charges.
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FRI dehradun may also be good...
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Please send details and pictures.
ACCORDING TO WORMS,
WoRMS taxon details
Turritella attenuata Reeve, 1849
AphiaID: 446536
Parent Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritella Lamarck, 1799
Orig. name Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritella attenuata Reeve, 1849
Source original description Reeve L.A. (1849) Monograph of the genus Turritella. In: Conchologia Iconica, vol. 5, pl. 1-11 and unpaginated text. L. Reeve & Co., London. [stated dates: pl. 1-8: May, 1849; 9-11: June 1849], available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8967277
page(s): Pl. 1, sp. 4. [details]
Environment marine
Links Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Biodiversity Heritage Library (14 publications)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTo Encyclopedia of Life
Note
FROM EDITOR OR GLOBAL SPECIES DATABASE
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature Reeve (1849; pl. 1, sp. 4) discusses Linnaeus' duplicatus and acutangulus and considers they are of the same species. He therefore introduces the present name, referring to Turritella acutangula as listed by Deshayes, 1843 (not of Linnaeus, 1758).
Should the two Linnaean taxa prove to be of the same species, then Reeve's name remains accepted, else it should be considered synonymous to Linnaeus' duplicatus.
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WORMS is a collection of info from many sources. I have also checked it. It seems that T. acutangula is now synonym of T. duplicata.  However, it was just a note given, but they have removed the species name itself. If you get live specimens of both species, check genetic data, that me be worth of checking whether they belong to same species or different. All the best. I have sent a recent (2013) paper that deals with the revision of Turritella from India. I hope that would be useful for your work. regards. ben.
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Dear friends
Part of my work is the creation of species inventories by analyzing the relevant literature. Reasons of this are to have an update information for the area i work, to have such lists with coordinates (if possible for all data) in order to be used in maritime spatial planning and for comparisons with neighbour areas. Apart from the traditional statistical analysis (number of species per class, family, etc.), any zoogeographical analysis (after having such a list for the larger area), habitat analysis (where these have been found in terms of substrate) which other analysis could be included in such a work in order to become more modern and attactive? Do taxonomic diversity indices (Δ+, Λ+) can be used for comparison with larger datasets (e.c. local species list with Mediterranean species list)?
Any idea - proposition is welcome.
Best
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The "....should be found..."  needs some specification. SDM predicted presence? Historically recorded as present, but currently absent? In the latter case overlays of historical and contemporary presence in grid format per species, for all species, per species group? 
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I am interested in evaluating the correlation between species diversity and primary production. I know that evapotranspiration is often used as an indirect measure of the primary production; however, it is calculated from values of rain and temperature that we miss. Instead, we have a measure of the ‘plant available water content’.
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Dear Simona, thank you for the references. In fact, at first we evaluated to obtain ET from remote sensing techniques. This, however, seems not an easy task. Meanwhile, we got measures of water content directly available from a European project and therefore we are trying to better understand how this index relates to ET and primary production
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Anybody kow this genus? Friend from Slovakia make the photo.
Fungus growing on the lawn.
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Very thanks for all :)
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Conducting experiment on differences in biodiversity of micro-atolls between day/night. I am wondering when conducting the shannon index if I should remove species that remained the same in numbers. For example coral and rock boring urchins remained the same. Thanks for any help! 
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Actually, you should avoid using Shannon index in its traditional formula. Have a look at Luo Jost's home page and some references therein. He suggested we should use effective number to compare diversity between samples.
If you use R, take a look at this toy example showing that sites with very distinct pattern of richness and abundance may have the same Shannon value:
library(vegan)
## values of sites represent abundance of n different species
site1 <- c(1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1)  # for example, 7 species with 1 or 2 individuals
site2 <- c(1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 10, 12, 3) # 10 species
site3 <- c(2, 4, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5) # 7 species
site4 <- c(4, 5, 12, 21, 33, 12, 20, 11) # 8 species
diversity(site1, "shannon")
diversity(site2, "shannon")
diversity(site3, "shannon")
diversity(site4, "shannon")
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In Durres Albania (Mediterranean clime), close to the Adriatic Sea, there are large areas with salty soils (ex-marshlands transformed into agricultural lands during communist time). We would like to test the idea of growing a halophyte plant/crop that can be grown to produce biomass for energy production. 
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