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Biodegradable Polymers - Science topic

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Hello everyone,
I’m currently searching statistical data about the use of plastic in food packaging and the waste derived from it, but I don’t find first hand updated information about it. Could you recommend me any publication, website or institution where I can obtain information?
Thank you for your attention
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In the near future some non-biodegradable materials will be replaced in production processes for other, biodegradable. For example, plastics in the European Union until 2021 are to be withdrawn from packaging and replaced with other biodegradable materials such as paper or packaging produced from food, eg from cereals. But this is just the beginning of the revolution in the development of pro-ecological material innovations. This is only the first step towards the withdrawal of plastic as one of the main factors of littering the natural environment.
Do you know other types of examples already implemented or planned to implement projects to replace plastics with biodegradable materials?
Which biodegradable materials will be replaced in the future by plastic that is being phased out of production?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Very interesting topic. In my opinion, bioplastic may a more realistic / alternative solution since the actual research works are focusing on the possibility to elaborate bioplastic from renewable resources, which will have the characteristics to be biodegradable / recyclable.
Here's in attached a recent article treating the economical potential of bioplastic.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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In a stress-strain curve of an FRP composite, mostly it is represented strain in terms of (%) rather than in (mm). Why it is represented in such a way?
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Strain is any kind of deformation, including elongation. Elongation is the word used if we're talking specifically about tensile strain which the sample deforms by stretching and becoming longer. Usually the percent elongation is calculated, which is just the length of the polymer sample after it is stretched (L), divided by the original length of the sample (L0), and then multiplied by 100.
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Especially pellet/film form of biodegradable polymer types.
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Check Sigma and Goodfellow. See the example below:
Commercially available polyethylene (PE) particles of different size classes: 40–48 μm (average size, ultra-high molecular weight powder, CAS No. 9002-88-4, Sigma-Aldrich UK); 125 μm (average size, ultra-high molecular weight powder, CAS Number 9002-88-4, Sigma-Aldrich UK) and 350 μm (average size, medium density polyethylene powder, CAS 708-316-83, Goodfellow).
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Does anyone know of a company that manufactures Poly(L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) Lactide:TMC 75:25?
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Hi Kristyn,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of good-quality materials.
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I am in need of an autoclavable dialysis membrane with a MWCO around 100K Da, but I can only find vendors for RC membranes up to a MWCO of 50K Da. Any input on where to find a supplier would be helpful.
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Hi Kyle,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of good-quality materials.
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I had studied some methods applied to evaluate the average molecular weight including high temperature-gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC), MALDI-TOF/MS, viscosity measurement using capillary viscometer. Which methods is the best to identify the molecular weight changes in PE, PET and PVC?
Besides, the intrinsic viscosity's based on Mark–Houwink–Sakurada equation [η] = KMα v, where K and a have different coefficient value according to different solvent and temperature. Do anyone has detailed Table of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada Constants for Various Polymers in Selected Solvents ?
Thank you.
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Mark-Houwink parameters for each polymer have been mentioned in attached book. I hope it would be useful.
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The baseline of PVA jumps suddenly towards higher intensity (on the Y axis) on reaching 200 degree Celsius.
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Sergey Mamedov Souvik Bhattacharjee - if the sample does not absorb, it does not fluoresce. Mukesh Pandey - you did not specify what wavelength you are using, but I presume it is in the visible, where PVA does not absorb.
The large broadband background in Raman is very often due to scattering which enters the spectrometer as stray light, and therefore some morphological changes in PVA at elevated temperatures which increase the scattering could more likely explain the observed changes in Raman background.
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Plastic is now integral part of our life. Plastic industry is growing with a lot many Environmental problems.
We have various options and technologies but each one has its own merits and demerits.
1. Is it possible to ban plastic? The answer may be a big No.
2. We may ban a particular type of plastic? If yes, what type of plastic could be banned?
3. Reduce it use? But the problem will be there again.
4. Recycling is one good option but not cost effective.
5. Biodegradable plastic is one attractive alternative but not practical or may be very expensive?
In such situations what may be recommended?
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Most plastics are not biodegradable (they do not rot like food, paper, or agricultural product). So, plastics can hang around in the environment for hundreds of years. The thermochemical conversion process ( such as gasification, pyrolysis, incineration, torrefaction, etc.) can be an excellent option to convert this waste into energy. Among these processes, pyrolysis is a suitable one in terms of low cost and small size equipment volume.
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Poly(ethylglyoxylate) is a biodegradable polymer which has many biomédical and pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis of PEtG is carried out by cationic way. Degradation of this polymer releases ethanol and glyoxylic acid
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Thank you sir for the clarification that you gave me. The article that you sent me is very helpful.
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need good reproducible experiment paper
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Hello,
I am a bit confused on whether to follow ASTM D785 (Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness of Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials) or ASTM D2240 (Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Durometer Hardness) to measure the hardness for PLA and PHAs polymers, or can I follow any of these ASTM standards?
- My understanding is that ASTM D2240 is used for softer/rubbery plastics, but I am not sure whether these two polymers fall under this category.
Thank you for your time. Any replies will be highly appreciated.
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Ahmed Naser,
The hardness of types of PLA which are produced by different suppliers changes in the range of 67-90 shore A and 59-80 shore D. According to its hardness, it is possible to use Shore durometer type A or type D.
I have attached the certificate of some PLA which is published by MatWeb.
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Hello,
I managed to run a small blown extrusion line, head diameter 70mm / screw 45mm.
The machine is to be used for extrusion of sleeves from 200 to 500mm wide. Unfortunately, I have a draw resonance problem. I cannot stabilize the balloon.
The head die has a cone that is designed to stabilize the balloon and the air ring characteristic for HDPE heads. (picture attached)
The machine temperatures are set to 140 degrees Celsius from the loading zone to the machine die head.
For the present moment I have only been able to stabilize the balloon for a 200mm wide sleeve, TUR was then 10.43. As soon as I try to blow the balloon to larger sizes the balloon begins to destabilize and there is a resonance phenomenon.
I don't understand what could be the cause of my problems, maybe the die that is designed for HDPE processing is not suitable for PLA?
Regards,
Michael
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Do you have to use PLA? because, a different kind of biopolymer could be easier to process, something that has certain proportion of PBAT or something like that. PLA, as you mentioned, might be too stiff, and grades that are specifically designed for Blown Film Extrusion have to have something that lowers the stiffness of the polymer.
Miguel Angel Romano
Plastic processing specialist.
Chemical Engineer.
7 years as Blown Film Specialist and formulator.
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Project is based on biodegradable materials.
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Actually in order to know that one of the important things is the properties of polymer you use. And as you said you are asking it for "bone regeneration" you cannot know it without doing preliminary experiments either in vitro or in vivo or both. Your question is is so wide and "unknown"
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Some find says Henry Ford made it with the oil for resin?
I understand that depending on the size of the fiber, different plastic can be made but there's no recipe.
Carbon Fiber like's is the long fiber entertwined?
Bio-Polymer Pebbles for 3D print is with the short fiber?
Double Usage or Fiber Only cultivar?
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What biodegradable polymers could be used as a dispersing matrix in CRF?
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Dear all, if biodegradation is the only criterium, than any biopolymer may answer the application with respect to the ratio cost/performance. My Regards
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What are the oil based inputs for production of bio-polyamides for application in textile sector?
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Mostly adipic acid, manufactured from hexane, and also 1,6 Hexane Diamine, also made from hexane. Or Caprolactam made from hexane.
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Alginate is an anionic polymer and on the other hand Rhodamine B is a cationic dye. Theoretically these two should be boned by ionic bond. Does it happen? More suggestions and experience are greatly appreciated. Advanced thanks!!
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You might be able to couple the rhodamine carboxyl to an alginate hydroxyl with a water soluble diimide coupling reagent.
Or use a different dye....
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I obtained silver nanoparticles from the crude extract, i want to encapsulate the AgNPs with the biodegradable polymers to proceed my in vitro and in vivo cancer study.
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Dear Sandhiya, certainly you can do that and you can several papers and patent during last years. But, at first, you should specify what you're looking for?
First, what will be the final and functional form of this product and if you use as in vivo product, do you consider its compliance with medical requirements?
Secondly, what will your particular product have features that previous scientists have not yet achieved?
Then we can talk about the type of polymer, the encapsulated conditions of your expected nanoparticles.
I suggest to read some new reviews and research articles related to you purpose such below:
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i want to modify this polymer with nano particle and i need a good solvent before anything ...
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Thanks a lot Ms. karimi
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Everyone know about the non bio-degradable nature of plastic and associated environmental problems. Now new bio-degradable plastic shopping bags have been introduced in the market. How plastic can be bio-degradable?
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Bio Degradable plastics are not YET a reality. There is a great number of Academic Research devoted to this problem. Since this problem is recognized as "vital" - it is well funded - the latter is one of the main reasons attracting researchers. Currently, however, the main approach to bio-degradation is the study of the degradation of polymers by the action of microorganisms living in soil. This is a long process and great success has not yet been achieved. Apparently, it is necessary to introduce some substances catalyzing bio-degradation. However, it is completely unclear how they will affect the soil micro-fauna.
The fresh ideas - are needed - apparently not bio-decomposition but recycling
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I done the hydrolytic degradation test for degradable polymer applied for implant. I'm using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7. The sample is 3 mm thickness was fully immersed in the solution for 7 month and the weight loss were measured every month. However, there were no weigh loss observed for the samples during 7 month of testing. Is there any specific enzyme that i could used to accelerate the degradation process?
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You should carefully select the degradation solvent or tool to represent your exact microenvironment for your targeted application. My personal opinion you may use the simulated body fluid (SBF) or low concentration of collagenase. It's really essential parameter to look out.
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As PLA is biodegradable polymer and obtained from natural resources.so what is degradable life of PLA
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PLA biodegradability strongly depends on ageing conditions, especially the temperature employed. For temperatures inferior to about 60°C, the biodegradation is very very slow. But if the ageing temperature exceeds 60°C, the biodegradation is drastically improved, the critical parameter being the glass transition temperature of PLA (about 60°C).
For more details, see previous works carried out by my group (papers Deroine et al. for example).
Regards.
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Formulation of beads for bone infection.
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Dear Dr. Marcos Vinicius,
Thank you very much for your feedback. I already have the said paper. But actually I need some clarification and trouble shooting opinion. Since this polymer is very expensive, I don't want to loss it! I need to recrystalize to make small beads. Please if you know some details you may add here. Thank you very much once again.
Best regards,
sAnower
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Could I use lysozyme or lipase? hopefully I can buy from sigma or other chemical company. Thank you
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A range of PHA-degrading fungi have been discovered in marine environments as well as bacteria like Pseudomonas stutzeri.. generally PHA depolymerases or esterases are excreted extracellularly, although in some literature they are not specially named.
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I'm synthesizing a PLLA grafted with itaconic anhydride in a rheocord mixer. After the grafting, I would like to determine the concentration of the grafted itaconic anhydride.
I dissolved a grafted PLLA sample in THF and then I carried out an acid–base titration with 0.005 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) in ethanol.
I tried to determine the equivalent point in two different ways at 25°C:
1) by means of phenolphtalein as indicator;
2) by means of a pH-meter (CRISON TitroMatic 1S equipped with an electrode CRISON 52.2) measuring the pH and the conductivity.
In both cases I had problems:
1) I can't appreciate the color changing of the indicator;
2) the system seems to be unstable and both the pH and the conductivity fluctuate.
I guess the problem is related with the solvent (THF) because when I tried to perform a similar titration in a water/ethanol solution the pH-meter gave stable results.
My questions are:
Is there any alternative method to determine the anhydride concentration?
Or is there any solution to let my system be more stable to perform a pH measure?
Best regards,
Francesco Chiacchio
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I agree with you
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I need a lot of PLGA for experiments without having to pay the steep price for medical PLGA.
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Ankur Shah how has been your experience with quality and purity of PLGA with SinoBiomaterials, I am planning to buy, wanted some reviews.
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Can anyone suggest a cheap biodegradable polymer that can be used as a drug carrier?
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If the drug carrier must use cheap biodegradable polymers. You may consider using polylactic acid (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL). However, since the above materials degrade too long, they must be prepared into composite materials for drug release.
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We are currently conducting a research project on Natural Fiber reinforced biopolymer composites (green biocomposites) for food packaging application. 
Previously, we did an experts' survey on weight of  importance for 13 selection criteria to find the most suitable natural fiber. From that survey and by applying AHP Rating Mode method, we found that the top 5 ranking of criteria based on their importance are:
Rank            Criterion
1                   Raw Cost (10.6%)
2                   Tensile Strength (9.7%)
3                   Young's Modulus (8.8%)
4                   Availability (8.8%)
5                   Moisture Content (8.7%)
Now, we are to find the most suitable biopolymer matrix which are among starch biopolymer alternatives i.e rice starch, potato starch, wheat potato, corn starch etc. Therefore, we have identified 19 selection criteria. We really appreciate your feedback in assigning a weight of importance out of 7  score on  1 -  7 scale (1 being the "Not at all important", and 7 being "Extremely important") for each criterion in evaluating starch alternatives. 
Please click the link below to participate in the Experts' Survey: https://goo.gl/forms/K5bVs1Hq7KIgk0V72 All data collected will be used ONLY for this research. 
We hope to gather feedback from all experts by 9th of January 2019. Your feedback is very valuable and all your cooperation are highly appreciated.
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Thank you sir Dillip KUMAR Bisoyi for the answer.
Appreciate if you could answer the survey at: https://goo.gl/forms/K5bVs1Hq7KIgk0V72
Thank you.
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For thesis
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The below mentioned researcher has many articles on preparing carboxymethyl cellulose from various types of non-wood and wood fibers. Happy new year.
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I will use Poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-caprolactone) to formulate a drug along with emulsifier like Tween 20, Tween 80, Span 20 and Oil. Please suggest me. Your sincere cooperation to render my research is highly appreciated!
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Dear Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad,
Thank you very much for your sharing. I have this article and read it. However, I am seeking the step by step procedure and expert opinion who already done it.
Thank you.
Regards,
sAnower
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I am looking for some literature on 3D polymer printing in the nanoscale, and I can't find much. Most of the 3D printing methods in polymers go down to a few microns in resolution. Sub micron resolution seems to be achievable only with metal, or metal/polymer inks.
If anyone can suggest some publications, I would be grateful.
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for submicron and for plymer a method can help you maybe SLA
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How to prepare Biodegradable Polymers from Oils??? Suggest research paper please
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I suggest you to consider reading chapter 6: Bioplastics from Lipids by Stuart Coles from the book title Bio-Based Plastics: Materials and Applications Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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I am looking for an overview of approved biodegradable polymer implants (FDA, CE, etc) that are already in the market. 
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does anybody know where I can find some info in regards of bioresorbable polymer production for medical devices ? is it mandatory that the polymer production (bacterial fermentation) is done in GMP certified labs? ISO13485? or let s say that doing a process validation of the fermentation followed by a DSP under GMP and/or ISO13485 would be enough?
thank you in advance for any feedback
Monica
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How the flexion point is related to the mechanical strength properties and degradation of a polymer?
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Is it true that all the biodegradable plastics will dissolve in dichloromethane?
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This could be helpful for you:
ASTM D5988 - 12 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in Soil
Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) according to ISO 14855-2.
Best regards Vit
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Have you ever made your own drug-containing filaments of water soluble/dispersible polymers preferably (low melt temperature (<100 deg C))? Are you using a lab-made extrusion device or a commercially available one? I'm afraid the references I got from bibliographic searches did not include sufficient detail.
What polymers did you use PLA, PGA, PCL, methacrilates any other?
Thanks in advance.
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You can also try with PAA (polymer-poly(acrylic acid). This is water soluble. In addition you can also try by adding dextran polymer for sustainable drug release.
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tell me methods other than HPLC LC-MS OR GC-MS ? If possible, give some information about identify of plastic degradation in SSF and LSF using microorganisms kindly help me. Any known microbial groups or biological enzyme can degrade or reduce plastic ?
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Apart from the chromatographic techniques, some researchers are also utilizing antibodies expression in response to the contaminant concentration i.e. chlorinated hydrocarbons and/or dioxins. However, I don't know weather this will also work for plastics or not.
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I am doing swelling test for PCL/PGS electrospun mats, I am using HFIP as a solvent. I found out the the weight of the fibers decreases rather than increases after 2 and 4 hours, what could be the reason?
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Thank you for your answers. Microscopic analysis would be helpful. However, PGS/PCL scaffolds don't degrade within this time according to the literature. I think I figured out the problem and I will do another trials.
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-In first journal:
Immersing small size scaffold cause only slight increment in the volume observed in graduated measuring cylinder (V2). What is the correct way of performing this test?
-and also:
I used another method in second journal, but my results were more than 100 %!
For example:
P=(W2-W1)/pV1
Where W1 and W2 indicates the weight of the composites before and after immersing, respectively, and V1 is the volume before immersing, ρ is a constant of the density of n-hexane.
W2 = 0.196 g, W1 = 0.020 g, V1 = 0.235 cm3, p=0.654 ……..
P = 115.032 !!!
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There's many ways of measuring porosity, see this review:
If you have limited equipment, instead of the graduated cylinder method, you may get better results using a good analytical balance and using the Archimedes method. You weigh the sample dry, saturated, and submerged in a non-solvent liquid then you can calculate the volume of the open pores from the mass of wet scaffold minus dry and the bulk volume from the mass of the displaced liquid (saturated-submerged). The ratio will give the open porosity. You can calculate the total porosity by comparing the density of your material and the density of your scaffold (dry mass/bulk volume).
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I have the polyfitic oil which i want to encapsulate with using polymer, surfactant and their mixtures via making an emulsion and further LbL.
I'm searching for non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable surfactant and polymer. For polymer I'm going to use polysacharides. But for surfactant can someone suggest?
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Hi,
I am not sure what the needed properties of the surfactant are in the application you study. But if you're going to use polysaccharides as amulsifier you might want to consider alkyl-glucosides.
In the past we studied the glucan polymer made by Gtf180 from Lactobacillus reuteri and as a friday-afternoon experiment I tested it as vergetable-oil emulsifier. Studying emulsifying properties is not really our cup of tea, but shaking the oil-water mixture with a  bead-beater shaker for 5 min with the glucan polymer resulted in an oil emulsion that did not separate in oil-water again for at least 5 days, after which we had to clean the experiment up. A alkyl-glucose conjugate might work very well in interaction with this polysaccharide as amulsifier.
A PhD student in our lab used this Gtf180 enzyme also to produce octyl-glucose from octanol and sucrose, with the polysaccharide as side-stream. see attached publication.
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what is the difference of solvation behavior between non-ionic and ionic polymers/hydrogels in water? for example between poly NIPAM and poly (diethylaminoethylmethacrylate).
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Thank you.
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This a very severe problem that I am facing while doing my work. I have prepared soyabean oil methacrylate, but the material is getting semi solidify after keeping it sometimes at the cold condition or keeping it at room temperature for few days. The material is probably getting gelled or crosslinked I do not understand correctly. I have checked the solubility of the semisolid matter in every solvent and found that the material is not soluble further. But the time while I had prepared the material, it was readily soluble in any versatile organic solvent. Hence it's a keen request to you to get me some answers behind this reason.
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Yes, might be! :)
But thanks a lot for your kind response!
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I am using HPMC 3 cps with water and currently using 10-15% w/w concentration.
What is the important parameter that needs to be controlled to get good granules?
My granules always came out as big lumps and fines. When dried in the oven, the big lumps became really hard. Milling causes them to become like sesame seeds which cause weight variations in my tablets.
Thanks
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For preparation of  Immediate release tablet, Its better to use other hydrophilic binder like PVP, Glucose, acacia, Tragacanth and stach paste.  HPMC will give u lump. Or You can use HPMC by dissolving HMPC in Iso Propyl Alcohol.
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if there is any such polymer would that be available commercially? 
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I suggest NYLON 4/6  which is also called POLY(TETRAMETHYLENE ADIPAMIDE).
This polymer has the properties you look for, e.g. it has a melting point of 295 °C so it has heat resistance at the temperature you mentioned.
It is commercially available (see this reference) but ask the supplier to provide all the necessary information. Wishing you success.
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Silk fibroin is a well-known biodegradable material, and there are hundreds of publications about the usage of silk fibroin in tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery etc. However, silk sutures are non-absorbable (non-degradable), as indicated in the suture selection guides of all the suture manufacturers.
So... is silk fibroin degradable or not? If it is degradable, why is it used for the non-degradable sutures?
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The major component of silk is Fibroin Protein which mainly consists of repeated units of amino acids........Gly-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Ala......it makes a beta-pleated sheet. The presence of high proportion of Gly makes a possibly more tightly packed structure which remains stable against even some acids and bases. However, the slow degradation process has been reported by many investigators.
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does citric acid decrease the surface tension when it is added to a polysaccharide or biodegradable polymer? If so then what is the mechanism ?
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You can try boric acid as your target is biomedical application. Since your polysaccharide is nonionic, no change is expected as cross-linking leading to intended change in surface tension is likely at high temperatures. 
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Similar to hydrogels which absorb water, I wonder if PGA, PLLA, and PLGA absorb any types of organic or inorganic liquid without being dissolved.
Thank you in advance for your help.
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Due to the hydrophobic nature of PLA, The crosslinked PLA-PLGA materials can not act as hydrogel whereas, they are still gel materials can swell in solvents that solve the homopolymer of PLA such as dichloromethane, THF, Acetone...
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I am looking for possible reason why some organic acids are successful for collagen electrospinning and others are not exploited at all, as food grade solvent is a concern. Some explanation for possible criteria of selection of solvent. 
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Go to PubMed and you will find all the reference you want. I really appreciate Gloria's answer which is a glimpse of what you can read further.
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Is there any application for both hyaluronic acid and bioplastics(PHA/PHB) that join them together ?
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You may try to prepare a coating in solvent such as  Hexafluoroisopropanol because HA is soluble in water, while PHAs are soluble in chlorinated solvents. Then the homogenization is  very poor. I do believe it is not an easy task but if you find how to do it in a non-toxic solvent let me know. Good luck   
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Can be any product but the result must be a soft polymer, like a market bag
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Dear Marcelo, give a look to epoxidized vegetable oils. Probably you can find some not expensive. Regards
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The chitosan fibers expand rapidly in acetic acid solution and it being transparent makes it hard to detect. I would like to know which dye is preferable and on what factors it is being suggested.
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Most usually the Ninhydrin Test is used
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Is there any non toxic electroactive biodegradable polymer or oligomer beside aniline oligomers? specifically for tissue engineering
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Yes of course, 
Researchers have begun to address the cytotoxic degradation products of these polymers seen in vitro, via the synthesis of oligoaniline analogues with reduced toxicities.
Polylactide; 
Oligothiophene and polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT):
"Alternatively, biodegradable electroactive hydrogels have been synthesized via aniline pentamer (AP) grafting gelatin (GA) [113]. In this case, hydrophobic pentamers alter the porous structure of the protein-based hydrogel without affecting cytotoxicity, which is strictly related to biocompatible properties of the gelatin structure. More recently, conductive hydrogels have been synthesized by the grafting of polyaniline and gelatin macromolecules at physiological conditions [114]. The gelation time, swelling ratio and degradation time have been easily tuned by an accurate selection of polymer ratios and genipin content, thus promoting great adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts and C2C12 myoblast cells, for muscle skeletal tissue repair." more on:  http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/8/5/185/pdf
a variety of proteins and polysaccharides , Aliphatic polyester, Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); a review on these issues: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341840/pdf/nihms664191.pdf
5,5"'bishydroxymethyl-3,3"'-dimethyl-2,2':5',2":5",2"'-quaterthiophene-co-adipic acid polyester (QAPE) is nontoxic to Schwann cells: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633937/
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Hi.
In my team, I'm now responsible for synthesizing a strong anionic-exchange material, which involves the task of attaching tertiary amine functional group on a poly(vinylbenzylcholride-co-divinylbenzene) base, using triethylamine (TEA) in varied volume of toluene.
I'm having trouble with the washing step, which would remove the residual TEA. I tried using HCl 2% (v/v) in acetone, but I could not control the formation of the resulting ammonium salt, which would precipitate and deposit on my synthesized material.
Please suggest me any other appropriate cleaning method. Furthermore, I'd like to ask a detection method for residual TEA, since I don't know whether scanning for its absorption peak in the 210-220 nm region is the correct way or not.
Many thanks in advance.
I can make it clearer if the descriptions are not detailed enough, so please don't hesitate to pop in your questions.
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I would suggest to dissolve the polymer in toluene and wash by shaking in a separating funnel with diluted HCl.
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We want to obtain biomaterial scaffold using 3D printer laser, but it have to be biodegradable polymer.
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Hi, Carlos. Nowadays, this is one of the most important goals in 3D printing. Biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds require new development of polymeric composite materials.
Hands on!
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Most of the naturally available biodegradable materials such as agarose, chitin, chitosan, collagen, hyaluronan, gelatin etc. have already been explored. What else can I try? How about pectin?
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Dear Saha, 
Skin regeneration requires scaffolds of well defined characteristics, in terms of tensile properties, micro-structure and morphology, surface modifications by specific cell adhesive proteins, etc. The choice of the polymer is not enough to let you conclude that it works or not, unless you explore the impact of the aforementioned characteristics which I listed above. The micro-fabrication of your scaffold impact the biological performance, the internal structure of the scaffold counts. How did you produce your scaffolds? thin films; non woven mesh, oriented porous scaffolds, filaments deposition? did you explored the impact of these parameters using ONE promising polymer, as gelatin or collagen for example?
I think that the development of scaffold for skin regeneration goes beyond the simple screening of polymers.
Bests,
Irini Gerges, PhD 
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Need gift sample for PLGA for research purpose
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Please let me know some tests (or standards) followed to determine the biodegradability of biodegradable polymer composites.
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Hi Sunny, here are some of the standard test methodologies used to analyse the biodegradability of plastics
Source: Biodegradability of Polymers: Regulations and Methods for Testing
General Aspects and Special Applications
Dr. Rolf-Joachim Müller
Published Online: 15 JAN 2005
DOI: 10.1002/3527600035.bpola012
  • ASTM G21-96 Standard practice for determining resistance of synthetic polymer materials to fungi
  • ASTM G29-96 Standard practice for determining algal resistance of plastic films
  • DIN IEC 60068 - 2-10-1991
Elektrotechnik; Grundlegende Umweltprufverfahren; Prufung J und Leitfaden:
Schimmelwachstum; (Identisch mit IEC 60068±2-10: 1988)
  • EN ISO 846 - 1997
Plastics - Evaluation of the action of microorganisms
  • IEC 60068 - 2-10-1988
Elektrotechnik; Grundlegende Umweltprufverfahren; Pr ̧fung J: Schimmelwachstum
  • ISO 846 - 1997 Plastics: Determination of behaviour under the action of fungi and bacteria. Evaluation by visual examination or measurement of changes in mass or physical properties
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Is there any technique which allow to somehow quantify (even if only qualitatively) the anticorrosion efficacy of polymeric coatings which are soluble in water?
Conventional approaches, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, require that the sample is immersed in an electrolyte solution, but in this case the coating will be dissolved and the measurement is not representative of the coating performances. 
For example, I am looking for a procedure that allow to expose the coated metal in aerated acid environment and then somehow test it. 
Thank you!
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here is a publication made by me and one of my coworkers some time ago; although the methodology was applied on anticorrosion coatings involving the Organic Metal Polyaniline, you can also apply it on any other coating system. This method gives you a fully quantitative description of the anti-corrosion performance of your system, and you can compare with other systems, and our experience showed that it is in line with field performance.
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We have an EDC crosslinked collagen based material and are performing a degradation assay to understand the byproducts released and quantify them. Is there an assay that exists to detect EDC in any form (residual, unreacted, partially reacted, fully reacted) as the material degrades or upon initial hydration? I understand there is a free Chlorine when EDC is unreacted that is no longer there upon successful crosslinking. Our initial thought is to focus on the presence of Chlorine as an indication of residual EDC. Any thoughts are appreciated!
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My pleasure. Hope it works for you and good luck for your submission. 
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I am looking for information about the processing of gluten in lab scale, in order to obtain shaped materials. I read about the possibilities of i) casting (probably preferable for me) and ii) thermoplasticizing. In the first case solvents are used to solubilize/disperse gluten, along with an acid or a base to make solubilization possible/efficient. What I am wishing are more detailed or actual lab experiences.
Thank you
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Hello, thank you for your answer.
I am actually looking for more information and details, e.g. preparations procedures or any useful details.
Do you have any clues/suggestions?
Cheers 
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I have to measure the aldehyde content of an oxidized polysaccharide e.g dextran and have tried a method. The results obtained were not satisfactory or there is some error with the given formula that I presume. I will be thankful for any suggestion or comment 
Formula: Aldehyde content (mM/g) = [(Reacted DNPH mM/g)/198.14]/(conc. % x 10-4)
Note: Absorbance of DNPH (Mwt 198.14) = 0.9 ( dil. 200x)
Abs. after reacting with sample = 0.7 (dil. 200x)
Conc. of Sample used = 100 ul of 1%
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Determination of the dialdyhyde percent
 The aldehyde group content was determined using the rapid quantitative alkali consumption method (Liming Zhang et. al, 2014).  Dried oxidized substrate (0.2 g) was weighed into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask and 10 mL of standardized 0.2 M sodium hydroxide was added. The flask was swirled in a water bath at 70 ◦C for 2 min, then cooled immediately under running tap water with rapid swirling for 1 min. Ten mililiter of standardized 0.2 M sulfuric acid, 50 mL of water and 1 mL of neutral 0.2% phenolphthalein was added in turn. Titration of the acid solution was carried out using 0.2 M sodium hydroxide.   
The percentage of dialdehyde units was given by the equation:
                                 V1C1- 2V2C2
          CHO % =                                                 X 100
                                  (W/W◦) × 1000
where C1and C2 (M) represent the molarity concentration of NaOH and H2SO4, respectively. V1, V2 (mL) represent the total volume of NaOH and H2SO4, respectively. W is the dry weight (g) of the oxidized substrate, W◦ (217 and 197)  is the average molecular weight of the repeated unit in dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt or  sodium alginate, respectively.
Liming Zhanga, Shuang Zhang, Feng Dong, Wentian Cai, Jing Shan, Xiaobian Zhang, Shuli Man Antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility of dialdehyde starches as influenced by their physical and structural properties. Food Chemistry 149 (2014) 296–301.
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Dear all,
I am looking for preparation biodegradable polymers from plant extract and I need to know any plant extract which can be used for the preparing such polymers.
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Sorry, but it's a very naive approach
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We are working on development of biodegradable film for packaging. We want to develop moisture resistant biofilm with enough tensile strength presently whey protein isolate and soya protein isolate have been selected. Kindly suggest new subtance that can be used for making biofilm for packaging.
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Dear Dr.Vallabh
Bioplastics today is essentially produced from
or their waste crops (starch, cellulose) or through
bacterial fermentation processes. The major focus has been
the use of starch as raw material, due to its
availability, its history as part of plastics
compostable, and it is economically competitive with oil. corn starch is generally employed, although they are investigating other sources, such as potatoes, barley and oats. Bioplastics made of starch are brittle, and unless the starch is mixed with other materials, or modify it
chemically not used to make flexible and resilient films.
Another raw material that can be used to make bioplastics is the
 cellulose. This polymer is the main component of tissues
 vegetables, and therefore the most abundant polymer in nature. As the starch is composed of glucose molecules, but together differently, preventing compaction of the fibers firm. So cellulose yields brittle, inflexible and quite permeable to moisture bioplastics. As an alternative, research have turned to development based on chemically modified cellulose, such as cellulose acetate materials. This compound is used to make packaging, as it has good properties for films
 flexible and resistant to ruptures and perforations.
The situation is that to lower costs are due to use materials that are agricultural waste, because if they are going to use products that can be used by food has no case, so I recommend alternative crops such as Moringa oleifera and other alternative crops.
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Hi
I want to know about a synthetic or natural polymer which it has a glass transition temperature below 40.
If you know any polymer, please let me know about that.
Regards
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Hi..,
Take propylene oxide and tinoctate in 200;1 ratio you can use co-catalyst also and dissoleve in dry toluene stir at 80 temperature and pass CO2. Better to setup reaction in high pressure reactor.
Please see this author research also for better understanding..
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I have group 4 complexes with one ligand one metal and two iso-propoxide units. When I used these complexes for ROP (ring-opening polymerization) of rac-lactide, with some complexes Mn I achieved near like theoretical Mn and some other complexes I achieved more than theoretical Mn. Some of the cases I got less than theoretical Mn also.
So, how can I conform whether two iso-propoxide units initiated the polymerization or one iso-propoxide unit involved.
From proton NMR may be possible but this iso-propoxide unit peak is overlapped with polymer peak and some times not visible also because of high monomer ratio.
From GPC by observing Mn is it possible??
From MALDI we can get any information regarding how many active sites??
If you have any reference articles please suggest me.
Thank you in advance.
Kind regards,
Sreenath Pappuru.
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Ok OK thank you..
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To prove the bio degradation of biopolymers, what are all the best methods? what can accelerate degradation?
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Take a molecular weight of bio film before bio degradation and the same film you can dissolve and add mixed culture.
(2) Monitor every two days bacteria counting, if the bacteria growth is increases your
     degradation is started.
(3) After one week, again solution casting and prepare the same bio-film, and now take
      molecular weight of polymer.
Now you can easily calculate the % of bio degradation.
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I have a nanoparticle solution made of a biodegradable polymer and a drug inside it. The particle size in aqueous solution is around 200nm. Can I use this solution to generate aerosols for inhalation experiments? Because the instrument that Kent Scientific has says that we can use any solution in their nebulizer and aerosolize it.
Also how much might the particle size be after nebulization? Any leads on this nanoparticle inhalation topic would be appreciated. Thanks
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Hi Vaideesh.
The short answer to your question is.........................it depends.
It depends on a variety of factors that include, but are not limited to;
1) the stability of your suspension - how likely is it to aggregate (see below) or how stable are your biodegradable NPs.
2) the tendency of the NPs to aggregate in suspension NOTE: post nebulisation, you will see some aggregation-like interactions between the NPs, however, this may well not be aggregation but close physical proximity as multiple NPs are encapsulated in a very single small aqueous droplet and when they deposit on a surface, they tend not to spread as the droplet volume is so small that it does not allow it.
3) the type of nebuliser you are going to use - active vibrating mesh is likely the one Kent Sci refer to and I attach some papers below that might be of interest. Assuming that your NPs dont aggregate to form big clumps, you should be fine with respect to clogging, the apertures in the mesh are in the order of 3-4microns in diameter, and they de-clog themselves readily. DISCLAIMER: I work for an active vibrating mesh company, and quite possibly the one Kent Sci is offering to you. 
Jet (compressed air) nebulisers in my experience are not suitable for NP delivery. There is significant shear force exerted on the suspended NPs and any conjugates may come off, or encapsulating features may be disrupted. They are not recommended for any type of suspension, micron or nano scale. 
Passive (i.e. not actively vibrating) mesh nebulisers may well clog if the NPs aggregate. Like jet nebulisers they are also not recommended for any type of suspension.
4) the formulation excipients/buffer - high viscosity or low surface tension may affect the ultimate droplet size.
You ask what might be the ultimate droplet size. Again I am afraid that that depends. It depends on the droplet size generated by the nebuliser itself, coupled with the physico-chemical properties (surface tension and viscosity) of your formulation.
I also should make you aware, that "what droplet size"you record will be predominately be dictated by the equipment that you use to characterise it, e.g. laser diffraction, Andersen impactor at 28.3LPM, NGI @15LPM, Marple 298 @ 2LPM. Which ever you choose to use............stick with it.
If you are concerned about what droplet size is produced, do not get too concerned until you reach large animal/human testing phase. Very little aerosol will be delivered to mice and rats for example, you are likely to have to instill in the mice. Rats can be used for aerosol studies (see paper below). Also, don't get too hung up on the classic "only droplets less than 5 micron can be inhaled".........droplets over 5 microns can also reach the periphery of the lung if you use the right nebuliser.
As with most things of this nature, I suggest you go ahead and try it. There is sufficient literature out there that gives confidence that a variety of NP suspensions can be effectively aerosolised, the papers below are 2 such examples.
Finally, in making your choice of nebuliser, I encourage you to consider your ultimate target patient. All going well, this formulation will be provide therapeutic utility and will be submitted for regulatory approval. Their key concern beyond safety/toxicity of the NPs, is the reliability and reproducibility of dosing. Different nebuliser systems will deliver different amounts to the lungs, and to different regions within the lungs and so you need to consider that also. I have plenty of comparative studies on my profile if you wish to get an idea of the differences in delivered dose in some setups.
I hope you find this answer of use. Best regards,
Ronan.
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Please suggest, which are the thermoset bio composites for better properties which is almost equal to glass rein forced composites. 
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An example of bio-based epoxy resins:
Soy based resins are also well known:
Lignin is also intensively studied for such purposes:
even for carbon fiber production:
Glycerol based thermosets are also beind developed:
the use of natural fibers as reinforcements in composites is too broad to cover.
I hope it helps to sart your own research
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Polysaccharides like dextran and sodium alginate can be dissolved in water but not in 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol, which is the solvent for Polycaprolactone electrospun solution. If I still want to use PCL/HFP solution to do the electrospinning, how am I going to do with dextran and/or alginate to make sure it is in the fiber?
Thank you for advises. 
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Hi, since 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol  and water are miscible you can prepare the two solutions of PCL in the alcohol and Dextran or alginate in water and mix them in order to electrospin. You will have to play with the concentrations and electrospinning parameters to achieve the right conditions
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I've been preparing the ocular film (0.5 cm x 0.5 cm) of Prednisolone sodium phosphate based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). When I prepared the blank film using PVA, it was totally transparent with adequate mechanical strength. As soon as I added the API (7mg/film), the film had crystalline edges and it adhered to the surface tightly after drying. It was really difficult to peel the film and was too brittle. Both PVA and API are freely soluble in water; thus distilled water was used as the solvent system. The solubility of Prednisolone sodium phosphate is around 250mg/ml. When I prepared the total volume 5 ml, it had 151.2 mg of API on it. What might be the reasons for crystal formation and brittle nature of the film? I would really appreciate your answer. Thank you.
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The edge appears to be related to the "coffee ring effect" where the accumulation of PVA or PVA/API composites lead to the formation of the edges. If it is too brittle, try a few freeze thaw cycles to induce the crystalite formation in PVA.
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I am interested in preparing a collagen-laminin gel. When i add laminin to collagen, the strength of the scaffold become less (gel gets tearing). I need to add cells into the solution before gel formation. So i can't use any chemical cross-linkers like EDC, glutaraldehyde  (toxic to cells). 
Can you suggest me, how to prepare a collagen-laminin gel with high mechanical strength (not tearable gel)?
Thank you,
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Thank you all for the suggestions and that will work for me
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I want to prepare starch based hydrogel, which can be used as green absorbent.
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Hello dear, I think that you can modify starch with acrylic acid by esterification reaction and then polymerize by free radical. Another method is the solution polymerization of starch with acrylic acid.
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we have used to prepare alginate ionotropic gelation technique and Na-alginate is homogenization. After that we producing from na-alginate to ca-alginate. we are using calsium for biocompatible alginate. calsium is connecting a cross-link to na-alginate but formed this bond, is weak. because of the fact that calsium-alginate is less mechanical strenght. 
what can ı do to improve the mechanical strength?
also,
na-alginate solution is 5%, cacl2 solution is 5%. changing percentages in solution does not have impact role in mechanical strenght. i have tested. 
ı have one more question.  Is there a duty of chlorine in the solution CaCl2?
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Tugce, 
The Alginate you are using is very important. There are two specific factors that will affect the mechanical properties of the gel: the molar mass of the polysaccharide and its composition. If you are using a low viscosity alginate, it will probably yield weaker gels compared to a high molecular weight alginate. Also, alginates with high Guluronate content give "stronger" gels than those with high Mannuronate content. 
Now, if you are preparing beads, those concentrations seem way too high. I would keep both solutions below 2%, otherwise you might be having problems with the diffusion of the metal ions during the gelation process. 
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Fully bio degradable , environmental friendly cationising agent is needed for my research
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Another cationic polymer is polylysine.
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microorganisms degrading biodegradable / non biodegradable plastics ?
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Several steps occur in the plastic biodegradation process and could be identified by specific terminology:
-Bio-deterioration defines the action of microbial communities and other decomposer organisms responsible for the physical and chemical deterioration that resulted in a superficial degradation that modifies the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the plastic.
-Bio-fragmentation refers to the catalytic actions that cleave polymeric plastics into oligomers, dimers or monomers by ecto-enzymes or free-radicals secreted by microorganisms.
-Assimilation characterizes to the integration of molecules transported in the cytoplasm in the microbial metabolism.
-Mineralisation refers to the complete degradation of molecules that resulted in the excretion of completely oxidized metabolites (CO2, N2, CH4, H2O)
the microbial communities that developed on plastic may be highly diverse and the development of a biofilm may release acid compounds such as nitrous acid (e.g. Nitrosomonas spp.), nitric acid (e.g. Nitrobacter spp.) or sulphuric acid (e.g. Thiobacillus spp.) by chemolithotrophic bacteria .
Organic acids such as oxalic, citric, fumaric, gluconic, glutaric, glyoxalic, oxalic and oxaloacetic acids may also be released by chemoorganotrophic communities. The pH inside the pores is then modified, resulting in a progressive degradation that changes the microstructure of the plastic matrix .
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Looking for same/similar info as here: http://my3dmatter.com/influence-infill-layer-height-pattern/ but according to ABS filament.
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The link you have posted is for PLA as the filler. If you are interested in using ABS the link shown above will provide the pros and cons of your decision. The decision matrix will be similar in both cases. You can plan the matrix for ABS in the manner shown in the link for PLA and each will have its advantages and disadvantages as shown in the link I have posted.
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I have tried PCL with DCM and there was spiral effect. After that I tried Chloroform still there was spiral effect. Later on I try with THF but it seems it was evaporated quicker than DCM though it has high boiling temperature than DCM. Why I am unable to make fiber with THF? What can be the solution?
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