Questions related to Bilingualism
I work with families in which caregivers are monolingual. Children are exposed to one language at home and then exposed to English school. I am curious to know how this impacts communication development, especially when at times cultural values and norms can be contradictory. I am also curious to see if there is a difference between caregivers that are first generation in the United States compared to caregivers who may 2nd or 3rd generation born in the United states, who are bilingual and dominate both English and their native or cultural language.
Hello all. I hope you are always in good health.
In the maintenance and shift of language, in the current era. What factors are most influential in language maintenance or language shift?
Generally, language maintenance and language shift involve attitudes, bilingualism, number of speakers, regional concentration, genealogy, etc.
Share your experience here. :)
How many people in the USA who speak two or more languages represent ethnic minorities? I am looking for numbers and sources to cite.
Has anyone used a composite score based on the LEAP-Q?
I work with bilingual data and I would like to apply a LEAP-Q composite score. However, I have not found any studies that would apply an aggregate score for LEAP-Q results.
I intended to analyze the role of bilingualism in translation, answering the question whether translation is an innate skill or it can be acquired. In particular, I was thinking of focusing on Harris' Natural Translation theory, extending its scope to written translation performed by adults - how feasible would this be? Any feedback or even advice on gaps in the research is appreciated.
Bilingualism has been torn in disagreements for its complex ways. As educators, we need to put emphasis on it and create rooms where our students could learn language fruitfully.
I have a research about Monolingualism, bilingualism and multilingualism in Kurdish speech communities, causes and consequences, so I have to prepare a questionnaire form and I need some questions about cognitive ability of being bilingual and multilingual. Thanks for your help!
Whereas there are many academics and researches on the lack of language proficiency towards teaching the Deaf learners, I would like to know if there has been anything said about the good use command of sign language and its impact on Deaf learners' academic achievements.
Deaf bilingualism and its impact on the development of language and academic achievement of Deaf learners. These will help me to understand the correlation between lack of language proficiency and the adequate knowledge by the teachers of the Deaf and HH.
“There is no insertions of just bound morpheme from other language" De Houwer (1990).
Redlinger and Park (1980) report instances of morphological mixing by German/English bilingual 'pfeifting' = whistling.
Grateful for tips on published official estimates, research papers, etc. which attempt to estimate what proportion of the world's bilinguals are mono-literate. Many thanks if anyone has anything.
Is anyone researching L1/L2 writing explicitly? In particular among bilingual children in primary and secondary schools who learned the second language after 3 years of age? Thanks a million for your thoughts or advice on futher links.
Where i get information about bilingual advocacy for ethnic minority elders? Especially the funding aspect?
I have been looking for a meta-analysis on the predictors of childhood second language acquisition/proficiency (or simultaneous or sequential bilingualism, whatever you want to call it), and haven't really found anything. Does anyone know of such a meta-analysis?
I am doing a research on artificial (non-native) bilingualism, i.e. when a child is brought up a foreign language in a monolingual family environment, providing the language taught is not a mother tongue of any of the parents.
I would like to apply a sociolinguistic model in my research, such as the model of horizontal and vertical multilingualism, the model of social networks, or the model of ethnolinguistic vitality. The problem is that within this kind of bilingualism, it is difficult to determine sociological variables such as the number of speakers, the territory where it is used, the institutional support and so on.
Is it possible to apply any of these sociolinguistic models to this type of bilingualism? What kind of approach would be appropriate to study artificial bilingualism?
Can an individual have more ‘natural talent’ to learn only a certain second language or type of languages, yet being unable to learn others? Besides motivation, identification and/or exposure what other factors may enhance or hinder foreign language learning success?
As I would like to use the arriving responses for a study, please specify if you agree your response to be used anonymously or with your name in it. Thank you very much!
In my research, I aim to explore the use of languages in the bilingual classroom. As educators must arranged differently the two languages in the curriculum, it is important to ask, How do teachers use languages in dual language school in California ?
If strictly separated or by using the languages flexibly, how does this language arrangement is interrelated to a educators’ vision of bilingualism? (related in what the educators want to emphasize)
As Ofelia Garcia says “As we have affirmed throughout this book, the changes brought about by modern-day globalization and technology have changed our conceptualizations of bilingualism, from the linear types of the past, to the more recursive and dynamic types of the present. And yet linear bilingual education types continue to exist alongside more dynamic types, sometimes even in the same school. No one type is better than the other. The advantages of one type over the other are always related to the lens through which one looks and the goals, aspirations, and wishes of parents and children, as well as the educational resources that are available.”p.135
Investigating caregiver emotional reaction to patients, I will use questionnaires validated in english.
One part of my sample will be french canadians, who use to be bilingual with the english and must in fact be to fill in the english questionnaires.
How to evaluate this bilingualism? Is it ok to rely on what the caregiver says, or should we "test" the bilingualism? In this case, which tool would you advise?
Thanks a lot for your answers
I find this project very interesting. I was wandering if you had an article about the project, or even an article dealing with some of the topics in your book from 2008. I am a Swedish researcher working in FRance, and I work on child bilingualism and child second language acquisition
Thank you very much in advance
I am currently wrapping up a chapter on 'Working memory as language aptitude: the Phonological/Executive Model', in which I develop the argument based on previous research that phonological WM (PWM) is a language acquisition device that subserves L2 knowledge of vocabulary, formulaic sequences (formula), and morpho-syntactic constructions; while executive WM is a language processing device that regulates and coordinates attentional resources during L2 comprehension and production activities (esp. online and offline processes during the four sub-skills of L2 listening, speaking, reading, and writing) (more can be seen in Wen, 2015, 2016)..
Meanwhile, I also argue that it is better to implement separate WM span tasks for PWM and EWM, such that, the simple (storage-only) version of memory span tasks (e.g., the digit span, nonword span etc.), while complex (storage plus processing) span tasks (e.g., reading span task, operation span task...) should be used to measure EWM (Wen, 2012 & 2014).
These are old stuff, I am also arguing that future EWM tests should focus on more fine-grained (secondary) mechanisms and executive functions of WM. In this case, following Miyake & Friedman (2012), EWM can be demarcated into information updating, task switching, and inhibitory control. I wonder, if anyone can give me more insights, if we want to adopt well-established tasks to measure each of these executive functions in a second language/bilingualism contexts. In other words, what might be the most well-established tasks? The recent paper by Indrarathne & Kormos (2018) has provided a nice reference and a good example. Still, I wish to check if there are other key references that I can refer to (esp from cognitive psychology or psycholinguistics). For now, I am arguing for adopting the 'Running memory span' task (Bunting et al., 2006) or the 'Keep track task' for measuring updating; Task switching numbers (Linck et al., 2013) or the 'Plus minus task' for measuring task switching; Antisacade or the Stroop task for measuring inhibitory control. How would these sound (advantages and disadvantages?).
Shall be very grateful if anyone can offer me some insights or refer me to some key references (I've got some in my own repertoire of references provided in other projects, which is available for all to download), but still wish to hear more for my consideration.
Thanks in advance for your input!
Anyone could help me with bibliography on multiple inteligence assesment in foreign language education? I am wirting my dissertation and I don´t seem to be able to find much information about it. Thanks a lot.
I have a diglossic situation, in which the main different between L and H seems to be in the realm of grammar (also vocabulary, but less so). Can you recommend any specific literature on that, especially contemporary theories? I have already covered most of the general literature on diglossia.
My friend told me that she had to read such study during her masters degree, but she can not recall the name and author. Something about bilinguality and bipolarity, how brain changes when using two and more languges. I want to find it because of personal interest. I speak several languages and I want to learn more about this topic. I tried to find something, but I found only things which relate more to psychiatry and treatment of mental diseases and disorders. What study could it be?
In neuroscientific research there seems to be no uniform distinction between early language acquisition versus late language learning. Operationally, individuals exposed to two languages within the initial three to six (or seven) years of life are referred to as early (or simultaneous) bilinguals. Individuals exposed to L2 after ages three to six/seven are classified as late (or sequential) bilinguals (e.g., Berens et al. 2013; Hull & Vaid 2007; Kovelman et al. 2008). The lack of uniformity in distinguishing between early and late bilingualism makes it quite challenging to make generalization across studies, especially in the clinical context.
Based on functional and structural neurolinguistic studies on brain development, when do you think the cutoff for early and late should be?
I realize that language acquisition is fluid and different language aspects mature at a different point (e.g., phonology versus syntax). The purpose of introducing the cutoff would be to (1) analyze existing clinical studies, (2) introduce more uniformity in the bilingual terminology in future clinical neuroscientific studies.
I am wondering whether it is possible to come up with a VERY simplified (yet reasonable) classification of the world's languages based on linguistic distance. Such a classification would be helpful for non-linguistic researchers who conduct studies on clinical bi- and multilingual populations. Currently, linguistic distance is typically not accounted for in such studies.
Since most clinical neuroscientific research has beed conducted on European languages, I was thinking of a 3 step distance: (1) close, (2) moderate and (4) distant using German as an example. Here is a sample description for a non-linguist researcher:
"There are a few major language families in the world, including, e.g., the Indo-European language family (the largest, about 50% of the world's languages) and the Austronesian (about 5%). For example, German and Tongan are linguistically distant because they belong to separate major language families. German and Spanish are moderately close. They both belong to the Indo-European language family but they have separate sub-branches of language families: German is a Germanic language and Spanish is a Romance language. Finally, German and English are close because they are both Indo-European and they both belong to the Germanic family."
The description is merely a draft and I realize that it has numerous oversimplifications (which may not seem acceptable). Yet, I am posting it here and I am kindly asking for your feedback.
Alternatively, perhaps there is an existing source that is readily available and non-linguist friendly.
Hi, my question is regarding mixed anova.
Basically, I would like to find out if language ability (bilingualism, multilingualism) and physical activity (low, moderate, high) affects flanker task reaction times (incongruent, congruent).
My IVs are Language ability and PA
My DV is Flanker task reaction time
Am I right to think that:
1) a 2x2x3 mixed ANOVA (flanker rt x language ability x pa - with flanker as within subjects and language ability and pa as between subjects) is appropriate ?
I think my confusion stems from reading assumption #2 "Your within-subjects factor (i.e., within-subjects independent variable) should consist of at least two categorical, "related groups" or "matched pairs" from
Basically, I'm unsure if my flanker reaction times are categorical although I do get congruent and incongruent scores from the participants.
2) since I have 2 between subjects and one within, is the mixed anova appropriate? My independent variables are BOTH between subjects and the dependent variable is within subject.
2a) Or, would it be more appropriate to run a separate independent t-test with language group (bilingual and multilingual) and flanker task reaction times (incongruent and congruent) AND a separate one-way ANOVA with pa group (low, moderate, high) and flanker task rts?
Any help is much appreciated and thank you so much in advance!
Dear all, since there is not that much information about bilingualism and childhood aphasia in the german literature, I hope you can give me some more information. This is for a 19 year old girl who suffered a stroke at the age of eleven and who has to learn English.
Generally, Poetry is the expression of feelings. while expressing feelings, is it necessary to experience and express it through prosody? what about free verse?
I am working on color categorization and terminology with bilingual speakers. The two languages follow different paths of categorization, and the system that each language uses overlaps in individual speech. I was wondering whether there was any other study concerning a similar topic. Thanks!
Reports claiming cognitive activity helps delay the onset of dementia are fairly widespread. e.g. “elderly persons who did crossword puzzles four days a week (four activity-days) had a risk of dementia that was 47 percent lower than that among subjects who did puzzles once a week.” [1st link below]
One such report focuses specifically on bilingualism, e.g. the New Scientist (6 November 2013 ) magazine stated, under the heading “Learn another language to delay three dementias” that “dementia symptoms appeared in some 650 people who visited the NIMSH over six years. About half spoke at least two languages. This group’s symptoms started on average four and a half years later than those in people who were monolingual.” Alladi S, Bak TH, Duggirala V, Surampudi B, Shailaja M, Shukla AK, Chaudhuri JD, Kaul S (2013). Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology 81 (22):1938-1944. 
And more recently, it's being suggested that learning a natural language, even late in life, can be beneficial, primarily through the process of switching between languages (multilingualism is reportedly no more beneficial than bilingualism): “Experts in bilingualism will examine how learning a second language at any age not only imparts knowledge and cultural understanding, but also improves thinking skills and mental agility.” 
THE QUESTION: Mathematics is a formal (if largely unspoken) language. Is it reasonable to expect that the cognitive challenge of learning advanced mathematics - even without the interpersonal contact of verbal exchange - might also be beneficial to anything like the same degree as learning a second natural language, late in life?
I am speaking of the place right before one can actually hear and translate that language, to be able to speak to others in that language effectively in a conversation,
Im looking for information related to the effects of age in the acquisition of a second language and more specifically the consolidation and progress of reading comprehension. The information can be in English, Spanish or French. Thanks
We are writing a systematic lit rev on bilingualism, dementia and music. Any suggestion from any of the three areas would help.
I am exploring on how to overcome barriers when people learn a second language in monolingual contexts. I am specially interested on cultural barriers.
Could you please recommend bibliography on second language acquisition in monolingual contexts?
I am a bilingual professional working as an assistant psychologist in a memory service. I have found several research articles about administering the Boston Naming Test to bilingual patients, but none about bilingual professionals administering it.
Thanks for your help,
Bilingualism has been shown to delay onset of AD. Is there any relevant research in Chinese context?
Thank you !
I came across this article "The Superior Social Skills of Bilinguals" in the New York Times. From your experience, does this conclusion ring true to you? What do you think about it? Here's the link.
Although I can find everywhere on the internet that most people in the world are bilinguals (always citing Grosjean), I cannot find world percentages, only European percentages.
Where should I look for it? Can you help me?
Bilinguals have been shown to perform better in a vast pallet of tasks hinting at having a better developed and more effective executive control network.
The advantages range from superior inhibition of irrelevant information, enhanced decision making to faster problem solving and shifting between mental sets and even improved creativity.
Because everything in the brain is connected and for bilinguals has been shown that they can compensate and use some are differently or more efficiently (less activation-better performance), we would like to know if this extends to the field of salience perception. ??
Typically, the area investigated and involved in salience guided attention is posterior parietal cortex (PPC). LEFT is critically involved in attention for low-salience stimuli in the presence of highly salient distractors and the RIGHT one is involved in attending to more salient stimuli.
We would really appreciate any suggestion on how an experimental paradigm could be created using TMS or tDCS to test whether bilinguals are better (faster, more accurate) at a global-local salience task.
Please do not hesitate to PM and ask any further questions! Thank You in advance and thanks for this lovely scientific community!
I am working with intonational bilingualism, but I am addressing the linguistic issue in a general way and answers from segmental phonology are welcome:
if on one hand I have a pair of synonymous (due to bilingualism), phonetically similar but phonologically distinct patterns that converge phonetically in a gradient way, creating a continuity of in-between forms without creating new phonological categories (gradent phonetic fudging), thus progressively (in time) eliminating their phonological distinction, and on the other hand I have another synonimous pair which creates a third intermediate fusion-form but also a fusion-category associated to it (phonological discrete fudging), am I allowed to say that (or is there a possible way to assess, and in this case, are there studies assessing whether) the first process is a more "below the level of awareness" than the second one (and therefore, is more bound to result in permanent change)?
Probably the very definition of phonological implies a "more" conscious process, but I mean specific self-awareness tasks, which in intonation may be of the kind "have you said it with an accent?" giving clearly polarized answers in some cases and many "I don't know"s or "sort of"s in others.
I'm looking for research on how Twitter users negotiate which language to use when tweeting. Does their choice of language depend on the topic of the tweet? Does it depend on their audience?
How can the potential of a bilingual home environment can be systematically utilized towards helping young children to be successful blinguals and biliterates?
If one identifies himself/herself with a certain culture, lifestyle, ethnic group through one's native language, how is this correlation represented in natural bilinguals (those who acquired two languages as native)? What culture and more generally what 'type of rationality' (worldview) might they identify themselves with?
Proceeding from the problem of language and identity, the next step seems to be to ask what kind of identity bilingualism and multilingualism suggest.
I am working on emotional synonymous words of Odia language and Santali Language (written in English & the original script such as Odia- devangiri and Santali - Ol-Chiki). All words are chosen from some reputed dictionaries of both languages (Odia & Santali). Can I use these words in my study by using divided visual field test? For this study I have planned to develop a software.
I am doing research on knowledge sharing and recently I got interested in sociolinguistics. I am struggling with differentiating between two possible perspectives (in my view) on language. One perspective on language can be perceiving it as a social factor, which can influence society in number of ways. This is more like a general way to conceptualize language where we do not focus on anything specific. Another perspective is to focus on language in action that is language use for example code switching, accommodation etc. First one seems to be more static view of language and second one is more dynamic. .
I would be very thankful if someone sheds light on this. Is there any way to explain this difference in proper words? Moreover what would be useful terms representing these so called perspectives. It would be also helpful if someone can refer me to relevant paper(s), which have in any way talked about this.
Hi, I am working on bilingualism with indigenous people (Santhali). Need a standardized questionnaire on bilingualism which will used in India. Can any one send me?
Also, what is the role of the psychological condition?
Bilingual children living in countries other than their homeland tend to grow a shame and embarrassed of their own cultural and traditional background.
Does anybody knows any strict criteria for bilingualism or scale which I could use in order to assess who is bilingual? I need some tool that does not assess some particular language fluency with the use of language proficiency test.
I know only one which is close to what I am looking for - Bilingual Dominance Scale, but it puts emphasis on dominance - so the comparison between two languages. I do not want to compare these two but try to assess it somehow separately - without getting into the assessment with use of language tests.
I would be grateful for any help!
Code-switching  can be defined as the alternation between languages or dialects in speaking or writing in a grammatically overall consistent manner. It usually appears in 3 types, that is extrasentential, intrasentential or intraword.
Although it was previously considered as a lower level use of language, lately it is scholarly regarded a normal, natural or even beneficial phenomenon in bilingual or multilingual environments and societies, especially in education and language teaching. There are also those who advocate that not only should it be used as a strategy  but also taught as a goal, for example a communicative skill or competence .
Please share with us your experience with or opinion on or interesting references to the use of code-switching in education.
[ Featured references:
4. http://www.psych.mcgill.ca/perpg/fac/genesee/A%20Short%20Guide%20to%20Raising%20Children%20Bilingually.pdf (Adel)
By logographic language I mean similar to chinese or japanese, which aren't alphabets.
If not artificial, I would appreciate some suggestions concerning constructed logographic languages.
I am working on a research paper on cross-language effects in bimodal bilinguals, predominantly how this affects realization of overt subject pronouns when one of these languages has the null subject parameter. Does anyone have recommendations on this matter? Also, if I were to test these effects, would a grammaticality judgment task be appropriate?
Just 2 days ago there was a discussion about code-switching skills and strategies in healthy controls; so I wanted to add an addendum to that. What is code-switching and mixing in people with stroke?
I am designed an experiment in which I have a plan to use words (emotional and neutral) and emotion face to make judgements for a lateral study. Can anyone suggest me how I could do the test?
Bilinguals can be dyslexic in one language but not the other. Can bilingualism be the key to eliminating dyslexia or is it still too difficult for them to learn another language?
Many of us academicians are multilingual. We want our published ideas given as much worldwide diffusion as possible. Yet some of the highest ranked scholarly journals prohibit publication of articles in other languages and journals. Should we oppose this prohibition? How can we make our opposition known?
Wondering if there are any documented patterns of language preferences by a child who is equally exposed to two or more languages, while learning to speak. In other words, if children are naturally equipped to learn any language, do they prefer an easier one, when given an equal choice?
I need a detailed parental report of the child's age and context of acquisition, an estimation of proficiency and the frequence/intensity of L2 daily use. Thanks for sharing your research tool.
Behavioral studies have demonstrated a benefical effect of bilingualism on executive control in children's development but also in adulthood and aging population. I'm interested in study which brain mechanisms, which plastic changes in early cerebral maturation permit this enhancement of linguistic and cognitive control.
There is now a large body of evidence that support the role of sensory and motor systems in semantic representation and processing. However, I've never heard about such evidence for bilingual's second language. Do you know of any paradigm that test L2 embodiment?
Multilingualism, multiculturalism and cognitive psychology.