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when i put the animals in the hot plate with a temp. of 55c animals didnoh pear the temp and give rabid respons is that normal or i have to decrease the temp.?
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Thank you
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When I use hot plate device the center of the triangular glass box is higher than that at the edges and when rats were put in the center in give a rabid response and when placed in the edges it give very slow response what is the best way to over com this problem ?
And can I put the animal directly on the hot plate without the base of the glass box ?
And when the rat try to climb the wall of the box it was measured as positive response or not ?
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The type of hot-plate that I used (for mice) in 1990-2010... was always cooler at the edges. We used a temperature probe to test the temperature across the whole surface of the hotplate: it was very even within a certain radius of the centre, so we marked the perimeter with permanent marker pen, and found a glass cylinder with a slightly smaller diameter than this, that was too high for the mice to climb out of. When we needed to remove the animals off the hotplate quickly, we simply lifted the glass cylinder and gently 'swept' the animal off the hotplate, onto the bench or a suitable receptacle, prior to transfer back into their cage(s). We only scored a response by a hind foot, as they tended to rear up with their front paws, against any vertical surfaces, but we were not allowed to leave them on the hotplate for longer than 30 seconds, so tended to record ≥25" or ≥28", rather than risk exceeding the Home Office Regulations that were in force at that time.
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We are currently using the accelerating rotarod test to assess vestibulomotor functioning following experimental brain injury in rats. In this regard, we have encountered that it can be very difficult to motivate animals to run on the rotarod: Some animals jump off the rod after a few seconds, whereas others seem to develop a strategy where they deliberately ‘fall’ off the rod in a more or less convincing manner after a relatively short time interval (e.g. 30 seconds). In both cases the performance/score does not appear to reflect the true vestibulomotor functioning of animals, and the performance of some animals vary significantly from trial to trial.
In order to establish a baseline performance level we have been giving animals 10 trials (5 days of 2 trials) before injury. Subsequently animals have been tested on the rotarod for 7 days (2 trials per day) post-injury. We are using a commercially available rotarod from PanLab/Harvard Apparatus (fall height 21 cm, rod diameter 60 mm, acceleration 4-40 rpm over 2 minutes).
If anyone has had similar experiences and has any ideas or advice on how to increase motivation in the rotarod test, it will be highly appreciated.
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Hi Jens, this might not be relevant to you anymore, but maybe someone else can benefit from my experience.
I have achieved very good results with my rats by using a punishment. If the rats jump off, I will spray a good amount of water on them with a simple spray bottle. One day before experiment I have habituated them to the set up and the punishment until they were staying on the rod at the lowest speed for one minutes for 3 times in a row. From the first day of experiment they were cooperative and most of the times really falling rather than jumping off.
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I am doing a baseline + 2 rounds of behavioural testing (NOR + NLR) - so total 3 rounds of testing, all 1 week apart in male SD rats. Is it necessary to habituate them before every test, or is habituating them once prior to baseline testing sufficient?
Also, do rats get bored if they perform too many tests in a short period of time? If so, how do you overcome this?
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Dear Shi Li If you are testing the rats on a skillful task such as reaching and grasping, it is wiser to allow them to be in the testing chamber or arena for few minutes before you conduct the data collection. If the task is as stereotypical as walking overground, you may get away with habituating them once in the starting of the study.
Yes, rats do get bored if engaged in a same task for longer period, especially if the task is award based and they are failing again and again in getting the reward. They will just stop performing and shun themselves. In our lab, we give a break of few minutes after waiting them to perform for max 10 minutes and put the rats back in their cage. They generally perform second testing.
Hope that helped.
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Is there a free software for virtual reality morris water maze tests for humans? Also, are there open arm or other tests in VR format?
Thanks!
Best,
Jan
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Nice Dear Michael Uebel
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Hi,
I am aware of the issues and pitfalls of an online behavioral testing - i.e. collecting data in a cognitive experimental (visual search) task throughout the internet. Yet, I decided to do a little test:
I want to assess the same visual search task in a controlled lab setting and using an online platform. I am not planning to do a repeated measures setting.
In the lab setting, around 30 participants will do (based on my previous experiments).
Here's the big question: If I want to validate the online method how many participants do I need online? Shall I go with the same sample size or should I aim for as many respondents as possible?
Thanks in advance!
Andras
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I agree. But checking for variations should be.
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Anyone working on behavioral neurology or using mouse models for behavioral testing, could you please share the valid detailed protocols regarding below mentioned tests;
1) Grip Strength
2)Using Treadmill to measure endurance and speed
3) Treadmill exercise protocol
4) Rota Rod
Thank you
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Sorry, I missed the rest of the list! For rotarod, see Rustay et al., PNAS 2003, 100(5):2917-2922.
www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0437273100
These are also posted in Mouse Phenome Database.
As @Melinda Peters mentions, the parameters used for rotarod matter a lot, and so does the apparatus itself. This paper explored both accelerated and fixed speed rotarod procedures, in the context of ethanol intoxication vs. baseline and genetic strain differences, another important "parameter." We have found that the diameter of the rotarod matters a lot, and for mice, you can eliminate most of the "riding" behavior if you use a dowel size of 6.5 cm diameter covered with a uniform finish of 320 grit wet-dry sandpaper, with a carefully matched seam, because if the mouse can catch a toe in it, it will ride around and around, which delays latency to fall.
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Hello,
I have been searching through web to find step by step protocol to perform in vitro whole blood stimulation with LPS (or any other mitogen) using mouse blood.
I do see a few papers describing this method but I was wondering if I could find a step-by-step protocol. I also see many protocols using human blood but I am not sure if it's okay to just follow those protocol, probably changing the LPS dose and incubation time.
The reason I am planning to do in vitro stimulation rather than in vivo is that I want to measure immune function of mice before I do behavioral testing and does not want to prime mice for stress.
Thank you in advance for your help,
Won
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Like Shen-An Hwang suggested, you could use the human blood protocols (one linked below). 10-100 ng/mL is usually more than sufficient. TNF levels are highest at around 6 hours and then tend to go down while other cytokines go up until 24 hours. Whenever we did in vivo LPS assays, we measured cytokines at 6 hours post LPS injection.
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It has been suggested that AD is more common in human female population and disease progression is more aggressive in female 3xTg mouse model. However 3xTg males seem to be used quite often in studies as well.
I'm planning to do some behavioral tests on 3xTg mice, there are reports on hyperactivity in aged females, and that estrus cycling may confound assessment of disease-related behavioral dysfunction. I'm not sure if there are any other special concerns with this model regarding the choice of gender.
Also Jax warned that male 3xTg transgenic mice may not exhibit the phenotypic traits originally described, thus I might have to use females since I’m going to purchase from Jax.
Does anyone have experience with this model? How are the females doing in behavioral tests and what are the concerns?
Thanks.
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ovariectomized females to eliminate the cycle effect?
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Can someone please explain why it's so common in the literature using the Barnes Maze to have a 15-minute intertrial interval? Protocols for other methods of measuring spatial memory have significantly lower ITIs but for most of the Barnes literature, 15-minute ITIs are always common. 
I'm just wondering if I could run Barnes Maze with mice (40 hole set up) and use a shorter ITI and it still be ok in terms of publishing? 
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Hi Stephen,
We usually run Barnes maze with mice (20 hole set up) (Basaure et al., 2016; Peris-Sampedro et al., 2015). Note that the number of holes will depend on the diameter of the maze you use. During the training period, our mice are subjected to a daily session of two trials (180 s/trial) with an inter-trial interval (ITI) of 60 min for 5 consecutive days. We typically evaluate retention of the task by a probe trial performed 24 h after the last training session, consisting of a 120-s free exploration session without the escape box. Several authors have inquired about the effects of the training duration and/or the ITI length on acquiring hippocampus-dependent taks. The less massive learning (i.e., longer ITI), the better scores you will obtain from the retention analysis. 
I hope I've been helpful,
Fiona
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Trying to get zebrafish prepped for microct.  We want to have the fish suspended in 25% Lugol Solution while they're still alive in order for the solution to better penetrate.  I can't find any protocols on how long to incubate the fish for or at what concentration when fish are still alive.  I want to induce minimal stress.  Thought about adding a small amount of Tricaine to the solution during the process.  The fish will be fixed afterwards in 95% EtOH.  Protocols or ideas anyone?
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Yikes !!! This is going to be hell on the fish !!!  See:
"Because it contains free iodine, Lugol's solution at 2% or 5% concentration without dilution is irritating and destructive to mucosa, such as the lining of the esophagus and stomach."
Do you have an animal ethics approval for this procedure !!!!
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Hello,
I am looking for software to conduct behavioral experiments. I plan to use auditory stimuli and gather responses via a touch-screen Windows computer. I have some experiance in programming (ANSI C, Java, Pearl, Ruby). I am looking for software that is well-documented (user tutorials, well-explained scripting language, helpful support community) that handles touch screen input with ease. Any suggestions?
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Dear Basinski:
The best sofware for psychology experiments is MediaLab (ver 2016), but it cost  475$.
I have used a free software like NeoBook (out of print, but you can find it by Internet), very easy to use. If you know programming, with only some orders of VisualBasic it can shows any sound and image or video you want, and to register the response with keys, mouse or touchscreen, including measurement in miliseconds, and save the data in a text file.
Best wishes,
Luis Valero
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I am planning to create a mouse AD infusion model by introcerebroventricularly injecting aggregated Abeta42. I have been unable to find information on the differences between aggregating Abeta42 for 3, 5, or 7 days. What is the minimum number of days during which I can aggregate Abeta so that the Abeta injected mice show AD behavioral characteristics? Thank you for your help.
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Dear Julia, 
check this out: 
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I am currently researching a book on stalking. It is primarily based on my own experience as a case study. The UK law changed recently making stalking a criminal offence, however it is apparent that not all police authorities recognise stalking as a problem outside of domestic violence and this presents a major problem for mental health workers who are one of the most likely professions to be experience this very distressing and anti social behaviour. I am looking for contemporary literature/empirical data ideally from the UK on non-domestic violence related stalking.
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Thank you. I have already found one of the articles before, but these have been really helpful.
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I know that mice are disqualified if they don't interact for at least 30 seconds during the test. I am wondering if there is literature on rats and what is considered too little interaction? 
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I would not exclude animals based on an absolute criterion. There are many factors that can affect medium time of interaction as mentioned before, also light, odors..
Exclusion of animals should only be done if they are outside a range of at least 2 standard deviations.
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I am interested in doing a subchronic drug paradigm and would like to look at protein levels.  How long after the last drug treatment is given should I sacrifice the animals and look at protein levels?
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Okay, thanks for your help!  I am looking at changes in the neuronal calcium sensor 1 and D2 dopamine receptors after a two hour cocaine self administration session
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Dear all - Are you aware of any study in which authors have tested the same mice in different behavioral set ups? More specifically, I'm interested in studies in which mice were tested for anxiety-, depression-like behaviors followed by ethanol intake or conditioned-place preference experiments?
Thanks in advance for your input and very best regards
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Thanks a lot  Beatrice
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I want to test 2 ( High Crowding * Low Crowding) * 2 (Deception* Not Deception) on emotions of consumers (experimental survey study design). I have four vignettes representing (Crowding and Deception, Crowding Non-Deception, Non-Crowding and Deception, Non-Crowding No Deception) vignettes. If I give one vignette for one respondent rather than all, is it ok...
If I want to test all four from one respondent how should I include all four vignette to test emotions of respondents. What is the way that I should include them to test dependent variable. Appreciate early help
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Hi,
you need to have four groups of participants. Each group receives 1 vignette. You have to have in each group a minimu of 25 people, but better 30+. There is a special software to find out the optimal sample size (http://www.gpower.hhu.de/en.html). It is free to use, but you have to know which analysis you are going to apply (probably ANOVA F-Test, group comparison, 4 groups).
You are not allowed to give to each person two or more vignettes - the results of the second (thrid, fourth) answer might be biased through their previous answer and the overall understanding on what is your research about. Moreover, the induced emotions might change or "overlap".
Remeber, that all your vignettes should be almost identical, apart of the manipulation (1-2 words). This is the only way to exclude all other influencing factors! Do not forget to test for confouning variables like age, current emotional state, and so on.
It is also recommendable to make a pretest of your vignettes on a small sample of participants. If you test for crowding/deception, you can do it with students as well as your main study. You are not able to merge the rpetest and the test, however, since other factors (time of the day, weather, light) might have influence on the answers of participants.
Regards,
Eugene
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Although the importance of these external and internal factors have been shown in the dropout decision of online learners, external factors are the factors which cannot be controlled by the instructor or the program provider (Packham et al., 2004).
As the comparison between online and conventional teaching methods has attracted the attention of previous research, I wish to explore the difference in experience of online dropout and completer, in terms of motivation, satisfaction and isolation, as an attempt to assist online course administrator reconstruct their online courses, and provide information and directions for further studies.
 
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Hi Khandoker....
Thank you a lot for your sharing. 
Actually, I'm doing a Master thesis with the topic online education. These information and articles are very helpful for me to find the right direction for my thesis. 
May I ask if you are working or doing researchs in this field?
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What are the most effective but easiest parameters for measuring the stress in non-ruminants?
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Hello,
corticosteroid administration triggers some physiological pathways. First, hyperglycemia: you can measure circulating glucose. It responds to corticosteroid administration after a short time but remains elevated even after corticosteroid clearance. Second, immune response: corticosteroid administration suppress immune function, especially when administered chronically. Thus, you can measure  circulating immune protein (complement system), lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. Also, leukocyte related immune functions could be assayed.
They are the main effects of corticosteroid administration. But, corticosteroid administration also can reduce bone formation (long term osteoporosis),
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I am looking for the proper test to assess cognition (non social) in juvenile mice (between 25 and 30 post-natal days).
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If it exists, which is a good behavioral parameter, even indirect, to do this?
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Hi Analisa,
yes, as Vittorio Porciatti wrote, there is a reliable way to do that. It's the Westheimer paradigm (no "r" in Westheimer), and the field size that is measured by it is called the "perceptive field size".Oehler (1985) has even used it with monkeys, and the seminal paper is by Lothar Spillmann. There is a chapter in my review on peripheral vision on it:
(or go to my website, ww.hans.strasburger.de)
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Hi!
We are conducting an experiment about the impact of physical exercise (running) on neurogenesis in the adult brain. We use a transgenic mice model and so far, we encountered some problems with the mice because they don't want to run...we have tried to attract them towards the running wheel with some food placed on the running wheel. However, this method didn't work so far. Therefore, I want to ask you whether you have any suggestion about what could we do in this situation.
Many thanks and I look forward to your help :)
Regards,
Daniela Ivan
SILS, Center for Neuroscience
University of Amsterdam
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I've seen some strains of mice be resistant to running in a wheel, although generally C57's will start running within minutes. I assume the running wheels you have are specific for mice? The individual rungs of the wheel are spaced closer together for mice than for rats, so getting a mouse to run on a wheel made for rats could be difficult as they'd likely have their feet constantly falling through and in between the rungs. Are these wheels part of a connected system that measures time/speed/distance? If the wheel could be introduced in their homecage, that could facilitate running. If it can't, could the mice be housed in the running wheel cage and thus constantly exposed to the wheel, increasing the chance they may check it out and use it?
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I am currently experimenting with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and radial arm maze (RAM) to test the functionality of the hippocampus after the injection of neurotoxic chemicals such as kanic acid. I test with the EPM on the first day and start habituating for RAM the next day. I habituate the rats for 3 days then start recording. My professor was concerned that the EPM may have an interference effect on the RAM. I wasn't able to find references on it either. Are there possibilities that the experiences on the EPM prior to the RAM affects the performances of the rats on the RAM?
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I'm sorry. I completely disagree with the above statement. EPM is supposed to be an intrinsic measure of anxiety, it is nothing like, for example, fear conditioning (in which case I would agree). But using a separate group for these measures can be a waste of the experimenter's time, the PIs money, and most importantly, animal lives which we should take pains to consider in our experimental design. Using a battery of behavioral tests is common practice for these reasons (check the literature), and with the right controls can be carried out effectively. 
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Specifically, there are two main types of settings for mice: 2mA, 2s and 0.3 mA, 5 s. What is the difference? Which is more sensitive? How Passive Avoidance test results may be different between out bread white mice and C57Bl/J mice?
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Please learn about the experience of other scholars who compared the features of behavioral tests in mice of different lines (as compared with rats). All the best.
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Hello everyone, I am trying to set up a "nondestructive testing lab" for casting metal. Please suggest any nondestructive testing equipment. If possible, then send me the supplier address.
Thank You.
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NDT methods can be roughly classified in two groups: surface techniques, which are used to identify surface and near surface defects such as cracks and surface porosity, and sub-surface techniques, that can be used to detect defects that lie under the material’s surface. In the first group, the most commonly used techniques are visual and optical testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing and electromagnetic testing. On the other hand, sub-surface techniques include radiography and ultrasonic testing among the most used.
Aside from the aforementioned techniques, which account for well over 90 per cent of the industrial NDT, there is a number of alternative methods each at different levels of technology readiness, such as thermography testing, process compensated resonance testing (PCRT), holography, shearography, alternating current field measurement (ACFM), and laser ultrasound.
A comprehensive description of the principles and applications of at least the classical NDT methods can be found in this reference: S. Ness, C. N. Sherlock, P. O. Moore, and P. McIntire. Nondestructive testing overview. American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 1996.
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I have performed some preliminary behaviour experiments and I would like to do some power calculations to determine how many more samples I'll need. I've been trying to use an online calculator which asks for mu1 and mu2 values but I'm not entirely sure what these are. Can anyone provide information on this?
Many thanks in advance,
Jilly.
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Jilly -
If you are comparing two means, with continuous data, it is more useful to find a confidence interval around the difference of those two estimated means. You could then see what sample size it takes to obtain a reasonable confidence interval. However, be careful of data quality if it looks like you need too many more observations. - Power analyses are good for learning more than just using a p-value. Many people just use a power analysis to decide on what test to use, but it is better to evaluate your results as shown by following the links attached.
Cheers - Jim 
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I would like to know whether environmental enrichment in a cage in the study of chronic toxicity affects the results of behavioral tests. Maybe you know the literature on this topic?
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Agnieszka,
In your case, environmental enrichment would be a confounding variable to your study.   Reynaldo suggests it will be a controlled variable and that might be true but there is no way to tell if it is equally beneficial to animals with damaged brains and animals with normal brains. 
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I would like to test the cognitive decline in a mutant mouse line. However, when I have run Morris Water Maze with using visible platform, it shows higher latency compared to the wild-type. It appears that they are not blind, but may have bad vision or other problems that may affect the latency. Are there any other behavioral tests I could use to determine that if they have memory loss?  
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Thanks for all great suggestions! I would determine if they have retinal pathology. I will test their olfactory function and then perform  smell-based memory test. Also I am planning to try fear conditioning with using auditory cue.  
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I am planning to conduct research on competitive traits and its effect on competitive states. I would appreciate if someone could recommend me some instrument to evaluate pessimistic trait and cognitive bias consequences. Thank you in advance
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Maybe, the prospect theory could be a useful input for cognitive bias. In Daniel Kahneman's book (Thinking, fast and slow) I found lots of experiments in which cognitive biases have been analyzed.
(I am sorry, maybe I have not answered to your question)
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We have been using the Morris Water Maze, but I was wondering if there are any more reliable experiments to test for deficits in ACC function in rats.
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I agree with Tumay, ACC has several different behavioural roles (most of what I'm familiar with is impulsivity) so your task would depend primarily on the function of most interest.
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There are many tools like Peabody Individual Achievement Test, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery to assess the school performance in children. However, none of these tests have normative data on Indian children. Hence, I am looking for a tool useful in a Indian setting.
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Tools used for assessing school performance in children aged 9-14 years
Looking for Dyslexia
Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals
(Subtests of) Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery—III
(Subtests of) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
Gray Oral Reading Test
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing
Test of Word Reading Efficiency
Rapid Automatized Naming Tasks
Peabody Individual Achievement Test
Test of Early Reading Ability
Looking for Dyscalculia
(Subtests of) Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery—III
Wide Range Achievement Test
Key Math Diagnostic Assessment
Test of Mathematical Abilities
(Subtests of) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
Looking for Dysgraphia
Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Drawing
Berry Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration
Looking for ADHD
Connors Rating Scale
Vanderbilt Assessment Scales
Barklay ADD Rating Scales
Looking for Executive Functioning / Information Processing Deficits
(Subtests of) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale- V
(Subtests of) Wechsler intelligence Scales for Children or Adults
Children’s Memory Scale
NEPSY Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment—II
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How do you check intellectual ability in laboratory animals using behavior tests, biochemical markers and the molecular mechanisms behind that (gene, protein levels)?
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Behavior test is the most robust, like Sandra Antonieta Acosta said. Radial arm water maze is very good, but taking time in the beginning.  Trying simple Y-maze or open-field will give some hints after that try complex ones like radial arm water maze
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Relating to behavioural assessment.
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Read through the literature on thigmotaxis.  If you run an open field test, sedate animals will exhibit decreased distance traveled compared to control.  Anxious animals will spend an increased amount of time near the edges of the walls compared to controls. 
Elevated plus maze has been highly regarded for measurement of the efficacy of anxiolytic compounds.  On an elevated plus maze, I would expect sedation to decrease total crossings (open or closed arms) whereas an anxiolytic effect would inicrease the proportion of open arm to closed arm entries.
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During the animal training behavior test like Eight arm radial maze, I used to wear gloves during animal training some of my friends suggest that don't use gloves, if you gloves the animal doesn't feel your body temperature and it will take time to get habituate animals and the glove's smell also will affect the behavior.
Please suggest me which is best way to train the animal with or without using gloves  
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Animals can feel your temperature even wearing gloves. Gloves are meant to protect you from the animals and also the animals from you. You should just use them. Your friends assume that accustoming to your body temperature will make the assay easier. Plus the whole body smells so much to them that the surface of your hands is just negligible. 
The best way to habituate the animals would be by handling (few minutes would be fine) every day, for few days, at the same time the assay will be performed. 
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As described in "Behavioral Tests After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Rat" (Ya Hua et Al. 2002). I cannot find a performance show of that test anywhere.
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When using the test validity, perhaps you may face this question: how can I be sure of my test validity? Yes , there are a number of casual methods to measure test validity like content validity, referee validity, external criteria test validity, discrimination test validity and factor analysis for testing validity. Some researchers use the internal consistency as a measure for test validity. In this way we measure the co relationship between the item response and the total score of its dimension and also the co relationship between this dimension and the total score of the test. As long as the correlation is positive and highly significant it says that it is valid score... What do you think?
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Here are my thoughts on this, validity is not something that can ever be proven. In the unified light that as outlined by Messick we have to treat validity as a unified construct. Thus we only see facets of validity as we examine data collected from the instrument. Kunn goes a step further and suggests that we can only provide evidence of validity which is developed over multiple studies and through continuously examining the instrument.
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How many tests?
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I also want an answer for the same question. Currently, I only know morris water maze method to test the working memory. Anyone know if there is any other options? thanks