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If the cost (e.g., time, money) of recruiting participants did not matter in conducting a behavioral study in psychology, is having a bigger sample size (e.g., 20 million people) better in terms of yielding significant results?
Another question that is relevant to this: is it possible that study A produces a significant effect size of d=.80 with 20 participants, but a replication study B produces a significant effect size of d=.01 with 20 million participants?
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I would like to add that a (very) large sample size does not guarantee that your results are valid. If you want to something about the whole population in general, but your sample does only contain, rich males between 20 and 30, you should expect a bias in your estimates, so that you may not generalize your finding. In that case also significance would be meaningless.
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Dear fellow researchers,
I am currently designing cognitive tasks for non-human animals, and would like to hear your opinion on the randomization of stimuli.
In a first approach, the animals will receive two distinct visual cues to execute a certain behavior. I would like to already shuffle these visual cues, even though this is only' a pre-training condition.
In the final experiment, the animals will receive 2 different auditory cues to execute this behavior, these cues will also be randomized.
I have worked with randomized stimuli before, and used the traditional Gellermann (1933) series, as well as semi-randomized orders of stimuli.
What are, in your opinion, the pro's and con's of these attempts? Do you have suggestions, maybe even other than these approaches?
Thanks in advance,
all the best,
Diandra
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Hello! you might want to check this free online block randomization with random block sizes app. With this randomization method you can ensure an even shuffle between visual cues. https://sigdaan.com/randomization/app/randomization-app#
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In consumer behaviour studies should we use Positivism or Post-Positivism paradigm?
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Positivism Vs interpretivism are polar extreme of quantitative Vs qualitative research methodology. Post-positivism is a refined method that acknowledges biases in whatever method that is being chosen and therefore more interpretive.
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Researchers in real estate behavior studies.
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Interesting premise... Is this for research into buying and subsequently completing on house purchases? Perhaps assess the likelihood of the purchase being completed as many fall at the last hurdle.
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I need the "ACRYLITE IR acrylic 11460" for the light/dark preference test
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Hi Nancy,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of materials.
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It is generally a given that it is practically inaccurate to find the mean for qualitative data, especially for biological research involving behavioral study. But is it truly wrong to do so?
and what are the implications of actually doing so to draw conclusions for a population?
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Hola, interesante pregunta Godwin , aunque parezca obvia y simple, creo que es casi existencial. La verdad que cuando la distribución no es normal o Poisson no sirve de nada la media. Entonces todo los test estadísticos mas utilizados a excepción de la pruebas no paramétricas como por ejemplo Kruskal Wallis, no servirían si tienen como supuesto básico la distribución normal. La media la inventó Gauss para contar las miles de estrellas del cielo, donde la la media era valida y con pequeños desvíos, es decir con distribución normal. En poblaciones de para sitos distribuidos en sus hospedadores nunca es normal su distribución por lo tanto no sería casi útil en estos casos.
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What is your role as a researcher in this crisis Corona Corvide 19? Your role could be, educating the community around you, the family and surrounding areas, scientific research, scientific studies, vaccine tests, treatment testing, preparing therapeutic chemicals, psychological studies, and social behavior studies.
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In this valuable discussion initiated by Prof. Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz, we hear very interesting things, such as:
  • @Bamidele Johnson Alegbeleye: Unveiling the secrets of COVID-19 through research study dissemination...
  • Ayman S. Al-Hussaini: We have to learn to live with Covid-19 ...
  • Francisco Javier Gala: You have to learn to live with Covid and treat your patients better and better ..
  • Hermann Gruenwald: The governments looked for researchers for answers...and the researchers answer.....it depends.
  • Liviu Popa-Simil
    : A scientist in US can DO NOTHING to stop or prevent incidents of Covid-19, because of more than 40 years of failed but highly praised education,
Especially that I personally lost many of my friends and relatives, I am afraid that it will be a very long story.
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Dear researchers in marketing and consumer behavior studies,
I am in middle of a dilemma, i must choose my dissertation title but I don't know in which field should I work?
personally I prefer to work on green marketing and green purchase, green consume, but I have a suggestion from an industry to work on their branding status in their industry.
between these subjects I want to know which subjects are more trended now.
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I think that green branding is an interesting topic, as many directions are still not explored. Also, the customization of the green brands at the level of some industries is a necessary and still unexplored approach.
Please find my latest article on this topic:
Good luck.
Regards.
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Starting in March, I will be working on a behavioural study concerning two elderly female Asian Elephants in a zoo enclosure. My research question is to study their behaviour and to decrease the stereotypic behaviour that they show. Because I am still in the preface, I wish to dig as deep in other publications as possible. What are publications I should definitely read? Not just on elephant behaviour, but also on the methods of behavioural studies - since I have not done this for a longer time, so there might be a good article on that as well. Thanks in advance!
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Hello again, Annet,
Eduardo's input reminded me of another (relatively recent -- 2013) paper that I came across in the 'Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science' which should complement the "Asian Elephant Self-Recognition" paper by Plotnick et al. *2006); see attached::
Kathy Carlstead , Joy A. Mench , Cheryl Meehan & Janine L. Brown (2013) An Epidemiological Approach to Welfare Research in Zoos: The Elephant Welfare Project, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 16:4, 319-337.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827915
Cheers,
Ian
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I conducted a small behavioral study on the genetics of alcohol behaviors in mice. The results are mostly negative and fairly low impact. It would help my case for tenure if I could get this published somewhere. I would prefer that the journal be searchable on Pubmed, but it's not a requirement. I don't mind if the impact factor approaches zero. Any suggestions for a journal?
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you might want to check out this tool:
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I'm an aquatic ecologist making a first foray into behavioral studies. I've conducted a fish behavior study where a fish was placed in the center of a tank divided into 4 quadrants (left side, center left, center right, right side) and placed two different stimuli were placed in the left and right quadrants. I'm recording the time fish spend in various portions of the tank before and after opportunities to learn about the stimuli. One stimuli is presented as being negative or positive while the other remains neutral. I'd like to compare change in time allocated to each compartment of the tank before and after repeated learning opportunities. I know that time allocations are not completely independent (i.e. if the fish wants to move from quadrant left to quadrant right, it must pass through the center quadrants; spending more time in one quadrant inherently requires the fish to spend less time in other quadrants), but I am not sure how to handle these challenges in the analysis. Any suggestions are appreciated.
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Hi Avery,
I'm attaching a few papers on conditioning and tracking in zebrafish that I think will help you with your experimental design and analysis.
  • Braubach et al. use a similar tank design as you describe
  • Mathur et al. describe a quick, efficient place preference assay for fish
  • Stewart et al. demonstrate the importance of also tracking depth
Are you using olfactory or visual stimuli? If you're using odorants, I suggest doing control trials using dyes to determine whether your odorants are diffusing across your 4 quadrants. That may influence the fishes' preferences.
Hope this helps!
Cheers,
Max
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I am conducting a study of the trajectory of livestock of extensive breeding, would it be correct to consider at least one record per hour?
I appreciate some reference.
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Jessica; Each animal has a home range including areas that are regularly visited and other areas that are infrequently visited. If each location reading is plotted in order, a cloud of points will quickly develop with a few, more distant ones. Over some period of time the extent of the cloud will stop growing. Beyond that point you will continue gathering data without learning any more about the animal's home range.
You can make a graph with the X-axis being sample number and the Y-axis being home range area. The curve will draw to an asymptote when you have thoroughly sampled the area. Hope that gets you started, Jim Des Lauriers
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When considering determinants for micropolitical behaviour, I am particulary interested in the dependence on qualification and competence when using micropolitical strategies. As part of my research, I would like to find out how and why people tend to which micropolitical strategies depending on their qualifications and skills. Therefore I would like to ask for information regarding the current scientific state of research on micropolitical behaviour, particulary in the strategies used.
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Many thanks for the kind comment...
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As a beginner of my PhD journey, what programming language is best to analysis and presentation of my research work? The research work will be on pedestrian road crossing behavior and evaluate various engineering measures to understand the efficacy of such measures on behavioral changes.
What methodology or concepts needed to learn and what method or modeling I need to understand to meet my purpose and goal?
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Thanks for your valuable advice.
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Semiochemicals communication is well studied and well developed in Lepidoptera, It was a mystery before first chemically identification of (Bombykol, 1959) that was not easy, well it was done by using half of a million insects.
Insect scales (especially moths body scales) also studied before and chemically identified and their role is also presented with context of behavioral studies. I want to observe one moth pest scales and their role in behavior studies, i have tried different ways to collect moth body scales, I am not sure either the method is correct or not.
It will be highly appreciated for suggesting me any method of removing moths body scales.
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Denis Thiery Agreed sir with your above statement and I have sent you the mentioned file,,
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What software(available freely) can be used to analyze video outputs obtained from mice behavior studies like elevated plus and y maze?
Also, what are the alternatives for using software for these studies?
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Bonsai is great but it depends on what you want exactly. In the lab, we use DeepLab cut and it works amazing: https://github.com/AlexEMG/DeepLabCut. The community is growing and you have almost every weeks news functionalities. If you just want to track the' body' of the animal. Bonsai will do a great job. However, if you want to track different parts of the animal separately, I would start to use DLC. Have fun!
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Looking to potentially purchase new cameras for collecting footage for canine behaviour studies. Ideally we want the quality to be good enough to consider some facial expression/eye movement within a sensible distance. The best thing out there appears to be GoPro in terms of quality of camera, footage quality, battery life, can be synced with the app etc. but they are very pricey particularly for the number of cameras we're after.
Can anyone suggest alternatives or are GoPro's worth it as they're robust and will last?
Thanks!
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Hi!
Do you need high frame rates, super wide (fisheye) angles or battery powered mini devices? If not, I'd recommend to check out surveillance camera systems such as this one: https://www.lorextechnology.com/4k-ip-camera-system/4k-ultra-hd-ip-nvr-security-camera-system-with-10-ip-cameras/4KHDIP1612W-1-p
Lots of channels, lots of cameras and high (4K) resolution for a great price. This would obviously only work for experimental conditions, i.e., in a test arena where you can install the cameras. Also, you mentioned footage of eye movements - you might need higher frame rates for this purpose (with 4K resolution, you would usually not have more than 30-60 fps).
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There aren't many behavioural studies in the area of dementia, compared to the area of autism and ID for example - I'm particularly interested in the types of reinforcers used, because many reinforcers are provided noncontingent and regardless of particular behaviours, so I wondered how do researchers in this area provide potent reinforcement for desired behaviours?
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This is a special issue with behavioural research on dementia in Behaviour Therapy 2011 you might be interested in these:
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i not understand how much minimum number of animals i have to take for any animal behaviour study in neurodegenerative disease.
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Prabhu V.V recommendation is very good, but also you must have in account the specie, strain (if this apply) and the kind of behaviour is observing (how obvious or impacted is the conduct change that is observed).
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reason to do that?
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Hii Respected Paola
Thank you for your suggestion...yes, I am infusing drug for behavioral anxiety study..
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Hi,
I am trying to find if any consumer behavior study/work has attempted to segment consumers based on EMCB scale - ref: Ethically minded consumer behavior: Scale review, development, and validation. ( Lynn Sudbury-Rileya, Florian Kohlbacher)
Please let me know if you have come across any such work.
Regards,
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Please read the question before responding. Appritiate it. Thanks
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Hello everyone,
I'm working right now on the BORIS software (http://www.boris.unito.it/) to analyze videos of fish farms (5 individuals by videos of 10 minutes in an aquarium that is divided into 6 areas).
My goal is to note the number of times thanks to software where a fish touches another fish, swim/rest time and the number of times where a fish cross a zone and the time he spends in an area of the aquarium.
I wanted to know if there existed a software that allows to do what I do on BORIS but automatically? Maybe through a system of follow-up of the fish (I tried IdTracker but I do not think that it allows to do what I do on BORIS).
Thank you in advance for your answers, Cyprian K.
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Hello everyone, Japanese have just published a really nice software for tracking! http://ymnk13.github.io/UMATracker/ And besides, it's free;)
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Hello, if you conducted a CFA to validate a scale and the model gives a clear 4 factor solution. The factors load nicely (.60) on each dimension. Can those factor loading be reported as evidence of convergent validty
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Please refer to:
1. Landau, S. and Everitt, B. S.(2004). A Handbook of Statistical analyses using SPSS.
2.Howitt, D. and Cramer, D.(2008). Introduction to SPSS.
Regards,
Zuhair
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Hi Nathan.
My name is Jaco Vorster form CQUniversity.
Im doing an Organisational behavior study regarding work motivation strategies and generations. Was wondering if we can brainstorm together because i have an interest in your strategies and identity management.
Regards
jaco
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Hi Jaco,
Thanks for your question. At this stage in the project I haven't considered any OB strategies. I am presently looking at Stigma Theory and how this relates to discrimination of employees. It would be nice to have a bit of brainstorm though. Please feel free to email me n.barrett@cqu.edu.au
Cheers,
Nathan
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Is the following list the characteristics of the things which are the bases of psychological understandings for General Artificial Intelligence?
The material, below, from https://www.researchgate.net/project/Developing-a-Usable-Empirically-Based-Outline-of-Human-Behavior-for-FULL-Artificial-Intelligence-and-for-Psychology "Project Goals (for General Artificial Intelligence and psychological science)" (below, slightly elaborated). (Also, this Project is where you can find additional information and "specs".)
Project Goals (for General Artificial Intelligence and psychological science)
Project strives to be:
* nothing more than needed, while WELL-ESTABLISHED, BEING ALWAYS clearly-related to the most reliable, strongest scientific findings in psychology (this is, in particular: facts and findings on the Memories)
* enough to embrace a good part of everything, providing a very likely main overall "container" -- with EVERYTHING addressed, founded on, grounded on, OR clearly "stemming" from: discovery of and direct observation of overt behavior patterns (done by providing clear and likely ways to discover the specific, direct, explicit, observable empirical foundations to qualitative cognitive stages -- something completely lacking in modern psychology otherwise). All hypotheses related to all positions (in THIS LIST and in any References) ARE testable/verifiable (at least now, with eye-tracking technologies and computer assisted analysis).
* having ALL that is needed AND which is all-concrete (explicit, specified, or FULLY defined-as-used or thusly definable), at the same time: so as to provide for Generalized Artificial Intelligence and good science, otherwise. [ There may be one seeming exception to elements being "clearly specified" : the "episodic buffer". And that can be defined "relationally", simply having a state plausibly/possibly inferred from all the [other] more concretely defined elements (with their characteristics and processes).]
* providing for self-correction and for continuous progress as science (actual psychology) (as real and good science, and good thinking, is) And, not coincidentally, providing for continuous development of the AI "robot" itself (by itself; of course: experience needed).
* consistent with current major theories to the full extent justified, but contrasted by having a better well-established set of assumptions, thoroughly justified and explicated. An integrative perspective, equally good for appropriate shifts in all theoretical perspectives (in the end, each theory allowing MORE, and being more empirical)
* proving (by amassing related evidence of) the inadequacy of current perspectives on and approaches to behavioral studies (addressing current psychology-wide pseudo-'assumptions')
* an approach which ends obviously senseless dualisms, e.g. nature/nurture; continuous/discontinuous, which just impede understanding, discovery, and progress. This is inherent in the "definitions" of elements and processes (all from observations or most-excellent research; and largely inductively inferred) .
It is good for psychology (it IS psychology) and General Artificial Intelligence, as well.
NOTE: (1) Nothing above should be seen as merely descriptive (this implies too much tied to certain situation(s) and/or to abstraction(s), always lacking true details; it also probably implies too much related to human judgment).
(2) Nothing -- no element or constellation of elements -- are operationally (as they actually come together and 'work') as envisioned only by, or in any way (at all) mainly by, human conceptualization OR human imagination.
(3) The Subject is ALL and shall be seen just as it is (at least eventually), and should always be THE guide phenomenologically at all times to move toward that goal.
I believe this is the only way our algorithms will correspond to biology and that AI will really simulate US.
[ P.S. I have tried to much more specifically direct people to answers to Questions such as above, FOR BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES in general, in my major papers here on RG (esp. "A Human Ethogram ... ") AND in my many, many essays, now most in a 328-page BOOK, Collected Essays (also on RG). General Artificial Intelligence is, in effect, a behavioral science itself. ]
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Hello, maybe this could help you : http://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~russell/intro.html
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consumer behavior study in China and Pakistan
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Thanks to all of you for your kind responses.
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I am professor of Pharmacology and they invited me to:
.....We would like to invite you to submit research article in the 8th Joint International Conference organised by Institute of Research Engineers and Doctors at Paris, France. The theme for the 2018 Paris conference is to bring together innovative academics and industrial experts to a common forum. We would be delighted to have you present at this conference to hear what the technology experts and researchers have to share about the technology advancements and their impact on our daily lives.
Joint International Conference Consists of following tracks:
Track 1: International Conference in Advances in Computing, Control and Networking - ACCN 2018 Official Weblink: www.accn.theired.org <http://tracking.theired.org/tracking/click?d=6mRl6wyd-s6aZAgiUcBKA6DWCCxIc58wMi0vVVGjsKAs7XvvQhGco0avuIpP6r73QlNUnh9G3Yn69I82UGGuKbejumPJkjbzMVMYtORv1FB50>
Track 2: International Conference in Advances in Civil, Structure and Mechanical Engineering - ACSM 2018
Track 3: International Conference in Advances in Applied Sciene and Environmental Technology - ASET 2018 Official Weblink: www.aset.theired.org <http://tracking.theired.org/tracking/click?d=6mRl6wyd-s6aZAgiUcBKAz9Q-CL1X56QeDm_XAYFrrWXe9y0PF6zU0i3uQopi06BBYFbNaZszRX84ba8FwvHs2ITCdchddDxRyl3sScrj6I90>
Track 4: International Conference in Advances in Economics, Social Sciene and Human Behaviour Study - ESSHBS 2018 Official Weblink: www.esshbs.theired.org <http://tracking.theired.org/tracking/click?d=6m6JkkFA7VMZYXOhpFVEssytuWGgEJLd3a0yIVvj92YLGwtoiomaPawqbPjeYA2Hsc-j3f20Z1eM97RmRpo9iS1Sjc84IMm2SLLVXSL6eZO8fzGib5VjJLUxp8QDFE1BsQ2>
Conference City: Paris , France
Conference Date: 23 - 24 June 2018
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These may be "predatory" conferences that send spam to try to increase the number of speakers (who have to pay to participate, but only find out later). If you are reading French, this article may be of interest to you: https://theconversation.com/enquete-les-conferences-predatrices-parodies-lucratives-de-rencontres-scientifiques-86957
Unfortunately, there is not much to do. And answering them by asking them to remove you from their list has no impact whatsoever (according to my own experience). It is best to ignore such messages.
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For studying anti AZ action of drugs through behavioural studies, in articles training (for memory related behavioural studies) has been given after the induction.
Now my doubt is what is the point of logic in giving the training after inducing alzheimer's and what may be the reason behind to do so.
My intention is training should be given prior to the induction, memory should be tested during induction and treatment period as well.
Kindly clarify me with correct method.
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Training after inducing Alzheimer is to see what possible can counteract it. Cf. our study:
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Hello,
I want to use to code videos of focal sampling I conducted on wild monkeys. I have lot of videos and I would prefer a software which has additional analysis capabilities like time-budget analysis and also it would be beneficial if I can export files in different formats.
Thank you very much in adavance for your suggestions.
- Adwait
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Solomon coder (https://solomoncoder.com) is a really handy and flexible program for video coding with extended features for exporting data and even some preliminary analyses.
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Hello,
I am looking for literature comparing behavior of non-indigenous species between their native and introduced regions, so far with no luck (except for the Argentine ant).
I do not mean behavioral studies which link behavior to invasion success, but rather a comparison of behavior by the same species in distinct regions (i.e., native vs. introduced).
Any info. would be much appreciated.
Thank you,
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This researcher's papers are a good place to start: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Helen_Smith20/publications
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I need some advance qualitative questions for health seeking behavior among working Women. I really grateful to anyone's co-operation.  
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Hi Najmul,
There is no such thing as a structured qualitative questionnaire. That is purely the domain of quantitative research.
You can only have unstructured, and more commonly semi-structured, interviews in qualitative research. 
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 Chi-square = 187.428, Degrees of freedom = 114, CMIN/df= 1.644, CFI=0.930, TLI=0.917, RMSEA=0.069, GFI=0.855?
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Have a look at the paper:
Bagozzi, R.P. & Yi, Y. J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. (2012) 40: 8. doi:10.1007/s11747-011-0278-x
Among many other SEM topics, threshold values for fit indices are nicely discussed there.
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I'm in the planning stage of a study looking at captive grey wolf social behaviour and was wondering about the best video equipment for continual recording would be. It's all occurrence sampling so 3 different cameras would be set up across the habitat to give the best view of the whole area. They need to be able to record continually for an hour at a time, which is where most trail cams fall short
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GoPro cameras (with portable USB battery pack), solar panel for video monitoring can be used, You can control the camera by using an android app.
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I feel that Behavior speaks about human in action. So it not that powerful to describe a behavior effect or pattern through questionnaire and collecting responses from people particularly during financial and economic decisions. Am i right?
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You can go through the following  paper s
How  biases  affect  investor behaviour? 
Effect  of behavioural  biases on market  efficiency and investor welfare.
Behavioural  biases  (credit suisse)
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Generally the critical behavior is studied to understand the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials; using different theoretical models like mean-field, 3D-Heisenberg, 3D-Ising models etc. Can  we use these models to study the magnetic properties by determining the critical exponents for a pure ferrimagnetic material?
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    If you want to know the critical exponents of ferrimagnetism, the model is the Landau one and for more microscopic scope the best is to employ the one of Néel.
   I hope that this can help.
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I am using AMOS to validate two behavioral models: the theory of planned behavior  (TPB) and the integrated behavioral model (IBM), using data collected in a behavioral study. I managed to do run measurement models for both models as well as the structural model for TPB. I am however not sure how to include background variables such as age, gender, worry (latent variable) in the IBM structural model.
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Hi Kolentino!
There is a simple guide, see the link. Basically you need to add a covariate (a possibly confounding variable, e.g. age/gender) and draw a regression line from it onto all other variables that should be controled for the effect of this covariate. I hope the youtube will help.
Good luck with you research!
M.
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I'm looking for the criteria used to evaluate construct "quality." We recently published a paper (see link) about a practical tool for evaluating whether two constructs measure the same phenomenon (no respondents needed), but for a follow-up paper we need to go deeper and develop an evaluative framework based on past thinking both on what a construct IS and how one evaluates them. Any help appreciated!
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Thanks for your answer, Thomas. Some very helpful thoughts to follow up on here. :)
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The fixities in our behavior can be conceptualized as being the outcomes of uncritical thought and rational thought, i.e., automatic behavior and behavior resulting from conscious considerations.
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Dear Emery,
 I’d express a few further comments on the question you raised as it is perceived from an economic perspective. The economic literature more attentive to the psychological implications of individual behavior has emphasized persistently the lack of commitment of the economist to deal adequately with the process of formation of preferences, especially with reference to its stability, selfish nature and rationality.
Such an assessment is connected to the disapproval of that mental ‘habitus’ of a large part of economists which leads them to consider a utility model to still have a scant relation with the current thinking in psychology. Moreover, this school of economic thought is still inclined to appraise a large part of the human behavior as "abnormal" because of the usual assumptions of continuity and linearity in the variables or their simple transformations imposed on the model, as well as of the omission of significant variables. All that, in spite of the results of research in psychology that tend to exclude the operation of the human brain as a central processing unit and to consider it - instead - as a system of parallel processing. Moreover, account must be taken of the fact that studies in psychology have prompted new economic approaches in the field of utility theory. Specifically, in a distinguished lecture Henry J. Aaron states that: “Economists rapidly acquire the capacity to think of human behavior in terms of the standard utility function, U = f(X), where X is a vector of whatever goods or bundles of goods or attributes of goods happen to be relevant for the problem at hand. This characterization of human behavior contains powerful assumptions that simplify analysis… However, it is clearly an "as if" formulation. It posits that people behave as if their preferences were stable, egoistic, and rational (meaning that preferences obey the laws of transitivity) and cover all states of the world. Much (perhaps most) human behavior violates these standards. Indeed, whole sub-disciplines of economics, to say nothing of the entireties of sociology and psychology and much of political science, have grown up to analyze these "irrationalities" and to explain why they occur” (see Aaron, HJ, "Public policy, values and consciousness", Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.8, n.2, Spring 1994).
Profound changes in theoretical direction and research methods are necessary if we are to make significant progress in analyzing major social issues. Moreover, modification of the psychological prizes that direct the behavior should be carefully thought-out. This means consideration of the role that emotions that induce agents to behave in a manner not only inspired by the observance of the principle of self-interest. The inclusion of emotions in behavior patterns alter the predictions provided by models based on self-interest. It is so from the moment of change of the matrix of pay-off in the DP model, with the addition - for those who cooperate - of a 'good' resulting from knowing that the other agent has been able to achieve a specific benefit or the fact that he acted in fulfillment of the commitment of adherence to a social norm shared by the group.
Individual behavior - intentional and emotional together - originates from the intersection between biology and cultural environment, intersection governed by the nature of epigenetic rules of thumb that allow individuals to find quick solutions to problems posed by the process of decision and choice. These rules of thumb tend to reduce complex tasks, such as those which seek to determine the probability of occurrence of certain outcomes, such simple tasks of evaluation.
A different meaning of the rationality of economic behavior has been proposed which takes into account realistically and primarily the fact that a process of information management leads to the formulation of choice taking place under conditions of imperfection and limited capacity to process fully the information available. Moreover, this approach of understanding the rationality of economic action must take into account the existence of forms of social conditioning that are a mirror image of moral values and standards of conduct that invite to explore the possibility of integrating them into the basic model of the economic agent and to imagine forms of interaction between them and the existing incentive and social structures. Specifically, the neoclassical approach seemed  inadequate under another viewpoint. In fact, it proves inappropriate to consider how the various impulses evolve because it considers altruism and selfishness as fixed and pre-existing stocks when allocative effects are analyzed. By doing so, even the role of society is neglected as well as the social and moral norms and practices of what is included in the term "culture". All this  when the different impulses to action are taken into account, while it is explicitly postulated by the neoclassical school that experience has no feed-back effect on the preferences of the agents.
As a general rule and only in respect to the issue of information, incomplete and costly to acquire, it is proper to remember that this topic closely affects the analysis of economic relations between formal rules and informal norms of social conduct. It has been suggested and ascertained that individuals demonstrate a willingness to learn also from the experiences of other people, supplemented by a predisposition to imitate patterns of behavior based on social rules not only directly and indirectly beneficial. It is considered a primary task of anthropological and sociological studies on the mechanisms of cultural evolution to deepen - for instance - if and to what extent the use of forms of social learning, such as imitation of the experience that others have taken in similar contexts about the solution of the problems posed by the human interrelations, approaches on average the optimal behavior compared to the solutions that individuals can come up with on their own. This type of informal rules is made - according to Douglass North - of conventions, norms of behavior, and self- imposed codes of conduct, i.e. that form of 'codification' of the lessons learned from the common experience which becoming institutional rules, "….are a part of the heritage that we call culture”. (D.C. North, ‘Institutions, institutional change and economic performance’, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 5,37).
 Thank you for reading and best regards,
Gianrocco
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I am currently analyzing data from a behavioral study on emotion perception using lmer model comparisons in R. I have a fairly simple design, with emotional intensity as repeated measure and valence (positive, negative) and group (controls, patients) as fixed effects.  Random effects are subject (n=37) and stimulus (n=8). I am comparing a simple model with more complex models using the anova function, but I ran into two problems. My degress of freedom for one of the model comparisons is 0, and it seems to matter in which order I put the models when comparing them. Here's the set up and outputs:
Models:
intensity.valence.1 <- lmer(intensity ~ 1 + (1| subject) + (1 | stimulus), data = BehavIntens,REML=FALSE)
intensity.valence.2 <- lmer(intensity ~ group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus), data = BehavIntens,REML=FALSE)
intensity.valence.3 <- lmer(intensity ~ valence + (1| subject) + (1 | stimulus), data = BehavIntens,REML=FALSE)
intensity.valence.4 <- lmer(intensity ~ valence + group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus), data = BehavIntens,REML=FALSE)
intensity.valence.5 <- lmer(intensity ~ valence * group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus), data = BehavIntens,REML=FALSE)
Comparison 1:
anova(intensity.valence.1,intensity.valence.2,intensity.valence.3,intensity.valence.4,intensity.valence.5)
Data: BehavIntens
Models:
object: intensity ~ 1 + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..1: intensity ~ group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..2: intensity ~ valence + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..3: intensity ~ valence + group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..4: intensity ~ valence * group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
Df AIC BIC logLik deviance Chisq Chi Df Pr(>Chisq)
object 4 1060.4 1075.2 -526.20 1052.4
..1 5 1062.1 1080.6 -526.06 1052.1 0.2730 1 0.6013
..2 5 1062.4 1080.8 -526.18 1052.4 0.0000 0 1.0000
..3 6 1064.1 1086.2 -526.04 1052.1 0.2730 1 0.6013
..4 7 1064.6 1090.5 -525.31 1050.6 1.4601 1 0.2269
Comparison 2:
anova(intensity.valence.1,intensity.valence.3,intensity.valence.2,intensity.valence.4,intensity.valence.5)
Data: BehavIntens
Models:
object: intensity ~ 1 + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..1: intensity ~ valence + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..2: intensity ~ group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..3: intensity ~ valence + group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
..4: intensity ~ valence * group + (1 | subject) + (1 | stimulus)
Df AIC BIC logLik deviance Chisq Chi Df Pr(>Chisq)
object 4 1060.4 1075.2 -526.20 1052.4
..1 5 1062.4 1080.8 -526.18 1052.4 0.0330 1 0.8558
..2 5 1062.1 1080.6 -526.06 1052.1 0.2400 0 <2e-16 ***
..3 6 1064.1 1086.2 -526.04 1052.1 0.0330 1 0.8558
..4 7 1064.6 1090.5 -525.31 1050.6 1.4601 1 0.2269
---
Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
I am wondering if anybody has an idea what is going wrong. Thanks in advance for your help!
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As far as I can tell, the anova function does this odd thing where anova(model.1, model.2, model.3) compares model.1 to model.2, then model.2 to model.3.
Similar functions in other packages have you explicitly select one model to compare all other models to.   Which makes more sense to me.
I think the best practice is use anova with two models at a time.  Even though it's a little more tedious, the user is less likely to misinterpret results.
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I'm trying to examine SES impact on health behavior. Should I use the composite measures or not? If yes what indicators should I include? Do you know any SES brief scale?
If I wanted to use them separately besides income education, occupation and wealth what should I include? There are many such as peole living at the household, owning cars etc, is there any solid refrence that I can back up using these extra indicators by? 
Thank you!
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Read the works of Angus Deaton (Nobel Laureate).  "The Great Escape: Health, Wealth and the Origins of Inequality"  
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I am working on Neurobehavioural Projects of rodents as animal model for Neurological disorders related to cognition deficits, depressive, anxiety-depressive behavior.
I have a Tech-com (webcam) camera of 40 Megapixel but unfortunately I don't have the software as like of Any-maze to track the positioning on animal in subjective studies of MWM test, NORT, Open field, EPM etc.
I know that Any-maze software is costly and out of my budget, won't be able to afford it.
Would anyone suggest to me an alternative to this software as if I can track animals through some of free trial version for that that remain free for some days or if any possible alternative?
Please help me. I need it to perform the behavioral studies and manually doing much bias results.
Thanking you
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Hi Mohit
my colleagues published an overview/review article in TREE last year, it's with ecological applications in mind but still includes several packages that originate from neurobehavioral research. The article includes a nice overview table in the supplement. Find attached
Hope this helps
Best
Gregor
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I need related literature, additional ideas about the information-seeking/information-gathering behaviors of celebrity fans. I am proposing to conduct a study regarding this topic. Any response will be greatly appreaciated. Thank you
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Dear Ramendra Pratap Singh,
Thank you very much! These literature will be of great help for my proposed research.
Kind regards,
Daryl
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I have heard of new refillable and programmable (start, stop,dur) for chronic brain infusion in small animals. Do you have any experience with this?
Thanks.
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Our article published in peer-reviewed Journal "Communicative & Integrative Biology". A few major points discussed in the paper:
(1) Brain is not the source of consciousness.
(2) Consciousness is ubiquitous in all living organisms, starting from bacteria to human beings.
(3) The individual cells in the multicellular organisms are also individually cognitive entities.
(4) Proposals like “artificial life”, “artificial intelligence”, “sentient machines” and so on are only fairytales because no designer can produce an artifact with the properties like internal teleology (Naturzweck) and formative force (bildende Kraft).
(5) The material origin of life and objective evolution are only misconceptions that biologists must overcome.
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I recently have been doing behavioral testing with Control, Alcohol Treated, and Non-Alcohol Treated Tat positive and Tat negative mice.  For the Light/Dark Box results (which I am aware is a clear measure of anxiety), I saw no indications that any of my treatment mice were more anxious than my control mice (i.e. more entries but less time spent in the dark zone).  However, in Open Field, I see a decrease in the number of entries into the center zone (and the periphery), as well as decreased distance traveled in both zones (center and periphery) for my treatment mice.  Since the concept is that more anxious mice tend to want to stay to the periphery, and this is seen in my Open Field result, is this still okay for concluding that the treatment mice are more anxious than control?  Thanks for any and all help!
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Hi Shante,
If the brightness of the open-field arena remains in the same range as that of the light compartment of the light-dark box, even if it is a little lower, I would continue to consider the open-field as more stressful. However, if there is a factor 10 or 100 between the two (e.g. 10 lux in the open field and 200 lux in the light compartment of the LD box), I would not be so sure!
Finally, I do not mean to say that as a rule the open-field is better suited to show anxiety. Indeed, you may also see cases where mouse lines differ in their behaviour in the light-dark box, but not in the open field. This may come from a ceiling effect (if the two groups are very anxious, low anxiogenic situations may be more suitable to reveal differences between them) and/or from the fact that the open field and the LD box are different in nature (the main difference being the possibility to hide or not) and thus may evoke different components of anxiety. Some mice may be more sensitive to the absence of a hiding place than others, while exhibiting normal range anxiety in the light-dark box, but the reverse may also be true...
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Any person with Psychological and Sociological background with specialization on Gender and Behavioral study.
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If you're looking for an integrated theoretical work (social psychology, neurology, developmental psychology, etc.) about the subject I recommend you "The Psychology of Gender" (Eds. Alice Eagly, Anne E. Bell and Robert J. Sternberg)
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Hello, I am conducting a research on behavioral accounting and use the likert scale (7 point) for survey. My question is: What is the determinants to use Likert- type (5 or 7-point) or another
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hope this article helps
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Dear All,
   How do perform Maternal Odor Preference/Homing Behavior in pups? and how many day old pups should be used for this behavior study??
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An alternative to avoiding litter effects is to test multiple subjects in the litter, but run statistics on litter means, not individual scores.
Yes, pups are sensitive to temperature and should be handled with gloves. The ideal temperature you wish to test them at depends on the behavior of interest and their age. We ran most of our experiments on P1 pups (24-hours after birth); to ensure behavioral activity, we ran in a regulated environment at 34-35°C. Cooler than that and they cannot maintain body temperature and will thermally crash over 20-30 min.
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Hello,
I have a group of mice that I have tested at different time points before treatment and after treatment and I want to see if their cognitive perfomance becomes better after treamtent across time. Is their anyway that I can transform their performance in every test into a cognitive score and then compare it across time.
Thank you so much.
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Hi Narjes,
In the Morris Water Maze task the latency to find the platform is your indication of spatial cognition, isn't it? So a low latency to find the platform would indicate better cognitive ability, I think. You say you cannot test the animals over different time point and different tests, but why not? Your aim is to see if your treatment impairs their cognitive skills, am I correct? In that case you can compare your latency to find the platform over the changed Morris water task (1). The only thing, if I understand you correctly, you initially started with two groups and within these two groups you made 3 new groups? Then it become difficult in your analysis, as initially you have a different number of animals per treatment. I guess what you can do is, use variation in your data to assess min, max, median and average latencies - hereby you might be able to see who is delayed in fniding the platform. You could roughly make an classification of fast, moderate and slow finders of the platform in your first test - this is quite aribitrary, although it is based on the data. Then you can link this with your continues variables in the other tests. But I don't think you need that, you will have treated and non-treated mice which have a certain latency to reach the platform and then express these effects against your other tests (with the behavioural variables - and do not make a cogntive score, but use the behaviour which indicates cogntive abilites). I could see a figure which shows latency to find the platform expresses by treated and non-treated mice, and all your other "cognitive" variables expressed by treated and non-treated mice. I hope this helps, I wouldn't simplify it but use the most relevant behaviour variables you have to say something about cognition over the different tests and ages. Good luck  
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I am planning to conduct a cohort study in the community to measure uptake of an intervention and measure change. How do you mitigate against the confounding factors in such a study and ensure 'uncontaminated' results?
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Ideally, you should choose a control community  as close as possible to the intervention community,, eg age/sex distribution, education level, economic class, religion, race, physical environment,health.  eg similar town, city,or suburb in same ethnic region of country,,
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I am trying to locate recent studies which have validated and used scales for measure behavioral intention. Some papers report one-item measures like, Are you planning to xxx, or I intend to xxx. I am also trying to find studies that have focused on BI to participate in research studies (medical or otherwise).
Does anyone have any suggestions?
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Dear Yulia,
this is the website of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviors. 
There, you will find all resources that you need - most notably a manuscript how to set up questionnaire items.
With regard to the number of item (of any construct): More is always better as you increase the reliability. The problem is that by slightly varying the content/question wording, you may measure different things. For instance, "I intent to do X" is not the same as "I plan to do X" - as planning is something that occurs after the individuals has decided to do X (i.e., the preparation). In the same manner "I will do X" is not intention but "self-prediction" and incorporates feasibility of conducting behavior beyond the mere intention (a reality check). Hence, with every measure, the devil is in the details. 
In my career I have conducted thousands of CFAs with so called established mult-indicators scales and almost NONE of them fitted adequately the factor model. Hence, I vote for a very SMALL number but FOCUSED / clear items.
Best,
Holger
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want to find out which factors affecting litter existence on toll road, Is it okay that my R^2 is so low (below 0,1)?
i already convert from ordinal (likert scale) to interval scale data but it doesn't help much. 
anyway, the factors are Personal, Social, Material, and Habitual. It is all based on literature.
Some says that if it is a behavioral studies than its okay to have low R-square as low as that but i'm not really sure about that. 
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Can you give more details of your variables, like how they are distributed, how you converted an ordinal scale to interval, what are the scatter plots like,etc.
There is nothing wrong with R^2 < .1, in fact in the social sciences this often happens (it corresponds to a correlation of about .3). In fact, there is nothing wrong with any R^2 value (between 0 and 1), it is just what the linear association is.
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Hello everyone,
 I have performed behavior studies in transgenic mice and I used 4 different groups of animals for testing. Each group contained 5-8 animals. In order to attain sufficient power for analysis, I would like to repeat the experiment. So, my question is that, it it acceptable to combine the results from two different sets of experiments?
Thanks for your help.
Ananth
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In general it is better to have everything at one stretch. But in certain cases for example insufficient number of animals,  it can be repeated with the same settings.  In order to avoid differences in data,  it is advisable  to maintain the same experimental conditions and to have same person/ technician to evaluate the data like in  the first experiment.  I hope this could help you.
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can anybody suggest some behavioural studies that i can do in syrian hamsters?i have control and prion infected groups?any memory analysis tests?
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 thanks
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We repeatedly faced a problem when analyzing data in behavioral studies. In more sophisticated experimental designs, we need to handle more factors (e.g., a pharmacological treatment and a physiological condition) together in the statistical design. It is not rare in behavioral tests that the data is not normally distributed, thus, we need to use non-parametric tests. However, Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests are designed only for one between- / within-subject factor (at least in softwares and in sources I read).
Does anyone know a good solution for these situations?
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Zsolt, I never said that multiple testing must be avoided. There are often research questions that would be answered better by a specific test - but many researchers do not know how to do this and they instead do multiple comparisons between whatever groups they find and run into a multiple-testing problem that is even not adequate to tackle the actually relevant research question... Also many tests are unneccesary or at least irrelevant to keep an error-rate (e.g. comparisons of several control-treatments to a baseline, that are often all fomally tested [for whatever reason]; at least such tests are not addressing the main research question, they are at best supplementary. A multiple testing correction including such tests seems non-sensical).
But multiple testing can be sensible or required. It depends on the research questions and how the experiment was designed. However, one needs to think if a control of an error-rate is required or sensible, or if the tests are performed only to get the top-n "most significant" candidates for further research.
2nd Point:
As long as you somehow select the data-processing or test procedure based on features of the data, you introduce a bias in the further statistical analysis. It does not matter if this selection is based on a formal hypothesis test or on the "informal" inspection of the data.
It is typical in research that we get data where we do not understand the whole data generating process. We need to explore the data, we need to find out its properties, its distribution etc. This is explorativ. The aquired knowledge could be used to generate or to modify particular hypotheses. If the hypothesis is to be tested in order to control an error-rate, then the same data must not be used again.
You can understand this when you understand that a hypothesis test (as well as the construction of a confidence interval) is a procedure, and the error rate (or confidence level) is a property of the procedure (and not interpretable for a single case). These are frequentist tools! So it is not about a single, particular test - it is about the whole procedure from data to the p-value (or confidence interval).
If the decision which test to chose (based on the current data) is thus a part of the procedure, and this destrys the independence between data and test. The procedure will not work as expected, that is, rejecting the null whenever p<alpha will not anymore control the type-I error-rate at alpha.
3rd point:
Data (or residuals) never "follow a normal distribution". Firstly, the normal distribution is a model, like a circle is a model (it is a mathematical concept = the set of points with identical distance to the common center): there is nothing in the real world that is a circle, not even something that is really circular; however, some things are well approximately or almost circular. So a "circle" is thus a good model that is applicable and useful in numerous cases.
Take some points that may or may not be from a "circular" arrangement. If you have very few points you will likely prefer to see a polygon rather than a circle. It may well happen that from 5 points, 4 are relatively close together and one is farther away from the rest. You then will see that a triangle would better fit than a circle. There are many samples of points thinkable that will make you believe that they are not taken from a population of points with a circular arrangement. Now what?
On the other side, if you have really a lot of points, you will quite clearly and precisely "see" the arrangement of the population, and you will easily recognize that the points are not exactly on a figure described by the mathematical model of a circle. Now what?
Conclusion: if you have only few data, you anyway have no chance to judge what is going on. If you have lots of data, you see a clearer picture, and you have to judge if the model is still a reasonable model to describe what you see (although a hypothesis test comparing the model with the data may give you a tiny p-value).
If you have experience (and theoretical considerations) and this tells you that your model is very often sensible and appropriate, then you should expect that a "strange observation" from a single experiment is what it is: a "strange observation". If you were correct (based on your experience and understanding) with your assumptions, the hypothesis test based on these assumptions does correctly control the error-rate. These tests "know" that strange observations can happen and they consider this. So: in this case you should not change the test, even when this particular data seems to be "strange".
And finally, I would find it strange if you tell me that for the same kind of data, obtained by similar experiments, your relevant research question is once about expected differences and once about sochastic differences...
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Hello,
Does anyone know or have some literature to recommend, as to how to compare behavioral reaction to deviant vs standard stimuli? There are 9 deviants vs 36 standards per block, and 3 blocks.
I would appreciate some tips.
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Dear Kryzsztof
You may consider the vast literature on Rasch Measurement that gives both quality control statistics for what a linear behavioral response would normally be, and how far the raw data deviate from the theoretical ideal.  Further, Linacre's Many Facet Rasch Model gives a powerful framework to calibrate the stimuli on the same ruler as the behaviors (and any other facets of interest)
Importantly, work has been done to diagnose the reason for these patterns of deviations that might also be useful for behaviors and latent constructs.
Pattern Interpretations of Deviations from Rasch:
Linacre's Many Facet Rasch Model
Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement" by Thomas Eckes (2011), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Linacre, J. M. (2014) Facets computer program for many-facet Rasch measurement, version 3.71.4. Beaverton, Oregon: Winsteps.com
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Dear research community and experts in the field of behavior neuroscience,
I would like to use CD-1 mice to conduct social behavior experiment like the 3 chamber sociability and social novelty test. As I have interesting preliminary results already, I would love to stick with CD-1 animals for the remainder of the project. My question: Is it acceptable to use an outbred strain of mice for behavior studies or must I switch to an inbred strain like C57BL/6? 
Thank you all so very much, in advance.
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Dear Lawrence,
I totally agree with Sakire comment. Commonly, studies with transgenic mice are done with an inbred strain (mainly C57BL6/J) to reduce variability. But exactly for studies in which you want to model a human disease you want to be sure that the effects of the genetic manipulation are stronger that interindividual variability (humans are surely no inbred animals!). Moreover, CD-1 mice are excellent breeders (litter size between 12-16), that is a great advantage for breeding transgenic mice because you always have all genotypes represented in both genders. This is the reason why we backcrossed some of our transgenic mice (that had a C57BL/6J genetic background) into CD-1 mice and we were very happy to see that the phenotype of the mutant mice had 100% penetrance also with CD-1 mice. The same holds true if you want to do pharmacological studies: is it the correct decision to use an inbred strain with the risk that the results are strain specific? In my opinion the answer is no. At the beginning of a study it make sense to use only one strain, but then you should confirm the results with other strains or even better with an outbred strain.
Also, the homogeneity of the behavior within an inbred strain is sometime overestimated. We had two studies showing that even C57BL/6J mice show enormous inter-individual variability in their coping strategies and gene expression (Jakovcevski et al.,Neuropharmacology 2011, 61:1297-1305; Jakovcevski et al. Genes Brain Behav 2008, 7:235-243).
Finally, CD-1 mice are very good for behavioral studies in general. Their ethogram is, among many mouse strains, very similar to that of wild mice, in particular for their social behavior (Parmigiani et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998, 23:143-153 ). They also perform extremely well in spatial learning tasks, meaning that they still see well despite they are albinos (I tested it in person: Fellini and Morellini, J Neurosci 2013;33:1038-1043; Fellini and Morellini, Behav Brain Res 2011, 222:380-384).
Best regards,
Fabio
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I'd like to do some behavior studies in the lab using video recordings (daytime only). The image quality doesn't need to be amazing. I'd like to be able to either control the cameras remotely or using a timer, for 4-6 hours at a time. The more cameras I can afford, the better, so cheap is good! Easy-to-use software is also a plus.
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if it is in the lab, just use a webcam. you can then use a PC to program time-lapse, etc. an off-the-shelf old generation hd webcam is cheap so you can get many and only use usb ports.
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Together with the reduced infarct volume, improved neurological deficit is a major expectation for the neuroprotective agents. At the moment I am using mNSS (modified neurological severity score-18 point scale) for the quantification of the neurological disorder. However, in many instances the neurological score does not correlate with the infarct volume (TTC staining) by 2 or 3 points. For example mice having less neurological score (9 lets say) has greater infarct volume (18%) than the mice with high neurological score (11, IV~ 16%). So I am in a dilemma; I'm not sure whether to use mNSS or any other scoring options for neurological deficit. I am doing 90 min MCAO with 22 hr of reperfusion. Could you please suggest the best scoring system that correlates with the infarct volume too?
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Dear Colleague,
I think the best and reliable scoring for evaluating for focal cerebral ischemia is as following
The neurological examination was evaluated by a six-point scale as follows(EZ Longa, et al 1989):
0. No neurological deficit
1. Failure to extend left forepaw completely. It shows mild focal neurological deficit
2. Circling to the left. It means a moderate focal neurological deficit
3. Falling to the left. It indicates a sever focal neurological deficit
4. Not walking spontaneously and decreasing level of consciousness.
5. Death due to brain ischemia
If the animal score was 0 or 5, it was removed from the study.
1. EZ Longa, PR Weinstein, S Carlson and R Cummins, Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats, Stroke 1989; 20; 84-91
We have done many other tests, especially behavioural tests such as pole, adhesive and .., but the msimplest and most relaible is this one
Best regards
Namavar
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How many no of days will be appropriate for the incubation of Aβ to induce Alzheimer disease in rat model, so that it will be efficient for drug efficiency and behavioral studies? 
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If you are referring to AD models based on the injection of Abeta in rodents, I suggest you read the following papers characterizing Abeta toxicity and AD-like symptoms following injections of the Abeta25-35 fragment in rats and mice.
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I'm looking for results of behavioral studies on prisoners with mild intellectual disability for a desk research, as a start, to find out how prisoners with mild intellectual disability can be motivated to participate in education programs in prisons. 
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Hello,
It is possible to discuss mindfulness with any population. Engagement requires tailoring your approach and the type of practice for each individual. I'm sure there is lots of literature on the use of mindfulness in prisons (the military use it, so I don't see why not).  For a start, try locating A systematic review of mindfulness intervention for individuals with developmental disabilities: Long-term practice and long lasting effects by Hwang and Kearney (2013). Good luck!
Gordon
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Specifically I'm comparing the S-N/T-F functions to four behaviors: Pinpoint the behavior, Identify the antecedent, Observe the consequence, and reinforce the behavior.
How would I organize my data to do the necessary analysis?
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How could I measure the performance coaching behaviors: pinpoint behavior, identify antecedent, observe consequence, and reinforce behavior in comparison to the raw data scores of the S-N, T-F?
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More specifically, what is the highest density of IR grid in use and could it be used to generate a 3D model of the animal which could then be used to look at more complex behaviours?
I currently use Ethovision and think it's great - have previously dismissed IR beam break as not being able to generate data beyond number of squares entered etc - does anyone have experience of getting more detailed information using beam break systems?
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Good question. My only experience in open field tracking is with the Promethion system, which has 1 cm beam spacing and internally calculates the animal's centroid to 2.5 mm while also recording beam breaks. Raw data from the XYZ array are recorded every second in all axes, on the basis of 400 Hz scanning. It allows distinction between coarse movement (directed locomotion) and fine movement (grooming etc.) and monitors rearing, but does not allow sub-discrimination of fine movement into, for example, scratching and grooming. So it is useful for position preferences and basic coarse/fine activity monitoring plus rearing and overall activity levels, but doesn't yield the level of fine detail that video analysis can provide. Then again, in the context of a whole system including food and water intake etc., it gives quantitative data (food and water intake and body mass in grams, etc.) that a video analysis system can't deliver. Which system is best depends on the research questions you are asking.
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Teaching is getting more and more complex and challenging these days. The patience level of students is decreasing while rudeness, argumentation, disobedience, and short temper is on the rise. Is it due to modern age competition, stress, availability of alternate sources of knowledge like internet or violence shown in movies, TV series', and video games?
How do we tackle these challenges and keep the students focused and inculcate good behavior in them?
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I think that the main problem is to maintain the interest of the students. Of course, their interest in changing due to technological devices, then we need to use them in reaching more action to the educational activity. The other point is that they no longer study for the problems in the future, they really want to know about the useful applications of what they study. The reason of that is while the students remain with the same age, year after year, we become older step by step. Take care.
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I would like to test the heritability of several behavioural (personality) traits. Until now we used a simple parent-offspring regression. As I understand it is better to use GLMM, but I am not sure how to approach. Or GLMM is better only in wild populations?
We have repeated measures of several behaviours in parents, which we mated assortatively by aggression levels. We raised the offspring. 6 offspring (3 females and 3 males) of each pair were tested once for each behaviour. We also collected data on female (parental generation) reproductive output. And yes, this is done in the lab with parental generation collected in the field. And I guess there is no maternal effect differences. So, any ideas how to approach (random factor = family, fixed factor = average parents' score, dependent f = offspring score???)? Is that how I should set a data matrix? Is R stats the only option?
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sounds like an animal model type analysis would indeed help you.
For software pack/age options to fit animal models MCMCglmm is free and R based, but make sure you understand the importance of priors etc or you can generate nonsense. I'd v strongly recommend reading all Hadfield's course notes if this is a new area of stats for you. If you want free and likelihood, rather than Bayesian you could try WOMBAT, or there is an R package called PEDIGREEMM that may be useful - at least for univariate animal models. If you have access to funds then ASReml or ASReml-R might be worth a look. It is pretty cheap if you are a student, pretty pricey if you aren't!
Jason - If you can specify your social network as a matrix of association between all individuals, then you can include this in a mixed model in exactly the same way as an animal model uses a matrix of genetic relatedness. See e.g. Stopher et al 2011 (I think) Evolution paper on red deer on Rum. this was spatial overlap but could equally be temporal measures of association. Fitting random effects associated with genetic and social "relatedness" matrices simultaneously is easy (practically) in mixed models using ASReml or MCMCglmm. Of course if all your genetic relatives hang out together in social groups the data may lack power to tease the two sources of behavioural similarity apart. Worth a shot though... especially if you get a lot of stallions dispersing to spread genes across bands etc.
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Once human beings and animals have learned to categorise things around them, it would seem to me that the next step in cognitive or emotional development is the imposition of preference ordering upon categorised events. Does anyone know of literature in this area? Thanks.
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Yasuku, thanks for your reply. Philosophers, such as Aristotle, have developed categorical systems to account for our understanding of the world. Psychologists such as Piaget have done the same. However, I was wondering what the next stage in the development of our understanding of our world is? It seems to me that we form nominal categories and then order these adjectivally perhaps? I was wondering if there is a literature on this? Do you agree that an ordering of preference or extent comes directly after nomination?
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I intend to do my doctorate thesis in this area of study but from institutions within India. Please provide your valuable feedback.
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It provides a comparison with respect to economics research output (not just behavioural economics) in India. If you're specifically looking for PhD guides who have Behavioural Economics as their area of interest, I'd suggest looking up their profiles at the Institutes you mentioned or even on RG. You could try contacting past PhD students as well. Hope this helps :)