Science topic

Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms - Science topic

Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms are the observable response made to a situation and the unconscious processes underlying it.
Questions related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
I think that studying teachers' behaviours through students' perceptions is not a good way, as there are many biases that could influence it. However, I have not found much literature on the subject. Do you know of any interesting reviews?
Relevant answer
Answer
hey Samuel,
If possible I would always opt for observer ratings or ratings of video recordings. However, there are many studies that applied student perceptions as an indicator for teaching quality. So, that is absolutely ok too and can easily be argued for. In the end it is definitely also more economical. I don t know of any reviews but could let you know of some studies that used it. Maybe this direct comparison study is a good start:
Hope you are well!
Cheers
Chris
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
14 answers
In order to have a general idea of my participants' cognitive level, I have calculated a composite score with the results of different tests (working memory, spatial attention, language, inhibition). Depending on the age of children, sometimes these variables do not correlate one with the other. Therefore, given this lack of correlation, do you think that it makes sense to calculate a composite scores involving all the variables ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Assuming a reflective approach in which you consider this variable a latent construct (i.e. that will be used as such in a regression model), I would say no.
In fact, if you compute a SEM and use these scores to define your construct (or latent score) of "cognitive abilities", you will probably obtain a bad fit. Accordingly, it is problematic to me to then use this variable in a regression model.
Another example. Some questionnaires are composed of several dimensions. if you run a CFA/SEM on such a questionnaire, probably a one-factor model will not fit the data (as some items are not correlating). In that case, using a global score on that questionnaire is not ok.
In your case, I would suggest to run a PCA on your various measure. You can keep those loading on the first component, labelling this "cognitive abilities", and drop the other (or use scores corresponding to the various components identified if they make sense).
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
2 answers
Noise is stated as the (deviation from mean) by (mean) in Kahneman et al., 2016.
Is there any work that extended this methodology further?
- Kahneman, D., Rosenfield, A. M., Gandhi, L., & Blaser, T. (2016). Noise. Harvard Bus Rev, 38-46.
Relevant answer
Answer
Read my thesis titled Systematic Modeling of Whitenoise with Financial Time Series in Decision Making and find out if it will be helpful by following the link below http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/72931/Shileche_Systematic?sequence=3.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
8 answers
I'm doing a thesis that is related to sound production of crabs. Various crabs such as Ghost crabs and Dungeness crabs produce sound when they feel vulnerable. In my case, my thesis focuses on the mangrove crab Scylla Serrata. But due to travel restrictions due to Covid-19 situation I'm not able to perform my own experiments. I could not find any resources that were dedicated to sound production of Scylla Serrata. So, I wanted to know if Scylla Serrata produce sound when they feel vulnerable or before other crabs cannibalize them.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
20 answers
I'm looking for co-authors Are you a master's or doctoral student in psychology, behavioural sciences, social work, counseling psychology or a related discipline and would like to co-author a study on the depth of emotional pain? If so, let's examine this together.
Have you ever wondered why people self-harm when they are in discomfort or emotional pain? Some curse injury by cutting or burning their flesh, punching or hitting oneself. They do this to divert attention away from the pain or to distract the brain. Can you fathom burning your skin in order to relieve emotional pain? We won't be able to grasp why individuals do what they do or how to help them unless we understand the depth of emotional agony. It is simple to discuss bodily pains caused by injury or illness. Non-physical pain, on the other hand, is difficult to discuss, and instant treatment is impossible.
Relevant answer
Answer
Before we start an article or research on emotional pain, I think we should look closely about the main components or dimensions that make up emotional pain, and through which we can find a treatment that enables us to overcome or alleviate it in the individual who suffers from it.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
9 answers
What is the method to compare the performances on two different cognitive tests (that measure different cognitive functions) of the same or different group(s)?
As two cognitive tests are inherently different from each other and many a times, have different parameters.
It will be helpful if anyone can direct me to some useful references.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Joan Jiménez-Balado I should have clarified above I was speaking specifically with respect to making statistical comparisons between different cognitive scales within the same sample. You are correct, however, the asker mentioned "same or different group(s)".
If there are independent groups, as described in your example, one could easily make statistical comparisons on any cognitive scale. However, I can think of no way to compare (statistically) scores on two separate cognitive scales within a single sample - unless perhaps you used some variation of a rank-order test and assessed whether individual ranks on one cognitive test are similar to the individual ranks on the other cognitive scale.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
18 answers
Can you suggest papers (2018-2021) about "The Impact of Internet Advertising on consumers behavior"?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mamia,
I found it interesting:
Consumer Use of “Dr Google”: A Survey on Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Navigational Needs
Kind regards, Alina
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
5 answers
During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
13 answers
When you set up an experiment, with "defined" "stimuli", these are the stimuli in YOUR imagination and/or YOUR model.
BUT: very often it is a matter of representation (from long-term memory) of the circumstance(s)/setting(s), AND the stimuli can only be understood in THAT context -- the context of the content of developed representation of such circumstances/settings (think, for example, of problem-solving). The Subject, in most significant settings, has her/his representation of such circumstances/situations/settings. THAT actually more than helps to properly define the stimuli , for such is often the MAIN THING for defining (recall that it is the Subject (surrounding behavior patterns) very often _THAT_ MUST, in science, be what allows any empirical or true definition of stimuli).
All this is outlined by, and fully consistent with, Ethogram Theory (see my Profile and, from there, read A LOT-- I do provide guidance on readings order). The Theory itself is internally , and likely externally, consistent and it is strictly empirical (in the grounding/foundation of ALL concepts -- i.e. ALL clearly linked to directly observable overt behavior PATTERNS); and thus, given all those characteristics, there are hypotheses that are clearly verifiable/falsifiable .
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Brad Jesness,
Isn't looking at the phenomenon from different angles provide us with better understanding of it?
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
7 answers
Loneliness comes with a staggering 26% increase in risk of premature mortality, where around a third of people in industrialized countries are affected [1]. Can and should artificial intelligence be used to counteract this negative trend? If so, where do you see its potential? Detection, Prevention, Therapy… ?
[1] Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S. The growing problem of loneliness. Lancet. 2018 3;391(10119):426
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
How do we really measure environmental perception? And how do we measure relationship of environmental perception and associated behavior? What are the most prominent theories. It would be very helpful if some categorical answers are provided. Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Use real time study and measure the actual data.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
42 answers
I wish you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New year!
Best wishes Henrik & Ruslana
Relevant answer
Answer
Merry Christmas.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
29 answers
What do you think of this information and does the language of conspiracy exist? Analysts estimated that the revenues that "Pfizer" and "Moderna" could reap from the "Covid-19" vaccine will reach 32 billion dollars in 2021 alone. Pfizer and its German partner Biotech are set to generate nearly $ 19 billion, according to estimates by Morgan Stanley, indicating that the two companies could generate nearly $ 30 billion in vaccine revenues by the end of 2023. Pfizer expects to produce up to 1.3 billion doses of its vaccine in 2021, while Moderna expects to manufacture between 500 million and 1 billion doses.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz , this is a pertinent question. You have rightly pointed out the issue. If we carefully analysis the sequence of events that unfolded over the last one year, I suspect that there could be bigger conspiracy. This is a powerful question. Warm regards Yoganandan G
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
19 answers
What about this stage, have we returned to square one in the face of the epidemic? At a time when the United Kingdom is trying to solve the emerging coronavirus crisis and find mechanisms to distribute vaccines, a new strain of the epidemic was discovered in the country, which is believed to be the cause of the rapid spread of infection in the southeast of England, coinciding with tightening restrictions on millions of people in London.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can't win them all; a little humour goes a long way - even without a vaccine.
Lou
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
7 answers
I'd like to create a browser plugin for online shops which introduces a layer of added friction for (unnecessary) purchases before checkout. What would be the most effective way to make a consumer think twice? Any thoughts on how to approach this?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would suggest some type of delay mechanism that the user can adjust, say from 5 minutes to 24 hours. A simple time delay can provide a new perspective on the desired object. It may simply not appear as attractive after a short wait.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
22 answers
There are many statistical software tools available in the market for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Some are very expensive while some provides student version freely. Which statistical software are you using to analyze and interpret the qualitative research?
Relevant answer
Answer
Somehow the qualitative topic for this question has gotten lost, since programs like SPSS, AMOS, and Minitab only apply to quantitative analysis.
But I'm not sure what the value is of people simply giving one-line statements about which is their favorite program. All of these programs do essentially the same thing, so the best approach is to look at the extensive online tutorials for each and decide which one matches your own preferences.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
9 answers
Dear all
I want to specify random material to elements. for doing this first of all I want to create sets to elements then specify the materials tho them.
to create sets in script we should write the fallowing code I used For loop to identify all elements and define sets)
for i in range(1,(width*height)/(meshsize**2)):
mdb.models['Model-1'].parts['Part_1'].Set(elements=
mdb.models['Model-1'].parts['Biaxial'].elements..getSequenceFromMask(mask=(
'[#0 #10 ]', ), ), name='Set-'+str(i))
as you know we can not recognize masks so my question is that how can I identify Elements index(names or anything) to define sets?
special regards Sobhan
Relevant answer
Answer
In the first step, you have to mesh the part (by python scripting), in the following, count the number of elements included in your part then make random sets for each of the elements (it is possible by python and based on the number of the element, consider a name for each set). Finally, you can assign different materials to each random set (here each set is an element).
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
9 answers
The question I really wanted to "kick off" this thread:
Why would local (times/spaces) -- any number considered singly (or reflected on afterward and/or considered together in ways -- but still as they were, singly) -- ever to be thought to show what we ARE in terms of the Biology of Behavior?
One should not have such poorly contextualized thoughts but, as I will indicate, this is the nature of a lot of recognized and long-standing philosophy. Typical philosophy, not thoroughly guided by science.
I shall try to indicate how such normal experience could/should NOT be likely to reveal most-key behavioral development -- the core biological functioning of behavior.
[ FOR THIS ESSAY: Think in terms that philosophers most often think in, and a major and central kind of behavior psychologists think about: thinking itself; and, think of that specifically AS IT ADVANCES IN MAJOR WAYS, and thus specially in qualitative shifts leading to significant new ways to imagine and conceptualize. ]
The beginning question (at the top of the body of this essay) is basically to ask: can we conjure up the very nature of a major biological system, THAT BEING THE BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF OUR OVERT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS (as it unfolds with ontogeny)? Can we do this just by "force of will" or strong intent, finding exactly that which is key in experience (during ontogeny/development) as it emerges? I say, no. That would not be well-adaptive, for one thing; we don't want to rely on OUR precision, but rather our "body's" ability to HAVE precision: somehow "in" developing some CORE (key aspects) of behavior patterns which, specifically, are the core of new qualitative ways of thinking . Such important new aspects are likely possible because of some added precision (true discriminativeness and realized similarities) "reflected" in some memory capacities, as knowledge develops (or, more accurately, HAS developed). AND, THEN, as we, with our capacities are exposed to "more" , in key important situations/circumstances, those faculties 'see' more (we would say, in today's psychology terms: “more enters working memory”).
How have Western philosophers done on such matters? How have they addressed this?
Western philosophy: how could one criticize this? Here's a major general way: A major topic and abiding concern in that field is about thought, esp. thought about thought; but, this and other matters pondered, are characterized by precisely the LIMITED phenomenology of OUR thinking (and just what-all that does), AS DONE, IN EFFECT, "LOCALLY".
But what's the problem? What else do we have? Oh, the woe of those who do not know:
We have good knowledge of the nature of, AND limitations of, some central faculties (the Memories) -- good science data here; considering THAT, we have the ability to compare situations/responses looking for cross-situational/circumstances differences and cross-situational/circumstances similarities WITH THAT KNOWLEDGE AND PERSPECTIVE GUIDING US. This is NOW NOT the phenomenology of raw experience, though it is clearly related to such experience -- and MUST be related to such experiences -- but now to "track" or go "beyond" the phenomenology of local (times/spaces) experience. This gives us a way, and a legitimate way if we are fully empirically grounded (and know how to stay that way), to detect changes, NOT JUST those DUE TO regular ("local") experiences, but others related to, or due to, other behavior pattern changing, indicated by "clues" through/by/with our knowledge.
Why might this be important? Because: what we ARE, in/with our behavior patterns, may well be beyond any particular experiences AS WE ACTUALLY EXPERIENCE THEM -- beyond the regular (ordinary, usual, normal) PARTICULAR local experiences. Sound strange?; it's not. Ask yourself:
Is there any reason we should expect that we are so smart that we can actually see or detect the ultimate mechanisms of the biology of behavior? I think NOT. But, with our abstracting, reflective abilities and good knowledge of major faculties/capacities (and of changes in the content, and in the organization, that occur there), we can get an idea of what species-typical or species-specific qualitative changes might well occur over ontogeny AT KEY POINTS.
That way, we can ask: what sort of changes in behavior patterns (think of: changes in thinking) are in accord with biological principles and consistent with the way biology is (or may be), AS IT COULD OPERATE, and those maybe contributing to aspects of behavior that WE, AS SENTIENT BEINGS, CANNOT DIRECTLY (wholely-as-it-is-relevant) "fully" experience, in our normal ways. YET I assert also, that the biology of behavior CAN be realized INDIRECTLY by making differentiations and comparisons across key circumstances (of thought -- when the topic is cognitive development, as it is here), SOMEHOW using what we do already know (from behavioral science, and often NOT from normal experience). If all is done in a correct way, we will generate the testable empirical hypotheses.
Though the whole phenomenon (that is, all aspects) of qualitative change may not all be something we experience explicitly (or, at least, as something that seems at all notable in thought), we could hypothesize mechanisms of the qualitative change in some of these very aspects of overt behavior . Again, these not fully obvious or obvious for what-they-are because some key aspects of the qualitative developments of thinking are not directly obvious that way (in regular experience): these are likely exactly some of (or some aspects of) those behavior patterns AT THE INCEPTION of the “new” which is central to and resulting in NEW developments and new cognitive abilities. THEN, the question should be: what aspects of behavior patterns could be involved which may well be sufficient but not disruptive?; are any of these not only overt, but detectable and in some way measurable, given our present technological prowess? I say yes, yes. Specifically here, I assert: "Perceptual shifts", BEING the innate guidance, as aspects of important learning-related experiences (but not typical learning), may be there and suffice. [ These "perceptual shifts" could well be the development of "time-space-capacity availability" (i.e. basically "GAPS" of-a-nature in visual-spacial memory due to development , i.e. with the integrations and consolidations THAT come with development and HAVE ALREADY OCCURRED). ]
This would result in "looking" at key aspects/parts and CONTEXTS in new ways (new real concrete 'parts' of situations or combinations of 'parts' of real concrete situations). BUT: "looking at" does not likely or necessarily REQUIRE that this immediately results in “seeing more", but just sets up an orientation, used again (and again) in similar circumstances to see "the more", when there is "the more" to see and we are not to much otherwise occupied to see it. [ Here, the "looking at" I am talking about, may seem to be of the scientist who is doing the studying. Though this may be, in some senses, similar, this paragraph is describing the developing Subject, at major points in ontogeny. ]
About one engaged in good developmental psychology science: While our new way of thinking about things now can be, in a sense, of an "non-local" nature, the relevant aspects of the environment (circumstances) are never as such, but rather that which is with us (the Subject) and before us (the Subject) in the concrete real world: either as important context OR that important context with newly important content.
[ Do not be surprised to see edits to this essay for a while.]
P.S. The above is what I am all about. If you want large papers and hundreds of pages of essay, related to this, see:
and
Relevant answer
Answer
Philosophy and science are the tow sides of a coin! To be a scientist one should have the ability to philosophize and to be a good philosopher one should rely on rational thought emanating from empirical evidence! So it would be better to say that 'science without philosophy' and 'philosophy without science' is useless! Similar to the Word of Jesus that 'salt without its saltiness' is worthless!
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
8 answers
There is NO 'proximate' without absolute discovery.
Not a question for me (I've answered it with full, real, strict empiricism -- observational "anchors" ALWAYS, clear and INVOLVED -- for/in EVERY CONCEPT, ETC.). It is also not a discussion for me but, rather, for literally/practically EVERYONE ELSE (see previous sentence). You may well be only 900 pages away from knowing the what and the how. (At the same time, I will show you the best (and most real) PARSIMONY; it may be VERY hard for you -- it is hard to "escape" and grow up.)
Identifying a pattern simply and clearly DOES NOT GIVE SOMETHING CAUSAL STATUS (e.g. simple learning patterns -- yeh, they are THERE but in any specific important circumstance/situation do not DESCRIBE the real GROUND of WHAT IS (AND HAS) GONE ON -- they are simply NOT the full crux of anything (not the only thing involved in any crucial juncture); <-- Not, IN THE FINAL ANALYSIS, ANY THING LIKE A PROXIMATE CAUSE. hopeless, hopeless, hopeless If the simple "learning" explanations had been good, they would have "stuck" 40 years ago (e.g. with Charles Brainerd)) .
Over-generalization because of academia's permanent inability to connect with Reality (at any crucial point, WHICH WILL BE THROUGH DIRECT OBSERVATIONS). "It" maybe "is and ever shall be", but it is just crap (thinking doing too much of "the job" in some sick, but real, sense). [ P.S. I, too, see learning (NOT one type of thing) as always involved. ]
Here is the main guidance you need to start (the OTHER guidance noted is also necessary for specifics, for specific testable (verifiable/falsifible) HYPOTHESES): READ: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286920820_A_Human_Ethogram_Its_Scientific_Acceptability_and_Importance_now_NEW_because_new_technology_allows_investigation_of_the_hypotheses_an_early_MUST_READ and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329428629_Essentially_all_Recent_Essays_on_Ethogram_Theory (basically a BOOK) and https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory (see the Project Log of this Project to see many important Updates.) ALSO, not among the 200 pages of major papers and 512 pages of essays in my "BOOK", above (which you already have been directed to), the following link gets you to 100 more pages of worthwhile essays composed after the 512 page BOOK: these are addenda: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331907621_paradigmShiftFinalpdf (you CAN find the pdf at this last link, though it may take a little careful looking). And, similarly, see the other 2 addenda .
Relevant answer
Answer
Sorry for many hours of editing (basically additions); I am old and tired and may not say all that should/must be said on "first try". My 900 pages of recent writings (2015 - 2019) give many good (likely valid) perspectives and much perspective [overall] . ALL the writings are available here on researchgate.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
36 answers
The theories ofthe great Carl Rogers, do you still consider them relevant today? Why? Why not?
Relevant answer
Answer
Rogerian psychology create an atmosphere of psychological safety within the counseling relationship which is relevant and applicable today. Rogers believed the therapist should have unconditional positive regard for the client – that is, not judge the client’s character. If the client feels that his/her character is being evaluated, he/she will put on a false front or perhaps leave therapy altogether.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
Hello there!
Have you ever wondered if you’re making the right decisions? Or, if your choices reflect who you are and what you want from life?
Well, help me find it out.
If interested, you need to fill in this survey: https://lnkd.in/gAT44GK It’s quite intense as it unravels a quite complicated matter. Still, your participation is not only going to help me but the entire scientific community willing to understand how we can be our better versions.
For your attention, thank you! And, for your participation, double thank you! - Don’t forget to share this survey with your family and friends. With more people involved, better to predict correlations!
Happy Holidays!
Kindest Regards,
Ingrid de Moraes
Relevant answer
Answer
I always make the right decisions at night, perhaps because I have Nectofolia syndrome.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
5 answers
With so many permutations of so many diverse "things": the only way to provide a general alternative better view AND APPROACH will be WITH a full-fledged paradigm shift:
What is offered must have a host of better characteristics and better ways, all related clearly to a better empiricism. [ SPECIFICALLY: I am speaking of/for PSYCHOLOGY -- the number of characters allowed in a title didn't allow for the inclusion of that full phrase (though the same type of thing may at times be required by other sciences) .]
A full-fledged PARADIGM CHANGE: Better assumptions; stricter & very established/agreeable and actual empiricism, well-defined, with a definition true for ALL sciences; better KEY BEHAVIORAL foundations/clear grounding (in terms of: behavior patterns) for all cognitive processes; clear NEW observations sought (i.e. major discoveries sought) VIA NEW observation methods; & with clear better-empirical verifiable/falsifiable HYPOTHESES . This is what I seek to offer with :
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory-A-Full-Fledged-Paradigm-Shift-for-PSYCHOLOGY (see its major References and the Project Log (Updates) for this Project; the major References, hundreds of pages long, will provide you with a perspective and approach -- a "how-to" FOR all of that. Given its better empiricism, a concrete basis is also provided for General Artificial Intelligence -- all that is found and seen can be "mechanized", is programmable.)
[ This all is VERY serious "business"; it really is an all-or-nothing proposition. If you see major problems with large portions of Psychology throughout its history, you better "go with" what I present; otherwise the long-standing situation WILL remain the same; I think you may well be able to imagine how and why that could be true (all the various myths of how things [otherwise] could/will come together NOT WITHSTANDING -- these are true myths, not based on any empiricism). ]
Relevant answer
Nice Dear Jonathan Y. Tsou
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
24 answers
What are the coping mechanisms for patients with mental disorders during the quarentine period?
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a paper written by Brooks & co-authors (2020) with a review and analysis of 24 researches on psychological effects of quarantines. It was a very helpful study for me and for my research.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
25 answers
Male squash bees choose to sleep/rest in pumpkin/squash flowers.  Perhaps the microclimate within wilting flowers provides temperature cues to male squash bees that make the flowers attractive and cause the male bees to become more sedate.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, this year 2020, we will be restarting this work (if you read a previously posted answer to this from me, the system added some nonsense that I couldn’t delete/edit) on commercially grown Cucurbita peso (pepo not autoincorrect peso). If others are interested in being part of a team from anywhere in the world, we can share ideas and collaborations.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Hi all!
I have performed a behavioral test (visual cliff) and i want to classify the mouse location in 3 different parts of the arena, I want to be able to extract cumulative time, latency to first, frequency and etc.
I was wondering if anyone knew about a free software similar to Ethovision that would allow me to manually score this test?
Thanks in advance!
Gidi
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
You can use some options like:
Xplorat, this software allows you to create environments and landscape as you need, however, this software does not track automatically animal position but let you register cumulative time, latency and so on in every part of the arena that you programmed.
Another option that you can try is a plugin "AnimalTracker" for imagej (collaborative project form NIH), with this software you are able to track and record some behavior automatically but the software interface is not user-friendly. The main advantage is that you can install imagej in several operating systems.
Best
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
2 answers
Hi all,
I have a set of open field test in which i want to detect grooming, supported rearing and unsupported rearing behavior.
Ethovision XT was somewhat OK for the grooming but couldn't correctly identify supported and unsupported rearing.
Does anyone know of a free opensource software that will be able to do this?
the tests are shot from above.
Thanks!
Gidi
Relevant answer
Answer
Check out this recent review from the DLC Lab 10.1016/j.conb.2019.10.008 . They have a good overview of open source behavior tools, maybe you will find something. From the top of my head, i would say MotionMapper has a mouse version on GitHub that might do the trick, altough i never tried Grooming.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
I tried using structural equation modeling to analysis a cross sectional design study data. The dependent variable is categorical (Dichotomous), I have 8 latent variables in my model (independent variables measured by scales), and 2 observed independent variables. The model fit results are: CFI/ TLI: 0.745/ 0.727, RMSEA: 0.046, number of free parameters: 162.
I also tried to modify my model based on the model modification results, but there was still no improvement in the model fitting result.
Do you have any suggestions to deal with this weak fit model? The software I used for analysis is Mplus version 7.4.
Thank you for giving any comments!
Relevant answer
Answer
You can put a graph to help you, the error covariance is to correlate the errors of measurement of the factors or indicators of the model that seem to have the same source of error for semantic reasons of writing or same correlation, etc.
Saris, W.E, Satorra, A., & van der Veld, W.M. (2009). Testing Structural Equation modeling or detection of misspecifications? Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 561–582.doi: 10.1080/10705510903203433.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
5 answers
There have been many emotion space models, be it the circumplex model or the PANA model or the Plutchik's wheel. But all of them are used to represent human emotions in an emotion space. The definitions for arousal and valence are easy to interpret as human beings as we have some understanding of pleasant/ unpleasant or intense/non intense stimuli. However, how can we define the same for a robot? What stimuli should be considered as Arousing and what should be Pleasant for a robot? I am interested in reading the responses from researchers in the field and having a discussion in this area. Any reference to relevant literature would also be highly appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
I am investigating the role of histone modification during hippocampal memory formation. It is the best if I could perform contextual fear conditioning on mice. However, we unfortunately do not have equipment for this.
We have following equipments/apparatus on site;
- open field
- radial arm maze
- y/t maze
- morris water maze
Is there any behavioural test that could substitute fear conditioning test? (with limited equipments seen above or potentially we can purchase if settings are less expensive.)
It'll be also very helpful if you could suggest me any articles.
Kind regards,
Yuka
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Yuka,
There is no substitute for contextual fear conditioning if you want to investigate contextual fear conditioning... but if you want to focus on hippocampus-dependent memory (not necessarily *fear*), you can use the water maze for spatial tasks.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
6 answers
If Psychology continues (even thoughtlessly) with its baseless, unproven, and (actually) UNLIKELY-true (i.e. likely false) core assumptions, won't just a lot of very poor research be done and none good ? Here is something so you can just see the "tip of the iceberg":
Psychology theorists/researchers do not find behavior patterns of a biological nature (showing biological patterning); even more telling is that the VERY RARELY even use the phrase "behavior PATTERNS" -- which absolutely MUST be the way it is. THIS ALONE MAKES THE CASE OF THE CLOSED-OFF AND ARTIFICIAL NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGY AND HOW IT IS NOT A SCIENCE.
[( By the way : If you want to see what a real paradigm shift looks like -- THE paradigm shift -- then see the papers and writings on Ethogram Theory (under my Profile). (Beyond Kuhn.))]
[(As Psychology continues its extreme negligence, I can provide equally extreme well-founded criticism (and put it all down in writing, with all the reasoning and justification -- much better assumptions and arguments than they can mount). I guess its a "standoff": but its me vs [who-knows-who, the heck, or their numbers] -- they certainly might be characterized as cowards, at least in "these parts" (MT).)]
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
I am cunducting an experiment in which t have successfully removed phosphorus in the form of hydroxyapatite. My experimental results showed that the reaction might be diffusion contrlolled("Shrinking core model" in particular) and modelling also confirms the result.
I will be highly grateful if anyone kindly provide me with any relevant information.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest tyat you look at the papers describing formation of nanoclusters during precipitation of CaCO3
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
What is the nature of fundamental requirements for one to conceive and develop General Artificial Intelligence (AGI)?
I would think, at the core, would be a modeling of the great adaptations of the actual human itself: its body , its senses, its responsiveness-es, its abilities, AND the abilities in cognition (representation and processing) that develop progressively and over EACH stage of ontogeny (largely: ages 0 - 18 yr. old) -- and with the latter influencing not only thought, but other responsiveness-es (e.g. the emotions; in other words, then: emotional development).
Now, you can start and stay with a good understanding of the human OR you can see the human as you see it and actualize your own hypothetico-deductive systems to have it progress in all relevant behavioral abilities.
Let's say you pick the first of these options (which I think is wise). Then what you need is a basic understanding of the human: human body, human senses, human responsiveness-es, and human abilities (INCLUDING those making "qualitative leaps" in their developments, during ontogeny -- these latter making up much of the "cognitive system", which can be conceived as the most-major AND central organizing system (as Piaget did) for all significant behavior patterns). Given all this, what else is needed? :
It should be clear that ALL faculties/basic abilities and responsiveness-es AND representation-and-thought abilities (including those "higher abilities": which "emerge" , unfold and develop with ontogeny) MUST BE GROUNDED CONCRETELY, specifically: clearly related to directly observable overt phenomena (behavior patterns). ALL OF IT.
Unless so-concretely "seen" (seen as at least related to key clear overt or overt-and-developing behavior patterns), it will not be possible to "mechanize" (here: program a machine) without being one with god-like insights. In other words, there will be NO AGI WITHOUT at least a basic (TESTABLE) understanding of ALL these fundamental behavior patterns (and their concrete "anchors", BOTH THOSE patterns continuing or now presently active, AND those key behaviors-and-circumstances active _AS_ the KEY POINTS of KEY DEVELOPMENTAL HAPPENINGS -- these creating new unfolding, lasting, and expanding representations and abilities). (These latter are also understood as clearly relating to some most-important directly observable concrete phenomena (behavior patterns, with corresponding situational aspects) and thus these also being "anchors" and, by virtue of some clear significant ongoing/continuing effects, they CONTINUE to be "anchors").
Now, does this mean the AGI developer needs no good thinking of just his own? NO. Unrefined inductive understandings (guesses) may be tested. And, proximate causal-type relationships can be hypothesized between THIS behavior pattern and THAT (even using some good hypothetico-deductive system, BUT this system must AT LEAST PRINCIPLED, IN TERMS OF LIFE (BIOLOGICAL) PRINCIPLES (e.g. a basic one: homeostatis)) [(I also suggest using the terminology of classical ethology, presented as-to-be-used in my earliest long paper.)]
The great news, of course, is: AGI People can test their overall system major-aspect-tried by major-aspect-tried over and over and thus be much facilitated in making corrections.
Now, what may be your final question: Where does one find such a wholly empirically-based, concrete-based understanding of behavior patterns/responses TO BEGIN WITH. Answer: I do my best to offer such a system through my "Developing a Usable Empirically-Based Outline of Human Behavior for FULL Artificial Intelligence (and for Psychology)" PROJECT and my " Human Ethology and Development (Ethogram Theory) : A Full-Fledged Paradigm for PSYCHOLOGY" PROJECT. And, I believe, that considered for being in the most-empirical terms and the most-concrete terms, the writings associated with these Projects are the best offered today. **
Start at my Profile, Brad Jesness and then look for those 2 just-named Projects (and see all Log Entries, aka Updates under them). Also see and read:
and
and, when reading
, also see the Project Log of this Project to see many important Updates.
P.S. Plus, for a final 100 pages of recent essays (not among the 512 pages in the collection of recent essays, you already have been directed to), yet also very worthwhile essays composed after the 512 -page Collection , see them in this pdf: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331907621_paradigmShiftFinalpdf
** FOOTNOTE: ** IMPORTANT NEWS ** : I recently presented summaries of my "system" that clearly indicate 2 types of basic and likely needed (and real) CONSTANTS: some constancy of our Memories faculties (on the more-purely endogenous "side") AND some constancy OF THE PROCESSES always involved in learning and development (most clearly and presently involving aspects of the external world), these simply based on the fact that the simple, well-defined FORMS of associative learning are intimately and always involved in all behavior pattern change (NOTE, here, that what is constant IS THE FORM, which otherwise differs enough in content to be seen (or have to be seen) as "different"). (Also NOTE: the constancies of the Memories seem also at least mostly a matter of "forms", though some clear abiding numerical limits (properly delimited) may [always] apply here and there (everywhere?) -- and, thank goodness for the latter: because we likely need somewhere always in the system some complete certainty, i.e. to some numerical degree.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ejembi Onah
One neither can, nor needs to, "understand how the brain works" -- just THAT it does work and THAT is shown in the behavior patterns produced in response to environmental aspects -- both (the behavior patterns and environmental aspects) continuously progressing and accruing (and, also, along with these: the Memories changing and progressing). AND, there are KEY "times" (circumstances) where the types of things (levels of concepts) possible make great leaps (during ontogeny) -- these are major achievements in terms of all the terms just mentioned and related to the emergence and development of qualitatively new ways of perceiving and then _attending_.
There is NO WAY to "understand" the brain except IN THE VERY TERMS of BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, etc. (with the great assist of development (ontogeny) -- the outline of this ontogeny described by me in detail, elsewhere in my MANY ESSAYS (800 pages) -- those essays also describing the changes in all the other things I noted, in a more integrated and detailed manner). To continue: Behavior patterns, etc. including: understanding the associated developments of the Memories (the Memories being EXPERIENCE ITSELF) AND understanding how the set of environmental aspects, as subjects of attention, allow all the aspects (associated with each and all terms, noted above) to differ and develop and accrue over child development (ontogeny). SEE: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Alternative_to_JUST_neuroscience_JUST_BEHAVIOR_Patterns for more.
As a mental exercise:
Please try to explain how other than through behavior patterns and responses that one could "understand the brain" -- it is like a bowl of jello, showing patterns of electrical activity, all related to, and only understandable (otherwise) by, behavior patterns and responses.
Dear Hang Song
Same message to you, except it seems you may have some appreciation for memory (which is actually: the Memories, and that being experience itself). Otherwise all my remarks above are relevant to you as well.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Since Generalized AI has no human brain, they must be aware of all pertinent "external" behavior patterns and behavior pattern markers AND effective environmental aspects: Ethogram Theory with its body of 500+ pages of recent supporting essays (following some early, courser, yet must-read, foundational papers) provides just this, focusing only on clear behavior patterns and environmental aspects AND AS THEY UNFOLD WITH ONTOGENY -- ALL with "external" (directly observable overt) aspects AND environmental contingencies (including sophisticated Memories, for context; YET: ALL aspects, in good part, at-least-one-time-seen or clearly indicated OVERTLY).
But also see the Ethogram Theory Project and all its References and Updates (in the Project Log): https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory
For General AI to use Psychology, this is the only choice. It is also a clear and parsimonious choice and fully empirically based/founded/grounded (and complete for having/providing for the full basic foundation/base "containing" cognitive-developmental hierarchical system).
ALSO: This is also completely good for Psychology as well, for a good perspective, approach, and good hypotheses -- BETTER THAN THIS FIELD HAS NOW. I now turn to AI because Psychology is not sufficiently empirically based or "driven" to be this way. (I turn to others who must understand and 'see" behavior patterns correctly and have good empirical testable hypotheses, such as I provide ; perhaps, again, Psychology will find itself FOLLOWING information-processing.)
Relevant answer
Answer
What would you mean by an AI brain and what would differ it from a human one?
There are 4 patterns for an AI agent: to think like human, to act like human, to think ranionally and to act rationally.
We have seen asimo or sofia humanoids that can communicate and interact with humans and answer and make questions rationally. I believe that if we have come to a point where the self-referenced systems would be able to recreate other systems, agents would be close to human attributes.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Background:
Professional-school student with extensive ACE (child adverse events) history along with severe depression and anxiety diagnosed over previous year, presented with recent severe ADHD (I-Type) diagnosis at age 26.
Documentation confirmed maximum dose step therapy for various Amphetamine-based stimulants was completed but still not found to be fully affective.
Unexpectedly, they are currently prescribed daily 50mg Mydayis (Mixed salts of single-entity amphetamine product) along with 80mg Prozac, and consumming 300-400mg of caffeine.
Due to initial medication-only use producing very minimal stabilizing effects, but found to increase at re-introduction of SSRI and further increase with Caffeine reintroduction.
No adverse effects (cardiac, neuromuscular, neurocognitive) have been reported/measured in 4 months of aforementioned therapeutic combination.
NOTE: Adverse reaction to methylphenidate-based medications were identified early on.
Assessment of (remaining) presenting symptoms seems to overlap with tentatively defined SCT Criteria.
NOTE: Student has never been prescribed Strattera (only presently confirmed SCT-symptom relief medication)
Specific question:
Recent research has shown SCT + ADHD to correlate with much greater impairment in adults, do you think a combination of severe ADHD + SCT may result in required use of excess pharmacotherapy dosages that surpass established safe therapeutic/combination parameters?
Relevant answer
Answer
Remember both PTSD and major depression can produce significant cognitive impairment including issues with attention equal to ADHD.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Good Morning,
I am looking in NDT test such as ultrasound in bituminous mixtures, which is a special materials with viscoelastic behavior, this viscosity provide a delay between force applied and deformation response. creating a complex behavior expressed in complex modulus
Most ultrasound test in elastic construction materials such as concrete which make the Wave Propagation (W.P) less complex and more simple. some research propose a different formula for P and S wave propagation in bituminous materials
So i am looking for physicist who can explain me the different between W.P in both materials (concrete VS bituminous mixture)
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mohammed - It's quite difficult working with viscoelastic materials e.g, bitumen at ultrasonic frequency (small band). Frankly, you can not extract too much of the information. Look at this paper for shear wave reflection from bitumen (and references within)
I've another paper in press that in fact discusses the ultrasonic P-wave propagation through bitumen. It talks about the complex modulus of bitumen.
Hope this helps!
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
6 answers
I am thinking of Psychology researchers and theorists. Is it their duty to science to investigate the possibilities of important new tools and possible discoveries that involve empiricism at its best: attempting direct observation of possible/likely important overt behaviors, heretofore not seen?
For example, IN PARTICULAR:
Relevant answer
Answer
Duty, obligation or responsibility lies on the shoulders of intellectuals in all fields including psychology to promote, improve and update knowledge base to their particular disciplines.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
5 answers
.Quranic schools are environments of Arabic grammar, which the learner learns.
المدارس القرآنية تعد بيئات للانغماس اللغوي في العربية، مما يساد المتعلم في تعلمها.
Relevant answer
Answer
أعتقد أن للتعليم القرآني عموما سواء أكان عبارة عن مدارس نظامية أم في صورة كتاتيب وزوايا وحلقات مسجدية ...إلخ دورا هاما في تعليم العربية وترسيخ ملكتها لدى منتسبي هذا النوع من التعليم، وذلك من خلال البيئة الاصطناعية من الانغماس في النص القرآني سماعا وتكرارا وتدبرا وحفظا ... مما يساعد على عملية الاكتساب للغة وإن لم تكن مقصودة عينا، وهو ما تؤكده النظرية السلوكية في تعليم وتعلّم اللغات، وغيرها من النظريات مثل نظرية تشوكمسكي العقلية ونظرية الفطرة والممارسة لعبد الدنان...إلخ
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
If a very high % of higher ed. students think: "open my brain and just pour the knowledge in" we may be doomed in discovering things for bad sciences (with no one willing to look at whole systems of understanding -- though they do not work).
There has always been a disturbing % of students (including ones who have become professors) that had this basic attitude and approach. Now, in this iPhone, etc age, it seems the % may have reached "critical mass" for hopelessness.
The good news: one or a few people could process a whole new system and investigate it (these students being among some very rare subset). These students (several) could make entire good careers out of such work. They may well occupy some seats on a plane to Oslo some day too. AND:
Frankly: analytic professors OWE THE WHOLE WORLD SUCH ANALYSIS for penance for their false persuading assertions that have messed up behavioral science FOR 100 YEARS !!
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with you that independent research and study are the keys to all difficulties
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
At Volunteer Science; we build collaboration among scientists from leading research universities (including Harvard University, University of Chicago, Northeastern University, and Northwestern University) to expand the tools available for social and behavioral research.
We would like to see if you/your faculty would be interested in running group experiments in their classes.
The basic idea is the faculty would spend 10-30 min of class time playing a specific game. We can provide some teaching material faculty can use to lead a class discussion.
Our experiments can be working in a social science class, business school class (particularly management, strategy, or industrial/organizational psychology, or computer/information sciences classes focusing on HCI, social data, or networking.
Please let me know if you're interested in knowing more about Volunteer Science.
For more information, please feel free to check out attached document or send me a message or e-mail: kehinde_bello@volunteerscience.com.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Ivan, I'll visit these sites and tell you my impression.
Thank you for your email.
With all my best,
Samah.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Models and [ non-concrete * ] Mechanisms: Don't they seem to have the same problems with respect to actual phenomenology and what is real?
Maybe they are temporarily necessary, but should be avoided and should be bettered (AND REPLACED) as good research progresses. If this betterment does not happen, you are not doing at least some of the essential research (likely observational). PERIOD.
Isn't it possible that the best understanding is just the knowledge of, and understanding of, SEQUENCES? (Of course these can be "made sense" of, within the "whole picture", i.e. the greater overall understanding -- and there is "purpose" or direction to each behavior pattern [in the sequences].)
{ ALL this increases the key role (and sufficiency) of all the simple [ basically known ] sorts of associative learning ALONG WITH OUR SEVERAL SORTS OF MEMORIES. "Outside" of innate guidance WITH PERCEPTION/ATTENTION (including innate guidance in later stages/periods of development, with behavioral ontogeny) (and this innate guidance being WITH the simple learnings and Memories) AND their consequences with behavior patterns: the well-understood simple learnings may ultimately provide "the 'glue' for 'the whole story'" , otherwise -- i.e. other than the key "driven" directly observable sequences **.
AND NOTE: NO need whatsoever for special sorts of theorist/researcher-defined types of learning, e.g. "social learning", etc.. NO need for ANY of the "metas", presently a major homunculus.
This perspective "conveniently" has the advantage of be conceptualizable and is able to be clearly communicated -- requirements of ANY good science. It is within our abilities (as adults, at least at particular times) to actually 'see', i.e. to have and to provide REAL UNDERSTANDINGS. In my view, the other "choices" seem not to have these distinct characteristics (so, the perspective above is either true OR we all may well be "screwed").
* FOOTNOTE: "Concrete" meaning: with clear, completely observable correspondents; AND, likewise for models, with any promise (of progress and replacement).
** FOOTNOTE: "Directly observable" meaning: can be seen (and agreed upon AS SEEN) IN OVERT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS (AT LEAST AT KEY TIMES, e.g. with the inception of new significant behavior patterns).
--------------------------
P.S. This (above essay) may seem "self-serving", since I have a theory putting all of the positions/views above TOGETHER cogently and with clear testable/verifiable(refutable) HYPOTHESES (using modern technologies, eye-tracking and computer-assisted analysis). See:
See especially:
AND
the Comments to (under) the second-to the-newest Update on the Project page: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory (for EVERYTHING)
Relevant answer
Answer
If you want to come to better know the very uncertain meaning of today's "mechanisms" (and related models), see:
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Hi,
I am going to model the farmer behavior to find how he reacts to some factors. I found that I should use descriptive decision model based on questionnaires. But I don't know how to validate the accuracy of the proposed model? For example I want to model how farmers make decision about time of irrigation. how can I find the accuracy of the model? I think ti's not possible to watch some farmers and record their irrigation time. Besides it's not possible to find the irrigation time based on groundwater table fluctuation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Logistic regression may help to solve your research question. Regards,
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
27 answers
It seems to me that working memory (involving the episodic buffer AND some -- to all the types -- of the Memories) is constantly at work and is our very experience itself.
Thus, I cannot see how the Memories (with at least some of them always active, determining and "recording" experience -- which most prominently and significantly active, dependent on circumstances) can be considered something separate from our knowledge OR our knowing OR our awareness OR our conscious being (all those: inclusively), i.e. as ANYTHING ever considerable as separate from experience itself.
Correct? Seems to me such a dualism would be a most-major problem. (This may be the biggest and perhaps primary dualism of them all, in reality (phenomenologically), though the nature/nurture dualism may seem worse -- but the latter may be somehow related to the former and even may have to be somehow related.)
Yet, we do seem to talk about "them" (the Memories, usually called "memory") at times as just one aspect of who we are (we seeing ourselves somehow as more than that "one 'aspect'")(and "memory" as sometimes something to consider, and other times not), don't we? (BUT: Wouldn't this be delusion "incarnate"?)
In short, we never "just are" (nor are we in any other way): these mechanisms having capacities and capabilities are ALWAYS at "work" since we ARE biological beings, in every way (like other animals) and at all times.
The Memories are central to good psychology understanding (or progress) and to good science in this "realm". The other major consideration (to have any generally good understanding of our reality/animal reality) is innate-guidance of behavioral development (especially throughout ontogeny); and, the question becomes : how does the innate-guidance aspects of behavior emerge along with (or, actually: "in") our other behavior patterns?; the fact of the always-present Memories can be an indication of the "acceptable" integral nature of emerging innate-guidance and why "perceptual shifts" become by far the likely candidates for what they (innately-guided behavioral aspects), along with other relevant behavior patterns, look like and ARE (<- including the "automatic" nature of our reality due to the past developments of the Memories and those "bringing forward" the very nature of what a good part of our reality looks like and IS).
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Brad,
Through the lens of functionalism, we can say that memory cannot be fully appreciated without understanding the context in which it was formed. This is not an easy question to explore; nevertheless, it is an important one. The nervous system, indeed the entire body, acts as an integrated whole. Therefore, memory must play an important role in maintaining the integrity of that whole. How memory was formed may implicitly or explicitly play a role in how and when it will be used. Context, hence, must play an important role.
This will be a meaningful dialogue to engage in and I hope to hear back from you. Please take a look at the meta-analytic study by Smith and Vela (2001), which I have attached so that we can use some shared language for future conversations.
Best wishes,
Micah
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
23 answers
How can you take or recommend a view or approach that will NEVER have any direct evidence?
Embodiment has NO direct evidence for it (OR any direct evidence even clearly related to it) **, and never will: it is worse than bad science:   it is not even science:  see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303890892_The_poverty_of_embodied_cognition
Article The poverty of embodied cognition (full text at: link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-015-0860-1 Add the https:// yourself, so RG does not hijack the link AND DIRECT YOU TO JUST THE ABSTRACT)
See also my Comments below the Project "declaration" (seen in the very top of this post).
** FOOTNOTE: This is to such an extent, that "embodiment 'theory'" or "enactivism" will technically NEVER be able to present an acceptable [scientific] hypothesis. Good approaches do a LOT of clear hypothesizing.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Pete Boltuc
No one has been able to SHOW that physics is relevant to psychology, or to much Biology, in general. Just because 2 things exist and are real does not mean they are sensibly relatable (with our 'seeing' and thinking). Even Kuhn recognized that connecting 2 apparently separate sciences requires (minimally) a "bridge"; you seem to have no appreciation for that .
I shall never learn any more physics. I know I do not need it.
All who have tried to connect physics to human behavior have seemed silly, irrational, or insane.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
7 answers
There have been several learning theorists now that speak of non-associative influences on learning. Here are some quotes from a few:
(My important Comments follow the quotes, below.)
QUOTES From "Three Ways That Non-associative Knowledge May Affect Associative Learning Processes" by Thorwart abd Livesly:
"While Mitchell et al. (2012) favored an explanation purely based on conscious reasoning processes, where participants deliberately attend to the cues they believe are important, a viable alternative is that attentional processes are brought under conscious control and thus let non-associative knowledge influence the course of subsequent learning."
"In some circumstances, associative activation of the outcome may form the strongest available evidence about what is going to happen when a cue is presented, or the strongest indicator of how the individual should behave. But under other circumstances, for instance where it is very clear that a deductive reasoning process should be used, associative memory retrieval may play a relatively minor role "
"a viable alternative is that attentional processes are brought under conscious control and thus let non-associative knowledge influence the course of subsequent learning. This source of influence does not necessitate that non- associative expectations fundamentally change the operations of the associative network itself, merely what it receives"
"In addition, if non-associative knowledge can affect the way stimuli are represented then this knowledge may also change the manner in which associative retrieval generalizes from A to AB"
---------------------------
QUOTES From Mackintosh Lecture: Association and Cognition: Two Processes, One System. I.P.L. McLaren et al:
" ... does not shy away from placing associative processes at the very centre of our dual process account, and postulates that propositional processing is built upon associative foundations"
"... we are propositional entities constructed from an associative substrate."
----
QUOTE From
Moving Beyond the Distinction Between Concrete and Abstract Concepts Barsalou et al:
"Conversely, when people generate features of abstract-LIT concepts, they typically generate external elements of the situations to which they apply. "
-----------------------
My IMPORTANT COMMENTS:
Problem for these theorists/researchers is that their "new propositions", "non-associative factors" and "new generalizations" ARE INTRACTABLE. Such phenomenon seem to be inferable, indeed, but they do not have a way to find the source (any empirical grounding). Thus, these theories at present have no empirical referents at major points to "get to go where they want to go".
Well, I actually address the same things: in EFFECT providing for new propositions (used in deductions), new generalizations, and what appear to be non-associative factors. BUT, my theory sees the origin of these effects IN QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT cognitive stages, and due to "perceptual shifts". BUT, here is the REALLY GOOD NEWS: I indicate an empirical way to discover the "perceptual shifts", using new eye-tracking technology and computer-assisted analysis. I describe what to look for in enough detail to do the eye-tracking studies, during ontogeny -- at key points. Thus, my theory, which provides for the same kind of shifts in learning HAS TESTABLE HYPOTHESES. If the hypotheses of my ethogram theory are verified (and they can be is correct), we will at least have found the concrete directly observable overt behavior patterns associated WITH THE INCEPTION of that which yields the new abilities/phenomenon.
One other thing: Because the proximate cause (outside environmental factors and contextualization from the Memories -- which both can be seen as the other simultaneous proximate causes) IS "perceptual shifts" then nothing is divorced from ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING. This is also the end of the nature/nurture false dualisms. All still involves associative learning -- and no strange "non-associative" stuff.
See:
and
Also See:
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gerry Leisman
For me, I insist on finding ways to relate the types of learning and not just cite "many forms" based on indirect evidence. We need direct observational evidence of overt behavior patterns initiating (at least in their inception) the different related kinds of learning -- the many ill-defined "sub-fields" you note certainly notwithstanding.
It is important to realize that almost all findings in brain science are NOT clearly related to behavior (behavior patterns), and certainly we should not be satisfied with "behavior as you simply want to conceive or imagine it" -- which results when one is not clear on the limits to the meaning of neuroscience findings . THUS:
You simply "snip off" pieces of an imaginary "pie" and find "many things". There IS (or can be) a psychology of behavior patterns (ALL key aspects initiated in directly observable overt behavior) and as responses to corresponding environmental aspects -- those two types of things being the elements of a self contained, and coherent system, which can be discovered. If you cannot believe that, then you literally are lost. (Though, Psychology began with such a definition, no one has been able to actualize it because they do not insist on seeing behavior patterns as ALWAYS AND CLEARLY AS BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING -- YET this IS something that can be done.
Lack of present clarity OR "complexity" is no reason or excuse for not starting the field correctly, and keeping fidelity to biology.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
8 answers
I can assure you my way is empirical and all major hypotheses are directly testable (via direct observation of overt behavior patterns). It is a viable approach, with all testable hypotheses, and with explicit, well-founded and biologically-consistent assumptions behind it all. Eye-tracking technology will be needed and perhaps computer-assisted analysis. FIRST, See:
then you must see the recent LARGE Collection of Essays explicating and fully justifying my approach and clearly indicating the positive consequences and ramifications : HERE'S the BOOK:
* PLUS * : YOU MUST SEE THE COMMENT _AND_ THE 2 REPLIES TO THAT COMMENT (below the BOOK's shown text), to have all the needed specifics.
EYE-TRACKERS: If you do not want to read as much as I ask people to do above, you should be able to get a pretty good idea of what would be involved and if you could do it by just reading COMMENT _AND_ THE 2 REPLIES TO THAT COMMENT on the same page as the BOOK. (This is less than 10 pages.)
--> Can modern eye-trackers do what I clearly indicate needs to be done? <--
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Eduardo Cerqueira
I see many "several factors" answers as just a response of the ignorant. YOU DO have to establish yourself as versed in a field (through some extended study or discipline) to provide cogent or respectable answers. Please do so now, if possible (something I regard is beyond very unlikely).
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
Is the following list the characteristics of the things which are the bases of psychological understandings for General Artificial Intelligence?
The material, below, from https://www.researchgate.net/project/Developing-a-Usable-Empirically-Based-Outline-of-Human-Behavior-for-FULL-Artificial-Intelligence-and-for-Psychology "Project Goals (for General Artificial Intelligence and psychological science)" (below, slightly elaborated). (Also, this Project is where you can find additional information and "specs".)
Project Goals (for General Artificial Intelligence and psychological science)
Project strives to be:
* nothing more than needed, while WELL-ESTABLISHED, BEING ALWAYS clearly-related to the most reliable, strongest scientific findings in psychology (this is, in particular: facts and findings on the Memories)
* enough to embrace a good part of everything, providing a very likely main overall "container" -- with EVERYTHING addressed, founded on, grounded on, OR clearly "stemming" from: discovery of and direct observation of overt behavior patterns (done by providing clear and likely ways to discover the specific, direct, explicit, observable empirical foundations to qualitative cognitive stages -- something completely lacking in modern psychology otherwise). All hypotheses related to all positions (in THIS LIST and in any References) ARE testable/verifiable (at least now, with eye-tracking technologies and computer assisted analysis).
* having ALL that is needed AND which is all-concrete (explicit, specified, or FULLY defined-as-used or thusly definable), at the same time: so as to provide for Generalized Artificial Intelligence and good science, otherwise. [ There may be one seeming exception to elements being "clearly specified" : the "episodic buffer". And that can be defined "relationally", simply having a state plausibly/possibly inferred from all the [other] more concretely defined elements (with their characteristics and processes).]
* providing for self-correction and for continuous progress as science (actual psychology) (as real and good science, and good thinking, is) And, not coincidentally, providing for continuous development of the AI "robot" itself (by itself; of course: experience needed).
* consistent with current major theories to the full extent justified, but contrasted by having a better well-established set of assumptions, thoroughly justified and explicated. An integrative perspective, equally good for appropriate shifts in all theoretical perspectives (in the end, each theory allowing MORE, and being more empirical)
* proving (by amassing related evidence of) the inadequacy of current perspectives on and approaches to behavioral studies (addressing current psychology-wide pseudo-'assumptions')
* an approach which ends obviously senseless dualisms, e.g. nature/nurture; continuous/discontinuous, which just impede understanding, discovery, and progress. This is inherent in the "definitions" of elements and processes (all from observations or most-excellent research; and largely inductively inferred) .
It is good for psychology (it IS psychology) and General Artificial Intelligence, as well.
NOTE: (1) Nothing above should be seen as merely descriptive (this implies too much tied to certain situation(s) and/or to abstraction(s), always lacking true details; it also probably implies too much related to human judgment).
(2) Nothing -- no element or constellation of elements -- are operationally (as they actually come together and 'work') as envisioned only by, or in any way (at all) mainly by, human conceptualization OR human imagination.
(3) The Subject is ALL and shall be seen just as it is (at least eventually), and should always be THE guide phenomenologically at all times to move toward that goal.
I believe this is the only way our algorithms will correspond to biology and that AI will really simulate US.
[ P.S. I have tried to much more specifically direct people to answers to Questions such as above, FOR BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES in general, in my major papers here on RG (esp. "A Human Ethogram ... ") AND in my many, many essays, now most in a 328-page BOOK, Collected Essays (also on RG). General Artificial Intelligence is, in effect, a behavioral science itself. ]
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, maybe this could help you : http://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~russell/intro.html
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
Relevant answer
Answer
Many thanks, I'll look at the link.
Best
Catherine Morin
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
5 answers
One could argue that a much more empirical set of data, based on concrete and directly observable overt behavior patterns, detectable with eye-tracking technology, at key times, yet in "real time" (i.e. in then-current behavior patterns), could be used, AND HYPOTHESES DIRECTLY TESTED, as explanations for concept development. Start at the following Question:
The "sensori-motor" explanations have turned out as not well-founded and based on VERY indirect evidence, at best, and seen IN PEER REVIEW, as having "no future":
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your suggestions regarding the use of eye movements. However, I strongly disagree with your assertion that the embodiment/grounded cognition perspective is unproven and unjustified. You just have a look at several review or original papers demonstrating direct evidence for the role of the sensory-motor system in conceptual cognition. Hence, embodied/grounded cognition theories are clearly supported by sound empirical evidence. Just to mention a few examples:
Kiefer, M., & Pulvermüller, F. (2012). Conceptual representations in mind and brain: Theoretical developments, current evidence and future directions. Cortex, 48, 805-825.
Pulvermüller, F., & Fadiga, L. (2010). Active perception: Sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 351-360.
Shebani, Z., & Pulvermüller, F. (2013). Moving the hands and feet specifically impairs working memory for arm- and leg-related action words. Cortex, 49, 222-231.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
8 answers
Does our subconscious play an important role in the way we think, feel and behave and generally live (If so how?) or are there other things more important and more effective?
Relevant answer
Answer
Freud's three tier notion of the unconscious doesn't seem entirely plausible as there are other ways of exploring the ways emotion, for example, works, and how human psyche functions. Although I do believe several layers of consciousness exists and that experience and perception can be negotiated between different layers.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
29 answers
Why or why not?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
As Oscar Wild writes in his novel, " An ideal husband", “Morality is simply the attitude we adopt towards people we personally dislike.” Being an attitude , therefore, people are free to choose between morality and immorality. However, by becoming immoral, such people choose to close the doors of joy, hope, and happiness to themselves. The reason is that moralists find beautiful meanings in beautiful things. All worldly sins and abhorred models of behavior such as stealing from others and killing others are violations of moral values. By being immoral, people pave the way for their doom and stop their ascend to kind of cultivation cherished and valued by human beings in general. Moral people are the elect to whom light sides of life inspire hope and happiness.
Best regards,
R. Biria
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
24 answers
What role magnanimity can play in our social upbringing?
Relevant answer
Answer
For leaders and politicians it is essential, and has served the best leaders such as Lincoln and Churchill.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
This is real good for psychology, too -- where things also need to be clear and specified. Theory that is good for AI is simply good theory. Thus, the Project above completely "fits with" my other Project , on a human ethology (Ethogram Theory) (and the theory and hypotheses there): https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory (The theory is presented in a much more organized way in this latter Project, plus the full justification of the theory and its ramifications are made clear -- but it is a lot more to read.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Rafal Rzepka
There is a single paper with the beginning core of the perspective and the beginning justifications (about 160 pages). This is a necessary part of what needs to be read (but is yet not the full argument and has no clear specific hypotheses -- for that see the Collected Essays).:
The first main paper, above, is greatly elaborated on (including with some rather specific hypotheses) and rather fully argued for (and justified) BY the Collected Essays (a 328-page "book"):
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
I want to present you with a possible particular concrete example (instance) of a perceptual shift, i.e. the inception of a stage shift (in 'seeing' and [at first, very vaguely,] in some sense IN cognition), showing all the 4 phases of a perceptual shift for the overall process of the beginning of a qualitative stage shift part of the development of cognition -- before purely associative learning "holds sway" by itself again.
This hypothetical example comes from the ape (gorilla) social "world", from which our abilities to have progressively developing levels of concepts and thinking likely first evolved. Well, HERE IS IS:
Think of an child ape, not an infant but perhaps a mid-age-child individual. He has from his previous development a conceptual idea of the dominant (adult) male gorilla (and his behavior patterns, relating to this).
But, then he "notices" that this dominant male, at times rushes towards other adults, to seemingly show other ways to express his dominance (or other aspects of that dominance) which he has not shown before (or which the young ape has not clearly seen, noticed, or processed before).
This is the kind of thing indicating [with him, this child] innate guidance, given he has good, refined earlier knowledge: AT FIRST BEING some gap in the child ape's conceptual understanding of the OVERALL structure of this adult dominance behavior. That "gap", (phase 1) of the now first-emerging of a NEW perceptual shift, may show itself in a situation (or early situations) as just something involving automatically vaguely orienting TOWARD the key situation and behaviors (and would be shown behaviorally simply in prolonged gaze when/after this dominance phenomenon shows itself).
Soon (perhaps VERY SOON) he will better see such dominance events WHEN THEY OCCUR (because of the specific "gap" existing in his understanding); this second phase (of the perceptual shift) will show clearly: orienting to the aspects of this new-to-understand type of dominance expression (still, for the most part, not conscious).
In the third phase of the shift, he will reliably have seen regularities as he continues good orientation needed to observe things associated with this dominance event. HERE he can be said to be expressly and explicitly and consciously ATTENDING to occurrences of this event.
Finally (in the fourth phase of the shift) he will integrate the essentials into memory: facts-for-occurrence, key aspects of this dominant male's behavior (with respect to dominance behavior patterns), and key aspects of the spacial and temporal aspects ("in the world"), associated with these dominance behaviors pattern's key content in visual-spacial memory (which he will be able to play back in his mind, when NOT present in the situation where the adult male dominance behavior occurs; i.e. he can "reflect"). BUT, TO DO ALL THIS:
This fourth phase shows the development of some fact/declarative memory (basically the main static features of the dominance act and their relationships to each other, defined) -- this is the declarative/"semantic" aspect of long-term memory he has developed and is developing. Also, some procedural knowledge develops (at the same time) about how to act in response to this dominance expression (especially if his has something "to do" with he, himself): this thoroughly developed, active and automatized response (or set of responses) is the procedural aspect of long-term memory he has gained: this aspect, known as procedural memory.
Also, in the fourth phase FOR THE MOST PART, he has a record-of-incident (episode) memory which is most prominently in the visual-spacial memory which is, in an indirect way, the actual thing he is able to play back key portions of in his mind, just as he sits and thinks about this dominance phenomenon -- given the EPISODIC BUFFER. (Other key aspects [mentioned above] of long-term Memories are also determining the nature of the BUFFER and are "there". ) So, the ability to do this out-of the situation reflection, just described above, relies on (and is delimited by) the content that will be a notable part of his EPISODIC BUFFER, doing some major contextualization of his working memory (entering into it) where further, now more-simple associative learning may now continue to occur, until all the Memories (each and together) are thoroughly refined.
He no doubt will also, through cued thinking (and likely some observation) relate this aspect of his concept of dominance to other aspects at the same conceptual level (and to/with earlier conceptual levels) that are related to shows of dominance. When ALL this (all of the 4 phases and associative learning needed for refinements and concept integration) has occurred (perhaps taking a year), he will be ready to notice other greater patterns BY HAVING a new perceptual shift (that, too, with 4 similar phases) -- these are the core foundational happenings in ontogeny (aka THE proximate directly observable causes of the development of behavior patterns via perceptual shifts) and that which AGAIN allows qualitative NEW learning new ways (using a qualitatively different kind of learning, and also using well-refined aspects from earlier stages): to AGAIN further develop his representation system(s)( aka concept structure), this being related to all major aspects of the Memories and likely mostly connected with through visual-spacial memories, and all the other Memories connected to that AND USED (in the final step of cognizance) BY THE EPISODIC BUFFER; then working memory can work on new "things".
[ Full explication and justification for this approach (and the implications of this approach) can be found via :
and
Relevant answer
Answer
I should note that this perspective can be seen as finishing Piaget's theory (and that of neo-Piagetians), by defining the stage shifts (associated with Equilibration 2, qualitatively described ONLY, and not accomplished with regular accommodation). In fact, Piaget just stated the major factor behind the main stage changes was "maturation". Unfortunately, most psychologists completely overlook statements about Equilibration 2 and either do not know of it or totally neglect to mention it in any regard. In any case: THEY NEGLECT TO SEE THE STARK FACT OF THE LACK OF EXPLANATION HERE, which Piaget MORE than clearly stated; they somehow (often, and maybe always, adding in fictional executive and meta processes) explain cognitive developments just with assimilation and accommodation -- BUT THIS WAS NOT PIAGET'S VIEW (he had a qualitative idea of the situation and nature of things that would evoke Equilibration 2, BUT PROVIDED THEN ONLY "MATURATION", otherwise, as an explanation and that is all (which he would himself see as empirically incomplete).
Thus, this perspective and approach is congruent in the main with the Piagetian perspective and all neo-Piagetian perspectives, just adding in the needed processes (and resulting in a way to throw out all those "meta" processes, because they are not only not well-founded, but they are not needed for explanation). Once these fictional (though on the "face of it" seeming totally descriptive) processes are eliminated, my perspective and approach is entirely consistent with neo-Piagetian theories.
It returns to the empiricism of direct observation to substantiate these "perceptual shift" hypotheses, something Piaget would be very happy with. We now also have the tools of eye-tracking and computer assisted analysis technologies to allow us to DISCOVER (see) what researchers previously could not. Researchers, today, with the new procedures now available should look for and see if they can find the overt phenomenon (though subtle) associated with my empirically hypothesized, directly observable phases of the "perceptual shifts". If only today's theorists could recall or review Piaget and see that JUST THIS is what was and IS mainly missing (and otherwise just modifying some accounts because of the "perceptual shifts" testable and provable account will have its implications on the descriptions of other processes/mechanisms, but those otherwise and mainly being almost phenomenologically correct ).
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
6 answers
A new Yahoo Group: "A Human Ethogram": https://uk.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/humanethogram/info
Towards A Human Ethogram:
This group is about approaches that are 100% empirically-based & these approaches must deal with the individual human,& only that, as its subject matter. It is to be (eventually) a way to outline ALL the major innately-guided behavioral developments that result in an adult human (this should include revealing significant innate guidance with the development of all significant human behavior patterns); it is thought that this must be a developmental approach (tracking ontogeny). For clear practical reasons & reasons related to the centrality of some systems of behavior, a proposed approach may begin with the study of the development of just a major pervasive subset of behavior patterns -- any major related system(s) of behavior. The approaches to an ethogram presented may well not cover ALL an ethogram is supposed to cover, but should make clear how to study major aspects of a human behavioral system(s) & its development. One example of such an approach could be a cognitive-developmental approach. Again, ALL must be clearly empirically founded or grounded in all respects, AND with clear testable hypotheses. All descriptions of behavior and concepts MUST have a clear relationship to some directly observable behavior patterns & the corresponding environmental aspects -- with some directly observable proximate causes in BOTH for (involved in yielding) behavioral change.
Full plans for ESTABLISHING a new human science, not limited to very short inadequate unclear unreliable peer-reviewed studies
Keywords: ethology,human ethology,classical ethology,human development,child development,ontogeny,observational research,developmental psychology,theory,human development theory,personality theory,innate action patterns,fixed action patterns,developmental stages,learning,adaptation,behavior patterns,proximate causes,cognition,cognitive development,emotions,emotional development,behavior patterns,environmental factors,behavior change
(end description)
This might be a good way to find out who else is seeking this kind of thing, instead of spending all my efforts letting people know about my part in establishing a significant PORTION of a human ethogram. I don't know if there are a lot of other ideas, but surely there may be some and maybe I should stop acting like I think there are no others. I do think my proposal for a cognitive-developmental portion of an ethogram is good and should be considered (read and studied closely); but other people might be doing similar things with respect to other behavioral system OR may have good input for me.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Rusty Greaves
I like your strong emphases on observation (and a lot of it -- taking time).
I also agree: "It is not yet time to rest on our notions of what is universal about human cognition, behavior, and flexibility. " A major reason I support the latter position (and it relates to the first point of yours I noted and I agreed with) is that we have not yet seen-as-combined nature-AND-nurture as they really ARE combined: with past developments and associated learnings (and our Memories, as they are, and developing) setting up (contextualizing) ENTIRELY new sorts of behavior patterning for learning/representation -- AND this new behavior pattern change so complex, yet reliable (and species-typical) that the behavior patterns involved MUST have innate aspects (IN those very patterns), i.e. they have some of their actual, real, concrete directly observable, substantive patterning FROM innate adaptations (and I believe: at least at key points THIS OBSERVABLE ; new technology, like eye-tracking AND computer-assisted analysis may need to be involved to see "things" , since new patterning (I have described as "perceptual shifts") may well be subtle and too hard "to catch" (or see) otherwise: I believe psychology with the new technology now has a "microscope" and just has to use it and figure out how to use it).
Our culture and continuing basically authoritarian academic institutions and leaders, in OPPOSITION TO REALITY AND TO SCIENCE, can only talk about what's "innate" and what's 'learned' in a back-and-forth fashion (you can "test them out" and this is ALL you will hear again and again); this is an absolutely unjustified (and essentially total) false DUALISM. This skews and COMPLETELY FALSELY limits thoughts (and frank, at some level, is delusional) -- yielding ridiculous 'theories' with NO decent evidence, like the "embodiment theories", because other types of conceptualization are 'assumed'/presumed against and NOT allowed -- even to enter thought. There are huge limits to ALL one can think of with the presumptions about the nature of what is "innate" * Behavioral science will NEVER progress this way, basically because this is a REFUSAL to view behavior as BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING (and, elatedly, as being in PATTERNS, BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, as well).
[ *FOOTNOTE: There are other baseless and foundation-less and unjustified presumptions operating as 'assumptions' in our culture and also very much not escaped by academia BUT RATHER BOLSTERED BY THEM (a couple other are related to the "innate" (all main ones "at birth or in infancy; never significant new "innate factors" emerging with development; and a total belief in EVERY WAY that "the more 'learning' the less innate factors involved -- see my other essays for more. ) I believe that innate guidance, very arguably is what provides for 'higher' types of learning -- we will eventually, if we finally do the good needed research, see that "learning" is not simply one of a few types we now 'understand', and that is all; we will find learnings of different types. ]
In another thread I said the following: " [People] break down cognition into various "parts". (For example, something like the following is often said: "Cognition includes learning but also other phenomena involving innate, genetic, motivational, and other factors ".)
After recently hearing this, I continued my remarks and response to such a position, much like these statements, coming up:
The thing is, cognition is what it is at the moment or moment-to-moment, and ALL those parts are then (in each 'moment') combined, i.e. simultaneous. THAT is what needs to be seen (actually seen) and, AT KEY TIMES discovered: when all those "parts" (factors) are not only as I just said, but all have OVERT directly observable aspects (as proximate causes) which can be SEEN. Then THAT is the foundation strongly linked to ANY further inferences. And, if you believe that behavioral science (as behavior patterns and environmental aspects -- and as psychology was originally defined) CAN itself provide such full explanations (as I do), then the answer is in the perspective and approach of classical ethology. (And, it takes very involved observational work, as you described.)
The main difference that there may be between us (but perhaps not, and hopefully not) is the never-to-be-for-a-moment forgotten (or for a moment not in one's understanding-sought) is: the INDIVIDUAL human is the unit of analysis and where all behavior patterns exist, emerge, and change as directed to new learnings (i.e. "where everything actually happens").
Scientists (even behavioral scientists) should DEFINE nothing just by putting things together or separating them in their own minds; THE SUBJECT DEFINES ALL. So present 'notions of what is universal about human cognition, behavior, and flexibility' are wrongfully defined.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
25 answers
Dear collegues,
I am not a researcher investigating animal behavior, but I need some data and impression from the field.
From evolutionary perspective, weak individuals, for example these who are injured have less chance to survive.
Is it the case, that in some species (I am not talking about humans now), others take care about injured, weakened individuals thus increasing the chances to survive? Which species exhibit such a behavior?
To simplify, are there examples in animal world that some representatives of e.g primates take care about injured, weakened individuals?
Thank you
Wacław
Relevant answer
Answer
My experience is mostly with domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, swine, horses, chickens, turkeys). Among these species, older animals, especially mammalian females, will protect young from predators. I have seen videos where many females in a herd of cattle will work together to keep bears from attacking a calf or weak calf. Hens will protect their chicks. I have not seen this type of behavior toward aged, older or dying mature animals. This behavior may be different than your interests, because the young are the future of the herd or flock, whereas the older animals represent the past.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
No one could really expect to outline (then research) ALL the species-typical behavior of the human (or any advanced animals, such as mammals and birds) AT ONCE. WE SIMPLY ARE NOT omniscient (and not capable of ever becoming or being so -- though, in time, perhaps TOGETHER we can approximate this state).
Thus, a good start for a human ethogram IS ITSELF the beginning of the human ethogram. Of course, you must have a correct start: Look for the always-involved capabilities which basically is a "containing system" for all other interesting things -- things less pervasive and less-flexibly-and-openly applied (by themselves) (like emotions and language). Yet it must be essential aspects of real particular human behavior.
I chose (for the first and ONLY human ethogram, in existence): the cognitive-development behavioral system AS IT UNFOLDS AND DEVELOPS in ontogeny; I posit such a study can be done grounding everything (at the root, in very key ways) in behavioral patterns and the environmental aspects involved. BUT, in addition, one must understand the nature of our types of memories , and how awesome amounts of perspective and context can be brought forward with that. YET, at the same time, the INCEPTION of anything (including new ways to represent and conceptualize and eventually think) will themselves have real (overt directly observable) environment aspects required at least at the beginning (inception) [ as well as some clear overt, directly observable behavior PATTERNS, acting at the inception ] -- THIS would be true of any SIGNIFICANT new DEVELOPING behavior patterns (including the inception of 'abstract" thought) : this is simply sensible empiricism, which MUCH BE ASSUMED AND SOMETHING A SCIENTIST SEES as necessarily "worth a try", because there simply is NO alternative for an empiricist.
The likely BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS INVOLVED (along with these environmental aspects, at the inception of significant new behavior PATTERNS) not only could simply be perceptual shifts (see first link below) BUT VERY LIKELY WOULD BE _AND_ now these very things are investigable (verifiable, provable, replicable) using the new eye-tracking technology (likely along with computer-assisted analysis). Now the citations: First what I see as the likely phenomenological nature OF these very perceptual shifts, which occur with each hierarchical and new stage/level of thinking:
[ (please IGNORE the incoherent Answers to this Question by Nathan Latvaitis -- an uneducated person with no publications (and not likely under any sort of good mental control) -- one who believes he can simply take on any topic with his mind, no education or discipline needed) ].
THEN: see the overall position, for the role of these perceptual shifts during child development, by reading the paper (Research Item) "A Human Ethogram ...: :
Relevant answer
Answer
It would likely also be good for people to see:
(also see my THIRD Answer to this Question)
[ P.S. Please ignore the 2 very largely off-topic and incoherent "Answers" actually SPAMS (along with a lot of plagiarism)
by an uneducated, unpublished and undisciplined individual going by the name Nathan Latvaitis . ]
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
It is well established that providing incentives (e.g., monetary incentive) can boost the participation rate of a survey or a campaign (e.g., asking citizens to measure and report the rainfall intensity using their smartphone). I am interested in how will the response rate change if we provide different level of incentives.
If we draw a figure with the x-axis as the level of incentive, and the y-axis as the participation rate, how will this line looks like? Will it be a line with diminishing margin (e.g., like a log function), or it will be a 'S' line?
I will be so grateful if anyone could provide some research on this issue.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Dr. Vannini, for your response. My plan is that nowadays it is possible that people use their personal smartphones to measure and report the rainfall intensity (see my recent publication about this issue: ), and we can possibly boost the participation rate by providing some incentives.
The possible relationship between the amount of incentive and the participation rate could be very helpful for me to design the way we distribute the incentives.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
9 answers
I am looking for feedback on significant publications (environmental psychology, urban design, architecture and planning) since 2000, that could be used as directives.
 
Relevant answer
Answer
I do not see meaning in looking for a correlation. What are the precise variables? There are many...With regard to psychological aspects, consider this very comprehensive and authoritative review by Robert Gifford, published in 2007. 
The Consequences of Living in High-Rise Buildings (PDF Download ...
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
What are the newly established ground linking the brain to experiences with architecture/for example  PPA’s reaction to repetitive landscape or mass produced (banal) urban housing in contrast to innovative landscape or building design?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mamun, you can have a look at Sarah Williams Goldhagen' book, 'Welcome to Your World: How the Built Environment Shapes Our Lives,'. She engages cognitive science with architecture. I find the book review very interesting. 
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
I am doing low-velocity impact analysis in order to obtain optimized shape for the vehicle's bumper beam, the bumper's element is Shell and also has a Non-Linear material. Please find the attached file.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Vahid, the direction of the displacement is correct and it follows my velocity direction, I got the problem which is referring to the wrong connection of my rigid region coupling and related DOFs.
Thanks for your attention.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
I would like to find a reference demonstrating empirically how long after an elicitation event (e.g., frightening someone), does the elicited emotion last within the individual. I am referring here mostly to facial expression generation studies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mani,
Thank you for your reply. It seems I am not the only one having a hard time finding a paper that measures post-elicitation duration. I wonder if searching the neuroimaging literature would prove more fruitful.
All I care about is at least one paper that mentions how long after an elicitation event does the cognitive-affective induction cease (as in, the participant returns to a neutral state).
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
4 answers
I'm interested in the behavioral ecology of army ants. Specifically, the role each individual plays in the transition from a nomadic to a stationary phase. Does each ant have the same position in the formation of the bivouac every time or is the bivouac formation spontaneous? I hope to answer this question by utilizing the best fit method to track multiple individuals in a colony. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
you can use paint, is the best method. Look for some articles from Deborah Gordon, she did some great experiments painting ants.
 
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
3 answers
Brain-machine interfaces have become important in rehabilitation with the goal to restore motor function to paralyzed people. The topics discussed in the lecture include: (1) the bits of information generated by a brain-machine interface signal, (2) the superiority of a brain-machine interface signal using single cell recordings versus electroencephalographic recordings, (3) the limitations of including more neurons for generating a brain-machine interface signal, (4) plasticity and brain-machine interfaces, (5) the selection of a neural code as implemented by brain-machine interfaces, (6) the significance of body movements while using brain-machine interfaces, and (7) the role of vision for brain-machine interfaces. During the question period the issue of using information theory to assess studies in behavioural neuroscience is discussed.
Specific topics covered by the seminar: information theory, systems neuroscience, neural prosthetics.
Full lecture as delivered at the University of São Paulo on August 29, 2014:
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is an estimate of how long it would take to read Tolstoy’s War and Peace using an information transfer rate of 0.004 bits/sec (brain-to-brain, Pais-Vieira et al. 2013) versus 80 bits/sec (a proficient reader). Translated: 1 word per 100 minutes versus 200 words per minute. Tolstoy’s War and Peace contains 587,287 words; therefore using brain-to-brain communication it would take 58,728,600 minutes or 978,810 hours or over 100 years to read the book and using eye-to-brain communication it would take 49 hours of continuous reading (Tehovnik et al. 2017).  Hence, evolution has equipped the body with sensors to transmit information at high rates.
Tehovnik et al.  (2017)  Consciousness and Information Transfer.  In Preparation.
  • asked a question related to Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Question
1 answer
Hi everyone.
I need to do depressive tests in C57BL / 6. I know that there are many factors that can influence this type of test (e.g. gender, strain, housing, handling, etc.) but according to your experience which is the best? FST is reliable in mice since they "hate" water? Which are major problems in doing this test instead of other types?
I read a lot but in literature there are very confusing data.
Relevant answer
Answer
Porsolt swim test is reliable test to screen antidepressants, however my prior-experiences showed me it is not good test to find depressive conditions that occurred in neurotoxicology compared to normal controls. Actually, this test is not reliable to screen basic despair status in colonymates due to individual differences. For example, alpha rat in a colony swims more than beta rat and so on.