Science topic

Beekeeping - Science topic

Beekeeping is the management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
Questions related to Beekeeping
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
8 answers
How we can store/ preserve or handle the pollen collected from bee colonies so as to feedback the bees during dearth periods to maintain the colony strength buildup? Please suggest.
Relevant answer
Answer
The collected pollen from pollen trap during clear sunny days should b transfer in airtight containers and it can be stored either in refrigrator in the areas where summer temperature rises upto 30 degree centigrade. However in cold climatic condition it can be either stored under normal room temperature..but refrigrator is recommended. Yes it can be use as feed for bee colonies during dearth period either as single feed or by mixing with other components ie soybean flour 'icing sugar'glucose'gram flour etc to make a patty and thn supply to bees as feed during dearth conditions.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
What are the positive and negative characteristics of beekeeping along with sheep breeding in the rangeland ecosystem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Economically, it can be considered as a by-product of this ecosystem and improve the financial situation of the farmer and reduce the pressure of grazing livestock from the pasture. But from a botanical and ecological point of view, it may cause the pollination of flowering plants that have no forage value and disturb the vegetation composition.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
4 answers
I am doing research of beekeeping the factors they consider do beekeeping. I want to conduct this research from the lens of moral economics. I am looking for any recommendations, studies, and references that can help.
Relevant answer
Answer
While it is clear that Apis mellifera (as well as many human food crops) have been introduced to other parts of the world, the matter of whether that was a negative, positive or neutral influence is to me, a question, not a fact.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
I am working in a project where farmers have been trained and equipped with apicultural and horticultural technologies. Many farmers showed keen interest in learning the know how of beekeeping, nutritional garden, drip system assisted pomegranate orchard. Furthermore, many farmers were assited through projrct to start their own orchard, nutrigarden, mushroom unit and apiary in small scale. I want to ask what feedback shoukd be drawn from farmers in order to assess the perception of farmers regarding these allied agricultural intervation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Through individual interaction, visit to farmers field or a village, we can gather information.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
7 answers
Dear all
I am studying about ripening of honey which is practiced naturally in beehives. I then encountered a new term "Artificial ripening of honey". I am not getting any information about this on review/research papers and other websites. Kindly help in this regard. What is artificial ripening of honey? Is it a fraud or way of adulteration or standard practice in beekeeping?
Relevant answer
Answer
Different honey bees have different jobs. Some of these bees are “forager” bees, which collect nectar from flowering plants. The foragers drink the nectar, and store it in their crop, which is also called the "honey stomach". The crop is used solely for storage, and the bee does not digest the nectar at all. The forager bee then takes the nectar back to the hive, regurgitating the nectar directly into the crop of a “processor” bee at or near the entrance to the hive. While the forager heads back to the flowers for more nectar, the processor bee takes the nectar to the honeycomb, which tends to be near the top of the hive, and regurgitates it into a hexagonal wax cell. But now the nectar needs to ripen. The processor bees add an enzyme called invertase every time they regurgitate their nectar (and it takes many loads of nectar to fill a cell). The nectar consists largely of sucrose (table sugar) and water. The invertase breaks the sucrose down into two simpler sugars: glucose (blood sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). By definition, honey contains less than 18.6 percent water, but water usually makes up approximately 70 percent of nectar. During the ripening process, the bees “dry out” the nectar. One of the ways they do this is by fanning their wings, which creates airflow around the honeycomb and helps water evaporate from the nectar. Once the nectar has ripened into honey, it contains so little water that no microbes can grow in it. It is called 'natural ripening of honey'.
But some times due to some unfavourable conditions natural ripening is not possible. So, nectar contains water. It leads to deterioration of honey during storage. This situation demands artificial ripening. So, we can define 'artificial ripening' as the removal of moisture by some artificial method which is not done by honey bee itself.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
25 answers
It would be interesting to know of journals that publish bee related work. Papers on bees may be on beekeeping, apiculture science, entomology, pollination, wild bees other than Apis ect.
I am personally interested in a journal that will publish work (in English) on topics related to beekeeping history, traditional beekeeping, bee folklore, beekeeping evolution on practises and techniques ect.. Any suggestion other than "Bee World", which I am familiar with will be greatly apriciated.
Relevant answer
Apidologie, Insects Sociaux (theses 2 journals have a french title but the articles are writting in English. Good for bee's biology research), Journal of Invertabrate Pathology (for desease and parasit research),
Journal of Apicultural Research, Journal of Apicultural Science (both for beekeeping research).
If your research is on "bee & ecology", were bees are a biological model that you use to study an ecological / environmental problem - go to ecological good journals, like that you will have a broader public. The same if your bee model is used for a broader entomological problem: entomological journal will fit
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
13 answers
  • Any information about the effects of telephone communication tower vibrations on bees near it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes..........
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
2 answers
Please see my project details for more information.
Thank you kindly for your interest.
Renier P. du Plessis
Relevant answer
Answer
I am interested so invite me. I am a palynologist
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
8 answers
For example the large carpenter bees can visit Calotropis or other wild bees visit Peganum. I would like to understand how the bee deal with these plants and is the nectar of these plants contain the same toxic contents of the whole plant? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot for this great clarification, although I left Saudi Arabia 3 years ago and the questions was to figure out how larger carpenter bees is adapted to get nectar from Calotropis procera. The stems of the plans also were used by bees for nesting. I may try to find this work again when I will be back to Egypt after my research visit to Hungary.
Thanks again Christopher and I wish for you all the best.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
13 answers
Is it really important for beekeeper to know that his colony that is situated in some remote apiary is swarmed? Is it always needed to go to the apiary to catch the swarmed bee colony? Would there be any value of some automatic system, that can tell the beekeeper that bee colony is just swarmed?
Relevant answer
Answer
Swarming is the natural reproduction process and it has advantages and disadvantages for the beekeeper. Preventing swarming also comes at a cost (like checking the colonies often, searching and destroying queen cells). If you catch the swarm, you have a new family. The recently swarmed colony will need to raise a new queen and that will lower your production. Swarming can actually be beneficial against varroa: the colony which has swarmed will have no brood for a month more or less, so the varroa will not be able to reproduce, it is also a good time to treat. The swarm will have no brood either, so once you have it in a box you can treat it and kill all the varroa. Have in mind that in most of the world varroa control is the biggest problem beekepers face.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
In avocado it was fond that, although its flower carries only one ovule, at least 20 pollen grains are needed on its stigma for ensuring a high fertilization rate, of about 90% (Shoval 1987). I'm asking whether a similar research has conducted for Rosaceae flowers, and mainly for almond's.
Relevant answer
Answer
Arvind Thanks for the interesting articles. Yet I don't have direct information regarding the number of pollen grains needed for fertilization in almond.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
6 answers
I am looking for accessible references to full text scientific papers or copies of scientific articles on the physiology of beeswax digestion by Galleria mellonella (as recent as possible). I use this information in technical reviews and lectures for beekeepers in the course of my activity as vocational trainer in the beekeeping business. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Surender, thanks a lot for your help!
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
23 answers
Dear, I'm looking for support to the idea that nectar production in flowers having pollen and nectar as resource will increase pollen exportation to other flowers and reduce pollen collection as food. Was this idea already tested? It seems very intuitive to me but I have not yet found a reference testing it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Flowering plants face a pollen dilemma, that is they benefit if more pollen is for pollination of conspecific flowers than for attracting/rewarding flower visitors/pollinators. However, the competition for pollination is probably exclusively intraspecific and thus plays no role on the pollination market. But when some individual begin to use a mechanism which helps to allocate more pollen for pollination than for rewarding flower visitors, then the benefit will translate into reproductive success
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
150 answers
Beekeeping is the most wide spread practice and is an integral part of the smallholder farming system as they provide pollination services in various crops, which are very important to bee forages and honey production.
Few questions are tossed here for getting views from learned RG colleagues:
1.     As a result of disease, pesticides, and climate changes, the honeybee population has been nearly decimated, but since the demand for the bees’ honey and other products remains high, these tiny insects are factory-farmed, what should be the strategy to safeguard bee population.
2.     Apart from honey, beeswax, bee venom, propolis, royal jelly, and other products that come from bees can bring foreign currency. How a good market can be created for promotion of beekeeping for production of value added products.
3.     Constraints, threats and the future prospects on apiculture development of the region. The challenges are many but can be overcome while the opportunities are very encouraging.
4.      What could be the appropriate policy and beekeeping development strategy that would be applicable to the different production systems will ensure the sustainable development of apiculture sub sector.    
Relevant answer
Answer
Sincere thanks to Dr. Barbara, Dr. Marcel and Dr. Anoop for opening the discussion on this new question related to bee keeping. Appearance of pollutants in the family affects the overall productivity and viability of bees, their disease resistance, the ability to winter safely. it is worth noting that the bees are influenced by environmental pollution, they first face the problems of survival in adverse conditions. People are the second ones, and it is the time to understand it. The crisis of ecology is constantly approaching. Question is open for discussion.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
I am undertaking my research on hoarding behaviour of Apis mellifera. What are the best methods to ascertain the genetic basis of insect behaviour without the intervention of molecular methods and if molecular methods are required what is the protocol?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please check these PDF attachments also.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
Time and again I have been reading about spike in dengue and chikunguniya cases and measures taken by municipal authorities in the form of fogging for controlling responsible factor like mosquito. Is fogging effective enough to curtail the mosquito multiplication during favourable seasons?
Relevant answer
Answer
you can use syntheses of pyrethroids in standing water as you can also use entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana and Metarrizium sp, gave interesting results
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
7 answers
 this pollinator was watched on August in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan,China. And it was visiting Bauhinia yunnanensis as a really efficient polinator. It is quite important for my research. I will be very appreciate if anybody could help me to identify it.  thank you~~ 
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion the above mentioned bee belongs to Amegilla sp. Dr Hema Somanathan,IISER,trivandrum is one of the bee expert in India,her email address is hsomanathan@iisertvm.ac.in
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
There are many strategies in the literature which are geared towards the individual questions of each study. We are looking into establishing some long-term monitoring sites and it seems all we have to reference are area surveys established in Europe, which are generally 1 ha plots. I want to know if anyone has compared surveys of different sizes? So far, I have been unable to find this in the literature, but perhaps someone knows of a small scale report, or has an opinion on the matter. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
It very much depends on the way you plan to do the sampling, e.g. pan-trapping versus transect captures.  Some of the references in the attached might be helpful.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
I'd appreciate if someone would recommend me some recent paper about this topic or is at the moment working on it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much!
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
2 answers
These predatory birds cause lot of damage to apiaries.
Relevant answer
Answer
No Sir! birds are  eating the forager bees. They are remaining near the hive as well as also destroying bees in the field.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
I am starting a beekeeping business and may be willing to conduct some experiments to assist in research projects. I currently have 14 hives and plan to expand via splits up to around 200+ over the next 2 years. 
Jason
Relevant answer
Answer
ok. that's fine. good luck!
Felicien
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
11 answers
Bees are known to forage up to 12 kilometers for nectar produced by flowering plants. In their search, bees could be exposed to different systematic pesticides that are designed to rid human propagated vegetation of insects that eat these crops and carry pathogens and diseases.
When producing honey, the molecular arrangement is dependent on which flowers bees pollinate. In harvesting and consuming honey contaminated with neonicotinoids, will this adversely affect us and poison our body systems?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Jason,
Honey combs have a magnificent characteristic: the wax absorbs most materials, including pesticides. I'm not absolutly sure about neonics, but it can be checked.
If  the honey is extracted in modern facilities, and if its filtered, the amount of wax in the honey will be so small that exposure to neonics is negligable. 
Bear in mind that we eat neonics in our fruits and vegtables, and if I'm not wrong, it contaminates our drinking water.
And so, honey should not be a major source for such exposures
Erez
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
17 answers
Some recent literature have restarted the debate about the attraction-repellent function of pollen grains and nectar. It is known that some pollen and also some nectar possesses toxins preventing them of being consumed by some species of bees or even other pollinating groups. It was also shown that nectar may have alkaloids and other substances able to "manipulate" the flower visitor psychology increasing visitation rate. So, would you expect that generalist eusocial bees should have different criteria to collect a resource that is mainly consumed by adults (nectar) or by next generation (pollen)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Good ideas Peter! Why not also follow the causes for visiting various sources of pollen? Peters answer is somewhat restricted to pollen mixing during a single foaging trip, which might be caused by the rareness of some flowering plant species or signal standarsization (formerly Mullerian mimicry) in these plants. Recently Eckhardt M, Haider M, Dorn S & Müller A published an article termed Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties? which arreared in J Anim Ecol. (2014) 83(3):588-97. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12168. showing that pollen mixing might be caused by toxic pollen. Other caused might be rareness of amino acids and other compounds in pollen of some plants. In these cases solitary bees are more affected than eusocial bees, the latter of which exhibit pollen mixing at the colony level.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
2 answers
Such as glands
Relevant answer
Answer
Alcohol 
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
6 answers
I would like to explore I.I. on Bee Queens. Is there any risk in facing that technique.
Thanks in advance for your courtesy in this matter.
Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
With I.I.  we can create specific crosses that do not occur naturally. Also, virgins could be inseminated when drones are naturally unavailable by using stored semen . On contrary, generally the I.I. queen live shorter than those which mate naturally. Also, one may exclude some natural factors which may exclude inferior drones from superior ones.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
is there a method to quantify how much pollen and how much blossom a plant produces, and how to calculate the ratio of blossom contribution in honey?
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you mean, how can we discriminate between artificial (Sugarcane) and natural (blossom) honey
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
19 answers
Pollen that a bee has moved into to the scopa are no longer useful for pollination. Are there exceptions from this rule from a pollination textbook? What about pollen from the ventral scopa of megachilid bees, that often press the scopa to the pollen bearing organs of the flower? Or pollen grains deposited in a scopa of long bristles without regurgitated nectar?
My main question is: Is there any literature documenting the availability or inavailability of pollen stored in the scopa for pollination?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear collegue,
please check this paper: Pinzauti M., Rondinini T., Niccolini L., Felicioli A. 2002. Investigation of the germination potential of pollen transported by some bees. Ins. Soc. Life 4:107-114.
The authors showed that the germination of the pollen transported in the scopa is 90% and reach 0% only when the bees deposit and compact the pollen inside the nests. From this data it seems that the pollen in the scopa is available for pollination.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
4 answers
Is there any added nutritional benefit from feeding brown unrefined cane sugar to honey bees compared to refined cane sugar?
Is there any one commercial sugar source (agave, stevia, corn syrup, maple syrup) better or worse for honey bees?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that point is not just about source of sugar:
Point can be quality of final product.
Technology of production can harm honey bee artificial diet.
That can have influence on higher level of HMF and that chemical can be harmful for honey bee digestive system, but there are no many papers talking about that.
Bees that are not vital enough can suffer more severe than others.
Until today no standard load limitations for that chemical in honey bee feed products.
That can be an issue among the others.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
I need some practical experimental data about honey bee colony food consumption during passive wintering period. What amount of food should be considered as normal consumption. We have made practical experiment and it is needed to compare data.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you are asking the wrong question by assuming there is a specific answer to the question you pose. Variables include outside temperature -bees wintered on the Canadian prairies consume vastly different amounts of stores from those wintered on the Pacific coast;  race Italian bees eat more than Carnolians etc.; weak colonies eat more than strong, dead don't eat much at all. I think a better question might be related to the race of bees you are wintering in similar winter conditions to what you are attempting
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
7 answers
Is it only a marketing strategy or do they really produce 7-10 kg Royal Jelly per beehive?
Just for compare, production of 10 kg of honey is normal for stationary beekeeping with extra quality. But we are talking about Royal Jelly.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yvan, I found published paper wher it is wrote that productionis 7-10 kg per hive.
Nils, price for 1 kg of real, pure, royal jelly is much more then $100. That price is for "made in China" royal jelly, but can't understand what is the trick.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
8 answers
I would like to carry out various experiments on bees from the Euglossini tribe, but will need substantial numbers of individuals of both sexes. We casually fond some species, such as Euglossa viridisima nesting in a variety of  situations, but my attempts to attract bees to nesting boxes placed so as to simulate those situations has had limited success. And I haven´t been able to find much useful infomation in the literature,  Any ideas? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Anne,
I raised Eulaema meriana and El. nigrita bees from nests found in the field.  And also nests of a Euglossa, but it has been so long ago that I do not remember the species.  They were given to me by Dave Roubik who had put out nest traps for bees.  I do not recall how many he put out, but my impression is that it was a lot and the euglossas used them relatively infrequently.  The El meriana took very little training to feed at feeders, but the El nigrita were fairly stupid flight cage animals, which is surprising given that they are about as weedy as an euglossine gets!  Write to Dave or Santiago Ramírez and the people that are doing work at the field station near the Oso Peninsula in Costa Rica (Tom Elz? et al.).  I did not get to go to the euglossine symposium held there last year, but I hear they do a lot of cage work with these bees.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
12 answers
A yellow jacket wasp (Vespula) has been found to attack a large number of honeybee hives all over the West Bank governorates-Palestine. Apairies showed considerable reductions in the proportion of bees. Beekeepers used several conventional and traditional methods to deal with this problems, but no real results yet. 
Relevant answer
Answer
kALI SERA TI KANES KALYSEAU
YOU WILL GOT THE PHOTOS SHORTLY JUST LET ME FINISH WITH IT.
As for my Greek language, first I visited Greece several times since the year 1998 till 2011.
In the year 2002 I got the IKY SCHOLARSHIP FOR DOING MY PHD AUTH. THESSALONIKI. THERE I got 9 months course of greek language, but my supervisior informed me that I have to have 15000 euros for my research. I requested here to give me a chance of doing my field work at home but she refused my proposal, then I left to PATRA university, and there I didnt told them the previous story as per the IKY suggestion, then being back to home the IKY themself informed my new prof about my previous truble in Thessaloniki. HE WAS UPSET and he told me that he has no money for research. then I return back with finacial loses around 5000 euros due to the mode of both supervisors.
E ZUI SAN AGOURKI. HA     HA HAHAHAHAHAHAHA
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
3 answers
I need best formula for calculating Honeybee hemocytes.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can go for: Millipore EasyCyte 5 flow cytometer
For details, you can refer to the following publication:
Marringa WJ, Krueger MJ, Burritt NL, Burritt JB (2014) Honey Bee Hemocyte Profiling by Flow Cytometry. PLoS ONE 9(10): e108486. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108486
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
8 answers
I keep my samples in alcohol and trachea colors change a bit.
Relevant answer
Answer
We have found that placing the sample bees in substantial amounts of ethanol or isopropanol for a few days tends to "pickle" the tracheal mites. Their nearly transparent, ghost-like appearance turns into a sort of cottage cheese appearance in the tracheal tubes.
Then, we pin the bee on its back to a cork stopper that has been cut at a slant across the smaller diameter end. The bee is decapitated with forceps, the reinforced exoskeleton "ring" around the "neck" torn open, and the tracheal tubes can be teased out of the body cavity.
The mites are easily seen in the tubes, usually between the spiracle and the major Y branch into the body cavity.
Eric.
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
6 answers
Nowadays wireless sensor networks have become popular in all fields of science. Question is are these wireless data transmissions somehow affecting the behaviour of insects (bees) or/and other animals? Are there some researches in that field?
Relevant answer
Answer
We've used hives with multiple sensors, wireless, satellite, mobile communications, also RFID readers on front of hives since 1995; have not seen any adverse effects as indicated by our data.
We will be hosting the 2nd International Workshop on Hive and Bee Monitoring in Missoula, Montana, Sept 17-20, 2014 in conjunction with the Western Apicultural Society's Annual Conference, Sept 18-19; and a Honey Harvest Festival and Bee Workshops, Sept. 20.
Jerry J. Bromenshenk, WAS President
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
2 answers
This bee was commonly found to rob fresh resin deposits from stingless bee entrance tubes.
Relevant answer
Answer
Respected sir
Thank you for your valuable message
In India this bees were found mainly in stingless bee aggregation sites and rob resin from weak colonies
  • asked a question related to Beekeeping
Question
5 answers
An entire hive has disappeared without trace, and even worker bees were found dead although there was a queen excluder on the door.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pollen powers honeybee genes
Bees could be dying because they lack a nutrient found in honey.
The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) adds billions of dollars to the global economy by pollinating crops, but a mysterious 'colony collapse disorder' has killed off many hives. Agricultural pesticides, overcrowding, frequent transport and bee parasites have all been blamed.
Work by May Berenbaum and her colleagues at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign suggests another contributing factor: honey substitutes, which are often fed to bees by commercial beekeepers. The researchers used liquid chromatography to identify compounds in honey that activate the genes known to be upregulated by the foodstuff, then analysed gene expression in bees that were fed different diets. Those fed p-coumaric acid, a compound found in pollen, expressed more detoxification genes than bees given plain sugar syrup. Bees fed the pollen compound also produced higher levels of genes for antimicrobial peptides.
Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1303884110 (2013)