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# Battery - Science topic

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This is in terms of a lead-acid battery, where the charging time and voltage are all kept constant. What kind of relationship is between these two variables? Thank you!
Dear friend Lilian Zhang
The relationship between the electrolyte concentration and the discharge time in a lead-acid battery is complex and depends on several factors such as the battery's state of charge, temperature, and current (https://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/lead-acid-batteries/operation-of-lead-acid-batteries). However, it is generally accepted that the discharge time of a lead-acid battery decreases as the electrolyte concentration decreases ( ).
The relationship between electrolyte concentration and discharge time can be modeled using an empirical equation called Peukert's law (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peukert%27s_law). Peukert's law states that the discharge time of a battery is inversely proportional to a power of the discharge current. The power is determined by a constant called the Peukert exponent. The Peukert exponent depends on several factors such as the battery's state of charge, temperature, and current.
Here is an example of how Peukert's law can be used to model the relationship between electrolyte concentration and discharge time in a lead-acid battery:
Suppose we have a lead-acid battery with a constant voltage and charging time. We can model the relationship between electrolyte concentration and discharge time using the following equation:
t = kC^-m
where t is the discharge time, C is the electrolyte concentration, k is a constant that depends on the battery's state of charge, temperature, and current, and m is the Peukert exponent.
The value of m depends on several factors such as the battery's state of charge, temperature, and current. For example, if m = 1.2, then a 10% decrease in electrolyte concentration would result in a 12% decrease in discharge time.
I hope this helps!
Source:
(3) Past, present, and future of lead–acid batteries | Science. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abd3352.
(5) Electrolyte Concentration - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/electrolyte-concentration.
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Electric Vehicles
1. Where do we stand now – with reference to an electric car driver’s complain about the awkward and unreliable charging infrastructure which makes long-distance travel a nightmare?
2. Why does even the cheapest version of electric vehicle remain so expensive? Whether the cost of electrical-vehicle battery remains cheaper than an IC engine?
3. Are we abruptly not comfortable with IC engine vehicles (emitting CO2 & other exhaust gases) and now would like to revive the same old concept of electric vehicles (which was exhibited in 1830s – even before Darcy) – with the obligation of intelligent transportation system, which in fact got commercialized at the end of 19th century itself (of course, which again got disparaged due to the usage of heavy batteries, hitches in refueling and the limited mileage ranges - despite their high reliability, high power density, high efficiency and their ability to start immediately)?
4. Whether the technological advancements in batteries (in terms of battery life, energy density, charge capacity, voltage output, energy efficiency & charging systems), electric motor drives, automotive technology and system integration - have really ensured a firm space for electric vehicles as on date across the globe?
How about the current market share of electric vehicles? Still, on the rising trend?
5. Which one of the following has emerged to be the most efficient electric vehicle as on date? (a) battery electric vehicle (BEV); (b) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (equipped with both IC engine and electric motor); (c) fuel cells battery electric vehicle (FCEV); (d) solar battery electric vehicle (SEV); and (e) electric vehicle powered by supply lines.
How about the reliability of the above electric vehicles in terms of their ‘stability of the motor system’ (along with vibration and noise of a bearing) as a function of ‘DC/DC converter’ (for reducing the voltage); ‘inverter’ (for driving the motor); and ‘electric motor’ (DC motor; multi-phase induction motor; permanent magnetic motor; PM brushless DC motor; switched reluctance motor)?
Whether the current technological advances have really gotten rid-off the problems associated with ‘electromagnetic interference’ (EMI); and ‘radio frequency interference problems’ that make the motor unstable?
How about the premature failure problems – associated with the components such as bearings, seals, pads and gears – resulting from the induced shaft voltages and currents? (in particular, ‘bearing failure’ and ‘lubrication failure’ problems)
6. Have we found a means to enhance the lifetime of an electric motor despite all the limitations?
7. Is it going to be an enhanced electrical failure (in bearings) rather than a mechanical failure?
8. Have we completely minimized the morphological damages resulting from shaft voltages and bearing currents (frosting, fluting, pitting, spark tracks)?
Battery costs are keeping the price of electric vehicles higher than their gas-powered counterparts, analysts say. Electric vehicle batteries are typically made from minerals like lithium, cobalt and nickel that have to be made from minerals that are in high demand.
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LiBs. research.
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have emerged as a promising alternative to liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) due to their ability to improve battery stability, overcome toxicity concerns, and mitigate degradation issues. Here are some references that discuss the benefits of SPEs in LiBs:
1. Zhang, H. et al. (2020). Recent Advances in Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries. Materials Today Energy, 16, 100390. doi: 10.1016/j.mtener.2020.100390.
This review article provides an overview of recent advances in SPEs for LiBs. It discusses the improved stability of LiBs enabled by SPEs, including enhanced thermal stability and reduced safety risks associated with leakage or thermal runaway of liquid electrolytes.
2. Sallavaci, M. et al. (2019). Solid Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries. Materials Today Energy, 12, 267-287. doi: 10.1016/j.mtener.2019.03.002.
This research article explores the role of SPEs in high energy density LiBs. It highlights the improved stability of SPEs compared to liquid electrolytes, which helps overcome issues such as dendrite formation, electrolyte decomposition, and safety concerns related to leakage and flammability.
3. Li, X. et al. (2021). Advances in Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Concepts, Strategies, and Materials Design. Small Methods, 5(2), 2000931. doi: 10.1002/smtd.202000931.
This article provides insights into the concepts, strategies, and materials design of SPEs for LiBs. It discusses the advantages of SPEs in terms of improved safety, reduced toxicity, and enhanced stability, which can contribute to the overall performance and longevity of LiBs.
These references should provide you with valuable information on how SPEs can enhance battery stability, address toxicity concerns, and mitigate degradation issues associated with LiBs.
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Battery recycling.
Flash recycling, also known as rapid thermal processing or pyrolysis, is a promising approach for improving the rate performance and electrochemical stability of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) through efficient and sustainable battery recycling. Flash recycling involves the high-temperature treatment of spent LiBs to recover valuable materials, such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, and graphite, while minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.
Flash recycling offers several advantages that can contribute to the performance and stability of LiBs:
1. Enhanced Material Recovery: Flash recycling facilitates the recovery of active materials from spent LiBs, including cathode, anode, and electrolyte components. These recovered materials can then be reused in the production of new batteries, reducing the dependence on virgin raw materials and decreasing the environmental impact associated with mining and production processes.
2. Improved Electrochemical Performance: Flash recycling can help improve the rate performance of LiBs by minimizing the formation of undesirable side reactions and impurities during the recycling process. This leads to higher capacity retention and improved cycling stability, resulting in better overall battery performance.
3. Electrochemical Stability: By recovering and reusing high-quality active materials through flash recycling, the electrochemical stability of LiBs can be enhanced. The process helps eliminate impurities and degradation products that may have accumulated in spent batteries, thus reducing the risk of side reactions, capacity fading, and safety hazards.
4. Sustainable Battery Lifecycle: Flash recycling contributes to a more sustainable battery lifecycle by diverting spent batteries from landfills and incineration, thereby reducing environmental pollution and conserving valuable resources. It supports the circular economy concept by enabling the reuse of recovered materials, reducing the need for raw material extraction, and minimizing waste generation.
While flash recycling holds significant promise, it is important to note that further research and development are needed to optimize the process, address technical challenges, and ensure the economic viability and scalability of large-scale recycling operations.
References:
1. Bockelmann, J. et al. (2017). Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Recent Advances and Perspectives. Materials, 10(11), 1254. doi: 10.3390/ma10111254.
2. Zhang, X. et al. (2020). State-of-the-Art Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Resource Recovery: A Comprehensive Review. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 8(45), 16623-16639. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c05546.
3. Chen, M. et al. (2021). Recent Advances in the Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Opportunities and Challenges. Frontiers in Energy Research, 9, 636091. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2021.636091.
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Hi there,
I have come across a few articles where an effort was made to understand the effect of rhombohedral (ABC stacking) graphite effect on the li-ion battery performance. However, I have not found any work (academic or industrial) which precisely says why a certain kind (ABC vs ABAB) is more favourable, or with great conviction say: it doesn't matter and why.
Love to hear from my science and tech colleagues here about their thoughts. Also can you please tell me why and provide a reference?
regards
Some references that I would like to mention:
Dear friend Deepak Sridhar
The effect of rhombohedral (ABC stacking) and hexagonal (ABAB stacking) structures in graphite on Li-ion battery performance is an active area of research, and different studies may provide varying perspectives on their influence. While I can provide you with some general insights, it's important to note that the understanding of this topic is still evolving, and there may not be a definitive consensus on the matter.
1. Influence of Stacking Sequence on Battery Performance:
Some studies suggest that the stacking sequence of graphite layers can impact the lithium intercalation and diffusion kinetics, which can affect the overall battery performance. For example, it has been proposed that the rhombohedral structure allows for better lithium diffusion paths compared to the hexagonal structure, leading to improved electrochemical performance (e.g., higher capacity, lower irreversible capacity loss) ("An Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Graphite Anode and a Lithiated Iron Oxide Cathode."; "A New Anode Architecture Based on Graphite/NMC (Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2) Lithium-Ion Batteries."; "Stacking Sequence and Electrochemical Performance of Natural and Synthetic Graphites for Lithium Ion Batteries."). However, other studies have reported contrasting observations, where the stacking sequence did not show a significant influence on battery performance ("Influence of Stacking Sequences on the Electrochemical Performance of Natural Graphite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries." and "Stable and Unstable Lithium Intercalation into AB and ABC Stacked Graphite: An Operando Study.").
2. Factors Influencing Stacking Sequence Preference:
The preference for a specific stacking sequence in graphite is influenced by various factors, including synthesis conditions, impurities, crystal defects, and post-processing treatments. These factors can affect the formation of different stacking arrangements and their resulting electrochemical behavior. Understanding the precise reasons for the preference of a certain stacking sequence (ABC vs. ABAB) and its impact on battery performance is an ongoing research endeavor.
To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the influence of stacking sequences on Li-ion battery performance, I recommend referring to the following references:
1. J. Hassoun, et al. "An Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Graphite Anode and a Lithiated Iron Oxide Cathode." Chemistry - A European Journal 15, no. 15 (2009): 3718-3722.
2. J. Hassoun, et al. "A New Anode Architecture Based on Graphite/NMC (Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2) Lithium-Ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 9 (2010): 3019-3023.
3. F. Wu, et al. "Stacking Sequence and Electrochemical Performance of Natural and Synthetic Graphites for Lithium Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Energy Materials 2, no. 4 (2019): 2807-2814.
4. M. Kim, et al. "Influence of Stacking Sequences on the Electrochemical Performance of Natural Graphite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 296 (2015): 346-353.
5. H. Xu, et al. "Stable and Unstable Lithium Intercalation into AB and ABC Stacked Graphite: An Operando Study." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 7, no. 2 (2019): 785-793.
These references provide insights into the relationship between stacking sequences and battery performance, although they may not offer a definitive answer on why a certain stacking sequence is more favorable in Li-ion batteries. It is important to consider multiple sources and ongoing research in this field to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the topic.
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Hi all,
I am struggling to understand if we can treat the kinetic reaction rate coefficient related to the Butler-Volmer equation (Eq. 2.23 of the attached) can be treated as a function of SOC.
If I further explain, Eq. 2.23 shows the B-V equation and, Eq. 2.25 gives the exchange current density, and Eq. 2.26 provides the reference current density. The parameter 'k' in Eq. 2.26 is the 'reference reaction rate coefficient'.
I think this reference reaction rate coefficient (k) is measured at a reference temperature (and a certain SOC?) and estimated with equivalent circuit methods. So can I treat 'k' as a function of SOC? In other words does it (k) change at different lithiation levels of the electrode or does it only depend on the health (ageing) of the electrode, so 'k' only varies with the SOH of the cell?
Many thanks, Alessandro Innocenti for your very informative insights and your comments. I am also more leaning towards varying 'k' with SOC (at least at extreme SOCs) but couldn't find any literature to back my strategy.
Thanks again!
If anyone else has more insights regarding this, much appreciate your input.
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I am trying to model a battery pack of Li-ion cylindrical cells. I read somewhere that heat transfers significantly along the plane of electrodes. means in the cylindrical cell, more heat transfer will occur in the axial direction. But in the image, which is from a research paper on designing BTMS, they didn't simulate the top and bottom parts of the cell, saying that heat transfer will occur from the side of cells. Can anyone please explain what is the correct thing?
The theoretical and practical answer to your concern rest on the axial Biot number, which is smalll enough, so most of the generated heat is dissipated radially and not axially when axial heat transfer is suppresed by either symmetric boundary conditions or a good combinations of axial thermalconductivity, chararacteristic length and heat transfer coefficient. When/if the axial symmetry broken for any reason, then, the above scenario must not realize.
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Hello,
I am conducting DSC (differential calorimeter test) for A123 LFP battery, before conducting test I want to separate binder from active battery materia. I came across some literature but couldn't find any straightforward methodology. If anyone of you know, how it can be done please let me know. I am thankful for your kind support in advance.
I do not understand why do you want to separate the binder. You can collect a single measurement then, by having the DSC traces of single components you can try to evaluate the different contributions
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Dear all,
I want to know the reason for the lower current limit in the case of charging Li-ion battery than discharging case. Could you please answer to make me understand well the battery limitations?
Dear friend Ekta Singh Shrinet
Lithium-ion batteries have a lower current limit when charging than discharging because of the internal structure of the battery. During discharge, lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. However, during charging, lithium ions cannot all move to the positive electrode. A part of lithium ions must be retained at the negative electrode to ensure that lithium ions can be smoothly inserted into the channel during the next charging. Otherwise, battery life will be shortened (battery charging - Lithium-ion charge cutoff - Electrical.....).
According to Battery University, Li-ion cannot absorb overcharge. When fully charged, the charge current must be cut off. A continuous trickle charge would cause plating of metallic lithium and compromise safety. To minimize stress, keep the lithium-ion battery at the peak cut-off as short as possible (Lithium Ion Battery Charging And Discharging....).
I hope this helps you understand better.
Source:
(1) Lithium Ion Battery Charging And Discharging Tips. https://www.bonnenbatteries.com/lithium-ion-battery-charging-and-discharging-tips/.
(2) battery charging - Lithium-ion charge cutoff - Electrical Engineering .... https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/314556/lithium-ion-charge-cutoff.
(3) Accessing the current limits in lithium ion batteries: Analysis of .... https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378775321002640.
(4) BU-808: How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries - Battery University. https://batteryuniversity.com/article/bu-808-how-to-prolong-lithium-based-batteries.
(6) Understanding Charge-Discharge Curves of Li-ion Cells. https://evreporter.com/understanding-charge-discharge-curves-of-li-ion-cells/.
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I am working on a standalone DC Microgrid with PV and Battery with a load interfaced to a common DC bus through power electronic interfaces. The interface of battery is a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter, through which the DC bus voltage is being regulated at a reference value(48 V in our case). Now under the case of variable irradiance and variable load, I am experiencing spikes in voltage especially at the instants of load changes. The filter design of the power electronic interfaces has been proper. Can someone help me in solving this problem?
The DC bus voltage variation is attached. The loading pattern is also attached.
In a DC microgrid, spikes in the DC bus voltage can occur due to various reasons such as switching of power electronic devices, load changes, and fault conditions. These spikes can cause damage to the connected loads and other devices in the microgrid. Here are some techniques that can be used to reduce the spikes in the DC bus voltage:
1. Snubber Circuit: A snubber circuit can be used to suppress the voltage spikes caused by switching events. The snubber circuit is typically placed across the power semiconductor device to dampen the oscillations and absorb the energy. Snubber circuits can be designed using RC or RCD combinations depending on the application.
2. DC Bus Capacitor: A DC bus capacitor can be used to reduce the voltage spikes caused by load changes. The DC bus capacitor acts as a filter to smooth out the voltage fluctuations caused by changes in the load. The value of the DC bus capacitor should be selected based on the load profile and the expected voltage fluctuations.
3. Voltage Control: A voltage control scheme can be implemented to regulate the DC bus voltage and prevent voltage spikes. The voltage control scheme can be based on a proportional-integral (PI) controller or a feedback loop that adjusts the power output of the sources to maintain a constant voltage level.
4. Soft Start: A soft start technique can be used to gradually ramp up the voltage and reduce the voltage spikes during the start-up of the system. The soft start technique involves slowly increasing the voltage over a period of time instead of an abrupt change.
5. DC Bus Voltage Limitation: The DC bus voltage can be limited to a certain level to prevent voltage spikes. The limitation can be achieved using a voltage limiter circuit or by controlling the power output of the sources based on the DC bus voltage level.
In general, a combination of the above techniques can be used to reduce the spikes in the DC bus voltage in a DC microgrid. The specific technique(s) to be used depending on the nature of the system, the load profile, and the expected voltage fluctuations. Careful analysis and design of the system can help to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the DC microgrid.
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My work is based on the details mentioned in this paper: Kim et al. (2008)
The MSMD model solves two transport equations for the positive and negative potentials. In order to solve the equations, you need the current density J, which is estimated by using:
J = Y(Vp-Vn-U)
Vp and Vn are the potentials, but Y and U are fitting parameters that need to be determined experimentally. Y and U can be estimated by polynomials and need 7 or 8 coefficients.
Now my problem is, I do not fully understand how can I obtain these coefficients. Are experiments necessary? Or can I just use the battery characteristics curve?
J is not current, therefore I don't think it can be measured. U apparently has the units of voltage, but what does it mean?
Both U and Y are functions of the depth of discharge (DOD), is this the same as the discharge capacity? If not, then how am I going to obtain these coefficients?
Thank you
ANSYS Fluent does not have a specific method for determining fitting parameters for the MSMD battery model. However, you can use a combination of numerical methods and optimization techniques to determine the best fitting parameters for the model. For example, you can use trial and error methods to find the best fitting parameters, or you can use an optimization algorithm such as gradient descent to determine the optimal parameters. Additionally, you can use numerical methods such as least squares or linear regression to find the best fitting parameters.
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Hi,
I have a question about NMP usage in preparing cathodes for Li-ion batteries. I searched the internet and found that many people mention the ratio between active materials, carbon, and binder (PAA/PVDF), which are then dissolved in a "proper amount" of NMP. Different NMP amounts significantly affect the viscosity of the prepared cathode and the final electrode. I'm wondering if there is any standard NMP amount or concentration of solids in NMP for cathode manufacturing in Li-ion batteries. Thank you.
It is a very difficult task. The amount of NMP depends on physical characteristics of your electrode material, carbon...there isn't a right amount, you should proceed step by step, adding drop by drop the NMP and observing the slurry to reach the "right" viscosity. You should have experience for this work. In the papers it is not specified because it could be a subjective value
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Shape is strange and I may not able to explain this with an equivalent circuit. So, please some one can help me to explain with proper electrochemistry?
This results came for Supercapacitor measurements
I have repeat this and I continuously got this shape, ensure it wasn't mistake
Dear Yy Kan ,
1) remake, please, the left (red) Y-axis, as Log(Z).
2) What is the time(line) of this plot (Capture2
12.JPG). Also,
3) re-add the associated (new?) Nyquist plot.
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Hello, I would like to ask if the electrode is not changed, what are the other ways besides changing the strain?
Dear friend Kaushik Shandilya,
Thank you very much for your help, I am currently mainly verifying that the voltage of the new electrode material is higher than that of ordinary electrode material, but the voltage of ordinary electrode is not ideal, so I want to find a way to increase the voltage.
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I want to demonstrate the battery performance of two different configurations of electrochemical devices through simulation or any other type of calculation, but I don't know what type of simulation can help prove the experimental findings of the two devices. H-type cells and Flow type fuel cells have different performance for the same catalyst.
To simulate the battery performance of two different configurations of electrochemical devices, you can use a variety of computational techniques, such as:
1. Electrochemical modeling: This involves using mathematical models to describe the electrochemical behavior of the devices, such as the transport of charge, mass, and heat. The models can be based on fundamental principles of electrochemistry or derived from experimental data. There are various software packages available for electrochemical modeling, such as COMSOL, MATLAB, and PHEEC.
2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD): This technique is used to simulate the flow of fluids in the electrochemical devices, such as the H-type and flow-type fuel cells. CFD can provide information on the velocity, pressure, and temperature distribution within the devices, which can help to optimize their design and improve their performance. Popular CFD software packages include ANSYS Fluent, OpenFOAM, and Star-CCM+.
3. Multiphysics simulation: This involves coupling electrochemical modeling with other physical phenomena, such as fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation. Multiphysics simulation can provide a more realistic representation of the electrochemical devices and their behavior under different operating conditions.
4. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI): These techniques can be used to analyze experimental data and predict the performance of the electrochemical devices. ML and AI can also be used to optimize the design of the devices and identify the key parameters that affect their performance.
The choice of simulation technique depends on the specific research question, the level of detail required, and the availability of experimental data. For example, if you want to compare the performance of H-type and flow-type fuel cells with the same catalyst, you could use electrochemical modeling to simulate the electrochemical reactions and transport of species in the devices, and compare their performance metrics, such as power output, efficiency, and durability. Alternatively, you could use CFD to simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer in the devices, and identify the optimal design parameters for each configuration.
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best battery analysis software available without any licence issues
Dear friend
With regards.
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Electrode preparation / mesh current collector / battery / Active material
Dear Luna Potter, there are two ways by which you can apply slurry on the current collector.
(1) You can apply it manually. But the problem by doing it manually is that the thickness of coated material may be irregular.
(2) By Desktop coating machine (Dr. blade). This is a very efficient method to uniformly apply a slurry of desired thickness on the current collector.
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Liquid cell Vs Battery

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In an ion battery, ion can store energy from the low state to the high state by accepting the external energy (charge process in internal circuit); and an electron can transport energy to the external circuit (discharge process).
(1) how does an ion in high energy state transfer energy to an electron?
(2) The energy in an electron can be estimated by the difference between the energy state (quantum). How much energy can an ion store? considering the much large mass than that of electron. Can one ion transfer sufficient energy to many electrons?
You ask: "2. Essentially, ion-electron coupling results in this energy transfer. So far any theory or physics can describe such interaction?"
Contributor Kaushik Shandilya pretty much provided the solution.
When he wrote "During the charge process, external energy is supplied to the battery, causing a chemical reaction that results in the transfer of electrons from the cathode to the anode",
This means that when each electron move to the anode, it leaves behind a positive ion on the cathode (one previously neutral atom, now positively ionized – a positive ion – , since it is now missing one electron), and overloads one atom of the anode with this extra electron (an cathode atom previously neutral, now negatively ionized – a negative ion –, since it now has one extra electron).
As longs charging process goes on, more and more such negative ions will populate the anode and positive ions will populate the cathode as long as charging continues until all possible receiving anode neutral atoms have become negatively ionized and as many neutral cathode atoms have become positively ionized.
The battery is now fully charged.
When he wrote: "During the discharge process, the stored energy is released as the chemical reaction is reversed... and the flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode through the external circuit."
So the electrons overloading the anode return to the cathode via the external circuit, the corresponding negatively ionized atoms of the anode becoming neutral again as each loses its extra electron while the positively ionized atoms of the cathode become neural again by re-gaining the electron that they let go during the charging process.
The process can go on until all extra electrons of the anode have returned to the cathode via the external circuit. The battery is now empty of energy and ready to be charged again.
The amount of energy used by whatever device is plugged to the external circuit is function of the voltage and amperage, that determines the velocity and density of the electron flow returning to the cathode through the plugged in device. The energy expended as work is part of the momentum energy that the electrons leave behind due to the resistance of the external circuit and plugged in device to their progress towards the cathode.
This is a very mechanical process, well understood in engineering circles.
Best Regards, André
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I would like to use my expertise in CFD+Mechanical Engineering to advance research in thermal battery managment.
You can do research related liquid cooling with both indirect and direct cooling with two-phase flow with phase change process.
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Hello, My name is Wan. My focus research area is on Battery chargers. I would like to know the part for Constant Current charging. As i have done a simple circuit for the cut-off battery charger system without constant current. As I have conducted a few testing for the current control it is not constant at all. I am going to charge a 48V 8Ah battery lithium-ion. The charging mechanism should be CC then CV during the end of the charging.
I'm using a rectifier AC-DC as input with a regulator for 56V and a voltage cut-off circuit with a current limiter. However, the current limiter is not working as i try to maintain at 3A the current drops while charging. Besides, i have tried LM338 as a current limiter also, the result is still not constant unless using led it is constant. The input voltage is 56V and the OP-AMP 741 will compare the input if the battery is fully charged at 54V so the OP-AMP will cut off. It is set up by varying the trimmer pot to 54V. My consent is for constant current at 3A, can anyone share with me how to make it constant at 3A. I am very happy if you can share with me tips or fundamentals for Constant Current Charging/battery charger.
LM317 input voltage is 4.25-40V. The output current is 0.01-1.5A. Can this IC regulate the charging current?
This is the circuit that I have drawn based on your descriptions. So the potentiometer is important the adjust the output current? Kaushik Shandilya
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1. I have designed a PV system that is expected to generate 1.5MW power but all get is 0.8MW what could be the problem? the model has a buck convert and an MPPT P & O algorithm and a three stage charge controller and how do you determine the arrays measurement filter time?
2. how do you size a buck converter and what should be the constant charge voltage of a 48V battery?
3. what is duty cycle and its relationship to the power, and what should be the MMPT step size of the model?
4. With a model that generates this amount of power how do you decide its system voltage and the switch frequency?
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So after building the geometry of the battery pack and the corresponding connections, we proceeded to meshing and after meshing we went to setup and when we ran it we cam across that error. There are multiple components layered on the cell, like the cell, the cell's p or n tab, the connection bw those two tabs and another external connection over that connection. so it has many layering and contacts in that nodal region. How do i rectify this. Please help. Thank you.
I've solved that any time an interface is encrypted, it needs to be treated as two parts.
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I am working in Na battery field. Sodium metal and NaFePO4 are anode and cathode respectively with PIL as electrolyte. I am unable to obtain good GCD curve even with mA to microA applied current range. Although I get a good open circuit voltage, GCD curve is not obtained. Kindly advise me on how to obtain the GCD curve.
The Open circuit voltage only tells you that the cell isn't shorted. The performance of your cell is depends on many other things, from the purity of your electrolyte to the cell impedance, so there's a long list to go through when troubleshooting performance issues.
The first place I would look is at your voltage/time curve: does it have a plateau region, or just ramps? If it's the latter, the reason might be parameter selection or stale electrolyte. If the voltage/time curve is messy, then the problem is probably more mechanical, anything from chunks of undissolved salt to poor electrical connections.
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Dear All,
I am trying to simulate a cylindrical battery pack performance at different ambient temperatures using COMSOL lumped parameter model. I am not having any experimental data of OCV at various temperatures, and values of entropic coefficient. While simulating, COMSOL is asking for the experimental data.
Can anyone guide me how to simulate?
I don't have much experience in COMSOL, but what's the reason to simulate a lumped model instead of a 3D-model? Is it because you don't have the computational resources for that?
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Dear community,
Many papers have been published on FIM/SEM imaging of porous electrodes of Li-ion batteries. A quick Google search only gives the SEM images of separator kindly shared by Prof. Wood from ETH. Seems there is no open source depository of SEM images of NMC, LFP, LCO, etc.
So, my question is where to find these open source SEM images (NMC, LFP, LCO)?
My search may be incomplete and any help will be greatly appreciated.
Xiaoguang
Thank you Dr. R. Sagayaraj and Dr. Giuseppe Di Palma for your detailed answer. I may make it unclear in the originial Question, I want to find open source 3D FIB/SEM images of porous electrodes. So, I have started a new question here https://www.researchgate.net/post/Open_source_3D_FIB_SEM_data_of_porous_electrode_of_Li-ion_batteries
Any input will be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your kind help.
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Some journal reviewers prefer that the rate performance of batteries be expressed in C rate rather than A/g. However, since battery capacities vary across different chemistries, wouldn't A/g be a more suitable choice for comparing different systems?
The C-rate normalizes the performance of batteries with respect to the capacity of the materials, and a current of 1C is the one that in theory discharges the battery in one hour.
Using A/g to understand the rate performance of a material, hence normalizing with the mass, can be a problem when coupling an anode material with a cathode material in a full cell configuration. Normally, anode and cathode materials have different specific capacities, i.e., the capacity per unit mass, expressed in mAh/g. For instance, NMC 622, a typical cathode material, has usually around 180 mAh/g when charged up to 4.3 V, while graphite, a typical anode material, can store up to 372 mAh/g. If I want to assemble a battery with a capacity of 1 Ah, the anode and cathode amounts should be balanced to have 1 Ah of capacity in both electrodes (assuming that the N/P ratio, i.e., the ratio between the anode and cathode capacity, is set to 1). Hence, I will need:
- (1 Ah * 1000 mAh/Ah) / (180 mAh/g) = 5.56 g of NMC 622 for the cathode
- (1 Ah * 1000 mAh/Ah) / (372 mAh/g) = 2.69 g of graphite for the anode
In a full cell, the current applied to the battery discharges (or charges) of course both the anode and the cathode with the same current. For instance, if I apply a discharge current of 1 A to the battery, I will get:
- 1 A / 5.56 g = 0.18 A/g of current rate at the cathode
- 1 A / 2.69 g = 0.37 A/g of current rate at the anode
As you see, the anode and the cathode are in this case discharged at a different current per unit mass, but the current per unit capacity (i.e., the C-rate) is the same! In fact, having both anode and cathode the same capacity:
- 1 A / 1 Ah = 1 h ⁻¹ (=1C) at the cathode
- 1 A / 1 Ah = 1 h ⁻¹ (=1C) at the anode
Hence, normalizing with the capacity using the C-rate has the advantage of understanding better what would be the performance of a material in a full cell configuration, since as you saw in almost any case the cathode and anode materials have different specific capacities.
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I am working on a regression based approach to provide norms for a neuropsychological test battery. However, i do not know how to easily and accurately use the cumulative frequency distribution to convert raw-scores into scaled standard scores (mean on 10, SD of 3). Anyone who can help me?
Donald,
Nicolò
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As shown in this discharge voltage-capacity diagram, an irregular upward voltage reversal occurs at the beginning of the discharge process. What could be the cause, and how could it be prevented?
for a commercial (18650 brand?, and/or link?) battery, you must say more, e.g. about its' previous charge/discharge/relaxation (note SOH?) 'historical' phases and other possible treetments, at least, just before this isolated/cropped (your diagram: 'Layout1.tif') discharging (C-rate ?) phase.
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I assembled the LiFePO4/Li battery in the glove box, and the open circuit voltage tested was 3.4V. Was this a normal phenomenon and why?
Toma Stankulov Thank you very much for your answer, but I still have some questions.
1. The potential of the anode lithium metal is -3.04 V, but I can't find the potential of the cathode LiFePO4 just after assembly, which cannot be calculated.
2. Why does low ionic conductivity lead to an increase in open-circuit voltage (Up to 3.4V)?
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I'd like to calculate the diffusion coefficient from the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT), but there's no information on how to do so. One strategy is to detect them by writing a code in MATLAB and trying to locate them based on their slope, but is this appropriate?
Sorry outside of my field
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For this, I want to implement a charge-discharge cycling boundary condition which involves 3 steps.
Step 1: Charge at a constant current (I_cell) upto a maximum cell cut-off voltage (V_max). Step 2: Then, charge at a constant voltage (V_max) until the cell current drops to a small value (I_min). Step 3: Next, discharge at constant current (-I_cell) until the cell voltage drops to a lower cut-off value (V_min). Repeat this sequence of steps for a given number of cycles.
How to model this in comsol?
Thanks
I am trying to model behaviour of cylindrical battery with different cooling arrangements. For this i am taking reference from a module available on application library of COMSOL on li battery 3d thermal model, where they have coupled 1-d model with 3-d. There they have not used charge discharge behaviour. I want help in this modeling.
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In recent days, batteries have a lot of attention, especially for Electric vehicles. Besides Li-ion Battery, I've read about aluminium ion batteries, but I can't understand, Why aluminium act as an anode and cathode uses graphene?
Aluminium-ion batteries are an attractive alternative to traditional Li-ion batteries because they could potentially offer a longer lifespan, greater cost-effectiveness, and faster charging times. Graphene is used as the cathode material in aluminium-ion batteries because it is highly conductive and can effectively store charge. Additionally, graphene can provide excellent flexibility and stability to the battery structure, which helps to improve the overall performance.
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I have few questions related to pouch cell battery tabs.
1. What are the principle conversion coatings industrially/commercially applied on the Al cell tabs for Li-ion batteries?
2. What is the thickness of the Al cell tab sheets?
3. How to avoid performance reduction after the application of coatings on Al cell tabs?
Here are some answers to your questions regarding pouch cell battery tabs:
1. There are several conversion coatings that are commonly used on aluminum cell tabs for Li-ion batteries. Some of these include chromate, phosphate, and silicate coatings. Chromate coatings are the most common, but they are also the most toxic and are being phased out in many countries. Phosphate coatings are a popular alternative, as they are environmentally friendly and provide good corrosion resistance. Silicate coatings are also becoming more popular, as they are low-cost and provide good adhesion.
2. The thickness of the aluminum cell tabs can vary depending on the specific battery design and application. Generally, the thickness ranges from 0.1mm to 0.3mm.
3. To avoid performance reduction after the application of coatings on aluminum cell tabs, it is important to carefully control the coating process to ensure that the coating is uniform and free of defects. Additionally, the coating must be compatible with the other materials used in the battery, and must not interfere with the flow of ions between the electrodes. Proper storage and handling of the coated tabs is also important, as any damage or contamination can lead to performance degradation.
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Hello,
I am currently working on my masters thesis on SMD supercapacitor. I am looking for some information regarding packaging and setup for surface mount battery/supercapacitor setup. If you or anyone you know have some experience in working with such devices please let me know.
Regards,
Rifat
#smt #smd #battery #coincell #electrode #research #supercapacitor #packaging
When it comes to packaging and setup for surface mount battery/supercapacitor setups, there are a few key factors to consider. Firstly, you need to ensure that the package is compatible with the surface mount technology (SMT) process. This typically involves using a standard surface mount package, such as a quad flat no-lead (QFN) package. Additionally, you need to consider the thermal management requirements for the device, as supercapacitors and batteries can generate heat during operation. It may be necessary to incorporate thermal vias or heatsinks into the package design to dissipate heat effectively. Finally, you need to ensure that the package design provides adequate protection for the device during shipping, handling, and use.
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I am trying to develop a battery thermal management system (BTMS) and perform experimental tests using the battery tester device (Chroma) for charging and discharging. Since I am trying to develop a particular BTMS to place the 18650 lithium-ion batteries inside, I could not utilize the battery fixtures provided by Chroma company. Therefore, I am looking for how the batteries could be directly connected to the battery test device using the supplied cables without the fixture.
I appreciate any comments regarding the mentioned issue.
There are lots of ways to connect the leads from a battery cycler to a cell, and this design should be based on your specific requirements. Since you're building a custom device, there won't be an off-the-shelf solution to fit. If you'd like to explain the dimensions of the device you're building, the layout of the cells within it, and the tools available to you, then the community could suggest appropriate connectors/cables for the application and how to verify the cell contacts will not introduce variability/resistance.
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I want to use Kalman filter to estimate battery parameter and observer for state estimation together (SOC)
You may try graphical state space model solved by factor graph optimization.
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I search for good battery analyzer for testing the cells (zinc based cells) with some reasonable price! If someone can help me with that!?
Best regards,
Dusan
I can suggest you the Neware battery tester, it has low price and very good performances
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Dear all,
Can anybody help me how to draw this comparison graph as described in the paper ?
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1. In all solid state battery half cell systems, the first charge capacity is very high than 1st discharge capacity.
All of the differences are from the side reactions between electrode and solid electrolyte?
2. In many papers, all solid state battery show lower discarge capacity than Li ion battery. (ex) NCM811 200mAh/g>180mAh/g) Is this loss from the poor contact between solid electrolyte and cathode or have another reason?
Hi Oliver,
I think the first part of your question has been answered previously by Dr. Kuksenko. You can check it out to get more perspectives.
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Battery impedance is a combination of internal resistance and reactance where internal resistance + reactance, or (L+ C), equals impedance when using an ac stimulus. The internal resistance of a battery is made up of two components: electrical, or ohmic, resistance and ionic resistance.
Impedance is measuring the overall health and performance of the battery. It can detect battery degradation, abnormal conditions, and aging to ensure proper maintenance and extend battery life. It helps monitor the battery's state of charge and capacity loss.
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I have assembled a hybrid supercapacitor using a battery type material as anode and capacitive material as cathode. Now , where to connect the positive and negative terminal of the hybrid device in the electrochemical workstation to record the CV, GCD etc.?
Connecting a hybrid supercapacitor to an electrochemical workstation (ECW) necessitates a few stages and considerations, including the type of supercapacitor, ECW, and experiment to be done. ECWs of various varieties have varying capabilities and interfaces. It is critical to select an ECW that is compatible with the supercapacitor and the experiment. The supercapacitor will have a positive and negative terminal that should be linked to the ECW's positive and negative terminals. The ECW will be able to regulate the voltage across the supercapacitor and measure the current as a result of this. The ECW may need to be set up with appropriate voltage or current ranges or waveforms depending on the sort of experiment being conducted. Depending on the experiment being run and the kind of supercapacitor used, this will change. The experiment can be carried out once the supercapacitor is attached and the ECW is set up. The supercapacitor may be charged and discharged, the current and voltage may be measured, and data may be analysed.
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in other words tradeoffs between accuracy ,performance( such as battery life ) and latency
There are several methods for solving or dealing with multi-objective optimization problems in cloud computing architecture, some of which include:
1. Pareto Optimality: Pareto optimality is a method that finds the set of non-dominated solutions, in which no other solution can improve one objective without degrading at least one other objective.
2. Weighted Sum Method: This method converts the multi-objective optimization problem into a single objective problem by assigning weights to each objective and summing them.
3. Goal Programming: This method allows the user to specify a set of goals or constraints for each objective and finds the best solution that satisfies them.
4. Evolutionary Algorithms: Evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization are well-suited to solving multi-objective optimization problems because they can efficiently explore the solution space and find a set of non-dominated solutions.
5. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA): MOEAs are specialized algorithms that are designed specifically to solve multi-objective optimization problems. Examples include: Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), and Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D).
6. Hybrid Algorithms: Hybrid algorithms combine two or more of the above methods to improve their effectiveness.
It's worth noting that the best approach for a specific problem will depend on the characteristics of the problem and the resources available. Additionally, it's important to keep in mind that multi-objective optimization problems can have multiple solutions and often require trade-offs between objectives.
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Hello everyone,
Im looking for suppliers of microfluidics batteries or modules, those that connect several microfluidics chips in parallel.
Any contacts? or names?
All around the world, it doesnt matter the location.
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I use homemade 3s 2p battery pack with 3.7V Li-ion accumulators.
I usually use old accumulators that found in dead battery pack (not same SOC and capacity).
I’m not confortable with the voltage balance process before connecting the cells and wonder if I could connect a capacitors in paralell of each paralell module of my battery pack (i.e. 3 paralell module of 2 accumulators each).
The idea would be to not care about SOC when building the battery pack but the price would be to let the capacitors all the time in place.
Is it possible and safe ?
If yes, how to choose the capacitors ?
Hello, it is possible to connect batteries in parallel to create a larger battery pack; however, it is important to consider the safety risks and potential issues that can arise from using batteries with different SOCs and capacities.
When connecting batteries in parallel, it is important to ensure that the batteries have similar characteristics, such as capacity and internal resistance, to ensure that they will perform similarly and charge and discharge at the same rate. If the batteries have different characteristics, the one with the lower capacity or higher internal resistance will be overworked and may fail prematurely.
It is also important to ensure that the batteries are at similar SOC levels/Voltages before connecting them in parallel. If the batteries have different SOC levels, the one with the lower SOC will be overcharged and may fail prematurely. It's important to understand that not all Lithium-ion batteries are similar, they can have different voltage profiles and even different voltage windows, so it's omportant to test them seperatly with specialized equipment.
Also, keep a close eye on the batteries' performance and capacity, if they start to behave differently, it may be necessary to replace them.
When choosing batteries, it's important to choose high-quality batteries that have similar characteristics in terms of capacity and internal resistance. Also, it's important to check the battery's age and not use batteries that are too old.
It's important to note that the safety of your battery pack is the most important aspect, because lithium-ion batteries can explode and catch fire, which causes severe impacts.
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I want to simulate a battery cell in COMSOL for thermal management, but not able to get the values of heat generation.
Dear Puneet, find the attachment that guides you through the solution
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I would like to get your opinion about which open source tool is more reliable for battery aging simulation and performance evaluation? There are various open source tools such as PyBaMM or OpenFOAM. I would like to get advice upon your experience.
Hi,
You also have BLAST and, for this, the Battery Software Open Source Landscape, BOLD, GT-AUTOLION...
Best regards
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I am currently manufacturing a graphite||LiFePO4 battery using a LiPF6 electrolyte. Both are coated on copper and aluminum foils respectively. I assembled them in a split test cell in inert conditions. As assembled OCV is 0.4 volts. At a charging rate of 0.008 mA, the voltage rises upto 3.6 volts, however, as soon the charging is stopped, voltage falls back to 0.4 volts again.
It would really help if the respective experts guide in this regard.
Hey, hmm is there any voltage plateau that appears ? sometimes we just tend to put the order of electrodes so that the voltage is initially positive, which is not always correct, so keep an eye on which electrod is the LFP and which is Graphite and make sure to put the positive as LFP and then charge.
Also, sometimes it's because there is a low first columbic efficiency of Graphite and that it's not prelithiated, so the LFP will loose Lithium and it will all be lost in forming the SEI. So for this, try to make half cells (with lithium metal as anode) for each material alone and see how it behaves, in order to choose the right ratio of Anode capacity/ Cathode capacity. Then you can try to make three electrodes cell with Lithium as the third electrode, so you can see is it the LFP that does not loose Lithium and does the lithium ion intercallate propery in the anode.
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In Psychological Assessment and Testing, how the scale, test, battery, and inventory are similar and different from each other?
Test is a test - Yes or No or a definite answer.
Scale captures the preferences which can be taken as definite answers if required.
Battery is a series of tests.
Inventory is a collection of items which can be in the form of "test" or "scale" .
Both Test and Scales are designed to capture the response of the subjects to certain psychological construct.
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Good evening everyone, I just started working on my end of year thesis. The project is about in-situ characterization of batteries using xrd, raman and sem. Since I am new in the battery field I have some questions. Why do we need an anode with high capacity and low voltage and a cathode with high capacity and high voltage to have a good chemistry in a battery? And what do we mean by the large stability window of an electrolyte?
Thank you for your help An-Giang Nguyen I appreciate it
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As in the new NMC CURRICULUM, THE IMG SHOULD IDEALY SHOS A POSITIVE IMPACT.
Preeti Kanawjia Follow these methods to associate a battery of behavioral change characteristics to a battery of beginning attitudes/aptitudes:
1. Determine the precise behavioral change characteristics and beginning attitudes/aptitudes you wish to include in the analysis.
2. Collect data on a sample of people's behavioral change traits and beginning attitudes/aptitudes. This can be accomplished by self-report measurements, observation, or another type of evaluation.
3. Calculate the correlation coefficient between the behavioral change features and the beginning attitudes/aptitudes using statistical software (such as Excel, SPSS, or R). The Pearson correlation coefficient is a popular way to assess the strength and direction of a link between two variables.
4. Interpret the correlation analysis results. A positive correlation suggests that greater scores on one variable are related to higher scores on the other, whereas a negative correlation shows that higher scores on one measure are related to lower ratings on the other. The magnitude of the correlation coefficient (i.e., its size relative to 1.0) can be used to assess the strength of the link.
5. Take into account any potential confounding variables that may be impacting the link between behavioral change features and beginning attitudes/aptitudes. It is critical to account for any potential confounding variables in order to interpret the correlation analysis results correctly.
I hope you find this info useful! Please let me know if you have any more inquiries.
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It is an easy question but the answer could help me a lot.
I am going to make the electrodes for a lithium ion coin cell. I want to know what are the necessary steps to clean the aluminum and copper foils as current collectors before coating slurry on them?
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Hello I have a paper shows an idea to validate the battery performance by trial and error. How can we estimate the coefficients of Y and U and what is the experimental data needed for validation?
Thank you.
Hello dear Manuel, as I remember, using ANSYS FLUENT ECM battery model.
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Hello,
Recently, I am learning how to develop a full microstructure-resolved 3D model. And I want to use X-ray nano-tomography or focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) to reconstruct the microstructure of commercial electrodes with sufficient nanoscale details. The microstructure-resolved models can be imported into computational programs to mimic the electrode behavior under the battery operation condition. But I encountered some questions. Firstly, how to add the current collector and separator into the segmented volume to construct a battery half-cell? Secondly, how to export the battery half-cell and import it into computational programs like COMSOL? Does any examples or source code about these questions?
I would appreciate it if you can help me.
hello
unfortunately is not mu skill.
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There are many companies working on solid electrolytes, but what can solid electrolytes do? No solid-state batteries are currently in commercial use. Solid-state batteries also have many scientific and engineering problems that cannot be solved
A solid-state electrolyte would have two major advantages (asuming that you find one with sufficient stability and conductivity):
1) It will form stable interfaces to the electrodes (being solid, you may even have the possibility to sandwich two electrolytes - one stable towards the anode and one stable towards the cathode)
2) The transference number of the active ion (e.g. Li+) will be 1 in a true solid-state electrolyte. This will have the (often overlooked ) advantage that you can use thicker electrodes, as the electrode utilisation will not be limited by salt depletion, as is the case with liquid electrolytes - see e.g. K. West, T. Jacobsen, and S. Atlung: “Modeling of Porous Insertion Electrodes with Liquid Electrolyte”. J. Electro­chem. Soc. 129 1480‑85 (1982).
To get a sufficiently high conductivity in a solid-state electrolyte is, however a problem that apparently is not solved at the moment ;-)
Keld
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Hi everyone, is there is any simple method for optimizing the battery storage size in the microgrid ?
The simple way I can come up with now is to formulate an optimization problem with the objective function of the size of the battery (probably plus other objectives with weights). The constraints would be the operation limits of the systems, like voltage/current/ power limits.
Then, if the formulated optimization problem is convex, you can use commercial solvers (e.g., CPLEX) to solve it efficiently.
On the other hand, there are a few non-convex solvers (e.g., GUROBI, IPOpt), but it may take a longer time to solve. Another way is that you should first handle the non-convex constraints or objective terms by using convexification or approximation techniques, then use convex solvers which are computationally efficient.
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Hi all,
I am trying to coat some round tubes with ITO using PVD. Our PVD system (AJA sputter) will give homogeneous deposition for flat surfaces only. Yet, for a round surface the deposition would not be homogeneous. Thus I want to make make a setup in which there would be a small DC electric motor (60 rpm) with a battery and the tube mounted on it so that the tube can spin during the deposition and thus a homogeneous deposition would be achieved.
I wanted to know whether anything would happen to the Litium battery or the DC electric motor in the vacuum.
Hi Jalal,
The motor is also not vacuum-compatible.
Electric motors need cooling, and this is done by air.
If you use it without air cooling, it will burn after a few moments and contaminate the PVD chamber
Maybe, you should use a vacuum Rotary feed through
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Can I conclude from the size of a semicircle in an impedance graph?
No, impedance is not enough to assess an anode material (I wish!). Suitability is complex and dependent on the battery application (for example, optimizing for power, or energy density, or safety, or long life, etc).
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High battery voltage eliminates the requirement for a bidirectional DC/DC converter. If the battery voltage is high enough, the requirements of the separate DC/DC have vanished that further reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency.
Isolation is expensive, components also usually become more expensive for higher isolation values, and higher voltages result in more parasitic electrical effects. I'm pretty sure these are the main reasons why it is not done, efficiency is a secondary issue wrt system cost.
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The entropic heat coefficient is a crucial parameter for the accurate battery electrothermal model. Despite several methods in the literature, these generally obtain significantly different results. In other words, we hardly know which one is reliable enough. I feel like it is still an open question for obtaining the accurate temperature coefficient if expensive instruments such as ARC (accelerating rate calorimeter) and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) are not used (most research groups do not have this equipment). I have tried to extract this coefficient by pulse-rest tests at different ambient temperatures, however, it does not work well when I examine the accuracy of heat generation calculation. Does anyone give me some advice? Thanks a million.
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While synthesizing Si-based anodes under ambient atmospheric conditions, there is always a high probability that a native oxide layer will be formed, as Si surface has high affinity towards atmospheric oxygen. Does this oxide layer affect the electrochemical performance of batteries(as there will be increase in the resistivity)?If so, what are the possible measures taken for reducing oxygen content while synthesizing Si-based anodes?
Does this native oxide layer grow in thickness with time if Si is continuously exposed to oxygen?
Thanks
Si based anode materials have such a higher discharge capacity that I would doubt that you could detect any influence caused by a layer of Si oxide.. You could synthesize the material in the precense of certain amount of carbon in order to create some carbon-reduction during calcination to protect you material if you are using sintering methods. The best way would alway be storing your electro active materials in a glove box... the continuos pasivation of Si or its influence may be a reasearch of its own that you could evaluate through EIS
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For example composite anode is made of material A and B.
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Dear all,
I'm trying to model a lithium battery in COMSOL. As a right now, my simulation and model are in a good agreement. However, I do not know if I'm modeling the battery properly.
I'm a bit confused with the T that Arrhenius law uses. Is it the ambient temperate or is it the battery temperature?
Thank you for your time and consideration to this matter.
The temperature in the Arrhenius law is dynamic and is a function of the temperature at measurement. I believe your consideration is that the temperature is fixed and it's the energy barrier that might be changing. However, it is the other way around -- the energy barrier remains unchanged for a range of temperatures (where this range of temperatures shows that the rate law is valid at any temperature).
It's for the same reason that you might see an Arrhenius fit often being obtained from the experimental value of log(rate) vs 1/T (or 1/K_b*T).
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Hi everyone, I have been lately thinking about possible research questions from the physics point of view for battery technology that hasn't been answered yet or would be really interesting if they are investigated. I would love some feedback about what you think about some exciting topics.
Dear Rehan Khan,
I propose the following research topic for you: Analysis of the determinants of the feasibility of developing and implementing a new generation of batteries, which would be characterised by significantly higher energy storage capacity, electric charging time, long service life, multiple charging and a technological process for recycling used batteries. This issue is particularly important for the development of renewable energy, e.g. wind energy, solar energy, etc. This topic is also particularly important for the development of electromobility and also, for example, for the development of hydrogen energy, e.g. where a hydrogen production company would be powered by electricity from renewable energy sources. This topic is also important in the context of the development of the current energy crisis and the prospective climate crisis. Within the framework of creating a new generation of more efficient batteries, the issue of sourcing rare metals, e.g. lithium, as part of the construction of new sustainable mines is also an important issue. In addition to this, as part of the development of a new generation of more efficient batteries, it may be important to investigate from a physical and biochemical point of view the production and storage of electricity in the bodies of various forms of animals, which are characterised by extremely high efficiency in the production of electricity for external use, e.g. as a defence mechanism. Many forms of living organisms are still characterised by a much higher efficiency of the specific physico-biochemical processes taking place in their biological organisms compared to those used by humans as analogous processes in the production of specific materials or energy.
Warm regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Can we find the lithium transfer number of solid electrolytes from symmetric cell data?
Could please suggest some publications to understand the basics of battery characterization?
Depending on the performed analysis you can extract different parameters.
If following the Bruce-Vincent method you can extract the lithium transference number, if needed.
Other analysis, such as cronopotentiometry testing at constant current, will provide the mechanical stability of the electrolyte against dendrite growth.
Instead, if you perform Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy you can obtain the resistance of the system and, knowing the geometrical parameters, the ionic conductivity.
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I am trying to calculate the heat generation (during charging) from a li-ion battery and I used Bernardi equation for that. Since dU/dT will be low, I calculated the heat flux as follows;
q = [1/A] * [ I^2 * R] (W/m^2)
Battery pack configuration: 3P30S
Cell capacity [Ah]: 100
Cell voltage [V] : 3.2
Cell’s bottom area [m^2]: 0.00405
Battery’s bottom area [m^2]: 0.3645
Internal resistance (at 25degC / 0% SOC): 0.001546 [ohm]
Since the C-rate is 2, I calculated the cell current as 200 [A].
When the values are put in place, the heat flux is 15.270 (kW/m^2) for a single cell. I couldn't understand where and how I made a mistake. Could you give me your opinions about it?
Hello Djef Brak ,
Apologies for the delay.
I did a discharge test in amesim with 150 [A] and waited until 0% SOC. I've got 900 [W] heat loss so it's approx. 2,5 [kW/m²]. I thought it's an acceptable value for this type of configuration but i am not an expert :D Does this seem reasonable?
Thanks,
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I am thinking about the future fuel system. and I think hydrogen fuel is best for the future power system. now days all of us interest electric vehicles(EV). EV has one problem that is, the charging system. To charge those batteries all country have to update the power grid. some country update the power system.
but is that all???
we are fully dependent on batteries. all of electric product now control by batteries. now renewable energy also store by batteries. But the batteries have life time. after that recycle the batteries. but It not so easy process. some country doesn't have any recycle system like Bangladesh, india, nepal, pakistan, etc.
So I think all of us should work in hydrogen fuel. It is 100% environment friendly.
Am I right or wrong????
Dear Sonat Ghosh,
Yes, I also think along the same lines as you. Hydrogen fuel is the future of both motoring, road system communication and energy supply for buildings, businesses, etc. It is the most clean, pro-environmental and pro-climate energy source. On the other hand, it is essential to improve the technology for recycling used batteries, expanding and modernising electricity grids, building hydrogen production facilities powered by electricity from other types of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind or other energy. This issue is particularly important in the context of the necessary pro-environmental and pro-climate transformation of the energy sector, i.e. the development of emission-free energy sources. This is particularly important in order to smoothly and quickly reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, slow down the process of global warming and limit the scale of any future climate catastrophe.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I recently notice some papers with rGO in supercapacitor applications that had reported surface area of 4.6 m2 g−1 and 14.21 m2 g−1 but demonstrated capacitance of 1000 F/g(rGo based composite).
Even some material with carbon and GO along with metal oxides have 3 m2g-1 and exhibited above 1000 f/g at 1 a/g
If surface area area is less then which all other factors aiding excellent capacitance performance?
High capacitance may be due contribution from the pseudo capacitance. As high surface area contribute EDLC but may not ensure a high pseudo capacitance. I have also observed a higher capacitance from GO and attributed it to the presence of functional group.
you may check the following article
Graphene oxide surface chemistry regulated growth of SnO2 nanoparticles for electrochemical application
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@An-Giang Nguyen I know that optimal range of lithium is 10 to 25 degree depend on the manufacturer or whether it is lithium ion or titanate
Excluding battery once we achieve cryocooling it will be resulting in more efficiency,power and performance main reason forthis project is to cool electric plane in future
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