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What are the key differences between banking credit risk management and banking cyber risk management in the context of the development of online and mobile banking?
Improving bank credit risk management is particularly important to reduce the scale of the share of bad loans that are not repaid on time, deteriorating loan portfolios, including paracredit products in commercial banks, including investment banks investing in securities and other speculative investment assets. Thanks to the efficient process of improving bank credit risk management, the scale of financial and economic crises is also reduced. How important it is to improve bank credit risk management and reliably carry out credit risk management, reasonably carry out bank lending, carry out banking in accordance with the principles of business ethics, respect bank customers, apply the principles of corporate social responsibility, shape a high level of good reputation of financial institutions, maintain a high level of public confidence in banks and other financial institutions, etc. this has been shown by the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Breaking the above-mentioned principles and failing to follow good practices, ignoring the issue of sound application of credit risk management principles leads to serious crises in the financial system, bankruptcy of banks and, consequently, economic crises. On the other hand, in recent years, the greatest number of threats to banking have emerged from the Internet, i.e., the environment in which online and mobile banking is developing. Also during the pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (Covid-19), due to the strong increase in the scale of e-commerce, online payments and settlements, the scale of development of online banking and also the scale of cybercrime increased. As a result, the importance of banking cybercrime risk management is growing in banks, and the scale of allocating a portion of banks' surplus funds to secure financial transactions, transfers, payments and settlements made remotely through online and mobile banking is increasing. I researched the issue of credit risk management, bank lending procedures, the importance of an effectively conducted credit risk management process, the mistakes made in this regard, i.e. unreliable implementation of the credit risk management process in banks, violations of business ethics and good banking practices, leading to the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. The results of my research are included in publications on the issues of credit risk management, bank lending procedures, the methodology of assessing the creditworthiness of potential borrowers and credit risk of the bank, the scoring method of assessing the creditworthiness of customers and credit risk, the origins of the global financial crisis 2007-2009, etc. can be found in the publications I have posted on my profile of this Research Gate portal. I am currently conducting research in the field of benchmarking on the comparison of procedures, instruments, systems, etc. for credit risk management and cyber risk management. I invite you to cooperate with me on this issue. I request the results of the analogous analyses and studies conducted.
In view of the above, I address the following questions to the esteemed community of researchers and scholars:
What are the key differences between banking credit risk management and banking cyber risk management in the context of the development of online and mobile banking?
What is your opinion on this issue?
Please answer,
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Warm regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Credit risk management occurs when bank funds are extended, committed, invested, or otherwise exposed through explicit or implicit contractual arrangements, reflected on or off the balance sheet. Therefore, factors unrelated to the bank, such as overall unemployment rates, shifting socio-economic situations, debtors’ views, and political difficulties, determine risk.
According to the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2001), credit risk is the potential loss of the outstanding loan, either partially or whole, due to credit events and default risk. That is to say, failure to make a required payment, repudiation or moratorium, or modification and restructuring of the loan.
Cyber risk, on the other hand, is categorised as an operational risk. Therefore, firms require expensive risk management and mitigation techniques. Implementing cyber risk management can lessen exposure. Due to the nature of cyber risk as a highly dynamic risk with catastrophic loss potential, considerable information asymmetry, and a lack of appropriate data, standalone cyber insurance products are risky even for insurers. Therefore firms invest more in cyber risk management when the consequences of a cyberattack are more costly for businesses.
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What new, innovative features are being added to bank cards where banks are taking advantage of new Big Data Analytics and other new Industry 4.0 technologies?
Commercial banks, in an effort to attract new customers, offer a package of financial services and banking products, implement new ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies into their banking operations in order to improve them, improve the quality and expansion of financial and other services, create facilities for remote access to online and mobile banking offerings, enrich their offerings with new services, including not only financial services. For example, there are banks that add analytics and customer advice on healthy lifestyles and ecological, pro-environmental, pro-climate aspects to bank cards, including credit cards, in line with new trends of sustainable development and green transformation of the economy. Some banks add analytics to bank, payment or credit cards, informing cardholders not only how much money they have spent on the purchase of certain products and/or services, but also what carbon footprint is associated with certain completed or planned purchases.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What new, innovative features are being added to bank cards in which banks are taking advantage of the new capabilities of Big Data Analytics and other new Industry 4.0 technologies?
What do you think about this topic?
Please answer,
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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1. CHIPS STANDARDIZED SECURITY MEASURES
2. MAGNETIC STRIPES FOR CUSTOMERS EASY USE
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Is green finance conducted under green banking, green lending by commercial banks truly green, i.e. pro-climate, pro-environment and sustainable?
To what extent does green lending by banks contribute to the development of pro-environmental, pro-climate, sustainable business ventures?
Are commercial banks that advertise themselves as green banks conducting sustainable banking with a portfolio of banking products really green banks?
Do commercial banks that have added sustainability, climate protection and planetary biosphere protection issues to their new development strategy and/or bank mission promoted in the media really provide many green loans that finance real pro-climate, pro-environmental, sustainable economic ventures conducted by borrowers?
Have the credit risk management procedures resulting from green lending been adequately adapted to the ongoing process of global warming, climate and biosphere change and other impacts of this process?
When assessing the creditworthiness of entrepreneurs planning to realise viable pro-climate, pro-environmental, sustainable business ventures, do banks take into account the issue of the risk of climate change and the specific impacts of this process that may affect the green investment planned for implementation?
How do commercial banks advertising themselves as green, sustainable banks improve their lending procedures and green credit risk management process?
What do you think?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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One of the principles of credit risk is to establish a long relationship with the customer, which means that the bank can know the policy and method of spending the loan by the loan because it has historical information about the borrower.
The bank can also set a condition, which is to follow the progress of the loan and where it was spent by putting forward the idea that there are risks to the borrower in spending the loan. Through this principle, it can follow the progress of the loan and the place of its spending and identify whether it was spent in the direction and location of green projects or what.
My greetings ( Dariusz Prokopowicz )
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Finding it difficult to find any solid journals on this question. Which is quite weird seeing the nature of the topic plays a big part in the modren age.
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Business intelligence system provides data for historical, current and future trends. This data aids the banks in a way that they are able to take accurate decisions and thereby can bring an overall increase in the productivity, efficiency and profitability.
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I am now taking my masters in Business Administration with specialization in Finance and I would like to ask any possible topic regarding the impact of sustainable/green finance on the financial aspect of banking industry or any related studies would help.
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Is the independence of the central bank from the government full and real now? What is your opinion about the central bank's independence from the government?
Is it full and real independence? Should there be full independence or only on some issues?
Or maybe the central bank should run a fully coordinated, parallel cooperation with the government regarding the common economic policy?
Should the monetary policy of the central bank be coordinated with the government's budget policy and to what extent? How is it in your country now?
How do you assess the issue of cooperation between the central bank and the government?
Should the central bank be used by the government to conduct a specific interventionist, anti-crisis economic policy?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Hereby I would like to propose the following research topic: Information policy of the central bank versus the reputation and credibility of the key financial system security institution. In a situation where the central bank, in its ultra-liberal and mild monetary policy and correlated with the government's economic policy, becomes too deeply involved in political and media issues, it begins to lose its positive image. Currently, in the country in which the president of the central bank operates, i.e. the National Bank of Poland, when seeking re-election, he conducts a kind of "election campaign" in the meanstream, pro-government public media, constantly announcing what patriotic and pro-development activities the central bank plans to implement in the coming years. These promises were already promised, such as direct financing of the armed forces, financing the construction of the first nuclear power plant. In addition, such statements of the NBP president at press conferences that the employees of the central bank defend the economy most patriotically, that the central bank is independent of the government, that NBP analysts may also be wrong, that issues regarding the economy and inflation are extremely complex, etc. NBP from the point of view of international financial institutions. To this should be added a policy of not increasing the financial system's safety reserves, consisting in the fact that every year, almost the entire profit of the central bank is transferred to the state budget burdened with high public debt, instead of supplying the reserves of this bank. In the event of a global economic or financial crisis, the exchange rate of the national currency was declining, and after the economy exited the recession, it did not rise adequately, it did not return to the levels from before the crises. By carrying out non-transparent public transactions on international financial markets, the central bank additionally lowered the value of the domestic currency, and the NBP governor explained at press conferences that it was done on purpose to improve the profitability of exports, not to mention, however, that in this way the central bank generated above-average profits at the end of the year. which was then transferred to the state budget. At the end of 2020, NBP was deliberately weakening the domestic currency in order to generate a greater profit for NBP at the end of the year and for the entire fiscal year 2020. NBP admitted it on Twitter and this post quickly disappeared from Tweeter. The idea was for the greater profit from the NBP to go to the state budget burdened with the budget deficit increased by the Anti-Crisis Shields used. In addition, at the expense of citizens, at the expense of foreign currency borrowers, the central bank in Poland transfers its extraordinary profits generated on speculative transactions on international financial markets to the state budget instead of supplying the central bank's reserves and building a more secure domestic financial system. Are there other examples of this kind of parody in the context of a central bank's monetary policy?
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I want to model churn prediction in the banking industry using operation research models. However, I have only secondary data obtained from a customer database.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Credit policy of commercial banks?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Credit policy of commercial banks.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Nelaturi V Raghavaiah,
Yes, that's right. The lending policy of commercial banks is cyclically modified, inter alia, in correlation with cyclical, long-term trends of changes in the economic situation in specific industries and sectors of the economy and in the context of the entire economy.
Thank you,
Regards,
Dariusz
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I am now taking my masters in Business Administration with specialization in Finance and I would to ask any possible topic regarding the sustainable/green finance on the financial aspect of banking industry or any related studies would help.
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Both sustainability finance and green finance are interesting and important topics for study.
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Can you suggest the appropriate references too?
Is this proxy good also for Islamic banks?
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z-score is the best proxy to measure the stability of banks.
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In my opinion, the monetary policy coordinated by central banks can not be objectively assessed without taking into account many specific, current determinations describing the condition of financial markets, the issues of financial risk management instruments applied, the condition of the economy and many other macroeconomic factors. The analysis of a particular monetary policy should take into account the dynamic approach of many variables, including cyclical fluctuation reflected in the changes of many economic categories on the financial markets and in the entire economy. A specific monetary policy may be interpreted and evaluated differently depending on many factors surrounding the condition, financial markets and the economy. In support of this thesis, I cite the following various situations surrounding the banking system and the condition of financial markets and the macroeconomic situation in the context of the cyclical nature of the economy:
1. The process of cyclical development of the national and global economy in a multi-annual perspective, which does not develop fully objectively and independently, is only coordinated by actively pursued economic policies in individual countries, primarily through fiscal and financial policy. To this should be added the issue of the growing importance of central banking in banking systems since the 1970s and the processes of globalization, deregulation, liberalization of transactions and the operation of financial markets, applied security instruments and credit risk management, including capital markets.
2. The impact of monetary policy on central banking on economic processes, when this policy is used, for example, to stimulate economic growth in the deep recession of the economic cycle of the entire national economy, in other words, as has been used many times in many countries since the 1970s. also after the appearance of the global financial crisis in September 2008. Initially, the Federal Reserve Bank in the USA applied such an interventionist anti-crisis solution, and then the European Central Bank in the European Union applied analogous interventionist anti-crisis programs. thanks to this, restoring the balance in the economies and restoring economic growth has worked more effectively and faster than if these interventionist anti-crisis programs were not applied.
3. Long-term, the same, analogical, similar to the same formula, the same goals and directions of action, such as monetary policy co-ordinated by a large central bank, which is also of international importance due to the importance of the US economy, ie monetary policy shaped by the Bank Federal Reserve in the USA. This has been the case since the 1990s until the global financial crisis in 2008. Consequently, this particular policy of the Federal Reserve bank before 2008 was considered by many economists to be incorrect, too low interest rates were maintained for a long time, which enabled commercial banks to broaden the liberalization of lending policy, which resulted in granting these loans to persons without creditworthiness when there were no reliable borrowers and the home sales market was growing, prices of real estate and securities on stock exchanges continued to grow speculatively, despite the fact that they were highly overvalued.
In connection with the above, in the current economic reality it is not practically justified to assess the dominant models of applied monetary policies in universal, timeless terms, detached from the specific economic conditions of a given country, from a specific moment in the business cycle, from specific standards of the institution's supervision of the financial system, on the specific quality of the effects achieved in the area of ??the security of the financial system being a derivative of the application of specific solutions and system prudential instruments in the credit risk management process, etc.
On the other hand, it is justified to make objective, scientifically verified assessments of the dominant models of applied monetary policies, but for a specific economic situation, for a given country, for a specific examined and posted financial system functioning in a specific economy, at a specific moment, phase of the economic cycle of the national economy, global situation, specific situation on the capital markets, the level of valuation of securities on stock exchanges, applicable standards and instruments for the security of the financial system, including the effectiveness of supervision institutions over the financial system, including banking, situtions on credit markets, specific scientifically tested and defined standards for the use of bank loans, i.e. level of credit risk for the majority of credit transactions, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How do you rate the monetary policy of the central banks?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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When the global financial crisis began in the autumn of 2008, the central banks of some countries, primarily the Federal Reserve Bank in the USA and the European Central Bank in the European Union, undertook specific anti-crisis measures to reduce the negative effects of the financial crisis at the time.
In view of the above, how do you assess the role of central banking in the area of anti-crisis measures in the event of financial and currency crises?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Emmanuel V Murra,
Thanks for the kind words and positive recommendations of this discussion, in which the debaters formulate their answers to the question: How do you assess the role of central banking in the field of anti-crisis measures in the event of financial and currency crises?
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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In the area of electronic banking, including mobile banking, commercial banks improve technological solutions for the use of smartphones for the purpose of conducting financial transactions by clients.
Commercial banks spend the most resources on developing security systems, reducing gaps in online banking systems used by cybercriminals and improving IT systems risk management procedures.
The changes taking place in online banking, including mobile banking, are currently determined primarily by the technological progress related to telecommunications and IT devices.
In view of the above, the current question is: Determinants of the development of mobile banking?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
I described the problem of cybercrime in publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Technology by E and I transaction
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I am working on the banking sector in the Asian countries and know only about the Bankscope as a data source. I dont have personal access to the database. How can i collect my data? Any suggestion ......
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Like your country also have head bank from their you can collect it
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Perhaps in the future the development of electronic, online banks and technology companies developing financial services as fintechs will be implemented in parallel and will lead in many respects to a synthetic model of combining different business concepts of banks and fintechs. In such a situation, it will not be possible to clearly determine who has taken over and dominated the first, or electronic banks or fintechs.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Is there more competition or synergy between the development of online banks and fintechs?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Business, banking, and financial organizations in the USA and Europe are very closely related to Fintech. This is no longer just a connection, but a symbiosis of technology, finance, and commerce. According to the research by IndustryARC’s market analyst, the Fintech market volume exceeded $150 billion last year and continues to grow.
That is, in today’s article we’ve made the research on such related questions:
  • What are the main directions for the development of financial technologies in 2021?
  • Fintech integration: why do the bank and business need it?
  • What do the digital ecosystems mean for the bank, Fintech, and the customer?
  • How to understand in which direction to develop your digital ecosystem and how to position it?
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I am looking for links to some free databases of the banking industry of different economies across the world. Thanks in advance.
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Dear Probir Kumar Bhowmik,
Free databases on the issues of commercial banks are located in central banks, banking supervision institutions, financial system supervision and other public institutions supporting the development of the banking sector.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Commercial banking has several hundred years of development history. Fintechs have been developing only since the end of the 20th century, but the development of some fintechs is many times faster than most banks currently operating. This is the main reason why banks are interested in the development of fintechs. In most countries, fintechs are not yet a significant direct competition for commercial banks, but taking into account their dynamic development in the field of new technologies, online settlements and payments, combining information services with financial or other services and e-commerce, with e-commerce , e-business, however, this may change in the future and this competition may increase significantly in the future.
Banks that are not afraid of competition from fintechs usually do not cooperate only by observing new technologies introduced to the online market of financial transactions by fintechs. However, commercial banks that are afraid of competition from fintechs are either interested in this type of cooperation in the field of technology development or take over these entities in capital transactions, including selected fintechs to capital groups managed by a given bank. There have been transactions of this type in which a commercial bank took control of a fintech, which was a dynamically developing startup or a thriving technology company operating in the new online media sector and new techniques for settlements and payments made electronically. Some banks, fearing competition from fintechs, observe their functioning and try to introduce into their business model solutions similar to those that develop fintechs with positive effects.
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question: Do banks cooperate with fintechs?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Yes, banks need fintechs to advance technology in banking and finance. Bank staff will not have the capacity to introduce the latest financial technology, except in partnership with these fintech companies at principal level relationship either as a partner or shareholder.
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If artificial intelligence is implemented for the online mobile banking, can this banking segment be deprived of employing human capital altogether?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dariusz Prokopowicz In my experience, bank employees are needed less and less banking applications, mobility, online services and even financial and credit analyzes are performed using artificial intelligence.
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How machine learning performs better for internal audit department in the banking industry than usual audit practices. What objectives could be achieved from branch audit, IT audit, Management audit, Thematic audit, and International audit through Machine Learning?
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MACHINE LEARNING employs pattern recognition. When applied to auditing in banking or other industries, for purposes of compliance or not compliance, pattern recognition by machine learning is useful to a certain level. However, certain issues that deals with human judgments, conventional human audit approach must also be used. Combining machine learning with human conventional audit approaches would give high audit productivity.
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Advantages of fintechs over traditional banks, considering consumer banking functions...from both the perspectives of banks and customers...
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Both are good. I use both of them. It depends on the purpose.
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Many business companies in internet marketing collect and analyze comments, posts, entries, etc. from social media portals.
It is also done by some financial institutions, banks acquiring additional information about potential borrowers and insurance companies against possible conclusion of insurance contract. Commercially operating companies and financial institutions operate in this area on the border of the law on the protection of personal data.
Until this type of acquisition of information about potential customers is legally regulated, then commercially operating companies and financial institutions will conduct such activity. In addition, the issue of the security of this type of data about users of social media portals is of particular importance, as there have been effective cybercriminal attacks that resulted in the theft of personal data of users of social media portals.
I invite you to the discussion
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It happens that commercial banks, when verifying the creditworthiness of a potential borrower, view customer profiles on social networks, treating the information on these profiles as an additional source of customer data. Are such banking practices ethical in terms of business?
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Online mobile banking is dynamically developing because pro-development factors continue to outweigh the factors limiting this development.
The main development factors are the reduction of operating costs for banks and facilitating remote access to banking services, including mobile payments to clients.
Currently, the only barrier to development can be increased activity of cybercriminals stealing data from online banking clients, hacking into online bank accounts of customers and robbing clients of financial means. However, banks have so far quickly identified this type of cybercrime incidents and have been gradually improving their mobile banking security systems.
Another factor limiting the development of online mobile banking may be the number of bank customers interested in this type of banking.
What are the other key determinants of the development of mobile banking?
Please answer
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
I described the problem of cybercrime in publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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During the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, the e-commerce industry accelerated its growth. The scale of purchases and payments made via the Internet has increased. In addition, due to anti-pandemic security, more and more citizens use mobile banking implemented from the smartphone level and make contactless payments with a smartphone, avoiding cash. Therefore, the development of internet banking could partially offset the decline in lending caused by the decreased interest in bank loans.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I want to research on confidence of CEO of banking industry in India. For this a database that my literature guides me is factiva.com, which shows global news.
In this CEO can be termed as overconfident, optimistic or underconfident, pessimistic in the various news which factiva can display.
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Chinaza Godswill Awuchi thank you very much.
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The Concept of Reverse Marketing coined with the basis of encouraging people to seek out a business, product or service of their own accord rather than actively promoting a specific brand, product or service. In case for Banking Industry, as it is a part of Service Industry, which primarily deals with Banking and Financial needs of people at large, either Value Added Services and Non-Value Added Services,
(1) Can we use the Tools of Reverse Marketing Cycles, to provide a way to Customers to fulfil their own Banking requirements based upon their choices and preferences?
(2) What are the essentials to utilise the tool?
(3) Up to what extent, the tool will be useful for Profit maximisation and to draw up a Qualitative and Quantitative relations based on the Customer's preference?
(4) Any drawback of the tool.
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Is the risk of online banking systems currently treated in banks as more important than the classic categories of banking risk, such as credit risk? Do the IT risk management processes of online banking currently absorb significantly more expenditure on improving credit risk management systems?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Welcome sir
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Application of Big data analytics in banking and financial markets
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I propose the following topic: The use of Industry 4.0 technology, including Big Data Analytics, in order to improve credit risk management processes in commercial banks. In addition, an interesting topic is also: Directions of development of Industry 4.0 technology applications, including artificial intelligence in online banking. In addition, I propose research in the field of verifying the correlation analysis of the improvement of credit risk management processes and the probability of the appearance of another global financial crisis. I conduct research on the above-mentioned issues and encourage scientific cooperation. Below, I have provided a short argument for the proposed research topics. The directions of the development of the Industry 4.0 technology applications, including artificial intelligence in internet banking, including the development of internet and mobile electronic banking, are enormous. Has any of you conducted comparative research on the security of using internet mobile banking on smartphones with different operating systems and different security systems for data transfer via the Internet? Besides, maybe some of you are researching the issues of risk management of processing and transfer of classified data in electronic banking systems, including internet, mobile banking with access to bank accounts via a smartphone? If so, I invite you to discussion and cooperation, because I research this issue. Currently, I also conduct research on the correlation of integrated credit, operational, technological and data transfer security risk management systems in mobile internet banking. Some internet tech companies, including antivirus vendors for example, are researching cybercrime in mobile online banking. The financial sector belongs to those sectors in the national economy in which the possibilities of using ICT and Internet technologies, Industry 4.0, including artificial intelligence, learning machines, the Internet of Things, Business Intelligence, Big Data, Data Analytics, etc., are the greatest. Some of the ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies have been implemented for many years in sales systems, electronic and mobile banking systems, banking analytics, financial risk management, etc. in financial institutions. On the other hand, the use of the enormous opportunities offered by artificial intelligence in the field of finance is just beginning, but the potential for this use is huge. Currently, an indirect but important for the development of financial systems competition has started between banks and other institutions of the financial sector and technology companies operating mainly or exclusively on the Internet, referred to as fintechs. one of the factors of this competition is the issue of the effective implementation of ICT and Internet information technologies into the conducted business, Internet billing, Industry 4.0, including artificial intelligence, learning machines, Internet of Things, Business Intelligence, Big Data, Data Analytics , besides blockchain technology, cryptocurrencies, cloud computing and other advanced data mining technologies, etc. I have described the issues of applying artificial intelligence in the financial sector in my Questions and Discussions conducted on this Research Gate discussion forum. On the other hand, the issues related to the use of other information technologies, ICT, Internet, Industry 4.0, including Big Data database technologies, analytical Business Intelligence and others in applications in financial institutions, are described in my scientific publications available on the Research Gate portal. I invite you to research cooperation in these development areas of finance and banking.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Please also mention database for collection of big data related to banking sector.
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For financial industries (banking, insurance and stock markets) FinTech provides several useful solutions in big data analyses, which can be used for example in forecasts, risk management, scenario modellings.
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As a response to the credit crisis, these rules aim to shield banks but what is the overall result, positive or negative ?
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The fact that central supervisory authorities usually respond with a delay in creating new regulations as part of improving risk management systems in relation to technological advances and new types of financial instruments created in banks, including e.g. credit derivatives (which was exemplified by negative systemic effects that were significant sources of the global financial crisis of 2008) this is the smaller problem. On the other hand, the bigger problem is that some banks, first of all some investment banks have ceased to operate as public trust institutions, do not apply the principles of corporate social responsibility and business ethics in key issues of implementing banking procedures, including financial security procedures and credit and operational risk management etc., deliberately increase and use the asymmetry of information between the bank and the client and do not always fully comply with the guidelines, recommendations and regulations of the amended standards on financial security and improvement of risk management procedures created by banking supervision institutions, central institutions supervising the entire financial system. This issue also concerns the impact of Basel III regulations on capital adequacy and indirectly also on the security of national and international financial systems and also on the global banking system. I conduct research in this area. The conclusions of the research I published in scientific publications that are available on the Research Gate website. I invite you to scientific cooperation.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Could you give me any examples of the COVID-19 impact on banking sectors in different countries? Any description/suggestion (of mechanisms how the pandemia impacts on banks) will be appreciated.
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Loans and NPL of the banking industry will be affected which will have an effect on earnings. Monetary measures to lower SRR, overnight interest rates and re-classifcation of NPLs (3mth or 6mth) will have a positive on Bank's earnings. The cost of funds and provisions for NPLs will not have such a drastic impact on banks' earnings. The credit administration process in loan approval is important as most loans are subjected to credit guidelines like single customer limit, industry exposure and collateral. The recovery process of NPL might take time but the exposure will not be as significant.
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Banks can co-operate with Fintech to improve the performance. Can you suggest some studies on the ways and scopes of the co-operation?
Any help is appreciated.
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I am doing a dissertation about how bank-specific factors influence bank cost efficiency.
The sample I use includes 40 UK commercial banks and the chosen period has 5 years. The result of DEA ( VRS, cost efficiency ) is low with an average of 0.30 (especialy low allocative efficiency) and there are too many efficient units with a score of 1. When I ran the regression, no factors are significantly influencing the efficiency level, and the 1s make the regression very strange.
I tried to restrict input weights and delete outliers, but the result does not improve much.
How can I optimize the cost efficiency result? By the way, should I run DEA year by year five times or putting five years’ data in one period and just run once?
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The STATA version is easier but you need to know STATA which most university have.
DEAP is the original Queensland University, which is developed using Fortran. It is very sensitive to the spacing of the data.
I have used STATA and it is so much easier using the input file. I suppose DEAP is free - it can be downloaded. The STATA version is quite user friendly - you can download the help module and it guides you how to do it effortlessly.
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I am doing research on blockchain and how it can affect the tradition banking systems. In case you are interested, I would like for you to answer a short structured questionnaire that will take 10 minutes to complete and give me a better insight of issues within the public blockchain and the banking industry.
In case you decide to help me collect some valuable primary data, here is the link and please leave your name in the end for reference.
Thank You!
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Brian Barnard at first I also thought that the absence of a third party is one of the main reasons for people to use cryptos. Third parties, in general, are responsible for safety and data storage, where blockchain is already successful in these areas. The idea of being able to complete financial transactions without anybody recording, storing and selling data is for some people a good enough of a reason to use blockchain.
Personally, from the very beginning of my research, I thought that trust is the key to answering this question. Some may avoid using cryptos since there is no central authority they trust in case of fraud or scam, that will catch the thieves and return the money. Nevertheless, this is the price for a trusted distributed blockchain that is not owned by anyone and transactions happen directly between the two parties.
I do agree with Peterson K. Ozili that one of the first steps is for governments and regulators to trust the public blockchain, or at least trust its potential. There are banks that successfully use private and centralized blockchains and even introduce their own tokens. I believe that first the technology must progress and more organizations should invest in blockchain research before actually talking about regulatory frameworks and public acceptance. European Central Bank in their latest report mentioned that cryptocurrencies do not meet the predefined function of money and the popularity of the platform is not that high to influence national economy, thus advising to monitor the blockchain development closely and not take serious regulatory, political or economic actions yet.
Basically, to summarize, I think first the user base of the public blockchain and the academic research should significantly increase and only then talk about some type of unified common public acceptance similar to the one that banks have gained over the decades. After that when different businesses and organizations accept the technology it will allow people to pay their daily expenses with Bitcoin hence already affecting the economy.
One last thing, it is safe to say that people look for the most cost-effective ways to live their lives. Nobody will adopt cryptocurrency unless issues like long transaction time or high fees are not fixed.
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Commercial banks are interested in financing pro-ecological projects, also referred to as green projects, if they are profitable projects. In many countries, commercial banks provide commercial loans for the implementation of economic projects in the field of green projects if the borrower has creditworthiness.
It is increasingly common for commercial banks to finance economic projects in the field of green projects for marketing purposes and to improve their image in the context of interbank competition.
In connection with the above, I am asking you the following question:
Should commercial banks increase the scale of financing pro-ecological projects?
Please reply
Best wishes
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In my opinion, both large investment banks as well as many smaller commercial, deposit and credit banks should increase the scale of financing of pro-ecological projects every year. This issue is particularly important in connection with the progressive global warming of the Earth. Global warming is recognized by many scientific centers as one of the greatest threats to humanity and life on Earth in the perspective of the end of the 21st century. Therefore, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly projects, such as the development of renewable energy sources, reduction of classic energy sources based on mineral incineration, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, development of electromobility, sustainable agricultural production, environmental protection, etc., by all possible means.
In connection with the above, I am asking you the following question:
Should commercial banks increase the scale of financing pro-ecological projects?
Please reply
Best wishes
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I will do an Internship at one of the big four at Financial services. I'm free to choose any audit topic.
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Chris Kelly, that's right.
And more than that, I feel like some large audit companies might have spotted frauds but looked the other way because of the fear of loosing a client if they made the fraud public.
Therefore, I have thought for a long time that if there was no 'client- service provider' relationship between audit companies and audited companies (for example, if audit companies were publicly appointed), frauds would arise earlier.
Maybe this could be analysed.
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In recent years, the importance of the problems of scientific attempts to verify and justify for formulated forecasts of the potential emergence of another global financial crisis is growing. The problem is particularly important because some of these theories suggest that the next global financial crisis may be similarly surprising for the majority of economic entities, but it may also be characterized by a sub-standard or higher level of negative economic effects of the downturn in the situation of the next global financial crisis.
(The continuation of these considerations can be found in the comments below).
In view of the above, the current question is: Are there verified and scientifically justified forecasts of the potential emergence of another global financial crisis?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Through the Federal Reserve Bank's anti-crisis policy of buying junk assets from commercial banks, millions of reprinted dollars were pumped into the economy without economic coverage in the equivalent of produced economic goods. A significant part of these additional dollars indirectly conjunctural generated a quick return of prosperity on the securities markets, perhaps too fast because in a few years after the global financial crisis in 2008, the valuation of securities on the largest securities markets exceeded the level of autumn 2008 .
I invite you to the discussion
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I'm working on a comparative analysis between the italian regulation system and the US one and I'm interested in particular on a historical development of this principle, from the origin to nowadays
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Try looking up the Reports on the Bank of International Settlements Website (https://www.bis.org/).
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I wish i know about innovative tools used by advanced/universal (in those cases, quantitative processes are preferred) banks as well as simpler methods implemented in smaller banks (due to proportional principle of Basel II).
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Both are very subjective and difficult to measure. Reputation risk is usually addressed with a rep risk or franchise committee, which reviews all transactions referred to it they are given them power to refuse or not. Lots of crypto-related transactions are making their way to these committees, I believe.
Strategic risk is similarly subjective. The best example I can think of is the reg stress tests which now incorporate strategic moves.
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How can the process of managing financial risk, eg credit risk, be associated with the risk management process of IT systems, including the risk of cybercrime in online banking?
Please reply.
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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i cant agree more with Chris. i think both will reflect a subjective look and combining them together will be "a risky" option as well as it will be based on simulations and subjective/weighted criteria. i believe both needs to be measured seperatley then used to inform the decesion making process feeding into the over all risk framework to provide proactive measures to offer more control
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Has the upgraded computerized Business Intelligence analytical platforms been implemented in the credit risk management systems of financial institutions?
Please reply.
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I follow answers
best regards
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In the situation of classic deposit and loan banking, the bank's equity translates into the bank's ability to engage in active operations, which include, above all, loans, paracrine instruments and investments in securities. In classical banking, deposit and credit, the funds deposited in deposits determine the opportunities for the development of lending. If a commercial bank operating in the classical deposit and credit banking model also develops investment banking activities, then the risk management process should include quantification of risks related to the bank's involvement in investment activities for particular types of assets, including investments in securities, derivatives and other assets that generate high credit risk. Investment banking should have appropriately higher specific provisions to cover high levels of estimated risk in order to reduce the likelihood of loss of liquidity and announcements bankrupt in a situation of a downturn in the domestic economy and markets where the bank's contractors and clients operate.
I invite you to the discussion
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question: What happens when a deposit and credit bank becomes involved in investment banking activities?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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One of the key reason of 1929 great depression was involvement of deposit & credit banks in investment banking activities. Deposits were channeled to corporate bonds and during economic slowdown most of the depositors lost their money.
Core banking and investment banking activities were then separated under Glass-Steagall Act which was in force till 1999. Investment banking activities were reallowed under Graham-Leach Act.
Core banking and IB activities should be taken together under ethical responsibility. Strong self as well as government regulations are must with risk management system being regularly monitored.
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I am looking forward to submit my DBA proposal focusing on how middle management in banking industry will respond / support the organisational change especially in today context - where AI is taking over their jobs through automation. Appreciate your feedback whether it is relevant for me to use the organisational theory and leadership theory to support my research. If not suitable, appreciate your recommendation please. Many thanks
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Maybe you can refer with TAM or UTAUT model for proposal.
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Dear esteem senior colleagues, I'm currently investigating the systemic risk in the banking industry. I need help on how to empirically estimate these systemic risks methods: Conditional Value at Risk (CoVar) introduced by Adrian & Brunnermeirer (2016); Long Run Marginal Expected Shortfall (LMES) method and SRISK method by Acharya, Engle & Richardson (2012).
Thanks for your usual help.
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Why don't you follow the procedure given on pages 13-15 in Adrian & Brunnermeier (2016) with R packages quantile regression, garch, etc. where needed?
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Kindly suggest me the path in developing an index for various stakeholders of a small finance bank. I am working on a conceptual framework for my research on investigating the factors affecting micro finance. A case of selected small finance bank is taken for this assessment.
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Hello Anushree,
It is not difficult to make an index. It has to be useful and be used by shareholders. They have the opportunity to pursue stock market analyzes, indices, financial indicators, rating agencies, investment funds, macroeconomic indicators and others.
The steps needed to build an index are: - banks selection. At the begining you can retain a smaller number of banks. Their number will be further increased; - some of the selected banks' shares will be retained. They will form a sample. Their choice will be made to be representative for all banks;. - giving a share of each sample action, considering that they have different performances; - assembling the actions in a simple form, through a relation. In the beginning, you will consider a simple function, based on simplifying assumptions, after which you will give up, one at a time; - setting a score for the built function; - setting a date and reference value.
Regards
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We are conducting a research that investigates relationship between Corporate Sustainability Performance and Corporate Financial Performance in banking industry. We want to analyze differences in perception among different regions of the world. For now we used North America, Europe, and Asia. But results are inconclusive.
Anyone has a better idea? Maybe according to Human Development Index or legislation regime?
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Dear Karolina, it looks like you are more interested on macro information (aggregated at a country level for cross-country analysis). For micro and case study information, in the case of Latin America, you can find reports about the banking industry at this Web site (Ecobanking project http://www.ecobankingproject.org/?lang=en). At a global level UNEP FI is a good source of data ( http://www.unepfi.org/). I hope this might be helpful. Best regards.
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I started collecting data for commercial banks in Asia during the period of 1990-2015 via Orbis Bank Focus (previously known as Bankscope). However, at the moment,  Orbis Bank Focus can only provide up to 5 years of latest data for some banks (for most of banks, there are only 3 years of available data). Could you please suggest other databases that I can find a longer time span of financial data?
Previously, Bankscope is able to provide long time- series data; but by the end of 2016, it is no longer to access to Bankscope as it changed to Orbis Bank Focus. So if there is anyone who has the data from Bankscope for the Asian sample of commercial banks, could you please share the data with me?
Thanks very much for your help!
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SNL Financial (S&P Global Market Intelligence) would also be a good alternative.
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what are the key ratios to measure the financial Performance of a Banking Company?
thanks in advance
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ROA, ROE and NPM: mostly used. But then they’re market based measure of performance such as EPS
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Can any one name existing and under planning use cases of BlockChain Technology?
Like
1) Electronic voting in literature it is available but does it really exist
2) Banking Gross Settlement  like RTGS
3) Cross border payments
4) Supply Chain
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Dear @Saeed and @Ahmed are making copy/paste plagiarism!!! Here are their original resource.
@Saeed:
What is "BLOCKCHAIN" Technology ?
@Ahmed:
Don't know what's Blockchain technology? Let us explain
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how do you think fintech will affect banking industry in the future and how will the technology affect people from the industry?
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Dear Dr. Kwan,
It is a feature of the New Classical Paradigm of the "Commercial" Banking Sector ushered in largely by the Basel Norms and also contained in my PhD thesis at New York University in 1993, which is also partly related to the work at the World Bank by Economists like Demirguc-Kunt that the Future of the Banking Industry depends on its systems classified ability to effectively manage its Assets-Liabilities (not its profits say). While this may sound like obvious it is not because it not only redefines the Global Practice of Management Sciences but also shows the specifics of Bank Management in particularly this globalised networking scenerio at the same time it leads to an overhaul of Commercial Laws because corporate laws are also related to commercial bank lending and the asset markets. We have established a parameter restriction to optimally control dynamically banking systems in the form of "p-ratio" which is NPA/Loans and Advances (Mallick, Sarkar, Roy, Duttachaudhuri, & Chakraborty (2001,2007,2010)) and shown them to be converging thereby its complement is also converging with market microstyructure data on Indian Banking which simultaneously can Systems Classify and Systems Integrate Banking Systems Data (Mallick, (2014), Mallick, Hamburger, Mallick (2016,2017)) in the new scenerio post globalisation post National Artificial Genetic Gravitational Neural Network (Mallick, Hamburger & Mallick (2017), Mallick (2018)). This "interaction picture" of quantum mechanics is due to the Genetic Nature of the Network as described above and not because bank management had gone through any fundamental changes prior to that in the immediate past. So the future of the banking industry for the application of this network which consists of the "Arrow of Time" using "jump quantum conductance" and Vector Diffeotopy (Mallick et. al. (2016, 2017, 2018)) is equivalent to stable paths of satelites as we have proved (AGN Networks of Kolokythos, Raichaudhuri, Vrtilek, Kantharia, et.al. (2015?)) and converges equivalently by the "centripetal-centrifugal" Dbranes String Theoretic Differential properties (Mallick et. al.) of the Electronically connected networks (distributed computing with Algorithmic Higgs-Bosonic Stock & Flow) with the above network characteristics associated with the usual Arrow-Debreu conditions of Financial Markets with Industrial Structure (Mallick (1993, 2014)) and Learning (Mallick (1993,2014, 2015, 2018)). That is a lengthy answer but these papers of ours can be found on www.researchgate.net/profile/Soumitra_Mallick and the references therein.
Soumitra K. Mallick
for Soumitra K. Mallick, Nick Hamburger, Sandipan Mallick
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While computation of net interest margin of banking company, do we consider income from investments.
if so, the denominator of the ratio i.e, interest earning assets include 'investments also.
thanks in advance
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NIM is measured as (the interest received on credit facilities (loans) minus
the interest paid on deposits)/Assets.
The NIM is one of the most important factors that measure the
efficiency of banks as intermediaries that manage savings and
provide loans (Obeid, 2017).
For more details kindly read my paper in my profile
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what is the importance of Interest income to total assets ratio of a banking company in analyzing its performance?
thanks in advance
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Dear Srikanth
Normally the higher this ratio the better indicating the bank is earning a high interest rate or the proportion of interest earning assets (loans) to total assets is high or both of these effects. Too high of interest income to total assets ratio would be attributed to the high interest income (rate) derived from high risk loans (subject to default). Also, if the high interest income is being generated by too high a proportion of assets in loans that could stem from lack of liquidity. That is, the bank should have a reasonable amount of cash and cash like securities (easily converted to cash such as Treasury bills) as part of their total assets to meet withdrawal needs. If the interest income to total assets ratio is too low that usually is from earning low interest income (rate) and/or too little lending.
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As I read from the standard text, operating profit margin of banking company is computed by dividing operating profit by income of the bank.
does Income refers to interest income only or it includes income from investments and other incomes also.
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1-this ratio is net profit after tax by total revenue
2. total revenue include interest and bank operations such as Commissions ,investment revenue,Letter of Guarantee Revenues and other service's revenue
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what is the relationship between cash-deposit ratio and money multiplier?
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Dear Srikanth
The cash-deposit ratio for a bank is equal to (total cash)/(total deposits). The bank must maintain liquidity to operate and will hold an amount of cash to service net withdrawals from customer activities such as drawing from their deposit (checking and savings) accounts.
The money multiplier is equal to 1/(reserves requirement) where the numerator amount of 1 is viewed as a deposit. The reserve requirements comes from the central bank (or federal government) that sets a percentage amount of deposits that need to be set aside or deposited with them as reserves. For example, if the reserve requirement is 5% then for every $100 of deposits $5 is put into reserves (held by the central bank/federal government). This leaves $95 that the bank can lend out in addition to the $100 and therefore has multiplied the money (more than one times). This multiplying effect continues as the new amount of $95 goes to another bank in the system and so on.
Comparing the two metrics you can see the relation between them as the deposits variable is common to both.
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can any one help me in recognizing what steps i should follow in SPSS to test 9 control variables. divided in to 2 sets; one set related to bank industry which includes 2 control variables. and the other set related to institutional environment in a country that includes 7 variables(dummy, categorical and figures).
also, how i control for year fixed effects if in my thesis i test banks in two countries from 2009 to 2014?
thanks in advance
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Create category - 1 dummies for each categorical independent variable and use multiple regression or simple discriminant or multiple discriminant analysis
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Another one of top 4 banks (in Australia) to join the club of money laundering and counter terrorism breaches! Where are we heading to?
More revelation of high profit yielding banking industry (Australia) issues/malpractices! This time liar loans! As per some investigations, these loans can add up to 1/3 of the home loans. Is this the tip of the iceberg?
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what about the regulatory institutions , the role of outside auditors who can uncover all the illegal acts.central banks should implement direct investigation over the banking system to prevent any illegal or unethical acts.
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I'm wishing to conduct my PhD thesis in the area of Islamic Finance. Initially, I've planned to conduct a research on the "Performance of Islamic Banks" with a comparison of two countries. I'm seeking advice from global community on my chosen area. Please advice me;
- How plausible is this topic and how can I contribute in the existing knowledge?
- What are the possible new dimension can be consider for this well practiced research?
- What would be some different ideas, if you have?
Please share any relevant literature available.
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There is a review paper in Islamic bank that provide suggestion for future research in Islamic banks. In this paper, you may find the review of previous studies that discuss performance of Islamic banks and also the comparison between Islamic banks vs its counterparts. I hope it is help
Abedifar, P., Ebrahim, S.M., Molyneux, P. and Tarazi, A., 2015. Islamic banking and finance: recent empirical literature and directions for future research. Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(4), pp.637-670.
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When applying the thoughts of institutional theory, I know one established measurement of isomorphic behavior in the banking industry is based on the similarity between firms' asset allocation. But what about other kinds of firms, it there any valid measurement in the literature? Cheers
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I am working on a thesis on institutional variations in mining in Latin America. Two processes that interest me are those of Diffusion and Interpretation to explain the mechanisms of variation. Could you help me with suggestions?
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In your opinion a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) will be a useful tool to FINTECHS reseachers/praticioners in the banking industry?
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Dear Eduardo Zied Milian,
Yes systematic literature review is very helpful to get comprehensive insights into the issue.
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Dear Sir/Ma’am
I am delighted to share with you that, We( Dr Neha Chhabra Roy , NMIMS- Bengaluru and Dr T Viswanathan, SIBM –Bengaluru) won won the Macro Economic Research Project Award for the year 2016-17. The Project is awarded by Indian Institute of Banking and Finance. The objective of the Research Project is to study the “Impact of Technological disruption on the Work force Challenges of Indian Banks.” Based on preliminary analysis, we have identified Digitization, Financial Technologies (Fin tech), Data Analytics, Cloud Compounding, Block Chain Technology and Artificial Intelligence as major drives of Technology in the future of Banking. Further, we would like to seek the opinion of executives from Public and Private Sector banks on technology disruption. We would appreciate, If you could share your views in brief about the role of technology evolution/disruption with respect to Banking Industry.
Regards Neha
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Remote banking has already reduced face-to-face banking considerably. Further, machines are going to respond to 95% of all customer queries through menu driven processes. Even in the Credit Process, standardization in application process & information submission will see algorithms take over majority of decisions. In India, if the Cash Economy is reduced, there will be far reduced need for manpower in the Banking System.
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Please, I will love to know the benchmark for Net Interest Margin ratio in banks.
How low or  high can Net Interest Margin (NIM) be in research to be considered acceptable as a bad or good performance in relation to bank profitability.
Thanks.
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Use last 1-3 years NIM, after adjusting for differences in economic conditions in different year. 
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The key factors that determine corporate reputation in the banking industry in Asia based on a customer point of view, as well as the methods to measure these factors using a quantitative approach.
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organization presence, social responsibility, and identity are the most important factors to determine the reputation
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The key factors that affect/increase company performance in the Asian banking industry based on customer perspective. Additionally, a quantitative approach to measuring these factors.
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I am an ex-banker worked one year in the credit marketing department. What we would use was quarterly performance reports on our commercial customers. 
Their current account averages.
Their loan account balances.
How much commission, how much interest earned on these balances.
How much export import, L/C activity they had with us and how much commission we have earned on these activities in the quarter.
Problematic customers, those are not paying their interests/principles on time.
These are the questions that we were supposed to answer about the customers in our portfolio. 
Besides our transactions with them would be checked by a higher ranking officer the following day on a daily basis.
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One of my colleagues and I are interested in conducting the research „The Impact of Leader-member Exchange (LMX) on Bank Performance: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina“, as an extension of our comprehensive study regarding job satisfaction in the banking industry.
Considering a great number of the references I notice that previous research was commonly based on LMX-7 questionnaire.
Any helpful suggestions reffered to the questionaire are welcome.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Mr. Samaeizadeh,
Thank you for this extensive answer.
I am going to read your articles. Thank you for them also.
Kind regards,
E.K.
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1.    What is your opinion regarding Operational Risk practices exist in Conventional and Islamic Banking and Financial Institutions in Malaysia?
2.    What are the difference at Operational Risk practices in both industry (Conventional and Islamic)? 
3.    How the Operational Risk quantifies and hedged as suggested in Basel III?
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Dear Mr. Allabasc,
Thank you for your interest in this important topic!
As we know, operational risks are as old as banks and could "destroy" any bank (the well-known case of 233-year-old Barings PLC).
To my knowledge, Basel IV will probably increase capital requirements regarding operational risks for the banks which are applying the simpler approaches (basic and standardized). For example, the net income in these approaches could be replaced with new "business indicator" (BI) calculation. In recent years banks have held less operational risk capital despite facing an increase in operational losses and that is the main reason for the higher possible capital requirements.
I wish you a great success in your research!:-)
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i am working on effects of new regulations on investment banking industry but before this i have to analyse how do these investment banks compete, how the over-competition effect the performance and profitability of banks.can anybody suggest me some good material on over competition of investment banks and its effects
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Hi,
You may have a look at this paper:
The interbank network across the global financial crisis: Evidence from Italy
Journal of banking and finance, July 2017, volume 80, Pages 90-107
Massimiliano Affinito, Alberto Franco Pozzolo
Best regards
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To find out
Are they Over Paid?
Are They Under  paid?
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I believe that a proper review of conceptual papers will guide you better and allow you enough basis for the justification of your study. You will find out that such papers have already laid the foundation upon which work can be commenced and areas to be focused on for relevance. Good luck to you.
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I am in trying to find how to measure lobbying (independent variable)  that affects the career progression (DV) in the banking industry.
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Dear Salma, hiyah.... I guess I haven't come across any career progression scale... it all ends up with objective career success and subjective success.... there is a gap here! that the researchers should work upon seriously.... need to develop a scale really focusing on career progression but for the time being see objective and subjective career success for your research. Best of luck
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CSR and financial performance of banks
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HI,
You may be interested by this paper:
International Evidence on the Relationship between Insider and Bank Ownership and CSR Performance
Corporate Governance: An International Review, January 2017, volume 25, issue 1,(pages 41–57)
Kerstin Lopatta, Reemda Jaeschke, Felix Canitz and Thomas Kaspereit
Best regards
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If one bank reduces 100 basis points in lending, all banks try to follow the same bandwidth rather than be ready to take a hit on their margins but cutting the rate heavily and engage in competition.
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