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I am doing research on growing rare medicinal plants using vertical farming technology, I have a few questions regarding it,
1. Is it possible to grow the medicinal plants in vertical farms?
2. How well is the medicinal value of the plants that grow in the vertical farms?
3. Any researches stating it showed a better result in vertical farms?
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Very interesting, take a look at this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ww2TP_tU7o
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These are the structures from plant powders when observed under binocular microscope. Can anyone help me identify these
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Just try to add more data and also a scale bar. That will help.
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While going through some publications on Polyherbal formulation for the management of diabetes, I encountered a publication where goat pancreas is used as one of the ingredients in addition to plants and calcified mussel cells. Can anyone tell me the relevance of goat pancreas and also how it can be called a polyherbal formulation?
Here is the link for the paper
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Formulations restrain 2 or more than 2 herbs are called polyherbal formulation. Drug formulation in Ayurveda is based on 2 principles: Use as a single drug and use of more than one drug. The last is known as polyherbal formulation. The idea of polyherbalism is peculiar to Ayurveda even though it is tricky to explain in term of modern parameters.
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Are immunity enhancer medicine (Homeopathic and Ayurvedic ) helpful to prevent yourself from Corona virus?
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AYUSH Remedies - Approved by Govt of India to fight against Covid19 - The basic
concept is to boost up the immunity - https://www.researchgate.net/deref/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mohfw.gov.in%2Fpdf%2FImmunityBoostingAYUSHAdvisory.pdf - as advised by Ministry of Home Affairs ( MoHFW ) , India .
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What is the exact human dose of ghrita and medicated ghrita? Is it 12 gm according to AFI or 48 gm according to classical text.
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Vinamra Sharma Sir, the paper just mentions 'The human dose of Ghrita as practiced traditionally is approximately 10 g per person', without reference. Is there a classical reference for this dose?
Apurva Priyadarshi Sir, can you help me find the classical reference for this? (In Abhyantar snehan karma it varies from 1 tola (12 gm) to even more than one Pala (70-80 gm).)
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It is said that kabasura kudineer a product of Indian traditional medicine siddha/ayurveda has some beneficial effects against covid 19 infection. I would like to know more about this.
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Simple search in Google Scholar shows that since 1960-70 many articles in peer-reviewed journals have supported various desirable effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) but some people here and there claim that the research has always bee. Funded by certain organizations and people who benefit from advertising TM and the published evidences are not so reliable. Is that really true?
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I am looking to study the Ayurvedic formula Triphala, how can I purchase it from serious source in India or from Europe??
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You can buy from raw material supplier in India and can authanicate them through pharmacopoeial standards.
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Virus is living only inside living host whereas outside the host , it remains inactive but not dead
Chemically it is a protein in combination with DNA or RNA
Can it be possible to destroy or kill it by proteolytic enzyme or any other relevant chemical
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Most viruses (if I'm not wrong) do not "live" long outside the host, and most require close contact to transfer or direct contact of bodily fluids. So in the environment, bleach or alcohol (water/soap) is enough to "kill" them.
And inside the host but outside cells... I'm pretty sure there is enough immune response to remove them.
As for the question...well... you do have to get pass the viral capsule first. And there is nothing specific about proteolytic enzymes or DNAse/RNAse that would only target the virus and not host cells.
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Ayurveda, the ancient Indian System of Medicine based on the philosophy of total health and wellness is a science of life with a holistic approach considering physical, psychological, philosophical, ethical, and spiritual aspects of healthcare. Ayurveda is a very logical science based on basic scientific principles. The ancient wisdom of Ayurveda is based on time-tested theories proven by observation, trial and error and experimentation. Like most traditional medicine systems, it was developed and refined over thousands of years, using observation and experience. Ayurvedic therapies have been practiced for thousands of years much before the development of placebo controlled experiments. The science of Ayurveda does not only depend upon the symptoms but believes in a thorough examination to discover the root cause of the ailment and instead of suppressing the symptoms, Ayurvedic therapy focuses on finding the reasons for the underlying symptoms. Despite lack of much clinical research on Ayurveda, many of the system’s principles and practices are now recognized and used in conventional medical settings. Herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine, such as tumeric, ginger, and neem, are now recognized as beneficial for heart health and as antioxidant-boosters. There are many evidences, which support Ayurveda performances better than Western medicine, mainly in case of chronic diseases. In retrospection of these facts, do Ayurvedic medicines need modern scientific scrutiny and validation?
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No, there is no need to test ayurvedic medicines scientifically as Ayurveda is a 5,000 year old science.
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Market chain from raw materials to manufacturing of consumer products to consumption of those products
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Nice answer by Taifa....
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Since anti-coagulants are used for the cardiac problems. So instead of relying on Aspirin or other blood thinners, can we shift to herbal medicine, which will be safer as compared to their chemical counterpart?
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Paravat skrit is the stool of dove..
In Ayurved it has been mentioned as a potent anticoagulant..
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My partner and I will be truly grateful for your insights to the following:
(1) The mechanism behind Bacopa's hyperaccumulation of heavy metals
(2) Identification of the chemical compounds in the plant that may possess high affinity towards heavy metals
(3) Possibility that such compounds may be extracted and used in chelation therapies
Please do refer me to pertinent studies, both completed and ongoing (especially those containing detailed methodologies that aim to (1) extract and isolate natural chelating agents and/or (2) measure the efficacy of chelating agents).
Sincere thanks!
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Such insightful response! Thank you Ms. Medhi!
My partner and I just wish to extend a few more inquiries:
(1) How are bacosides metabolized in the body and are they still effective in their metabolite form(s) ?
(2) Will intravenous injection of bacosides preserve their chelation efficacy?
(3) a.) How can the efficacy of chelation agents be measured?
b.) What are the methods for assessing the applicability and efficacy of these agents in animal (cell/)
models?
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please suggest me what else can i add in this to elaborate the research questions and what can be my other objectives ? If any other suggestions regarding the same ? 
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Do they consume filtered water ???
U can also check / analysis drinking water for metal concentration to find out.
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if we are working in traditional plants or foods or ayurvedic medicine is there is need to file IND application for clinical trials
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If you are using herbs, I would run a clinical trial. If you are evaluating a procedure (body manipulation, pressure points, touch, etc) I would use a novel approach called comparative effectiveness research.
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The observations reveals that Vamana & Virechana Karma followed by Ayurvedic drugs is found beneficial in the patient of Psoriasis. Side by side, it also pacifies the other associated complaints of the patient. Thus, the therapeutic approach, which is used in this patient found to be very safe, cost effective and improve the overall health status of the patient. This observation is not finally conclusive but it is a lead for further study. In this regard provide us with a larger population based data on above study and give your views on the same.
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Dear all,
In our clinical practice, after proper bio-purification regimens, we found promising results of Bhasma based prescriptions, e.g. Mall Sindura, Hartala etc along with suitable herbal adjuvants in Psoriasis. Nevertheless, appropriate diet & life style must be followed by patient, else recurrence is often the common failure found in therapy.
The below mentioned report on Researches conducted at Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar may add some knowledge in regard to its Ayurvedic management (achievements or failures of trials).
Regards
Dr Rohit
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I am planning to make a research on the history  of instruments, utensils and materials of ayurvedic therapies, e.g. swedana, shirodhara, udvartana, abhyanga, etc. This project has the following goals:
1.- Compare the instruments and utensils used in ayurvedic therapies from ancient times in India to those one used nowadays. For example, when ayurvedic therapies were described in old ayurvedic texts there were no plastic objects, electricity, ... Perhaps today the use of artificial materials is damaging the results of these therapies.
2. - Analyse the possible consequences of those changes mentioned in point 1.
3.- Study the exact recommendations about the use of certain materials and instruments given in the most relevant ayurvedic texts, i.e. Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hrdaya. Contrast this information with the ayurvedic practice from ancient times to the present.
4.- Determine the materials the different ayurvedic utensils and instruments are made of and analyse how their quality depends, for example, on the social position of the patient, etc.
Thank you
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There is a article in Sri Lanka, but it is in Sinhala language. Will try to translate and send a summery of it
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I want to carry out a research on the material history of Ayurveda. In this sense we would like to study the instruments, utensils and materials used for ayurvedic therapies, including surgery, as well as those involved in the preparation of ayurvedic medicines (Rasashastra). Due to the vast information covered by these aspects, we can distinguish three sections in this research:
1. Material history of ayurvedic therapies (e.g. swedana, abhyanga, udvartana, kizhis, pizhicil, etc.)
2. Material history of ayurvedic surgery.
3. Material history of the preparation of ayurvedic medicines (Rasashastra).
Thank you
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Arkaprakāśa composed by Rāvaṇa gives a description of the vessel to be used for preparing arka. The one I studied was translated by S.R. Vaisya and published by Sri Venkitesvar Steam Press, Bombay. It may be available with Chaukhamba Orientalia or Motilal Banarssidas.
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Selection of natural substances and to use these substances to maintain the equilibrium state among the bodily constituents is the prime object of treatment of the traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda.  
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Ayurveda medicine is holistic or comprehensive of body, mind ans spirit; the conventional one is symptomatic rather than treating root cause. Ayurveda believes that body is "Dosh=Functional humors, Dhatu=Body tissues and Mala=Excretory matter"  -"Doshdhatumalamulamhishariram".
Ayurveda medicine either herbal or mineral or herbo-metalic are the aggregation of many molecules acting on different targets in synergistic way. No doubts the action is slow takes much time, hence it is better and potent in chronic and life style related diseases. The Ayurveda medicine is safe and nature friendly.
More emphasis is given on prevention of diseases, during treatment also dietetic and activity=Karmabhyas is advised along with medical preparations.
The number of single, compound, marine, mineral, herbal, metalic drugs are more than one lac.  
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Polyherbal combinations in Ayurveda.
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Polyherbal formulation has its own advantage to have upper hand in treatment.  Actualy if we see polyhebal in broader sense, it do management of disease apart from treatment. If we see ayurvedic formulation closly and criticaly, we will find special combination of constituent in formulation and prepared by seeing patient and disease to treat disease along with management of complecations or to prevent forther growth of complication due to that disease. Also polyherbal formulation do not cause drug resistance and can be used for long time. Polyherbal formulation have one very important advantage of having its tannins, polyphenols  etc that act as antioxident and free radcal scavenger that remove harmfull metabolite and toxins from the body giving increase immunity too. 
Other reason may be that synergistic effect of constituents over other viz piper sp. used in formulation act as bioenhancer along with boost activity of other constituent. Likewise several constituent in polyherbal formulation act as to treat disease, to add synergistic effect, to subside drug resistance, to improve pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of major constituents, as excipients etc. 
That is why, seeing the value of polyherbal formulation GoI has drafted Gazette on Phytopharmaceutical to control and boost its market on data based evidence for herbal sector.
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Detoxification of Metallic mercury to from Ayurvedic medicines.
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US patent 6939567 filed entitled Pharmaceutical Ayurvedic preparation pertain to a process of Ayurvedic preparation for treatment of leukemia without any side effect using metals, like silver, mercury, sulphur, and arsenic trisulphide and the method employed in the state patient for the preparation of bhasma using citrus juice-  this indicate that  athentification of detoxification method of calssical Ayurvedic mineral based (Rasa) preparations
Please see the below mentioned linked (Although these reference are few year back)
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For example, Why does the curd turn blue if the Tamra bhasma is toxic and how do we know that turning blue indicates toxicity?
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Curd test is one of the classical test mentioned to check the quality of bhasma specially copper containing. Most of the copper bhasma and other minerals having copper bhasma are in the form of CuO and CuS in final product. It is a test to check free copper metal, because when free copper reacts with lactic acid (one of the component of curd) copper salts are formed which gives blue colour and it is toxic in nature and produces nausea, vomitting beacuse of free copper ions, then again we have to go for further incineration process to pass curd test and get genuine quality of copper compound bhasma. 
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Phytoconstituents and herbal extracts are known to act through multiple complex pathways, there may be some phytoconstituents which can act through HPA axis leading to down-regulation of corresponding gene/protein.
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HPA (Hypothalamo-pituitary adernal cortex) axis in the body is some thing like akash ganga in the universe of human body. As the name suggests , It starts from bottom of the body means adernal cortex controlling corticosteroids, mineralocorticoids, etc through cortisone-cortisol interconversion system and return back from top hypothalamus-pituitary glands in a negative-positive feedback system..... anyways let me tell you one important thing about herbals....... select polyphenolic compounds with similarity to cortisol and cortisone...they will 100% have the interactions through hydrogen bondings at any receptor or ion channel level in tha HPA axis...... this is the key to HPA system...... Read Bhagyashree's PhD. Thesis for HPA and its inhibitors/activators... all the best!!!!
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Ayurveda has concept of Rasa, Vipaka, & Virya which may be correlated with Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. And here I want to know how can we correlate the AVASTHHA -PAK, NISTHAA-PAK (A stages of Ayurvedic pharmacokinetics) with phases of metabolism.
Phase -I & II are the stages of metabolism in which body try to make the xenobiotic more polar so that it can get eliminated as soon as possible. Since the product of these phases of metabolism may also acts a active pharmaceutical moiety (e.g. in case of prodrug).
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I don't know much about the ayurvedic AVASTHHA -PAK and NISTHAA-PAK as much in detail but to my limited knowledge Avastha-pak is some thing like a passage of drugs or eatables after eating, churning from mouth to large intestine during which absorption takes place... this is not Phase I metabolism as Phases of metabolism starts in liver only and avastha-pak has nothing to do with liver... now coming to nishtha-pak which seems final metabolism of the absorbed juices after which the drug action or nutrition starts... This seems to me like the real metabolic phases in liver classified under single name nishtha-pak. Correct me if am wrong. !!!!
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Since ayurveda explains the concept of "Aasthapak and Nishtapak" about oral transformation of drug, so the question arises for Ayurvedic views about pharmacokinetics for non oral routes.
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As far as i have understood, i can say that ADME is a concept learn't to understand the drug and its metabolites movement through out the body compartments (blood, liver, kidney, protein-bound, etc) and this concept being a universal concept for all the categories of drugs let it be allopathy, ayurvedic or homeopathic remains same.  This means, ADME can be determined for any category of drug similar to any allopathic drug provided the measurement tools say LC-MS, NMR-MS, LC-NMR-MS, etc are precisely accurate even in NM or sub-NM concentration to measure the least amount of drug or metabolite in any compartment. The ADME is so universal that not only drugs, even food material can be evaluated for their metabolites. Hope my answer satisfy your doubts.
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Hello everyone, 
I'm planning to conduct a systematic review with meta analysis of Effect of Ayurvedic medicine in Hypertension. There is already a shortage of RCTs  in Ayurveda. I'd highly appreciate if anyone can suggest me some RCTs done in the field of Ayurvedic medicine.Thanks!
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Above answer are best supporting to your answer. You may search in ayurvedic journal AYU, JAIM, ASL, IJGP, IJAM etc. And best if you want then just contact scholar of BHU, GAU and Ayurvedic universities to look into MD and Ph. D thesises. 
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Hi, 
I'm working on meta analysis of Ayurvedic treatments for cholesterol and hypertension. I've been struggling to find a good number of quality RCTs in Ayurveda. Its not that there aren't many studies, they just lack the methodological robustness. Has it changed lately? 
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Some Ayurveda products are better than others. Checking the records helps. I suggest checking at the University of Iowa as a visiting researcher on Web of Science; find out what has been cited lately. Also Elsevier, the MUM Library database. A visit to U of I, however, will give you a fuller idea of the situation.
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Herbal medicines are prepared by a standard method in Ayurveda and its efficacy is tested by animal experiments. Sometimes animal experiments are excluded and the herbal medicine is prepared in different batches. These batches are analyzed by HPTLC, or other methods. How can these samples be analyzed statistically .e.g Three batches of a herbal tablet are prepared, how can we analyze them statistically?
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Respected Researchers,
As a matter for herbal drug standardization, several approaches might be used. I am hereby summarizing a few of them for your ready reference.
1. Standardization using Phytochemical Fingerprinting
For Phytochemical fingerprint analysis, one might use Quantitative estimation of ALkaloids, Flavonoids, Terpenoids and Polyphenols. After analyzing the quantities of phytoconstituents in each batch, one might just compare these quantities so as to get a rough idea about the homogeneity of extracts produced in different batches. 
2. Standardization using FTIR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy may also provide an effective means of comparing different batches of herbal extracts as far as functional group analysis is concerned.
3. Bioactivity based Fingerprinting
Bioactivity fingerprint analyses can also indicate the homogeneity of different batches of extracts by means of comparing the IC 50 value ranges for assays like antioxidant profiling, anti-inflammatory cox-assay, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration assay etc.
4. Chromatographic Standardization
HPLC / LCMS analysis or HPTLC analysis can also provide an effective way of comparing different batches of herbal extracts directly by comparing the presence of standard markers.
After analysing the said values, each time, one might then use standard analyses of Multi-variate ANOVA and Regression/correlation analysis to analyse the results statistically. SPSS might be used for the same. This will provide you direct analysis of any significant variations among the said batches of extracts. p value will be an indicative measure for significant variations, if any.
Regards
Pallavi Thakur
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How could one evaluate the haematinic activity of Lauha Bhasma using in vitro techniques?
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I think instead if using any kind of animal models we see the effects in patients with anaemia and comparing it with the standard treatment of Ferrous/ferric salts.
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Do we need Ethics committee approval and CTRI registration for Observational studies (Simplified PMS study) for Ayurvedic medicines.?
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Yes EC is required because you are collecting patient related information through some investigation. CTRI will not be needed as it is just observational in nature.
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Swarasa is the Indian term for this, could someone give me the other term?
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The swarasa is also called as angaras as an alternative.The shelf life of this swarasa is very short.It has to be prepared from fresh herbs when used in medicines.
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Cows milk is used in preparing different Ayurvedic medicines .i came across a reference in preparation of a medicine where only milk of a primipara (Given birth to a calf for the first time) cow is to be used.This certainly proves the indepth studies of the ancient scholars  to observe such minute differences without any advanced technological aids.
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Physiologically, there is no big differences between primi and multiparous cows about milk composition. It's depend of the age and body development of the primiparous cows and an old one could give the same milk as the same old mutiparous cow with the same feeding. The only difference could come from the mammary gland development that is not total in primiparous cows and only at the beginning of lactation. In this case, the metabolic demand is lower in primiparous and it is probable that mobilization of fat reserve of animals will be lower in primiparous (less long form of fatty acids like C18 and more). For protein and lactose, there is no differences excepted in concentrations that are mainly correlated to quality of food ingested. Thus I agree with the answer of Laxmana and hormonal differences are connected to this metabolic status.
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  • Please give your opinions after considering the following points. [look at the PDF file bellow]
  • Controversy:
  1. In most of ayurvedic literatures which have been translated in modern times (after 1600 AD) “Tiniśa” has been recognized with Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) or O. dalbergioides (Benth.), belonging to family Leguminoseae by various reputed authors. In Ayurvedic fraternity Tiniśa even does not come under controversial drugs due to its strong authorized identity as mentioned before.
  2. But a thin yarn of controversy was emerged when an author, Balakrishna Gowda recognized Melastoma malabathricum L. as “Thimisah” in his book ‘Vanaspati Kosha’ [1] and again this controversy gained some blaze of wind when NMPB (National Medicinal Plant Board) of India in its website [2] mentioned “Tinisah” as the Sanskrit name of Melastoma malabathricum L. under the section of Folklore plants. The irony is that NMPB has also mentiond Ougeinia oojeinensis as the biological source of Tiniśa under the section of Ayurvedic plants.
  • Logical discussion:
  1. CSIR in ‘The Wealth of India’ [3] had recognized Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) as synonym of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) and considered it as a biological source of ‘Tinsa’ along with its trade name ‘Sandan’ which are the vernacular name of Tiniśa.
  2. Shri Bapālāl Vaidya in ‘Nighantu Ādarsa’ [4] recognized Ougeinia oojeinensis as synonym of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) and considered as the biological source of ‘Tinisa’. He even clarified & discussed about the various synonyms of the same plant as follows.
  • Tinisa: Because of its long life it can pass many nights (Nishi) or it is blackish.
  • Rathdru: Its wood is useful in making of chariot.
  • Chitrakut: Even though this tree is not very large in size but because of its steady  and long living nature it amazes all.
  1. All these Sanskrit synonyms fit perfectly to O. dalbergioides (Benth.). But M. malabathricum L. does not fit into the scaffold of these Sanskrit synonyms.
  2. First of all, habit of Melastoma malabathricum L. is shrub or under shrub (4-5 ft. in height) and its stem does not develop a rigid form of wood. So there is no question of its use in making of chariot.
  3. It’s true that being a shrub size of M. malabathricum L. plant is small. But it is neither very firm (strong) on its stem (or on soil) nor it enjoys the life for a prolong period of times.
  4. Fresh plants (stem/ leaf) of M. malabathricum L. do not seemed to be blackish in its natural habitat. But stem of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) evidently appears to be blackish in its natural habitat.
  • Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) or O. dalbergioides (Benth.) had also been considered as authentic source of Tiniśa in number of other ayurvedic literatures such as
  1. Bhāvprakāsh Nighantu of Sri Bhāvmisra [5] by Prof. KC Chunekar;
  2. Kaiyadeva Nighantu [6] by Prof. Priyavrata Sharma & Guruprasād Sharma;
  3. Rāja Nighantu of Pandit Narahari [7] by Dr. Indradev Tripathi;
  4. Dravyaguna Vijńāna [8] by Prof. PV Sharma;
  5. Indian Materia Medica [9] by Dr. KM Nadkarni;
  6. Dravyaguna Vijńāna [10] by Gyanendra Pandey;
  • References:
  1. Gowda Balakrishna. Vanaspathi Kosha. 1st ed. Kalpatharu Research Academy; Sringeri: 2004. p. 121.
  2. www.nmpb.nic.in ª Indian Medicinal Plants ª Search in Folk.
  3. Anonymous. The Wealth of India. Vol. 7. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research; New Delhi: 2001, p. 195-196.
  4. Bapālāl Vaidya. Nighantu Ādarsa. Vol. 1. Choukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2007, p. 389.
  5. Chunekar KC. Bhāvprakāsh Nighantu of Sri Bhāvmisra. Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2013. p. 536.
  6. Sharma Priyavrata, Sharma Guruprasad. Kaiyadeva Nighantu. 1st ed. Chaukhambha Orientalia; Varanasi: 1979. p. 152.
  7. Tripathi Indradev. Rāja Nighantu of Pandit Narahari. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi: 2003.
  8. Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vijńāna. Vol. 4. Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2003. p. 191.
  9. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 1. Popular Prakashan Private Limited; Mumbai: 2009. p. 561.
  10. Pandey Gyanendra. Dravyaguna Vijńāna. Vol. 3. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi: 2004. p. 646.
  • Tiniśa:
  • Botanical name : Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochn.
  • Family : Leguminoseae-Fabaceae
  • Classical name : Tiniśa
  • Sanskrit names: Syandana, Nemi, Cakrasamvarana, Asmagarbhaka, Tiniśa, Rathadru, Vanjula, Rathavrksa.
  • Regional names: Sandan, Chhanan (Hindi); Tinish (Beng.); Tinas(Mar.); Syandan (Maha.); Tanachh (Guj.); Tella motuku(Tel.); Narivengai(Tam.); Malavinna (Mal.); Kurimutal(Kann.) ; Anjan (Uriya).
  • Description: Medium-sized deciduous trees; bark thin, grey or pale brown, blaze streaked with red. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, stipulate petioles 5-15 cm. long; leaflets broadly elliptic-obovate, acute 6-5 Î 3-9 cm; glaucous above, finely pubescent below, entire or obscurely crenate. Flowers in axillary racemes, fascicled at the nodes of old wood; bracts scale-like. Calyx 3-4 mm., tube campanulate; teeth small, 2 upper teeth connate, lower ones longer than laterals. Corolla white or pink, exerted 8-13 mm. long, standard orbicular wings spurred and slightly connate to the obtuse keal. Stamens 9-1, diadelphous. Pods linear-oblong, flat 5-10 cm. long, 2-5 jointed; seeds reniform.
  • Flowering and fruiting time: Plant flowers in February- April and fruits in April- June. Generally flowering is during spring season and fruiting season is summers.
  • Distribution: Plant occurs in mixed forests in various provinces; Uttar Pradesh, Central India (Madhya pradesh).
  • Chemical composition: The bark contains tannin 7%. A kino-like exudation from the incised bark is obtained. The heartwood contains a dimethoxy-7-methoxy-6-methyl isoflavanone. Heartwood contains homeferreirin and oujenin.
  • Pharmacodynamics:
  1. Rasa          : Kasaya
  2. Guna          : Laghu, rurksa
  3. Virya          : Sita
  4. Vipāka       : Katu
  • Dosakarma: Kaphapittasamaka.
  • Properties and action:
  • Karma       : Mutrasangrahaniya
                                  Sothahara, kusthaghna, medohara
                                  Vranaropana
                                  Rasayana
                                  Stambhana
                                  Sonitasthapana
                                  DahapraSamana
                                 Jvaraghna.
  • Roga        : Prameha
                                 Sotha-kustha-Svitra-vrana
                                 Atisara-pravihika-raktatisara
                                 Raktavikara-raktapitta
                                 Dourbalya.
  •  Therapeutic uses:
  1. The drug Tinisa is mutrasangrahaniya (antidiuretic) and useful (bark and heart-wood) in prameha (group of urinary anomalies).
  2. It is useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, blood diseases, intrinsic haemorrhage, kustha, debility, inflammation, ulcers, fever, burning sensation and ailments caused by aggravation of kapha and pitta dosa. It also belongs to rasayana drugs.
  3. Externally the drug is applied as paste over ulcers, inflammation, leucoderma and kustha.
  4. The drug is used in anaemia (pandu), worms (krimi) and obesity (meda). The bark is used as a febrifuge and also as fish poison. The kino-like exudation from the incised bark is used in diarrhoea and dysentery.
  5. Tinisa (sandan) wood leaves and bark are also economically useful (including timber, cordage and cattle fodder, implements etc.).
  •  Parts used: Heartwood, bark.
  • Dose: Decoction 50-100 ml.
  • Group(gana): Sālasārādigana (Suśruta Samhita).
  •  References:
  1. Susruta Samhita: uttar, 40/119 [ raktātisar]
  2. Carak Samhita: cikitsā, 7/95; 7/98 [ kustha]
  3. Carak Samhita: cikitsa, 1-2/12
  4. Nighantu Sesh: Vrikskanda.
  5. Bhāvaprakāsh Nighantu: Vatadi varga, 76.
  6. Kaiyādeva Nighantu: Ousadhi varga, 815-817.
  7. Rāja Nighantu: Prabhadrādi varga, 114- 115
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  • @ Neeraj Sethiya
  • Dear sir, I should start this post by stating that I have gone through your review article on ‘Shankhpushpi’ to enable myself to put my view in the context of your last post. I thank you for your consecutive attention & engagement in this particular topic. In your column you overwhelmingly emphasized the necessity of modern techniques [such as UV, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC etc. given by WHO] which are needed to be incorporated & that in turn according to you can resolve the controversy over Ayurvedic source plants.
  • With this introduction I express my regret for not being able to agree with your above comprehension. I should now explain why that is so.
  • Let me start with an example that will simplify the whole scenario for its better understanding. Mr. X was an eminent merchant who lived in a modern & civilized urban town. During a time of emergency Mr. X had to shift from his home town to an isolated island [where modern civilization had not touched it yet]. He was allowed to carry with very little amount of necessaries. He thought, even if he takes 10 kg of food, it will exhaust soon. So he took 20 gold coins in his pocket for his expenditure. But when he reached the island he did not find a single trader with whom he could exchange those gold coins for some foods. He started lamenting & cursed his own fate. While doing so he forgot to realize that island was full of green trees bearing plenty of delicious fruits. In due time he realized it & felt happy when he got some fruits. Then he pick up those gold coins on his palm & smiled [because, even though those were gold coins but in that circumstances those coins were worthless].
  • I should now enter into logical discussion. From here we should proceed with stepwise manner. First of all we need to set up an aim. Because it will lead us to logical conclusion. So let our aim to be – “To propose a suitable candidate to be designated as [any ayurvedic name, say Tinisa] among the 4 different botanical source plants.”
  • Now to proceed further we need to deal with comprehensive information about all four drugs along with a collective data set on 'Tinisa' [or any Ayurvedic drug which comes under controversy] in the context of our aim. Then obviously we will compare those data to come to a logical conclusion.  To do this, first we have to categorise our data sets into their relative groups. Let us assume that we have 3 categories of data sets. CAT-I, CAT-II & CAT-III. Among these three categories CAT-III represents Pharmacological data, CAT-II represents Q.C [quality control protocols, say analytical, physicochemical etc.] & CAT-I represents Botanical descriptions & study of etymological derivation of Sanskrit synonyms.
  • As I have mentioned before, to have a logical conclusion we need to have a comparative data set. Now let us see what we have with us & what we are lacking of. Here I am taking Sankhpushpi for an eg.
  • CDS [Comparative Data Sets]:
  • 1. CAT-III:
  • Sankhpushpi: Karma,  Roga & Cikitsa [Pharmacological action, disease & treatment] are well documented in every ancient Text [say Caraka Samhita] 
  • 4 botanical source plants: Pharmacological action, disease & treatment can be evaluated & documented for all four Botanical source plants
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy: Productive data
  • 2. CAT-II:
  • Sankhpushpi: All those modern technique such as TLC, HPTLC, NMR, MASS spectroscopy to name a few, cannot be found in Caraka Samhita or in other ancient texts. Because in that period those technique were not available
  • 4 botanical source plants: All these modern technique such as TLC, HPTLC, NMR, MASS spectroscopy etc. can be incorporated in the research study to generate a set of comprehensive analytical, phytochemical, Physicochemical  data [I only named a few of them].
  • Note: These data sets are similar to golden coins of our Merchant in the story.
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy: Non-productive data. Because one set of data is completely missing. But that does not mean that we do not need such kind of data. These data are elemental in standardisation aspects of any drug subject.
  • There are some exceptional cases for eg. in case of Bhasmas there are some Q.C. protocol like Varitara, Rekhapurnata etc. which were mentioned in ancient text. I will deal it later.
  • 3. CAT-I:
  • Sankhpushpi: Sanskrit synonyms, often depicting Botanical description can be found in almost every ancient text. Etymological derivation of Sanskrit synonym with proper explanation can be obtained from reliable sources to understand & describe those plants in more detail. This is evident in almost all ancient text where many plant drugs were classified under the headings of nature of habit, habitat, flower, fruits of a particular plant. Sometimes plants were classified under a particular disease and sometimes plants were classified under the heading of a prototype drug for an eg. Guruchadi varga.  
  • 4 botanical source plants: Morphological, macroscopical, microscopical & all other Pharmacognostical characters of all 4 botanical source plant can be generated to compare with data obtained from  similar category of Shankhpushpi.
  •  Note: One can raise a fragile argument here by indicating that Pharmacognostical study has been mentioned in WHO guidelines. I agree to some extent but it never opined or conceptualized in the perception of resolving controversial aspect of source plant. I must say they never emphasized on value of Sanskrit synonym in a true sense, at least in a similar way that I have done here.
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy:Very much productive and helpful in order to come to a logical conclusion.
  • As I have said earlier that I have gone through your Shankhpushpi article. But in your discussion or conclusion I have not found you to propose a particular source plant that is most suitable to be designated as ShANKHPUSHPI. The reason behind it I suppose, I have explained properly. Please don’t take my comment in a wrong way. My only intention was to have a logical point of view when we are solving controversial aspects of Ayurvedic drugs. I hope you understand me & will excuse me because I am not a good writer; to top that I was poor in my Literature during my schooling days. In contrast to this, I request you to take a look at the discussion & conclusion parts of my article ‘A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON DIFFERENT PLANT SOURCES OF PARPATAK’; where I was able to come to a concise conclusion by following the same principles. [Please look at the attachment file]
  • Though I had conceptualized these principles long back but I did not share it with a knowledgeable person like you until now. So if you find any inconsistency in my above said concept, you are very much welcome to correct me.
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Is infrared rays can be used after oil massage? If used what precautions should be taken?
what will be the duration and course?
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IRR for 45 mins will be too long as it can cause burns. Usually it is given for 10 mins, to the max 15 mins and it is very good combination after massage espicially in palliative care
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In recent year number of studies are published in biomedical journals which are related with animal model. I am looking to trial some Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation in aged one in general or a particular disease. Can any one guide us possible biomarkers in general or a particular disease to assess the clinical efficacy of Rasayana drug in aged one. 
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Do you know the FRAS system launched by Wismerll Company. Thisy is vey easy system to mesure the balance of oxidant and antioxidant using smoall amount of blood sampl. These balances are most omportant for human health. Informations are follows.
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Many Ayurvedic preparations work / contain pre-probiotics . How would the regulatory authorities view proprietary Ayurvedic medicines?
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Regarding probiotic and prebiotic additives in Ayurvedic preparations, I would still think that it will take long time to reach a conclusion for its general presence. Few studies including mine suggests few instances of presence of potential probiotic microbes but I am not sure of regulatory norms concerning this aspect in India.
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Root culture of Psoralea corylifolia
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According to IPCC GPG-LU-LUCF, root biomass or below-ground biomass is equal to above-ground biomass multiplying root-to-shoot ratio (R). You can use the default values of R recommended by IPCC for different forest types, . Also, you can have your specific values from destructive samples of root biomass.  
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Vamana, virechana and basti are indicated in a prameha (diabetic (mellitus)) patients. When should we administer Vamana karma?
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Hello Barry Turner. It is not superstition. Ayurvedic Classics advised after doing repeated research and observations.
Vamana Indicated in
Type 2 DM (Kapha-Pitta Medavrita Madhumeha)
Vamana Yogya Patient
Obese
Precautions:
1st Rookshana and the Snehana-Svedana followed by Vamana
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I intend to test the drug on mice models of diabetes and the drug i intend to use is an ayurvedic medicine and hence the active component is unknown to me. i do plan to do a chromatographic analysis to separate out its components. but am confused as to what path to follow so as to determine its mode of action.
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1. Utilize OLD RATS.
2. USE THE DRUG AFTER A GLUCOSE LOAD.
That woud be the first Step.
Best Regards,
JM
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Is there any protocol over determining herbal drugs' specification?
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Herbal extracts and similar preparations are generally non-standardised from a scientific perspective. In real circumstances the alkaloid, terpenoid or polyketide content of a plant will vary greatly depending on rainfall, temperature variation, soil quality etc. So no, there is no protocol for the specifications of herbal drugs. The exact contents cannot be regulated, but the method of production may be specified in a research context.
Psyllium has multiple components but is mainly used as a source of mucilage, a mixture of polysaccharides that aid in digestive processes acting as a soluble fibre. Various sterols, terpenes, and alkaloids have also been reported as being isolated from psyllium extracts.
Therapeutic claims are often made for herbal extracts, without any standardisation.
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Please give me some ideas about dose fixation for an extract for its therapeutic effect.
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Normally we do the acute toxicity studies first and then based on the results, we can calculate the dose for the studies. Usually 1/5th, 1/10th and 1/20th of the safe dose (determined from acute toxicity studies using OECD guidelines) is used for the studies involving plant extracts. For example if 2000 mg/kg p.o. is found to be safe, then we use 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the studies.
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.
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The reproductive function in female (represented by Artava and stanya ) are special functions in female. Apart from these certain Stri kara bhavas are mentioned in Ayurveda such as Klaibya, Bhirutvam, Avaisharadyam, Moha, Anavasthana, Shaithilya, Mardavam which are seen especially in female.
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I would like to investigate the relationship between pain and Naadi (a significant parameter used to diagnose diseases in Indian medicinal procedures in Sidha, Ayurvedha and Naturopathy). Does anyone have any information on it?
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Certainly few scientists are working on this principle and they have got some success also .Main issues are of Reproducibility and reliability.
Pls check the published works of Dr.Anirudha Joshi as well as Mr. Bharat S. Shete on Pulse diagnosis.
As per principles of Ayurveda Vata Nadi should be predominant in conditions of pain.You may get some relation between intensity of pain and pressure in Vatnadi.Understanding Nadi actually comes by experience and its not just pressure in Nadi which is felt but its movement,Rythm and relation to other nadis .Hence i will advice to first understand the entire concept of how Nadi is examined .Ideally involve some Nadi expert in your work.Look at concept of reading Nadi in its totality.Isolated approach towards Nadi may may be incomplete and can lead to failure.
Its really good work,But difficult to accomplish.
If possible contact SVYASA university in Bangalore .They are also working on this concept.
Wish you success in your Work
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I've a group of patients responding well to ashwagandha
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This is a fact that nutritional and herbal approaches are never encouraged to treat or manage mental illnesses. Saying that lack of popularity of such treatments is the reason that such treatments are not effective is a gross neglect of the actual condition. Western medicine has never given much importance to any traditional approach available in any culture. Otherwise they would have directly looked for solutions in eastern traditions which claim to have cures to several illnesses. Instead they have always looked for popularizing laboratory-based, allopathic cures.
Psychotherapy culture started with psychoanalysis and progressed over a century to find meditation based practices beneficial. The reason for such lack of evidence in Ayurveda or in related practices for cures of mental illnesses is the lack of initiative given by the cultures of which such practices are a part. Like, India should have focused, at least in part, on promoting evidence-based researches on effectiveness of ayurvedic medicine. But unfortunately this has never been done on large scale. We can not assume that western science, medicine in particular, is all-aware of all the possibilities in treating illnesses. There is a huge neglect by scientific community about approaches that can provide more scope in treatments of mental illnesses. Nutrition is one such important area. And medicinal herbs is yet another one.
For prevention of all physical diseases, there is one or more nutritional supplement with empirical evidence of its effectiveness. But what about mental illnesses? How many psychiatrists prescribe that such and such vitamin or protein should be taken or not taken in order to prevent the further worsening of a particular mental illness?? Since there is no such research, so there is lack of evidence, and hence lack of awareness that such treatments can be effective.
I believe that we need to base more research on testing the effectiveness of ayurvedic medicines in treating mental illnesses, than bluntly asserting that there is no cure because there are no researches in reputed, high impact factor journals.
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A 30 yrs male with scalp wound filled with maggots was successfully treated by picking up the maggots followed by dressing with turpentine oil and oral Ivermectine. But history revealed that he is having recurrent attacks of scalp wound with maggots almost every rainy seasons. Why wounds and maggots re-occur?
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Recurrent maggot infestation suggests incomplete removal of all organisms. This could be due to indolent subclinical "cavitary myiasis" (burrowing through subcutaneous tunnels) which is particularly difficult to eradicate with standard treatment modalities, or alternatively, due to persistence of conditions that predispose to recurrent re-infection during the rainy seasons when such infections frequently occur. Predisposing conditions include poor scalp/skin hygiene, frequent exposure (e.g. soil), or other factors less likely in this case (e.g., malignancy). Suggest the comprehensive recent review in Clinal Microbiology Reviews (Jan 2012) by Francesconi and Lupi at:
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Please share your views on the quality evaluation/standardization of Ayurveda and other traditional formulations for better and consistent results
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Now a days... regarding these formulations the most important thing is it should have the exact original plants... So that should be evaluated for authenticated drug.... secondly the formulations are prepared according to the trail and error basis according to their experience... most of them are not having scientific proof... So it is necessary to standardized.... especially for presence of adulterants....
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Do nutraceuticals and ayurvedic products/herbal products pass the animal and human trials before coming into the market? It is understandable that big products such as "Cystone" for himalaya have been tested but what about numerous others?
What kind of regulations control these kinds of products?
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Under European (more exactly, European Union/European Economic Area) medicines legislation, medicinal products containing herbal substances/preparations must fall within one of the following three categories to reach the market:
1. A product can be classified under traditional medicinal use provisions (‘traditional use’) accepted on the basis of sufficient safety data and plausible efficacy: the product is granted a traditional use registration (simplified registration procedure) by a Member State,
2. A product can be classified under well-established medicinal use provisions (‘well-established use’). This is demonstrated with the provision of scientific literature establishing that the active substances of the medicinal products have been in well-established medicinal use within the Union for at least ten years, with recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety. As a result the product is granted a marketing authorisation usually by a Member State or by the European Medicines Agency.
(While both classification have specific requirements, both regulatory paths involve the assessment of mostly bibliographic safety and efficacy data)
3. A product can be authorised after evaluation of a marketing authorisation application consisting of only safety and efficacy data from the company’s own development (‘stand alone’) or a combination of own studies and bibliographic data (‘mixed application’). As a result the product is granted a marketing authorisation by a Member State or by the Agency via the centralised procedure if all requirements are met.
This text obove is from:
From this link you will find (much) more info on herbal medicines in Europe
bottom line: preclinical studies may be part of option 3(may be part, not necessarily have to) and will usually not be part of an application using option 1 or 2.
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Does anybody know how we can decide which macro algae would be useful to cure an exact disease?
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I have been working on this concept.. "YES" You can predict medicinal properties through insilico tools and techniques of bioinformatics. There are two approaches, TOP DOWN and BOTTOM UP. Please see my paper on medicinal property prediction.
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Specially in Heartwood, Related to Ayurvedic medicine