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Explore the latest questions and answers in Ayurvedic, and find Ayurvedic experts.
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Hi everyone,
We are willing to create a pool of researchers interested to work in the area of Gut Microbiom Studies in RA receiving whole system Ayurveda ( Traditional Indian Medicine ) interventions .
We have theoretical reasoning for hypothesizing that following the Ayurvedic interventions , gut microbiota in RA population changes. This change reflects through improved gut symptoms and improved RA symptoms. We however do not have experimental proves for this change. Therefore we are initially planning to do some ground work through a set of pilot studies .
We will be very happy to get joined by the scientists of common interest to check on the current outcome parameters , diagnostic criteria and intervention plan .
I can be reached at rastogisanjeev@rediffmail.com and also at 0091- 9415022955
Prof Sanjeev Rastogi
PG Department of Kayachikitsa
State Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Lucknow University
Lucknow
India
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Dear Prof Diana,
Thanks for your kind message. The substances used in ayurveda are naturally derived herbal, mineral and metallic compounds having therapeutic values. Ayurveda is officially recognized health care system in India and in many South East Asian countries. I will be happy to share more references with you if you ask for.
Regards
Prof Sanjeev Rastogi
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How to reduce the dose ayurvedic formulation without compromising it's efficacy?
I think dose reduction will improve the patient's compatibility
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Firstly to rule out its active constituents, can use appropriate anupana, changing dosage forms....
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Can anybody help me with the tests for Sitopaladi Churna according to its monograph in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India?
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Sitopaladi churna Monograph is given in "The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-II (Formulations), Volume-4. In this monograph you will find Microscopy, Physico chemical parameters like Loss on drying, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive and Total sugar etc. Also u will find TLC profile of the formulation. Pls go through the attached files.@Atis Kaundinnyayana
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If someone is having a herbo-mineral (Ayurvedic Formulation) compound, can PEG be used to coat it or as an vehicle?
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Actually I want to prepare polyherbal ointment for wound healing study, but how can I decide the concentration percentage of plant extract for formulation preparation. I have read a lot of papers and ayurvedic pharmacopoeia but I have not found any strong criteria to prepare the ointment.
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Dear Satish,
It is a complex process and directly depends on the type of plants, the procedure of extraction, solvents, preparation, and normalization of extract, then in vitro exposure to cells and evaluation of toxicity. Considering these variables, I give you a bypass to proceed with the formulation in the shortest time and safest protocol possible. If you know which plants you will pick up for your experience, check the names on PubMed and prepare a list of papers then write an email to the corresponding author asking for the detailed protocol they used. Then send this email to all corresponding authors and after receiving them, continue with comparing the protocols and make sure that the shared steps are the best to follow, and if there were inconsistencies in some steps, you can try them to choose one from.
Hope this approach help you to have a great protocol in hand,
Greetings from Berlin,
Daniel
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Journal in which I was ask to pay publication charge for my manuscript already accepted and find attached, the snapshots of the payment as requested.
Your professional response will be highly appreciated. Thanks.
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The journal “Journal of Ayurvedic and herbal medicine” is published by “BioMed Research Publishers”. As indicated by Diorge Marmitt it is always good to check whether the publisher or journal is listed in the Beall’s list (https://beallslist.net/and https://beallslist.net/standalone-journals/respectively). They are not mentioned. This might be a sign that they are not predatory. There are issues:
-First, your own observation that they charge a fee. Yes, it is mentioned (very small) on the home page (as a service fee). However, it is not mentioned anywhere else. So, to say the least they are not extremely transparent about the costs
-They are linked to AkiNik Publications. The following link mentions both Akinik and BioMed Research as the publisher: https://www.akinik.com/products/649/international-journal-of-dentistry-researchThe AkiNik publisher is a publisher that used to be listed in the Beall’s list but still disturbing issues like plagiarism can be find, see for example here on RG:
-Furthermore, the journal “International Journal of Electrical and Data Communication” uses the contact info Data One Enterprises H.Q.: 3, H-34, Sector 3, Rohini, Delhi-110085, India which is remarkably similar as the contact info of BioMed Research. Data One Enterprises is a publisher of numerous dubious journals
-Looking at the journal itself I notice that the contact info makes use of a Gmail address (often used by predatory journals and publishers). However, the claimed NAAS rating is legit (see enclosed list). The papers I checked look more or less okay, mostly case reports and somewhat limited in actual data. Editorial board looks legit, but not my field of expertise
So, it is somewhat mixed. The whole operation behind the journal (publisher and links to other publishers) looks to me somewhat dubious. The fact that they charge you a fee is by itself not predatory (since they mention it on their homepage). Looking at the journal itself it might be genuine and legit, I estimate it as borderline but perhaps there are others here on RG who might be able to comment on this when it comes to the quality of the published papers.
Best regards.
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It is observed that significant % of population has followed a wide range of ayurvedic formulations to boost immunity and to prevent COVID. Many have found significant benefit at clinical level. How to analyze the role of any of such Ayurvedic formulations/Rasoushadhies in COVID prevention at Preclinical level?
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Please have a look at this article.
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I am currently working with TNBS model of ulcerative colitis in rats to evaluate the effect of an Ayurvedic drug which is used in grahini roga. It will be very helpful if anyone will help me by discussing the pathogenesis of grahini roga.
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Hello Yadu Nandan Dey , I am sharing my view as below:
I considered it as Grahani Dosha and not as a Grahani Roga. Every human individual is different from each other based on his Prakriti (Body Constitution). Symptoms present in the patients are may or may not be similar, but the treatment approach is based on Hetu (Causative factors) responsible for imbalance of Agni (Digestive Fire) and disturbed equilibrium of Tridosha which ultimately responsible for the Grahani Dosha. The major causative factors responsible for the Grahani Dosha are Improper food Habits, Stress, Lack of sleep and faulty treatment of recurrent episodes of Atisara (Diarrhea). The treatment approach is also depend on state of disease and patients body constitution, Digestive fire, Food habitat etc. It is not a right approach to use a single medicine in all the patients and customized treatment approach for each patient is more beneficial.
Thank You.
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Are immunity enhancer medicine (Homeopathic and Ayurvedic ) helpful to prevent yourself from Corona virus?
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AYUSH Remedies - Approved by Govt of India to fight against Covid19 - The basic
concept is to boost up the immunity - https://www.researchgate.net/deref/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mohfw.gov.in%2Fpdf%2FImmunityBoostingAYUSHAdvisory.pdf - as advised by Ministry of Home Affairs ( MoHFW ) , India .
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What is the exact human dose of ghrita and medicated ghrita? Is it 12 gm according to AFI or 48 gm according to classical text.
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Vinamra Sharma Sir, the paper just mentions 'The human dose of Ghrita as practiced traditionally is approximately 10 g per person', without reference. Is there a classical reference for this dose?
Apurva Priyadarshi Sir, can you help me find the classical reference for this? (In Abhyantar snehan karma it varies from 1 tola (12 gm) to even more than one Pala (70-80 gm).)
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It is said that kabasura kudineer a product of Indian traditional medicine siddha/ayurveda has some beneficial effects against covid 19 infection. I would like to know more about this.
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Many clinical studies in periodontics compare a new antimicrobial (mouthwash/chip/gel/subgingival irrigation/etc) which could be allopathic/ayurvedic/herbal. These new agents have a positive group, mostly chlorhexidine and one negative control group (either placebo or only SRP without any adjunctive agent. Is it justifiable to use a negative control when previous studies have proven that adjunctive use of Chlorhexidine is better than only SRP or placebo. When we know that adjunctive use of a gold standard is available that will give additional benefit to the patient, is it ethical to include only SRP or placebo group?
Cant we compare only two groups: test agent against gold standard?
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Exactly my point.. Thankyou
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Simple search in Google Scholar shows that since 1960-70 many articles in peer-reviewed journals have supported various desirable effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) but some people here and there claim that the research has always bee. Funded by certain organizations and people who benefit from advertising TM and the published evidences are not so reliable. Is that really true?
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I am looking to study the Ayurvedic formula Triphala, how can I purchase it from serious source in India or from Europe??
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You can buy from raw material supplier in India and can authanicate them through pharmacopoeial standards.
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Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulations are very complex in nature. Even their methodof preparations is also very complex. So in such cases the modern advanced analytical tests are employed to understnad their structure. But is it possible to know the complex structures of the formulations with adopting tests like X ray diffraction, Spectroscopy, FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy etc.
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Yes it is possible, Chromatographic techniques follwed by spectroscopic techniques as you mentioned can answer your question.
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Ayurvedic drugs are largely criticized for their unproven safety. Number of case reports are available in the literature showing Ayurveda drug related adversities. These adversities are by and large found to be associated with heavy metals found in Ayurveda drugs. We however have also seen the contrary and found that Ayurveda drugs , despite their heavy metal content, proved to be beneficial in many clinical conditions without causing any adversity.
In this context , this seems highly relevant to establish safety of heavy metal containing Ayurveda drugs in human population which are routinely prescribed and consumed. What should have been the common parameters to evaluate and establish safety of such drugs prescribed in a set of clinical condition? Suggestions are welcome
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Unfortunatly we often see patients with severly high levels of mercury in the blood after taking self impoted ayurvedic medicine or given to them by travelling ayurvedics. Individuals also showed liver problems like non infectual hepatitis after taking ayurvedic herbs. More control is needed.
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Quantification of marker compounds in plant based medicines?
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HPTLC
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Hello,
I am a undergraduate following a research on identifying Ayurvedic medical plants in Sri Lanka. For sure I know there are many apps ("PlantNet" , "PlantSnap") in finding a unknown plant in your garden, but still the above problem appears to be in the society when finding the medical plants if you are on a prescription with Ayurvedic treatment. So let me know your ideas as solutions for this problem.
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See
Current scenario of herbal medicine in Sri Lanka
Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka
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Best solvent for Plant based Medicines?
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Thanks Samir G Pandya
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Ministry of AYUSH and other guidelines
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Certainly any pharmaceutic laboratory may perform such studies. In any case, you should ask more precise information to Carmelo Scarpignato
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Benefit of nano size over traditional size material in herbal, Unani and Ayurvedic drugs?
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Decrease in the particle size increases the specific surface area (surface area/unit mass of the particle). Most of the reactions (bio/biochemical/chemical) are influenced by the surface properties of the reactants. The reaction kinetics increase with the surface area. Nano size helps increase the reaction kinetics by increasing the surface area and/or preferentially exposing the surface planes that may have high catalytic activity. In addition, the nanosize materials can be transported easily through the biological (capillary) systems leading to faster, and selective drug delivery to specific sites (though I am not qualified to make this statement!).
However, nano science is not new to Ayurvedic or Siddha medicine because our ancestors already knew about the advantages of decreasing the particle size of medicine. Nano is a re-invention because of the developments in the electron microscopy which enabled us to 'see' the nano-size. Nanosize materials were widely used even before the 'invention' of 'Nanotechnology' - a hype to get useless publications!!
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significance of testing reducing sugar and total sugar in various Ayurvedic formulations??
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Thank you sir, actually ayurveda medicines have different dosage forms like lehya(confection), Arishta ( self generated medicated alocholic preparation) which contain jaggery or sugar candy as an ingredient. Here we can check the reducing sugar to analyse the quality of the final product. The tests for reducing sugar was explained in the Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India for various formulations like this. But i want to know more about the significance of these tests in other dosage forms like powders which contain natural starch or carbo.
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How can this practice of on paper or fake teachers can be prevented as many ayurvedic colleges are encouraging this trend for their financial benefits. Even this practice is also there in post graduate colleges which seriously affect the quality and standard of education of ayurveda.
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Yes not only it affect regular teachers, it is severely affecting Ayurveda system as a whole. As our budding ayurvedist are not getting proper education due to this malpractic.@Abhijeet
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Had Pharmacovigilance proved to be relevant for Ayurvedic drugs yet ?
Has these cases been reported and resolved upto a significant level ??
Specifically in India ??
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The major goals of pharmacovigilance is to improve patient care and safety in relation to drug use, and thus promote rational drug use. Commercialization of Ayurveda medicine has brought with it many challenges about safe use of ayurvedic medicines, bringing into focus the need for formal pharmacovigilance programs in the field.
And yet, the number of adverse reactions to ayurvedic drugs reported or recorded in the National Pharmacovigilance Program in India is negligible. The strong belief that ayurvedic medicines are safe contributes to a large extent to this situation. To compound this matter is the lack of knowledge about the concept and importance of pharmacovigilance in ayurveda among ayurvedic practitioners.
Few recent publications may be referred:
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Microbial contamination, infestation and heavy metal content is of grave concern these days in herbal medicines. I wish to know various practical ways to protect the product against contamination. Still, in case, the count is found above permissible limits in the end product... what are the ways to sterilize the same?
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Well it is a very good question, You should specify the nature of herbal products, whether it is in liquid form, powder form, paste form or any other. Each category has their own treatment to prevent microbes / permissible count. If a herbal product is in liquid form, raise the temperature from 90 to 95 degree Delicious during cooking process. If a product is in powder form then you can dry in oven fluid bed driers or ovens @ 130 to 140 degree Delicious (temperature is depending upon the nature of the product/active constituent). If a product is a paste then raise temperature upto 80 degree celcious for 20 mints only, followed by cooling.
These are the basic techniques i am using to control microbial contamination since 10 years, manufacturing more than 250 products. I am glad to have strong professional relationships by scientific research collaborations.
Here is my email qaiserzaman_4@outlook.com
Whatsapp: +923343765409
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I need to do the study on a HER2 positive cell line Either SKBR3 or MDAMB-453 (HER-2 positive cell line) for 2-3 extracts..and this is a bit urgent. I checked at ACTREC, Mumbai but that option is not open, and there are very few option but they take a lot of time for processing.
Infac, there are few terminally breast/ovarian cancr patients who are being treated on this treatment by an Ayurvedic practitioner (as they are declared incurable by doctors)..so we wanted to knw atleast if this works or not.... on an invitro level, so that the treatment regime becomes a bit clear....
I hope you understand the gravity of the situation and help me or suggest me to facililate the issue. I am ready to bear the charges or cost of chemicals that may be required in the process, only time is a bit issue as the necessity stands for a real time clinical scenario....
Thanks
Aditya Arvindekar
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Dear Aditya,
By understanding your gravity of the situation.
There are some laboratories in India who do invitro study not on commercial basis. But you require ti up with them and do your work in there laboratory at your own under their experty.
In vitro study is not short duration or one time attempt.
you need patients for this.
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Lots of Herbs are described in Ayurveda for Gastritis but it not provide quick results in Acid reflux or Hyperacidity like fennel, liquorice etc..
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ok, I got your question now...
I got good result with Mulethi churna but it was not that much quick as Rasa medicines were.
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In present times two school of thoughts are working on herbs :
1st is conventional Ayurvedic herbs and another one is ORGANIC herbs approved by different organisation (USDA) etc.
As for Shrubs or some other herbs these can be grown under few climatic conditions but what about Tree like Arjuna(Terminalia arjuna) ,Ashoka( Saraca asoca ) etc and so on.
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Terming 'Organic' is the process of growing a plant in controlled condition with chemical-free pest management and plant nutrition.
During growing saplings of Arjuna, or Ashoka, it may be nurtured organically.
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I am researching, if an ayurvedic procedure is helpful in managing lower back pain. This is called Kati Basti or Kati Vasti or Grdhrasi Basti. I will create a study to treat patients with this kind of treatment. But there is nothing mentioned in the old texts. So this type of thing must be a creation out of something different... I don´t know, if somebody is there who have ever heard of it. But let´s see what will come around :)
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Sorry habe nicht richtig geschaut im Google,da wir eine andere Auswertung machen.
FG
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What are the recent scientific studies on the use of Mercury in Ayurvedic Rasa preparations? Is the use safe ?
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Dear Atis
Good to notice your interest in mercurial preparations. Before answering to your question, I wish to know your areas of interest and why this issue came into your mind.
@ Dear Mario,
It is unfortunate to have many such publications that raises concerns on traditional formulations. Without having any basic idea about such practices; no one can claim that these practices are harmful or hazardous or toxic.
Dear Mario, the second paragraph of your response to the question deals with use of Metallic Mercury in therapeutics. I wish to know, which medical system uses metallic mercury in therapeutics? Where ever it is used; these systems have a meticulous process to convert them into a safer form that will be administered by carefully following a set of guidelines as mentioned in their respective systems. For my understanding, no one uses metallic mercury as such in therapeutics.
There are a huge number of published articles on possibilities of Mercurial toxicity with traditional formulations and the one tagged by Mario is one. Dear Mario, thanks for sharing the communication of Sathe et al (2013) from Indian Journal of Nephrology. Parallel to this, i request you to read our communication in the same journal at
Dear Atis,
There are ample of article that evaluated safety and efficacy aspects of various metallic preparations; all such publications are open on the web. Please write me your area of interest, so that i can share such relevant articles.
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How important is powder size in its effect in case of Ayurvedic dry powder formulations? I want to know if there are any published references.
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Curcumins, curcuminoids water soluble... it is possible???
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Dear Dr. Sonajirao Lavekar ,
Thank you very much for your answer Sir.
Yes, the synergistic effect between Piper nigrum and Turmeric in therapeutic applications has been broadly studied and there is already a common consensus among researchers in that sense. Also, it's known that Steviol increases the solubility of turmeric in ethanol. However, the amount of turmeric in solution still remains very low...
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Can anyone please help me to interpret this SEM image of Yashada Bhasma (processed zinc using Ayurvedic methods)
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In addition to V. Shilovskikh:
You can ignore Ca, Fe and Si - it seems you do not have them, no peaks. The same, possibly, with As, but to be sure you have to check a K line at 25-30 kV accelerating voltage.
@P. Grima Gallardo
It's not " the fluorescence peaks".
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I am planning to work on the integration of ayurvedic drug and allopathic system using an animal model. So kindly suggest good ayurvedic or herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes but which are not scientifically validated.
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THANK YOU SIR
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The research is focused in folklore and traditional use of plants for hair care (dandruff, oily hair, hair growth, hair lost prevention, etc...).
Thank you in advance. 
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VS is right. You can also use many other plants like Phyllanthus emblica, Acacia concinna, Lawsonia inermis and many more.
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if we are working in traditional plants or foods or ayurvedic medicine is there is need to file IND application for clinical trials
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If you are using herbs, I would run a clinical trial. If you are evaluating a procedure (body manipulation, pressure points, touch, etc) I would use a novel approach called comparative effectiveness research.
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Dear Experts, gau piyush is commonly available in the name of Cow Colostrum. it selling under Ayurvedic product. did any Ayurveda class texts described this? any other name?
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Please check this PDF attachment also.
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I am planning to make a research on the history  of instruments, utensils and materials of ayurvedic therapies, e.g. swedana, shirodhara, udvartana, abhyanga, etc. This project has the following goals:
1.- Compare the instruments and utensils used in ayurvedic therapies from ancient times in India to those one used nowadays. For example, when ayurvedic therapies were described in old ayurvedic texts there were no plastic objects, electricity, ... Perhaps today the use of artificial materials is damaging the results of these therapies.
2. - Analyse the possible consequences of those changes mentioned in point 1.
3.- Study the exact recommendations about the use of certain materials and instruments given in the most relevant ayurvedic texts, i.e. Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hrdaya. Contrast this information with the ayurvedic practice from ancient times to the present.
4.- Determine the materials the different ayurvedic utensils and instruments are made of and analyse how their quality depends, for example, on the social position of the patient, etc.
Thank you
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There is a article in Sri Lanka, but it is in Sinhala language. Will try to translate and send a summery of it
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I want to carry out a research on the material history of Ayurveda. In this sense we would like to study the instruments, utensils and materials used for ayurvedic therapies, including surgery, as well as those involved in the preparation of ayurvedic medicines (Rasashastra). Due to the vast information covered by these aspects, we can distinguish three sections in this research:
1. Material history of ayurvedic therapies (e.g. swedana, abhyanga, udvartana, kizhis, pizhicil, etc.)
2. Material history of ayurvedic surgery.
3. Material history of the preparation of ayurvedic medicines (Rasashastra).
Thank you
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Arkaprakāśa composed by Rāvaṇa gives a description of the vessel to be used for preparing arka. The one I studied was translated by S.R. Vaisya and published by Sri Venkitesvar Steam Press, Bombay. It may be available with Chaukhamba Orientalia or Motilal Banarssidas.
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Ayurveda has concept of Rasa, Vipaka, & Virya which may be correlated with Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. And here I want to know how can we correlate the AVASTHHA -PAK, NISTHAA-PAK (A stages of Ayurvedic pharmacokinetics) with phases of metabolism.
Phase -I & II are the stages of metabolism in which body try to make the xenobiotic more polar so that it can get eliminated as soon as possible. Since the product of these phases of metabolism may also acts a active pharmaceutical moiety (e.g. in case of prodrug).
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I don't know much about the ayurvedic AVASTHHA -PAK and NISTHAA-PAK as much in detail but to my limited knowledge Avastha-pak is some thing like a passage of drugs or eatables after eating, churning from mouth to large intestine during which absorption takes place... this is not Phase I metabolism as Phases of metabolism starts in liver only and avastha-pak has nothing to do with liver... now coming to nishtha-pak which seems final metabolism of the absorbed juices after which the drug action or nutrition starts... This seems to me like the real metabolic phases in liver classified under single name nishtha-pak. Correct me if am wrong. !!!!
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Since ayurveda explains the concept of "Aasthapak and Nishtapak" about oral transformation of drug, so the question arises for Ayurvedic views about pharmacokinetics for non oral routes.
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As far as i have understood, i can say that ADME is a concept learn't to understand the drug and its metabolites movement through out the body compartments (blood, liver, kidney, protein-bound, etc) and this concept being a universal concept for all the categories of drugs let it be allopathy, ayurvedic or homeopathic remains same.  This means, ADME can be determined for any category of drug similar to any allopathic drug provided the measurement tools say LC-MS, NMR-MS, LC-NMR-MS, etc are precisely accurate even in NM or sub-NM concentration to measure the least amount of drug or metabolite in any compartment. The ADME is so universal that not only drugs, even food material can be evaluated for their metabolites. Hope my answer satisfy your doubts.
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Hello everyone, 
I'm planning to conduct a systematic review with meta analysis of Effect of Ayurvedic medicine in Hypertension. There is already a shortage of RCTs  in Ayurveda. I'd highly appreciate if anyone can suggest me some RCTs done in the field of Ayurvedic medicine.Thanks!
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Above answer are best supporting to your answer. You may search in ayurvedic journal AYU, JAIM, ASL, IJGP, IJAM etc. And best if you want then just contact scholar of BHU, GAU and Ayurvedic universities to look into MD and Ph. D thesises. 
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  • Please give your opinions after considering the following points. [look at the PDF file bellow]
  • Controversy:
  1. In most of ayurvedic literatures which have been translated in modern times (after 1600 AD) “Tiniśa” has been recognized with Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) or O. dalbergioides (Benth.), belonging to family Leguminoseae by various reputed authors. In Ayurvedic fraternity Tiniśa even does not come under controversial drugs due to its strong authorized identity as mentioned before.
  2. But a thin yarn of controversy was emerged when an author, Balakrishna Gowda recognized Melastoma malabathricum L. as “Thimisah” in his book ‘Vanaspati Kosha’ [1] and again this controversy gained some blaze of wind when NMPB (National Medicinal Plant Board) of India in its website [2] mentioned “Tinisah” as the Sanskrit name of Melastoma malabathricum L. under the section of Folklore plants. The irony is that NMPB has also mentiond Ougeinia oojeinensis as the biological source of Tiniśa under the section of Ayurvedic plants.
  • Logical discussion:
  1. CSIR in ‘The Wealth of India’ [3] had recognized Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) as synonym of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) and considered it as a biological source of ‘Tinsa’ along with its trade name ‘Sandan’ which are the vernacular name of Tiniśa.
  2. Shri Bapālāl Vaidya in ‘Nighantu Ādarsa’ [4] recognized Ougeinia oojeinensis as synonym of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) and considered as the biological source of ‘Tinisa’. He even clarified & discussed about the various synonyms of the same plant as follows.
  • Tinisa: Because of its long life it can pass many nights (Nishi) or it is blackish.
  • Rathdru: Its wood is useful in making of chariot.
  • Chitrakut: Even though this tree is not very large in size but because of its steady  and long living nature it amazes all.
  1. All these Sanskrit synonyms fit perfectly to O. dalbergioides (Benth.). But M. malabathricum L. does not fit into the scaffold of these Sanskrit synonyms.
  2. First of all, habit of Melastoma malabathricum L. is shrub or under shrub (4-5 ft. in height) and its stem does not develop a rigid form of wood. So there is no question of its use in making of chariot.
  3. It’s true that being a shrub size of M. malabathricum L. plant is small. But it is neither very firm (strong) on its stem (or on soil) nor it enjoys the life for a prolong period of times.
  4. Fresh plants (stem/ leaf) of M. malabathricum L. do not seemed to be blackish in its natural habitat. But stem of O. dalbergioides (Benth.) evidently appears to be blackish in its natural habitat.
  • Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) or O. dalbergioides (Benth.) had also been considered as authentic source of Tiniśa in number of other ayurvedic literatures such as
  1. Bhāvprakāsh Nighantu of Sri Bhāvmisra [5] by Prof. KC Chunekar;
  2. Kaiyadeva Nighantu [6] by Prof. Priyavrata Sharma & Guruprasād Sharma;
  3. Rāja Nighantu of Pandit Narahari [7] by Dr. Indradev Tripathi;
  4. Dravyaguna Vijńāna [8] by Prof. PV Sharma;
  5. Indian Materia Medica [9] by Dr. KM Nadkarni;
  6. Dravyaguna Vijńāna [10] by Gyanendra Pandey;
  • References:
  1. Gowda Balakrishna. Vanaspathi Kosha. 1st ed. Kalpatharu Research Academy; Sringeri: 2004. p. 121.
  2. www.nmpb.nic.in ª Indian Medicinal Plants ª Search in Folk.
  3. Anonymous. The Wealth of India. Vol. 7. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research; New Delhi: 2001, p. 195-196.
  4. Bapālāl Vaidya. Nighantu Ādarsa. Vol. 1. Choukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2007, p. 389.
  5. Chunekar KC. Bhāvprakāsh Nighantu of Sri Bhāvmisra. Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2013. p. 536.
  6. Sharma Priyavrata, Sharma Guruprasad. Kaiyadeva Nighantu. 1st ed. Chaukhambha Orientalia; Varanasi: 1979. p. 152.
  7. Tripathi Indradev. Rāja Nighantu of Pandit Narahari. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi: 2003.
  8. Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vijńāna. Vol. 4. Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; Varanasi: 2003. p. 191.
  9. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 1. Popular Prakashan Private Limited; Mumbai: 2009. p. 561.
  10. Pandey Gyanendra. Dravyaguna Vijńāna. Vol. 3. Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi: 2004. p. 646.
  • Tiniśa:
  • Botanical name : Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochn.
  • Family : Leguminoseae-Fabaceae
  • Classical name : Tiniśa
  • Sanskrit names: Syandana, Nemi, Cakrasamvarana, Asmagarbhaka, Tiniśa, Rathadru, Vanjula, Rathavrksa.
  • Regional names: Sandan, Chhanan (Hindi); Tinish (Beng.); Tinas(Mar.); Syandan (Maha.); Tanachh (Guj.); Tella motuku(Tel.); Narivengai(Tam.); Malavinna (Mal.); Kurimutal(Kann.) ; Anjan (Uriya).
  • Description: Medium-sized deciduous trees; bark thin, grey or pale brown, blaze streaked with red. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, stipulate petioles 5-15 cm. long; leaflets broadly elliptic-obovate, acute 6-5 Î 3-9 cm; glaucous above, finely pubescent below, entire or obscurely crenate. Flowers in axillary racemes, fascicled at the nodes of old wood; bracts scale-like. Calyx 3-4 mm., tube campanulate; teeth small, 2 upper teeth connate, lower ones longer than laterals. Corolla white or pink, exerted 8-13 mm. long, standard orbicular wings spurred and slightly connate to the obtuse keal. Stamens 9-1, diadelphous. Pods linear-oblong, flat 5-10 cm. long, 2-5 jointed; seeds reniform.
  • Flowering and fruiting time: Plant flowers in February- April and fruits in April- June. Generally flowering is during spring season and fruiting season is summers.
  • Distribution: Plant occurs in mixed forests in various provinces; Uttar Pradesh, Central India (Madhya pradesh).
  • Chemical composition: The bark contains tannin 7%. A kino-like exudation from the incised bark is obtained. The heartwood contains a dimethoxy-7-methoxy-6-methyl isoflavanone. Heartwood contains homeferreirin and oujenin.
  • Pharmacodynamics:
  1. Rasa          : Kasaya
  2. Guna          : Laghu, rurksa
  3. Virya          : Sita
  4. Vipāka       : Katu
  • Dosakarma: Kaphapittasamaka.
  • Properties and action:
  • Karma       : Mutrasangrahaniya
                                  Sothahara, kusthaghna, medohara
                                  Vranaropana
                                  Rasayana
                                  Stambhana
                                  Sonitasthapana
                                  DahapraSamana
                                 Jvaraghna.
  • Roga        : Prameha
                                 Sotha-kustha-Svitra-vrana
                                 Atisara-pravihika-raktatisara
                                 Raktavikara-raktapitta
                                 Dourbalya.
  •  Therapeutic uses:
  1. The drug Tinisa is mutrasangrahaniya (antidiuretic) and useful (bark and heart-wood) in prameha (group of urinary anomalies).
  2. It is useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, blood diseases, intrinsic haemorrhage, kustha, debility, inflammation, ulcers, fever, burning sensation and ailments caused by aggravation of kapha and pitta dosa. It also belongs to rasayana drugs.
  3. Externally the drug is applied as paste over ulcers, inflammation, leucoderma and kustha.
  4. The drug is used in anaemia (pandu), worms (krimi) and obesity (meda). The bark is used as a febrifuge and also as fish poison. The kino-like exudation from the incised bark is used in diarrhoea and dysentery.
  5. Tinisa (sandan) wood leaves and bark are also economically useful (including timber, cordage and cattle fodder, implements etc.).
  •  Parts used: Heartwood, bark.
  • Dose: Decoction 50-100 ml.
  • Group(gana): Sālasārādigana (Suśruta Samhita).
  •  References:
  1. Susruta Samhita: uttar, 40/119 [ raktātisar]
  2. Carak Samhita: cikitsā, 7/95; 7/98 [ kustha]
  3. Carak Samhita: cikitsa, 1-2/12
  4. Nighantu Sesh: Vrikskanda.
  5. Bhāvaprakāsh Nighantu: Vatadi varga, 76.
  6. Kaiyādeva Nighantu: Ousadhi varga, 815-817.
  7. Rāja Nighantu: Prabhadrādi varga, 114- 115
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  • @ Neeraj Sethiya
  • Dear sir, I should start this post by stating that I have gone through your review article on ‘Shankhpushpi’ to enable myself to put my view in the context of your last post. I thank you for your consecutive attention & engagement in this particular topic. In your column you overwhelmingly emphasized the necessity of modern techniques [such as UV, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC etc. given by WHO] which are needed to be incorporated & that in turn according to you can resolve the controversy over Ayurvedic source plants.
  • With this introduction I express my regret for not being able to agree with your above comprehension. I should now explain why that is so.
  • Let me start with an example that will simplify the whole scenario for its better understanding. Mr. X was an eminent merchant who lived in a modern & civilized urban town. During a time of emergency Mr. X had to shift from his home town to an isolated island [where modern civilization had not touched it yet]. He was allowed to carry with very little amount of necessaries. He thought, even if he takes 10 kg of food, it will exhaust soon. So he took 20 gold coins in his pocket for his expenditure. But when he reached the island he did not find a single trader with whom he could exchange those gold coins for some foods. He started lamenting & cursed his own fate. While doing so he forgot to realize that island was full of green trees bearing plenty of delicious fruits. In due time he realized it & felt happy when he got some fruits. Then he pick up those gold coins on his palm & smiled [because, even though those were gold coins but in that circumstances those coins were worthless].
  • I should now enter into logical discussion. From here we should proceed with stepwise manner. First of all we need to set up an aim. Because it will lead us to logical conclusion. So let our aim to be – “To propose a suitable candidate to be designated as [any ayurvedic name, say Tinisa] among the 4 different botanical source plants.”
  • Now to proceed further we need to deal with comprehensive information about all four drugs along with a collective data set on 'Tinisa' [or any Ayurvedic drug which comes under controversy] in the context of our aim. Then obviously we will compare those data to come to a logical conclusion.  To do this, first we have to categorise our data sets into their relative groups. Let us assume that we have 3 categories of data sets. CAT-I, CAT-II & CAT-III. Among these three categories CAT-III represents Pharmacological data, CAT-II represents Q.C [quality control protocols, say analytical, physicochemical etc.] & CAT-I represents Botanical descriptions & study of etymological derivation of Sanskrit synonyms.
  • As I have mentioned before, to have a logical conclusion we need to have a comparative data set. Now let us see what we have with us & what we are lacking of. Here I am taking Sankhpushpi for an eg.
  • CDS [Comparative Data Sets]:
  • 1. CAT-III:
  • Sankhpushpi: Karma,  Roga & Cikitsa [Pharmacological action, disease & treatment] are well documented in every ancient Text [say Caraka Samhita] 
  • 4 botanical source plants: Pharmacological action, disease & treatment can be evaluated & documented for all four Botanical source plants
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy: Productive data
  • 2. CAT-II:
  • Sankhpushpi: All those modern technique such as TLC, HPTLC, NMR, MASS spectroscopy to name a few, cannot be found in Caraka Samhita or in other ancient texts. Because in that period those technique were not available
  • 4 botanical source plants: All these modern technique such as TLC, HPTLC, NMR, MASS spectroscopy etc. can be incorporated in the research study to generate a set of comprehensive analytical, phytochemical, Physicochemical  data [I only named a few of them].
  • Note: These data sets are similar to golden coins of our Merchant in the story.
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy: Non-productive data. Because one set of data is completely missing. But that does not mean that we do not need such kind of data. These data are elemental in standardisation aspects of any drug subject.
  • There are some exceptional cases for eg. in case of Bhasmas there are some Q.C. protocol like Varitara, Rekhapurnata etc. which were mentioned in ancient text. I will deal it later.
  • 3. CAT-I:
  • Sankhpushpi: Sanskrit synonyms, often depicting Botanical description can be found in almost every ancient text. Etymological derivation of Sanskrit synonym with proper explanation can be obtained from reliable sources to understand & describe those plants in more detail. This is evident in almost all ancient text where many plant drugs were classified under the headings of nature of habit, habitat, flower, fruits of a particular plant. Sometimes plants were classified under a particular disease and sometimes plants were classified under the heading of a prototype drug for an eg. Guruchadi varga.  
  • 4 botanical source plants: Morphological, macroscopical, microscopical & all other Pharmacognostical characters of all 4 botanical source plant can be generated to compare with data obtained from  similar category of Shankhpushpi.
  •  Note: One can raise a fragile argument here by indicating that Pharmacognostical study has been mentioned in WHO guidelines. I agree to some extent but it never opined or conceptualized in the perception of resolving controversial aspect of source plant. I must say they never emphasized on value of Sanskrit synonym in a true sense, at least in a similar way that I have done here.
  • Productive/ Non- productive to resolve the controversy:Very much productive and helpful in order to come to a logical conclusion.
  • As I have said earlier that I have gone through your Shankhpushpi article. But in your discussion or conclusion I have not found you to propose a particular source plant that is most suitable to be designated as ShANKHPUSHPI. The reason behind it I suppose, I have explained properly. Please don’t take my comment in a wrong way. My only intention was to have a logical point of view when we are solving controversial aspects of Ayurvedic drugs. I hope you understand me & will excuse me because I am not a good writer; to top that I was poor in my Literature during my schooling days. In contrast to this, I request you to take a look at the discussion & conclusion parts of my article ‘A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON DIFFERENT PLANT SOURCES OF PARPATAK’; where I was able to come to a concise conclusion by following the same principles. [Please look at the attachment file]
  • Though I had conceptualized these principles long back but I did not share it with a knowledgeable person like you until now. So if you find any inconsistency in my above said concept, you are very much welcome to correct me.
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It is found that Ayurvedic bhasmas if not prepared in a standardized manner may contain heavy metal contamination.To reduce this contamination Green Synthesis could be of great importance,however in depth studies will conclude the same.
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First of all should know the proportion of the two different quantities to keep away from contamination.
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Many Ayurvedic preparations work / contain pre-probiotics . How would the regulatory authorities view proprietary Ayurvedic medicines?
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Regarding probiotic and prebiotic additives in Ayurvedic preparations, I would still think that it will take long time to reach a conclusion for its general presence. Few studies including mine suggests few instances of presence of potential probiotic microbes but I am not sure of regulatory norms concerning this aspect in India.
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I would like to know is there any Siddha or Ayurvedic formulations available for the treatment of external parasites like ticks, lice, fleas, etc. The formulations available for human use is fine for me to give a try in animals for its efficacy. If anyone is aware of such formulations please let me know.
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Sir Neemba oil (neem oil) will be useful in lice and other parasites. 
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I am working on a thesis using a polyherbal formulation of several herbs and looking for merits and demerits of large vs. small particle size, 80 sieve, 120 sieve, fine, coarse, very fine....  Can someone point me to some reading, esp if it is in Bhaisajya Kalpana and Ayurvedic pharmaceutic?  I think pharmacies that make powders must have examined this issue, but can't find anything...
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Hello,
you might find this article of interest for you.
Good Luck
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Being a Physician Scientist, I have always observed a significant improvement in the patients with relation to their overall metabolism, signs and symptoms and disease severity if done in a scientific way. The sad thing about this is no strong comprehensive trial is observed to my knowledge. What do you people from varied expertise think about all these procedures from your personal and scientific experience. Can you suggest a probable study which would justify and validate their use?
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I think your clinical experience is valid source. Of course it is better to be more validated with different designs of clinical researches. However the Ayurveda and other traditional medical recommendations can be used in clinical settings if there were no side effect or interaction in current literature against their use.