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Hello Everyone,
Is it possible to use biodiesel fuels in aviation/ aircraft? if yes, what is the percentage volume of biodiesel that is allowed to use in aircraft nowadays? if there is any article approve that please share it with me.
Thanks in Advance,
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It is not completely correct to equal the biojet (aviation biofuel) to biodisel. Biodiesel is produced via catalytic transesterification of oils or fats triglycerides by low molecular weight alcohols (methanol in practice). Biodiesel is mixture of fatty acid monoalkyl esters by chemical nature. Biojet is also produced from vegetable oils (for example, Camelina Sativa), but via hydrotreating process. The latter involves decarboxilation, hydrogenation and other secondary reactions. Obtained product is the mixture of alkanes. In other words, biojet composition is more simiral to the composition of traditional petroleum-derived fuels. Similar process is also utilized to produce so-called renewable diesel (HVO, HDRD). But this is not biodiesel by definition, but different type of renewable fuel for diesel engines.
As for the biodiesel in common sense, it is principally possible to blend its small fraction with aviation kerosene. However, biodiesel unsatisfactory low-temperature properties is big obstacle, limiting both fraction of biocomponent and flight altitude. I met paper dealing with utilizatiion of blends, containing only 10 % of methyl esters on flight altitude no higher than 7000 m. Substiotion of methyl esters with esters of longer-chain alcohols (especially branched ones), characterizing by the lower clouding and pouring points, may partially solve the problem. But I do not know, wheather this was tested on practice in real flight conditions. Probably not. It is also should be remembered, that biodiesel contain about 10 % of Oxygen, which inevitabely decreses its power perfomance as fuel in comparsion with ordinary jet fuel or biojet.
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Dear all,
I would like to present my work on an aircrafts GHG emissions calculation model in an international conference. I would like to have an interesting feedback from experts (whether in environmental assessment or in aviation). Do you know of any conferences that might meet these criteria and whose submission deadline has not yet passed?
Thank you !
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Thank you for your feedbacks.
Kiprotich Kiptum I had already looked at this site but it refers to conferences that do not exist. Have you ever attended a conference listed in waset?
Jochen Hack the summit looks very interesting but if I'm not mistaken it does not allow you to submit a paper or an abstract, which is my objective
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Hi Professionals,
I am doing the project for academic purpose and there are no right or wrong assumptions but in business if your assumptions have to based on solid ground of data and predictions.
What are the assumptions that would work of aviation industry in the next till 2050?
How should one approach business and customer value proposition in turbulences and very pierce competition and rising costs ?
please do share your ideas and help me
Thanks and regards,
Eugine
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Kindly have a look here...
Indian Aviation Industry, Aviation Sector in India, About, Analysis
Indian Aviation Industry Report
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I would like to find out a few articles on "Which regions of brain are involved for storing 'frames'?"
Unfortunately, I could not find anything accept 'spatial frames'. I am interested in general frames, maybe illusions or even aviation illusions.
Any help will be strongly appreciated.
Best regards.
Al
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I found one but I need more:
A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and
individual differences
Kevin B. Murch1 and Daniel C. Krawczyk1,2
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA 75390 and 2Center for BrainHealth, School of
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA 75235
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Hello, I am a management student and I am thinking about working on "sustainable aviation" for my master's thesis
I am looking for suggestions, what can be interesting to talk about in 2021, or the most interesting topics to dive into. I'm a tourism management student in Germany.
Thanks in advance for your help, I'm just trying to collect updated interesting topics from people who already work or know about the industry.
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Sustainable Tourism got to do with the local community. The economic impact of sustainable tourism in developing nations is still scarce in the field. Covid may have changed or affected the majority of local community socio-economy across the world particularly those heavily rely on tourism engagement to generate economy.
Challenges over the term 'Sustainable Tourism' itself. Nowadays with AI mushrooming - many fake destinations claim 'sustainable' while against the genuine value of 'sustainable' itself or time to go back revisit Ceballos- Lascurain Eco tourism origin long before sustainability exist in mass.
Post covid polemic - Is sustainability ever exist? the world is continuously suffering in the hand of mass-tourism (esp unethical China mass tourist) have ongoing discussion yet heavily over webinar platforms. Or does covid itself fails to provide a steadfast lesson to an unethical tourist?
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I use a 2D naca2412 , 200000Re, 0 deg.I set refernce area as the airfoil chord.Mesh type is C type.The result of cd is 0.02 but according to xfoil and airfoiltools , the cd should be about 0.01 .
Is there any tutorial source or recommended video whose fluent result coefficient data is accurate?Give me a link plz! Thanks a lot!
The attachment is my project document。
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Check your Y+ value and boundary conditions.
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Any good dataset/paper on the subject?
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Hi Dr Pierre Tichit . Surely it has a big effect on green house effect because there is a big evolving of CO2 from airplanes . The exact percentages is mentioned by
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I am working on a project testing material resistance to aviation hydraulic fluid (Skydrol/Hyjet V).
I am looking for recommendations of materials which may have some resistance to such a chemical.
I know that GF30-PA6 fairs well when exposed to these chemicals but equally that materials such as ABS and PLA degrade extremely quickly.
Any material suggestions or data sources would be greatly appreciated.
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I think that good materials with good chemical resistance will be thermoplastics: nylons (PA) and elastomers (TPU), with better mechanical and physical properties and greater dimensional accuracy than materials for printing in FDM technologies (PLA, ABS, PETG, nylon, PEI ( ULTEM), ASA, TPU), which are used due to costs and shorter printing time.
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Aviation Industry is growing very fast for the last two decades. Despite the Covi-19 pandemic, the demand for new civil aircraft and military aircraft is not reduced. Developing countries like India are major importers but these want to grow in the design, development, and manufacturing of Aircarfts both in civil and military aviation. The aviation industry is technologically driven and needs high-tech entrepreneurs. Hence, I want to know the views of researchers on how to exploit opportunities for high-tech entrepreneurship in the Aviation industry?
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Very pertinent question in view of the current boom in unmanned aviation and their proven utility in Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Assistance operations.
Drones, UAVs, eVTOLs which can be jointly put under Urban Air Mobility is the future of Aviation.
Urban Air Mobility Market is projected to grow from USD 2.6 billion in 2020 to USD 9.1 billion by 2030, at a CAGR of 13.5% from 2020 to 2030. The increasing demand for an alternative mode of transportation in urban mobility for commercial applications and technological innovations in unmanned technology are the major factors driving the market.
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Hii,
I'm doing MBA in cloud computing, please suggest me some topic to do thesis on cloud cryptography, If possible on aviation cloud implementation.
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Read about :quantum cryptography for access control in cloud computing
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Related work experience plays a vital role in motivating the Entrepreneurship. But when we talk about high tech entrepreneurship in Aviation industry, we talk about very high investment and high risk specifically IN developing avionics units and composite technology as well precision machining. I want to know from learned scholars what is the role of work experience in motivating high tech entrepreneurship in Aviation industry?
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In my view, work experience in the aviation sector might just be another independent variable. The more important characteristics would be Focus on exposure of Quality Standards and Ethical mindset of the entrepreneur.
Moderating Variable plays a significant role in this conceptual framework, which is more of compliance. All talented and hard working entrepreneurs can contribute to the aviation industry, but if the compliance is lacking, the venture can be a disaster.
Quality Standards and Organizational Ethics in always originate at the top.
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Is there a group of crucial and important UAV's parameters/features regardless of kind of mission (search missing people, disaster, evacuation, emergency deliveries, monitoring, fight a fire, training, saving trapped people, contamination, flying rescue cushion)? Or maybe every kind of mission has their own crucial parameters/features?
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I'm trying to use this DAC technology in the aviation industry. Can anyone suggest some ideas on how to do so? I too have some ideas and am willing to work on them.
My work will be designing a cost-efficient module that can be used for carbon capture. If you have seen a CC plant, there are large fans that suck the air, I thought of eliminating that energy of running that motor. As the plane already flies through a lot of air in its journey, we can almost make the plane carbon neutral.
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Dear Mr Nagpal,
Though my specialization is Avionics so I cannot comment on the technicalities but recently I came across an article where the concept is to use DAC to provide energy for the aircraft by absorbing and converting atmospheric CO2 into fuel. If I remember correctly it was Aerion the company developing supersonic passenger aircraft. There are a number of aircraft that fly in the region of atmosphere where quantity of CO2 is sufficient. If you can keep the weight and size small enough UAVs can be a good host platform. Regards
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Is there a way to ask manufacturers some data to be available to the public for the scientific community analyze?
For example, in this COVID-19 pandemic, many researchers are trying to find the best solutions of HVAC to renew and reroute the air as much as possible. However, the only way to do this is if they have the specific data from the HVAC companies, like the CAD data of the inlet as well as the mass flow rate, and outlets.
If we don't get that data, then some independent researchers need to experiments to get the data and then be validated by cfd until convergence, which would hopefully be good enough and extend the length of the process.
Is this the way how to do things? Or are there ways that companies share their data?
- In my case, my industry of interest is aviation/aerospace.
What inputs do you have?
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It will be very difficult to attain operational HVAC data since control in HVAC is mission-critical and its failure would be sometimes disastrous. If a high-rise building is of interest, a SCADA system would be in charge of handling the time-series data from all the subsystems. Inherently, these data are collected to improve the operational efficiency of the system. So, the supervisor might be interested in the simulation results although would be reluctant to publicly open such data. Rather, application of industrial IOT to the HAVC raises concerns on security bleach.
I think there are very few fields where industrial data are available to researchers. However, by a consent from the owner or the supervisor, a researcher can collect sensor readings, which can be from operational system or from sensor readings out of the control loop.
Articles say the HAVC systems become smarter and smarter, but in the real world, it seems just a part of a real estate. The 20-30 year old FCUs are still in use and designs of diffusers and ducts seem to never change. The owner might not like to let more air in because it will increase load in temperature and humidity control. The main drivers of this industry appear to be regulation and stability.
Good luck in your overcoming the gap!
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Respected Sir ,  
      I am kelvin kumar patel rajubhai from Vadodara, Gujarat, India. I am Pursuing M.Tech(structural engineering) from charusat university(CSPIT).My enrollment  (19PGCL006).I have referred your research paper on "Seismic performance evaluation of an ATC tower through pushover analysis". I referred you paper for project validation for ATC tower but in this paper some of the data are missing and also I have problems in making geometry of ATC tower so can you help me to provide any videos of how to make a ATC tower or you geometry to make me easy for my project validation .
      So,I kindly request you to give me your research paper data for my project validation.Your faithful Kelvin Kumar patel rajubhai. 
Here I have attached the research paper in which some of the data are missing or can you provide me data and geometry of ATC tower.
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ATC Towers are critical for surface movement and take off- landing clearances of the arrival and departing aircraft. So it's construction is with this basic premise of giving it maximum visibility. You can go through these videos for your better orientation.
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As a researcher, you may be frustrated in finding continuous funding for sustaining your research. However, would there be any conflict of interest to be a researcher as well as a fund raiser simultaneously at the same time?
What regulations are there to limit the grey area?
Which authorities were looking on such issue?
What if the fund raising is for charity organizations in the field (particularly pediatrics and rare diseases) and is unrelated to the researcher's work?
In medicine field, the practice of physicians fundraising from their own patients raises three main concerns:
(1) undue pressure on patients to contribute,
(2) possible expectations of preferential treatment from donors, and
(3) concerns about patient confidentiality and trust.
What do you think?
https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.26948.24966
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This largely depends on the system of financing science in a given country and the policy of financing research in specific types of universities. It is not a comfortable solution for researchers and scientists to independently search for sources of funding for their research. Systems of granting grants and subsidies for specific research projects should be developed and improved, taking into account the potential effects of the results of these studies on solving specific problems of the development of civilization.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Is it possible for African states to come together and work under one umbrella body to improve aviation in the continent?
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Remember Air Afrique?
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I'm doing bibliographic research about chemical aplications and solutions for sustainable air transport. Following aspects are of interest:
  • jet fuels: synthetic, biofuels, fuel cell, etc.
  • airplane construction materials to reduce its weight
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The only important parameter to guarantee sustainable aviation is the transition to new synthetic green biofuels.
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NFF (No Fault Found) has the major contribution to reduce the operational availability, resources and increase the cost of Maintenance of any aircraft in aviation. The likely causes are human factors, maintenance training, faults reporting, fault analysis, corrective Maintenance and procedures. However, mitigating these issues are completely a tedious process wherein management skill can't achieve the desired results. So, what are the other parameters/ technical factors that need to be considered?
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Absolutely right sir. @Mr.Russel King.
Thank you.
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I am helping a colleague with an aviation research study. We have two categorical variables for our IV (Group 1 consists of low-cost airlines, Group 2 consist of legacy carriers), our dependent variable is continuous (Average Arrival Delay in minutes). For example, in a span of 5 years, airline X in group 1 might have an average arrival delay of 5 minutes for all flights, and airline Y in group 2 might have an average delay of 3 minutes for all flights. Essentially, we are trying to see if there is a difference in average delays (in minutes) between group 1 or 2. The only data we have access to for the DV is the average arrival delay in minutes for each airline. Is this enough data? Since we have a categorical IV and continuous DV should we do an ANOVA? Our DV is normally distributed.
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Multivariate analysis will be appropriate
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What are (other than listed below) guidance materials, operational manuals, standards and recommended practices about public safety drone usage? Include such important for pilots of drone/UAV issues as: training, operational procedures, ConOps, testing UAV, maintenance, etc.
See:
- NFPA 2400, Standard for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Used for Public Safety Operations, https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=2400
- Public Safety and Law Enforcement Toolkit, https://www.faa.gov/uas/public_safety_gov/public_safety_toolkit/
- Code of Conduct, Humanitarian UAV Network http://uaviators.org/docs
- ISO 21384-3:2019 Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 3: Operational procedures https://www.iso.org/standard/70853.html?browse=tc
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Due to Corona all services are paused for now. Do you see any chances of resuming aviation services soon at international level?
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No.
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ima in research phase and I looking ot gain a lot of information in optimasing inventory management system for sale department within aviation industry so f you can help in that field please do
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Hi. Can anyone could recommend an aeronautical / aviation conferences to attend in 2020 in Europe; particularly for fluid mechanics and applied aerodynamics. Thanks!
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Interested in looking at aviation-centred training and use of latest ideas in neuroscience and maths/science education for improving learning outcomes.
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Thanks - I'll folow up later in the week.
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Hello all,
I am currently conducting an aviation capstone project and it has a been a while since I analyzed data/statistics. I am attempting to determine (if/what) statistical analysis is appropriate. My first research question asks:
Are Part 91 (for compensation or hire), 135 (charter) and 121 (cargo) operators more prone to fatigue-related accidents than Part 121 passenger carriers?
With this question the data I have accumulated is in the form of summary statistics. Number of accidents that are fatigue related and total number of accidents. Each of the four categories(Part 91, 135, 121cargo, 121passenger) has a 'fatigue related and total accidents' column.
DV1: Number of fatigue-related accidents
IV1: Part 91 commercial operations
IV2: Part 121 (non-passenger) commercial operations
IV3: Part 135 commercial operations
IV4: Part 121 passenger commercial operations (protected by 14 CFR Part 117)
Would this lend itself to itself to any sort of statistical analysis? Or is this better off remaining as descripitive vs inferential?
My 2nd RQ is :
Is there a particular phase of flight where fatigue-related accidents occur more than others?
For this one I have multiple IV's and DV
DV1: Number of fatigue-related accidents
IV1: Taxi
IV2: Takeoff
IV3: Climb
IV4: Cruise
IV5: Approach
IV6: Landing
I chose MANOVA for the second RQ based on the data I have available for that is much more in-depth. I attached picture of my data in table form.
I would greatly appreciate some guidance on which direction to go! I am a little lost
Thank you so much in advance!
v/r,
Eric
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Hello Eric,
Since your data are frequencies/counts, (m)anova isn't really a good analysis method.
For RQ1, a chi-square test of independence (4 x 2: 4 rows of operator category; two rows for fatigue-related count, non-fatigue related count) would address whether operator category relates to likelihood of fatigue-related accident (among all accidents). Note that non-fatigue related count would be total accidents for an operator category minus fatigue-related accidents for the same category.
For your data, the answer appears to be yes: Chi-square(3, N = 16,050) = 164.489, p < .001; there is a relationship. The strength of association (using the Phi coefficient), is .10 (on a scale from 0-1.0).
For RQ2, using the pooled data for the 7 phases (6 if you omit "other" as a flight phase category), I'd suggest using a chi-square goodness of fit test to determine whether fatigue-related accidents appear equally often across the phases.
For all 7 phases, there is a difference, chi-square(6, N = 358) = 102.788, p < .001.
For the 6 phases (with "Other" excluded), there is a difference, chi-square(5, N = 262) = 66.626, p < .001.
Descriptively, categories showing larger misfits to presumed equality included: Landing (higher than overall average), Taxi and Climb (lower than overall average); Takeoff and Cruise/Maneuver (somewhat higher).
When "Other" is included, it showed the largest misfit: much higher than overall average of incidents.
Good luck with your work.
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I am working on my final thesis where i am trying to identify the potential industries (ex. Manufacturing, Aviation, consumer electronics etc.) for a solution that i have in the automotive maintenance market and i want this solution to enter in the another industry.
so to analyse the potential industry what are the parameters i should consider (ex. Market size, market growth, etc )
it would be really helpful if someone could suggest some papers or research articles or any suggestions.
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A solution for one industry may not be solutions for another industry. You will be able to implement solutions for one industry to another if the problem in both industries is the same. The secondary issue is whether the solution for one industry can be commercialized in another industry. It could be adopted in an another industry if the cost of including the solutions is acceptable and profitable. For example, remote diagnostic technology solution in the automotive industry (OnStar) was effectively used decades ago in the telephone industry, and it will be used in future in all the household equipment such as refrigerators, washers, dryer, etc. Yes, a solution for one industry can be introduced to another industry if the solutions fits in the business model and create value for both the company and customers.
Thanks.
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I am wondering and doing a research project to find out if having personnel who are cross-qualified like A&P Mechanics with pilot training or pilots who have mechanic training make a difference. Do Aircraft maintenance release teams who have no, or limited, pilot training negatively affect aircraft return-to-service rates or is there no affect on how the return-to-service rate. Where could I possibly find information regarding the return-to-service rates for the aviation community?
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I am not aware of any sources for historical return-to-service rates; you would probably have to do a study by recruiting Mechanics and looking at their current rates, or asking if shops have data of when the planes went in vs when they went back to service. Granted, the type of service will affect the results. If a mechanic is highly certified and regarded and is only given the complex problems to solve, of course their solutions will take longer, so maybe you can consider a way to classify the work done on the aircraft.
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I'm already done project on auditory reaction time measurement of 18 year old students.
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In aviation we talk about being ahead of the aircraft. With that said looking at reaction time is somewhat more difficult than it appears. Reaction time can be from the time a decision is made, or from the time a perception is made, or even further back to indicate the time from the onset of an event. I think looking at and understanding these would be beneficial in aviation safety. Good thoughts!
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I would like to know any information about the aircraft and aviation ?
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First you should become familiar with the various speeds corresponding with an aircraft. These would be Indicated Airspeed or IAS, Calibrated Airspeed or CAS, Equivalent Airspeed or EAS, True Airspeed or TAS and Ground speed or GS.
then compare the True Airspeed of the aircraft with the speed of sound at sea level under standard atmosphere (15 deg C and pressure of 1013.2 hpa).
if the True Airspeed of the aircraft reaches to the speed of sound then it is called Mach one(which has reached to the sound barrier).
the transonic region is when some parts of the aircraft has reached to the speed of sound whilst the other parts haven’t.
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I would like to find out if there a distance at which travel and if so what the distance is. Also how willing are business professionals to travel by general aviation either in the form or charter jets or personal aircraft? Would anyone know what kind of test I could do or perform or where I could find more data on this subject?
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Hi Danial,
If you want to working on Economical of General Aviation. You have to calculate cost of the time, image of there personnel or business that the professional business can be save/earn when compare with another type of transportation. Because the major reason why they used general aviation is not how much money they can save but it's about how much money they can earn from travel by that type of transportation.
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I am looking for ideas on what topics I can do for 6 months (short master thesis) in Spain. Can anyone help me with the topic I can do in related with policy of sustainability, renewable energy, for aviation biofuel? What I can discover or view about this topic.
Thank you, I really appreciate it.
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You could consider the impacts of biofuel production in Spain, in terms of water use (water scarcity is a major environmental issue facing the country), and consider the climate (Csa is the predominant climate, but Bsh and BWh amongst other climates can be observed), and the impacts of climate change on this. You could consider which crops are suitable for this (C4 biomass crops could be an option). Policy could look at promoting sustainable feedstock production, limits on water use etc.
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Recently it is observed that some common incidents are happening in the aviation industry. Engine out of order or window is breaking. As a result, the pilot is in danger where co-pilot/cabin crew pulls inside/helps to save the life. In another case, passengers pull inside to save another passenger where everybody in the whole plane is in danger. It is happening in few incidents. It was not a common problem in the past. Why is this happening/ recurring? Who is responsible for this dangerous situation? Any idea, please?
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I see that this has been dead for about 9 months. I would like to chime in as an aviation mechanic and pilot. When it comes to things like the cockpit windshield there are a several factors that can cause what has been seen where the cockpit shatters and the crew are sucked out and the engine explodes and comes apart.
The cockpit window is organic glass meaning that is not your normal glass it is actually a grown glass that is compressed into many thick layers creating a bit of a sandwich effect. It is then put into a frame that is then screwed and torqued into the aircraft airframe. Several factors here to consider.. The first is the twist of the airframe when the windshield is put into place. If the airframe is not perfectly straight over time it will put tension on the frame and glass in ways that it shouldn't and in time it will come apart. The second is the window itself. While the companies who make these work extremely hard to ensure that the glass is perfect and free from defects there is always the 1 in a million that has a defect that can cause the window to fail prematurely. The third factor is the number of times that the aircraft is pressurized and depressurized and the length of time at each of these stages. The pressure on window changes and the glass is strained along with the rest of the aircraft. In time if there is a defect or a twist or something out of place like a scratch or small crack it will cause the window to fail. It is something that mechanics are very aware of and we do our very best when we pull them out for maintenance and reinstall them to make sure that they are protected from scratches and other defects that we could possibly cause. While most are avoidable again it is like anything else if something happens and isn't caught then in time it will give way but it is so rare that something happens that when it does it shocks all of us in the aviation community and then people outside of the community like yourselves here ask questions.
When it comes to the aircraft engines.. there are many factors here as well. every time the engine starts and gets hot the blades expand and grow and then shrink back down as they cool. Over time this causes them to become brittle and periodically these engines are inspected for things like this. We also inspect the engine for noticeable defects prior to each flight and if there is a defect or something that looks suspicious it is checked out and the aircraft is grounded until it is deemed safe. There are times thought when scratches or chips occur because small stones or other items are sucked up into the engines and hit the blades. This can cause them to give way prematurely and if not properly contained inside the nacelle of the engine we end up with what we saw with the southwest flight were the nacelle gave way due to the massive amount of damage and then the passenger window is struck and broken from the massive speed and then the aircraft depressurizes and the passenger not strapped in or leaning on the window sleeping at the time or near the window can be sucked into our worse out of the window as the air inside the aircraft rushes to the outside as pressure inside works to stabilize with the outside pressure. If people react quickly passengers and crew can be rescued and the person pulled back in or held until reaching safety.
While all of these maintenance issues are rare if the companies are rushing the mechanics or if something happens where the torque is done wrong or something distracted them.. then it is possible to end up with problems although everything is done to try to minimize this issue. As for your comment about the records being sealed.. you are correct.. The moment something like that happens.. all records up to that very moment are sealed until the investigation is completed. Everyone who worked on the aircraft or had anything to do with the aircraft for the last several years is interviewed and records and the jobs done are scrutinized. Eventually a determination is made on the cause and if its the mechanics fault then someone pays the price. Other times we see that is a problem with the manufacturer and then they pay the price. Or at other times we find that there was nothing that was done on the mechanic or manufacturer's part and it was just a premature failure of the part.. when this is the case then a maintenance message in the form of an AD or Airworthiness Directive is issued to the company of the part as well as any company that is using that part to step up their inspection and to pull and replace the part at a different interval then is currently in place.
Mohammed Khandaker , La Verne A Davis , and Michael Evans I hope this answers some of the expressed concerns.
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In some aviation crushes, the plane returns to the airport but fails to land safely due to fires. What do you think of building huge pools near airports equipped with giant pumps connected to underground tanks filled with water controlled by the airport administration. The ponds are filled with water at a depth of 3 meters in a short period. that. This may help to extinguish the fire, reduce the collision impact and then save some passengers.
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I like the idea that you present here. I wonder if there could be another approach to this. Rather than looking at using regular water. Looking at landing into AFFF (Aqueous film forming foam) which could quench the fire without the fear of the passengers being exposed to a level of water where one could drown. Instead the fires would be suppressed and the crew and passengers would thus have more time to escape the aircraft.
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I need to know about tip deflection ranges for 2 seat airplane specifically
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Dear Eng. Omar
If one imagines the wing as a cantilever beam under distributed vertical lifting force, which should balance the total weight of the airplane during cruising steady flight, the approximate formula for calculating the wing tip deflection may have the form:
Delta(Tip)= F.O.S. * [ W b^3 / 16 EI]
where F.o.s.= Safety factor (1.2 - 1.5) for gusts and dynamic effects
W = Total weight of the airplane
b= semi span = length of the cantilevered wing
EI= equivalent bending stiffness of the wing cross section
(Depends on material of construction and second moment of area)
I wish you the best
Thanks
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Hi!I am a student at master studies business analysis and planning searching for a topic for thesis. Can anyone suggest me some interesting topics in sustainable planning/development or in risk management possibly, but not neccessary, that has to do with aviation/airports/technology.
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Several authors have pointed to the innumerable interpretations of sustainability (Lankoski, 2016, p. 848). Sustainability is commonly defined as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 1987, cited in Bansal & DesJardine, 2014, p. 71), a concept that is accepted in many fields of study that include a sustainable approach. Diyllick and Hockerts (2002, p. 131) define sustainability as “meeting the needs of a firm’s direct and indirect stakeholders” without compromising its ability to meet the needs of future stakeholders. They also argue that sustainability should be integrating economic, social and environmental aspects, in a short and long term (Dyllick & Hockerts, 2002, p. 132). According to Carter and Rogers (2008, p. 364) most of the definitions of sustainability incorporate economic and environmental factors. Shrivastava (1995, p. 955) describes sustainability as “the potential for reducing long-term risks associated with resource depletion, fluctuations in energy costs, product liabilities, and pollution and waste management.
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b) start from mobile platform - in Poland: http://s4t.com.pl/#
about other:
c) Delivery of medicines, blood, defibrillators - in Poland: https://www.airvein.io/, https://www.linkedin.com/company/airvein-sp.-z-o.o.?originalSubdomain=pl,
d) Delivery of life jacket, pod, raft
f) spraying anti fire chemical compounds
h) New Futuristic Massive Firefighting Drones, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL8L2Y2RtWY
j) Detecting Wifi signals from smartphones of trapped people, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ysg-m7kV14
k) Dropping a fire-blanket???
l) Fire ignitions
FlamethrowersTF-19 WASP Flamethrower Drone Attachment , https://throwflame.com/products/flamethrower-drone-kit/
n) Launches Autonomous Drone,
o) Charging Pad
p) Wireless charging
PS.
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Surveying burn areas, fire movement, damage/impact. Looking for survivors.
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I am looking to explore open problems and research questions in the field of diagnostics, prognostics, and health monitoring of systems and components. My main area is in space and aviation and currently working on a proposal to investigate interesting problems in this field.
Therefore, I am reaching out to the community to ask your opinion on this matter and start a conversation as to what are the important and impactful issues that have not been discussed before or the existing published work does not address them.
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Dear Afshin,
I have several papers in the field of fault diagnosis of aerial vehicles.
I believe that one of the main issues that is remained in this field is accurate detection of abrupt faults and false data injections in the system.
Moreover, despite the fact the you might be able to detect the faults in real-time, there might some delay between your detection and your compensation algorithm that would deteriorate the system performance specially for fast dynamics!
I would recommend you to read some of my recent works in this field:
If you have any question, please feel free to ask.
Thanks,
Alireza
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Is it correct to use a term "drone/UAV special for fire service/fire brigades"? Or are there only a adaptations/modifications of available models (like adaptations of Matrice - see https://www.dslrpros.com/inspire-1-first-responder-thermal-kit.html https://www.rmus.com/collections/police-fire-search-and-rescue-drones)?
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It depends a bit on what aspect of the fire-fighting you focus:
- For the assessment phase, typically quite standard UAV's are used. These are typically sturdier models that feature a short deployment time and are often also used by civil protection, police, ...
- For the fire-extinguishing phase, purpose-built solutions do exist, e.g.: https://www.aerones.com/eng/firefighting_drone/
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Machine Learning as a tool for Meteorology.
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Hello Mukesh, in Ireland we used machine learning for removal of systematic errors (i.e., systematic bias removal) from windspeed forecasts for wind-farms. As forecasts are made and then validated, a history of forecast errors builds up over time, and the "machine" can "learn" from this history to identify and then correct what it finds to be systematic errors - leading to systematically more accurate forecasts. We used the R package implementation of Bayes Model Averaging (BMA) to do this. See our papers on this at and You may be able to think of other applications for this (or similar) methods.
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I want to run an experiment with pilots flying a simulated flight. I need to collect data about their performance (accuracy of handling the joystick, speed etc). Do you know if there is a flight simulation game that allows the experimenter to collect such kind of data?
Thanks a lot,
Alex
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Thank you Mr Cornman. I will go for the X-Plane. I am interested in measuring pilots' performance (some very simple metrics) so, hopefully, I will not need to do any coding.
Best regards,
Alexandros
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Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) is a key avionics technology used for aviation cooperative surveillance (i.e., aircraft separation assurance and collision avoidance). However, the absence of adequate security features makes this system vulnerable to a number of cyber-physical threats (jamming, spoofing, meaconing, etc.). What technological solutions can be introduced to address this challenge?
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Dear Charles,
Thank you very much for your message and for the valuable documents. I am also very actively involved in this line of research. A recent paper on GNSS performance threats and augmentation strategies in aviation was recently published in JPAS (for convenience, the link is provided below):
In addition to addressing GNSS issues, it would be nice working together and investigating the feasibility of specific safety features that could be included in the ADS-B data-link as well.
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What is the most appropriate model for determining aviation and economic potential within the region - how can it quantify, for example, the number of passengers at a regional airport at the start of a new tourist destination within the region?
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Here is a summary
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It seems like the US-based auto manufacturers such as GM, Ford, and Chrysler are less competitive than many other European and Asia-based counterparts. In terms of production of automobiles, Toyota, Volkswagen, Hyundai, and GM are number one, two, three, and four.
The United States is doing well in other areas such as aviation manufacturing and weapon system, which requires high technologies.
In your opinion, what makes US auto manufacturers less competitive than European and Asian counterparts? Is it a problem with R & D, productivity, labor costs, labor union, or management/ marketing? Or anything else?
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In the US the fuel prices are extremely low, because fuel is not beeing taxed. In Europe the costs are far higher. This led to a much higher effort to reduce fuel consumption and fostered high technology development. Whenever an oil crisis appeared the european car industry won market shares. And to be honest: Mechanical engineering is much stronger in Germany than in the US.
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There was a lot of research conducted on the efficiency of stringers and the y-section and curved y-section were proven te be most efficient in multiple studies. They can both be extruded but they are hardly if ever used in aviation. Can anyone tell me why?
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Ease of manufacture of comparable Z section....
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There are several types of head-up displays and a lot of papers and especially patents describing these. However, it is not easy to understand, which of these types are actually used in practice, for example, in aviation or in automotive industry. The same question is about head-mounted displays. Does anybody have information on practical using of head-up and head-mounted displays?
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Thank you for this link. I found there some useful data. Unfortunately, it does not include information about the type of HUD combiner. This is typical for industrial sites. So, I hope that somebody will inform me here.
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Recent research has delved into many aspects of aviation fuel consumption. In some ways the analogy with a personal automobile is apt: you fill up, and you drive until the tank is nearly empty, repeat. The difference for aviation is that the weight of the fuel itself significantly adds to the power needed to fly ("it takes fuel to fly fuel").  So, although the equations and ideas are well known, I would appreciate pointers to industry standard methods. Our goal is analytical shortcuts that would allow this idea to be built into a model of a major airlines network.
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Thanks -- appreciate these references.
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I am interested in researching opportunities to join new and exciting technologies in aviation and aerospace, specifically abroad from the USA. Is there an online resource or European conference where such opportunities could be more easily found? Any suggestions are welcome! Looking for startups, research labs, postdoc positions etc. Thanks!
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If you are looking for a conference that can give you a bit of access to both industry and academia in aviation in Europe, SESAR Innovation Days could be a good event: http://www.sesarju.eu/sesarinnovationdays
Participants range from academia, over industry (manufacturers, arlines) to small companies... 
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Rising jet fuel prices are putting severe pressure on airline companies creating  an incentive for aviation bio-fuel research.
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With the discovery and development of much more efficient algal strains, commercial-scale production of biofuel from algae may finally be a realistic promise.Research reported in this news release was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI) Grant #1240478.
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I’m doing a little research about the real impact of threats (jamming, spoofing, meaconing) in GPS+SBAS certified aviation receivers and how realistic the authentication need would be. Any comment, suggestion, information about research articles you could give me, will be helpful. Thank you very much in advance for your time and help.
Best regards,
Adriana.
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We have touched a little on this in SESAR - see enclosed papers. It's possible that Rainer Kölle or John Hird may have some additional input,
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what is Performance evaluation methods and assessment indicators Apple and Microsoft?
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The person who studies this subject in my university  (Universidad Católica del Uruguay) is Dr. Eduardo Mazzuchelli.
regards
Gustavo Concari
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Hi, 
i'm trying to study which factors encourage or discourage Air Traffic Controllers to fill a safety report in case of aviation incident/accident.
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Dear Giacomo,
We recently explored the effect of outcome bias on reporting intentions. Whilst our participants were primarily training to work in aviation management, I think what we found might be relevant to ATC too. Gilbey, A., Tani, K., & Tsui, WHK. (2016). Outcome Knowledge and Under-reporting of Safety Concerns in Aviation. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 30(2), 141-151 (If this may be of interest, I can send you a copy if you don't have easy access).
It might be a fascinating topic to research; our study might even work as a template to do so,
Regards,  Andrew
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I need a current study asking the question about the role of attitude or personality in aviation accidents.
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I agree with William. It is hard to determine if there is a link between personality and potential for accidents. The problem is twofold: one is there are so many measures of personality - which one do you choose? which is best? Second, most if not all studies utilize a "what if" approach, meaning you simulate condition or ask questions rather than looking at the individuals who were involved in the accidents (many of them being dead, of course). A while back, I tried to rectify this in terms of pilot attributes and flight conditions by comparing those who were not in accidents and from data in accident reports. Here are some places to look:
Čokorilo, O., De Luca, M., & Dell’Acqua, G. (2014). Aircraft safety analysis using clustering algorithms. Journal of Risk Research, 17(10), 1325-1340.
Brown, W. L., & Gilchrist, W. J. (2016). Assessing productivity to address safety concerns for information technology and promoting global standardization within aviation practices. Global Journal of Information Technology, 5(2), 56-61.
Chittaro, L., Buttussi, F., & Zangrando, N. (2014, November). Desktop virtual reality for emergency preparedness: user evaluation of an aircraft ditching experience under different fear arousal conditions. In Proceedings of the 20th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (pp. 141-150). ACM.
Edwards, W. J. (2015). The Efficacy of Aircraft Type Club Safety. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 5(1), 7.
Archer, S. K. (2015). Gender, Communication, and Aviation Incidents/Accidents. Journal of Media Critiques [JMC], 1(2).
Ison, D. (2014). Correlates of continued visual flight rules (VFR) into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) general aviation accidents. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research, 24(1), 1.
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I'm presently investigating on Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling (UAD) of aviation based superalloys like Inconel, Monel, etc. I would like to design an ultrasonic assisted tool holder (drill horn) firstly to carry out my analysis. I'm presently collecting literature survey regarding the same. Can you please assist me in getting the list of parameters to design the same?
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Normally, the tool materials used are SAE 52100 or SAE 304. The overhang is between 115mm to 140mm.
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My topic : A study on low cost airlines service quality and customer satisfaction in Malaysia.
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Journal of Air Transport Management
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Looking for empirical papers that estimate the impact of LCC competition on the intertemporal price discrimination pattern of airlines. Any suggestions?
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Excellent research question: I have seen an empirical research directly on the question. My earlier work (Brander, J.A. and A. Zhang (1993), “Dynamic Oligopoly Behaviour in the Airline Industry,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol. 11 (September), pp. 407-435) for example deals with dynamic competition between two FSCs, rather than between FSC and LCC. There are plenty of papers on the impact of LCCs on FSCs' and the whole market's outputs/traffic volumes (e.g., Morrison (2001, JTEP), and most recently, Zhang, Y. and A. Zhang (2016), "Determinants of air passenger flows in China and gravity model: Deregulation, LCC, and high speed rail," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, forthcoming).
Best wishes for carrying out your study!
Anming
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I am currently working on a study of the applicability of CRM in other business related fields and I am looking for this specific questionnaire. 
This questionnaire has been used in different studies in the aviation industry and I want to explore in what ways parts of this questionnaire can be transferred to other industries. 
This is one of the studies which refer to the CMAQ:  
"The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training on flight attendants' safety attitudes"
On top of that, I would also be interested in the FSAQ (Flight Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Flight Attendants).
Any help is greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance. 
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Thank you so much. This helps a lot. 
Have a great day! 
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Is there any reliable simulation method or tool for spin recovery of Light Aircraft or general aviation? 
Any suggestion for spin analysis? 
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One idea that is low cost is using Xplane 10's aerodynamic capabilities to evaluate.
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Is there a new cognitive task analysis in Phases of flight for pilot?
Please, send me.
Thanks, for your attention
“Phases of flight” means: Pre-flight, Pre-departure, Gate Departure, Taxi-out, Take-off, Terminal Area Departure, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Terminal Area Arrival, Final Approach, Landing and Rollout, Taxi-in, Parking and Post-flight.
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Dear Colleagues,
What are the main characteristic difference between decompression sickness DCS resulting by diving and altitude aviation?
- symptoms
- main parameter effects like ambient pressure, metabolic gas supersturation in vivo ... etc.
Best regards
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Since altitude DCS can be either rapid or slow, it depends on the scenario. In a rapid decompression, many of the effects can happen very quickly such as hypoxia, cyanosis, ear/intestinal discomfort. Diving is most associated with things like the bends which are not as common in rapid decompression. If you mean long term exposure at high altitude such as among climbers, the effects may be more progressive. Altitude sickness may result in fluid in the lungs.
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Wildlife strikes play an important role for SMS in US airports.
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This is a tricky question when we analyse Brazilian situation, let me explain :)
We have an investigative body that affirms that it is important to take care of this issue, and we know by a lot of studies aroud the word that birds can cause several damagens not just to airliners, but also to executive, militar and general aviation.
But, at least in Brazil, we have a bureaucratic and institutional problem, since the other bodies of the public administration are not concerned about this. About this, I have 3 articles studying a medium size city airport (2 in portuguese and 1 in english).
If you need, I can put you in contact with the responsible for the subject in the brazilian safety agency (that is military).
My papers:
In Portuguese:
In English:
Hope it help you somehow, 
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Most research deals with Aviation English but I am looking for research done about ATC communications in other languages used for non international aviation.
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Hello. Check this link and search for research authored by Veronika Prinzo of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. She was a colleague of mine who specialized in ATC communication, and did studies with non-English-speaking comminunication.
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I'm interested in, if they used them for repairs, monitoring, deterring birds, what else?
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While the common use is still somewhat limited due to mentioned regulatory concerns, possible additional (to those already mentioned) future uses could include: aircraft inspection (e.g. from the ground hard to access areas such as top of fuselage and vertical fin), infrastructure inspection and security (to include remote sites such as NAVAIDs, approach lighting systems, antennae structures), and flight verification tasks for navigation systems (e.g. testing ILS or approach radar accuracy)...
I'm pretty sure there is more to come as the technology and its civil application is rapidly evolving. Besides pure UAS/UAV uses, it's probably also worth mentioning other possible unmanned/robotic solutions around airports (e.g. self-driving luggage carts)...
Stefan
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Especially the most interesting are answers on following questions:
- how do you understand terms "air transport" and "aviation" - what is part of what? What is their relations?
- what resources, mechanisms and instruments can be distinguished in the process of creating and implementing vision of the development of air transport policy?
- who are the decision-makers (politicians, others?) and stakeholders of aviation policy and innovation policy and what they are influence on aviation?
- how decision-makers (politicians) think about aviation policy, the process of its formulation? What demands report? Do they see the need to take into account the elements of innovation policy?
- what kind of barriers prevent the develppment of national strategy for aviation?
- what else is also important, but i didn't noticed, mentioned?
I will be grateful for all answers, links or proposals of literature too - it will by helpful for my PhD thesis.
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Historically speaking, another policy aspect to look into is state support of national airlines for the purpose of building a national identity. In the process of improving air transport infrastructure, image-building objectives could be fulfilled--or at least that's what the objective was. I link to an article discussing such efforts in Southeast Asia.
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What are the advantages of quadcopter over helicopter? I am going to summit review on quad copter.  
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Abdul, Tevfik and Kevin have covered nearly everything concerned with this question.
Quadcopter or any multirotor configuration are implemented only in small / micro unmanned aircrafts. As already mentioned: in such sizes, masses and volumes a helicopter configuration is too complex and too difficult to implement. 
Unlike a helicopter with a single giant rotor that is unsafe to use by a civilian user, a multirotor can be made to be much safer, easier to use and can be set up to accommodate strong / uneven wind and loading conditions as already said by Abdul and Tevfik.
All this is considering a complete electrical flying platform where the only moving parts are the motors. So comparing a purely electro-mechanical system to another with an internal combustion engine is not on the same lines. Also comparing the advantages/disadvantages, savings and efficiency between a quadcopter and a helicopter cannot be done if both are not using electric motors.
However, when it comes to seriously considering aspects like flight endurance, flight range and payload capacities things - like a helicopter that runs on some form of fuel rather than electric motors alone, a quadcopter with geared rotors instead directly fixed on the motors, etc. - will all come into play. Here comparing the 2 will not be possible. Put simply you'll need to address and clearly establish what the application of the aircraft actually is; it will come down to where and how much is the capability of hovering required / utilised.
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Is the effect of aviation automation on pilots comparable to the effect vehicle automation on drivers? Decades of research has focused on the human factors implications of automating different aspects of aviation. However, much of the human factors research into the field of vehicle automation seems to not be drawing on this experience either in their literature or in the design of the methodologies and I wondered why. Is it that researchers are unfamiliar with aviation automation literature or is there something fundamentally different between the two domains that make comparisons difficult?
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Some less philosophical thoughts about this question:
Differences:
- Professional operators with tons of up-to-date licenses in aviation, laymen in road traffic with standard licenses from some decades ago.
- Research in aviation on this topic has started in the late 70s which was mostly public funded and nearly everything is available online and in English. Much automotive research has started these days, is funded or done by car manufacturers, everything needs publication approvals from the company’s project leader, his boss, his boss-boss and his boss-boss-boss, several vice-presidents and their grandmothers and much work is also done in German (often in parallel to the English-speaking community).
- Completely different vehicles, technical systems, environments, jurisdictions.
- In aircraft accidents the manufacturers are traditionally blamed for some design issues, in car accidents the manufacturers normally don’t get blamed.  
- Many of us are really frightened of airplane crashes, which are perceived as other-directed risks, which leads to an over-estimation of these risks, while we usually evaluate the risks of car accidents as self-determined and so we underestimate these risks.
- Many aviation researchers do not fly by themselves, while nearly everybody owns or drives a car.  
Similarities:
- Human operators with the same sensory and cognitive systems in both cases! In both cases they belief to perform better than they do.
- I predict the same automation effects we have already seen in aviation to happen in the automotive domain like reduced vigilance and loss of situation awareness on short term and skill degradation on long term.
- Needed disciplines, competences, equipment, and methods for research are mostly the same.
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In a photometric test what is integrated intensity? and what should be the integrated intensity for medium intensity type B aviation lamp?
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The problem in answering your question is that intensity itself can refer to many different things. From the context, I'm willing to say that the integrated intensity is the exposure of your sensor from a source that has a time-varying or otherwise non-constant irradiance.
My reasoning for this recommendation is based on the fact that for sources with constant irradiances, the exposure of the sensor is the irradiance of the source times the time that it had been observed.  This is the same as integrating the constant irradiance over time, so if you have a source with a non-constant irradiance, the integrated irradiance should provide a more accurate cumulative photometric measure than the traditional equation for exposure which again is irradiance times time.
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Airline disaster MH370
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My book "Aviation and International Cooperation: Human and Public Policy Issues" published by Springer and just released (in June 2015) has a chapter on MH 370; MH 17 and QZ 8501 on passenger rights.  It discusses inter alia ICAO efforts to have a database which reports conflict zones to the public. 
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Transport and storage of the aviation fuel, fleet composition (tankers), size of reservoirs, etc. 
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Thank you very much.
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I am currently doing an internship in the French Civil Aviation in Toulouse and I am studying the bird strike risks due to the presence of refuse tips near the airports. I am looking for an example of landfill site which would have a nocturnal use and a follow-up of that kind of experiment. I have read a small report about an experiment that has been conducted in San Francisco Bay, California, on the website of Transport Canada but I can not find any paper on this subject. Has someone ever heard about this ?
Thanks in advance for your help.
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I wish to propose to have a instrument which can measure intensity of heavy rainfall  adjacent to  visibility measuring instrument on runway considering operational studies on aviation services. Any one has used it? Is it practical? 
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Respected Sir,
Apologies for the delay. I was in a training. Your suggestion seems to be a better one considering the severity of aqua planing and the lack of proper stopways and RESA in indian airports. I'll place this question in our department safety forum and update you the opinions and suggestions.
Regards.
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Hello,
My name is Mykolas. I live in Lithuania and currently I am studying for my pilots license and Aerospace engineering masters degree VGTU (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University).
My final paper is about an importance of English language in aviation. So I would like to ask for help:
I'd like to get an answer to my question: what are the main flaws while evaluating English knowledge of aviation specialists?
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The main problem is that English is a very rich language with many words with the same meaning. Also the language can be very subtle. Many documents written in English tend to be very complicated in structure which make them difficult to read by people where English is not their first language.
My last 8 years of working life were spent as a university lecturer. I developed a course in technical authorship. In it I introduced students to "Plain English" and "Simplified English". The latter was developed in The Netherlands specifically for the aeronautical industry and aimed at maintenance documentation.
I have over 45 years experience of aeronautical engineering, both flying and engineering, and fully appreciate the importance of clearly written procedures. On a visit to Crossair in Switzerland some years ago one of the managers (with English as his third language) I dealt with asked if our technical authors took delight in using different words with the same meaning. e.g. repair, mend, fix. Simplified English should have been used as it demand consistency in the meaning of words.
I took the message back to the company that I worked for. Our technical authors had not been trained to develop documents in Simplified English. That deficiency was corrected.
I agree with the previous answer, the aviation world needs a specialist sub set of the English language. In the days of wireless operators using Morse code the "Q" codes offered a specialist subset. of course some of those codes are still used verbally e.g. QNH.
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Hello,
My name is Mykolas. I live in Lithuania and currently I am studying for my pilots license and Aerospace engineering masters degree VGTU (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University).
My final paper is about an importance of English language in aviation. So I would like to ask for help:
1. Information about techniques of evaluating English knowledge (especially for evaluating professional requirements).
l
2. Any article about incidents because of miscommunication or recordings would help.
3. Expert opinion on the subject would really help.
4. Information on where I could find statistics about the traffic in airports would help.
5. Any ideas to make the subject more useful or interesting would also be very appreciated.
I will mention and give credit to anyone who will help me on my Master's dissertation.
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As an Air Traffic Controller, I like my instructions to be understood by the pilots. If both of us are going to follow different languages as a medium of radio telephony, then imagine the confusion! Already we are facing the problem of phonetics and different pronunciation among all the stake holders in aviation like pilots,ATCOs and ground crew.The use of non-standard procedures and phraseology can cause
misunderstanding. Incidents and accidents have occurred in which a contributing