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Dear all,
I need advice for sexing doves by PCR. I have used the 2550F / 2718R and P2 / P8 primers, but they only amplify a minority of the samples. Could you recommend other primers that work for Streptopelia turtur? I have read something about the CHD1F / CHD1R primers (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1040638716675197), although it seems that they did not work well: " Two species from Columbiformes, namely Streptopelia turtur and Streptopelia senegalensis, were also studied; However, no results could be obtained for either species because of the unsuccessful PCR amplification using CHD1F / CHD1R and 2550F / 2718R first sets, respectively. "
Any help is welcome!
Thank you very much =)
Jaime
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How are the doves being observed? How are the specimens being collected for PCR?
Personally, sexing birds and mammals that are not sexually dimorphic just happens to be my super power. Weird, huh? But that has been acquired through decades of field study. I can look at pictures of a coyote from my game cameras and it is simply obvious by their body language, or a "feeling" as to whether that is a female or male. Ravens, pigeons, geese, roadrunners- studying their behavior and subtle physical clues; they simply carry themselves in a "girl" or "boy" way. Animals never lie. That is strictly a human trait. Like that man, Lia Thomas; what a liar and a cheat!
Anyway, you are obviously a geneticist, but try discerning behavioral clues. Sorry I can't be of more help.
Good luck, Huntnlady
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Tropics
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The Social Nestwork: Tree Structure Determines Nest Placemen...
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I’m looking for literature/advice regarding how to implement a bird survey (abundance/density estimation) in areas/habitats with dense vegetation and rough terrain, like tropical rain forest. It seems to me, that point-counts are the method that best fits such conditions. However, what kind of sampling designs should I implement in order to meet the statistical requirements? That is, in very mountainous areas locating the points randomly or systematically (neither there is apperent stratification) seems almost impossible because of the logistical difficulties of accessing and locating the selected sites. The only viable alternative seems to be to follow trails already present in the area and to locate the plots (with a first random point) along the paths, every 250 m or so. Additionally, I think that some points can be located at both sides of the trails (walking 250 m on either side of the trails may be feasible at some points). However, this “design” seems to violate the assumption of randomness in selecting the sample units. Any comments or suggestion of alternative design will be welcomed.
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Hi all,
I was wondering if you know of any case in which breeder/floater ratio in birds is monitored over the years while observing changes in nest-site availability. Floaters in one of my focus populations are very abundant and I would like to discuss to what extent this could be an indicator of nest-site restriction.
Thank you,
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Hi Ulises and Michael et al. It is really unusual when raptor floaters can actually be counted in the field and compared with occupancy data. That's an interesting graph. Another example of temporal variation in territory quality and its effects on floater numbers may be the effect of jackrabbit cycles and drought on territory occupancy in golden eagles in the deserts of western North America. The idea is that some territories may become temporarily unsuitable for occupancy (no food), forcing the territory holders into the floater pool. Jim Watson et al. has an interesting recent paper that reflects a bit on that issue (Watson et al. 2020. The Journal of Wildlife Management 1–10). I think what you are both seeing what might be relatively stable populations with adults moving in and out of the floater pool depending on temporal variation in territory suitability, i.e., availability of a nest site or enough food within the territory to sustain its occupancy. In a study of a resident golden eagle population (PLoS One 2017), I radio-monitored 51 floaters over a long period and only two acquired territories. Breeder numbers were meanwhile stable.
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While there are a number of studies that employ both constant effort mist-netting and audio-visual survey methods, there are very few that combine the numbers from those surveys into a single database with which to make population estimates and/or calculate diversity. I am looking to combine the two into a single dataset to estimate different facets of biodiversity. At the current state of our collective understanding of how these two broad methods interplay, is it wiser to analyse the two separately or are there options out there for effectively combining them into a single database to analyse?
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Combining them in a single database only makes sense if you have one or more key fields that can connect a record in one database to one or more records in the other and vice versa. In other words, you need to be able to make sure that a given record in the mist-netting survey covers the same 'stuff' (I am no field expert, but I am guessing that 'stuff' here is bird counts from the same time-period and geographical area) as one or more records in the audio visual surveys. (Or the other way around). If that is possible you can use those records on both sides to make a comparison.
This only answers your question from a data-engineering perspective. Perhaps the 'current state of our collective understanding of how these two broad methods interplay', as you put it so nicely, prevents people from trying. If the data of the two methods do not cover the same time-space well enough, then that could be another reason why it is not done.
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I have made Recognizer models for a few bird species. This takes up time. I thought it would be good to have a place where people can share ‘Recognizer’ models they have developed for different species and share them with the research community.
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I am interested but where this place?
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I have been trying to estimate rates of mortality due to human causes, but this requires estimates of population size. I have developed two methods for estimating global population size of all birds. However, I wonder if anybody has come up with an alternative estimate.
Thank you for your help.
Yours sincerely,
Anders Pape Møller
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Lots, but less every day. Great question I wish I could answer constructively.
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What is the most recent & recognized checklist for birds of South Asia?
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I am sorry because my research work is confined to South America.
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I am looking for potential collaborators for a project that seeks to assess the ecological importance of specific tree species of Borneo. I invite interested specialists to message me. 
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Sure. Any off site work, please reach-out.
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I haven't done habitat use studies, analyzing which local and landscape-level factors best explain bird species occurrence. for several decades, and am wondering if CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) is still considered valid (and used). Looks like most of the references are from the 1980s and 1990s, so I'd be interested to hear if some other method is used instead. 
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Dear Irene Zweimüller and
Rob H.G. Jongman
,
would you please clarify where the correlation coefficients of data analysis are represented in Canoco 5 results notebook?
looking forward to hearing from you
T. Talebi
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Hello people,
I want to know how to use GLM to compare mean number of granivore birds for "high water level" years and "low water level" years as shown in the picture provided below. This is an arbitrary data set I made up but the data I have is similar and they are not normally distributed. What step should I follow? Where should I start? Should I use GLM or something else? Should I first determine whether the data fits neg.binomial or Poisson distribution? If so, how can I do it with R?
I tried using Mann-Whitney U-test but I think I should use something stronger. I would be glad if somebody can explain to me what to do in plain language. Thanks in advance.
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The objective (i.e. what is wanted to know) is not clear. It is required to describe the objective clearly and specifically.
The data, shown in the table, is a kind of time series data. It may be possible to extract information from the data. However, the size of data is small. It will be convenient if more data are collected.
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I'm conducting analysis of bird counts for my Master's thesis on effects of patch size and connectivity on birds of High Andean landscapes. My first goal is to use ordination analysis to figure out which bird species are associated to each of the different kinds of habitat (forest, transitional and open matrix). I have lots of environmental/spatial variables recorded, but I decided to begin with an unconstrained ordination, just labeling the sites with different colours according to habitat and checking which sites and which species seem to group together.
My data is not very good (for many reasons, one of them just not having had enough time in the field) but I'm trying to salvage it the best I can. I've ran a CA and a DCA on my species matrix, using vegan package in R, and the procrustes function shows me large (and quite chaotic) differences between the plots from one method and the other. Is this telling me that arch effects or compression of extreme scores is happening with the CA, and so I should opt for the DCA? Or is it just because the CA explains very little variation in the data (the first two axis amount to around 18% of total inertia), so sites and species will just float around with no real meaning when I do the DCA?
A little extra question - would it help me to get more variation explained if I remove from my dataset some of the rarest species or some of the ones that move around the most between the CA and the DCA?
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Hello Joao. For a multivariate analysis in this case I would recommend you to apply a PCA (Principal Component Analysis). It can show you several correlations at the same time. And I agree with Andrew, don´t take of the analysis the rare species, maybe they are the ones that can provide the most valuable information. But you always can take of outliers from a single group (or species in this case), which are simply data that, for any reason, is totally different from the normal distribution. I mean, if you have, let´s say 30 records for Species 1 corresponding to forest and 1 record of the same species in the transitional habitat, that would be clearly an outlier and, only for statistical purposes, you can remove that record from the analysis because it will influence in the resulting value, but of course you have to do this only when you are totally confident that you are dealing with an outlier. But, if you have just one record of a rare species, that maybe it´s behaving different from the rest of species into the same Family, you must use that data and try to find out the reasons for that difference. Maybe that will help you to explain why that species is so rare.
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What is the best method to estimate the species richness of birds if we have multiple bird surveys from a single site?  Same method  (line transect) is employed, with same effort in each survey.
Is species accumulation curve useful in this case, considering each survey as an effort?
And should we use the same curve for migratory species (which are only at that site for few months) and resident species, or we should use different curves for both?
 
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In the following manuscript an interesting and very efficient method is proposed, because an integrated methodology of sampling, rarefaction and extrapolation is proposed to compare the species richness of a set of communities based on samples of equal integrity (as measured by the coverage sample) instead of equal size. This method produces less biased comparisons of wealth between communities, and manages it with a smaller total sampling effort. In the work hypothetical and real examples are proposed to demonstrate these advantages.
Chao, A., & Jost, L. (2012). Coverage‐based rarefaction and extrapolation: Standardizing samples by completeness rather than size. Ecology, 93(12), 2533-2547.
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I'm trying to calculate rarefied species richness for data set which looks something like https://ibb.co/bZeALk this. I read the .csv file into R and it was converted to a data frame. Now when I try to operate on it, I always end up with error messages like "Error in round(x) : non-numeric argument to mathematical function". What do I do wrong? I'm setting the sample size as the smallest community size. I'm setting MARGIN=2.
By the way, my goal is to compare these different counts from different years in terms of their diversity and I wanted to use rarefied richness too. They are from the same place but from different years.
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When you enter a csv, xlsx aR file, he creates a first column, before performing the analyzes, make sure to delete that column in the edit file and save it. That must be the solution to the problem
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Hey everyone, in my thesis one of my goals is to address the current knowledge on solitary bees (group of species). So i made a multiple choice survey covering the basic information about this subject. Which is the best way to analyze data ?
Questions example:
1. What are solitary bees?
A) Bees that do not form Beehive
B) Bees that have separate themselves from the Beehive
C) Bees responsible for collecting food
D) Non-fertile bees
Kind Regards,
Miguel
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Solitary bees are those species which are not eusocial.
That says they have 3 traits together: 1- division of labot /caste system involving sterile individuals that assist those that reproduce. 2- cooperation among colony member in tending the youngs. 3- overlap of generations capable of contributing to colony functioning. This is a basic definition from Gullan & Cranston "The insects - an outline of entomology, all the editions. So your responses (A,B,C and D) are not relevant and not true. Their is a problem with A: what do you call a Bee hive? if it is the "house of the bees" do you call "hive" the hole in the soil or in wood that a solitary bee does to lay her eggs and put food for the future youngs?
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Consider that nests are not accessible and the foraging habitat is a vast inland lake. 
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I have experience to capture scaly-sided mergansers. In breeding season, they usually forage in narrow forest river. I set mist nets across the river, and it works especially at twilight or foggy days. However, pls be very careful to set the net at least one meter above river, and always monitor nearby, to avoid trapped birds drowned.
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I want to make a QGIS database for my ringing activity. I would like to add my ringing data to ringing place points in a way that more individually ringed birds ringed on a specific location (1 point) would correspond with the point. Can I make a simple shape file with points, or sqlite database? Does anybody have some basic instruction manuals that I could use for this?
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Many users still follow and visit this thread. If you are interested in database framework for biodiversity data and/or ringing data, don't hesitate to contact me! I think I found one of the best solutions.
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I am aware of some work on the affects of anthelmintics on the fauna feeding on dung but was keen to find if wider work has been done on their effects on wider range of pasture insects and the consequence effects on species that feed on them in particular birds. Changes in land use are and to some extent predation are cited as causes of decline of some species of farmland bird, however for some the impact of veterinary medicines on food chains is also a possible contributor and I am keen to find out who and where such wok may have been carried out. Any thoughts welcome.
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Herbal remedies are the current focus of most livestock researches. indigenous knowledge on plants are being backed up with scientific evidences to provide ideal solutions for safe animal production
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A six-year old asks me, and I only know of Caledonian crows making and using tools.
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There is a short note by McCormick (2007, Notornis 54:116-117) in which she reports on possible tool use by an Australian Magpie. On one occasion she observed an individual adult Magpie using a stick to probe into a hole in a tree and speculated that the bird was possibly using the stick as a foraging tool.
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I'd appreciate advice about acoustic recorders for undertaking surveys for a range of taxa, particularly birds, frogs and microbats (i.e. audible and ultrasonic). The units will be left in situ for days/weeks and will need to withstand a range of environmental conditions (e.g. deserts and wet tropics). I've previously used Song Meters. Is anything better.....that's not considerably more expensive? If not, which Songmeter model would be best? Thanks in advance.
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Hi, you can use the 4th generation Song Meter SM4 which is a compact, weatherproof, dual-channel acoustic recorder capable of capturing large amounts of data from wildlife such as birds, frogs and aquatic life.
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will it be a good process to record sound in any forest area to understand its bird biodiversity?
suggestions are also requested
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The short answer is yes. There is a burgeoning literature on this. The big question is how does one do so most efficiently. Some papers in a Special Feature of Avian Conservation and Ecology cover this, and I know of several in review and in preparation that also address efficiency. The Special Feature of Avian Conservation and Ecology is freely accessible here: 
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I am comparing bird species diversity and density of three independent sites. Each site has 1 replicate in another location. How do I treat the two replicates per each of these three sites in Principal Components Analysis (PCA).
Is PCA the appropriate ordination method to analyze this type of data. If its the best, how can I use PCs to run ANOVA to compare species diversity and density of the three sites. I also have to compare species diversity and density of the three sites between two seasons.
I am stuck, I will be glad for your help.
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The 3 sites should be called areas. The areas are the replicates. Areas are only independent if they are significantly distant from each other. Then you should create at least 3 subsamples (called sites) within each replicate area. You then collect separate diversity and density data at each site across two seasons. Ordination is okay, but is really only exploratory and just orders objects that are characterized by values on multiple variables so that similar objects are near each other and dissimilar objects are farther from each other. Ordination doesn't really compare data between sites. ANOVA is better for that (with post hoc tests). Your ANOVA table will therefore have the following column headings: area, site and season and data comprising density and diversity. You also need to determine how to obtain diversity and density indices :)
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Hi,
I am using Jacobs' Index (D) to study habitat preferences. The references said that D value range from -1 to 1. I am getting values lower to -1. Does anybody have information of D values out of suggested? Thanks.
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Instead you can use resource selection function (RSF) for use-availability data, e.g., package “ResourceSelection” in R.
Best,
Andrzej
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To tackle the increasing problems of draw down, depredation and degradation (pollution) of environmental resources we are trying to promote green products, green processes, green technologies, green industry. More importantly we are sensitizing people to adopt green lifestyle, green culture and green consumerism to shrink our ecological footprint and to make a peace with our Mother planet Earth. But it's easier said than done! How 'green' is green enough? How good is good enough? Please elucidate with informative thoughts, insights and illustrative inputs.
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Moving from environmental economics to ecological economics and strong sustainability gives a glimpse about how green we need to go and thereby need to transform our current economic system rather than treating symptoms with the same thinking we applied to create these problems in the first place. Rather than aiming at "good enough" we should first acknowledge "enough is enough" and that consumerism wont be the panacea
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Hi all,
I am searching for any data on the density of a birds’ beak (g/cm3). I have so far found one paper on the density of toucan and hornbill beaks (Seki et al. 2010, Acta Biomaterialia 6 (2010) 331–343), showing that the density of these beaks ranges from 0.1 to 0.4 g/cm3, but I suspect these beaks may not be too representative of the ‘average’ bird beak (as far as an average bird beak density makes sense…).
Any suggestions on literature with bird beak density data for other species are highly appreciated!
All the best,
Diederik
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 Van Gils, J.A., Lisovski, S., Lok, T., (...), Piersma, T., Klaassen, M. Climate change: Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in tropical wintering range Science 352(6287), pp. 819-821
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Dear all,
I am interested in literature documenting massive die off due to algal poisoning from different cyanobacteria species ( Microcystis sp., Anabaena sp., etc) of herons, pelicans, ducks. So far I am aware about some papers relating the deaths with poor water quality. I am more focus on cyanotoxin contamination in tissues, lethal dose and so on. Any feedback will be highly appreciated.
Regards, 
Konstantinos
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Dear All, thank so much for your contribution.
Konstantinos
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I am looking for concentration of nitrogen in fecal matter of different waterbirds.
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Dear Sagar,
the paper below has been accepted for publication in Ecology and should be available soon. According to the abstract: " The dataset includes 10,534 observations from freshwater and marine animals of N and/or P excretion rates. These observations represent 491 species, including most aquatic phyla." Sounds interesting.
Kind regards,
Michał Filipiak
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I'm interested in measuring T3 in avian plasma. Does anyone have a EIA kit preference or protocol they would be willing to share?
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We measured T3 in psittacine birds in 1985. JAVMA 186(1):47-48. The RIA kit used (Gamma Coat may or may not be available. Your procedure would have to be validated for use in the species of interest.
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I have been working on many aspects of grebe flight, particularly eared grebes (or black-necked grebes) migratory flight.
Unfortunately, there is very little documentation of grebes flying available in the internet (Youtube, Flirck, etc.). Moreover most of these videos do not have the necessary quality to do any kinematic analysis.
Therefore, I would be very thankful if anyone can point me into the direction where to find good videos or share contacts that I could make further enquiries.
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I would contact the authors of this paper. It's possible they may have captured some flight videos that were not the focus of their paper, but may be useful to you: 
I would check out their methods of kinematic analysis as well, some of which are quite new (wand calibration for field based locomotion studies): http://jeb.biologists.org/content/217/11/1843
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I would like to use IB technology PIT tag readers (http://www.ibtechnology.co.uk/) to identify birds entering nest-boxes. I would like to attach the reader to the bottom of nest box, with one antenna placed around nest-box hole.
Because the system would be used in the field, it should be powered by batteries, (preferably - not car or motorbike batteries but e.g. "C" batteries), and should work in the field at least 10-14 days before battery change.
The IB technology (http://www.ibtechnology.co.uk/)  Cased EM4102 Data Logger with e.g. EM Datalog Loop Antenna (65 or 80mm) looks like a promising set-up for my purpose, but I wonder whether someone have any experience with using this equipment in field studies? If yes, could you please share your opinion?
Cheers,
Jakub Szymkowiak
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Hi Jakub!
And, what did you choose as equipment? And what are your experiences with them? And do you get the same lifetime as Ross?
Andy: thanks for the paper, this link will help me more (after following the link you gave). 
René 
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I’m a biologist working in Behavioural Ecology. I am trying to determine whether individuals (birds) show preference for certain locations within a treeline. My data are locations for 15 different individuals each with 4- 20 locations (one per day). The treeline is 755 m long, so the location is defined as a continuos variable that ranges from 0 m to 755 m. What I want to know is if one individual’s locations across days are clustered or if the bird locates in the treeline at random each day.
I’ve been doing some reading and I think that a Monte Carlo simulation is what I need to use to compare my data (i.e. the actual locations of the individuals) to the ‘null expectation’ (i.e. individuals’ locations within the treeline at random).
I have never done a Monte Carlo simulation before so I’m not sure where to begin. I would really appreciate your help.
Thanks a lot in advance!
Romina.
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Hi Romina. I am a researcher currently working on Agent-based modeling (ABM) of social systems.
 I think there are two approaches to answer your question, statistical analysis of the actual data and a simulation to reproduce the real phenomenon.
To know if birds show any preference for locations, statistical analysis of the actual data of birds’ locations would be the priority to do. Next, we can try to reproduce the obtained result by a simulation model, in which birds' activity space would be divided into many small segments and behavioral rules of birds to move to any of the adjacent segments would be assumed. The behavioral rules include a random movement, but we can also assume more complex behavior including individual’s preference. By comparing the simulated locations with the actual data, we can get more understanding about the behavioral rules which might be likely to occur.
  I hope this would be some help to you
Shigeaki
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I am looking for reviews or articles which give distances for the following species: Anthus trivialis, Emberiza citrinella, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Miliaria calandra, Galerida cristata, Luscinia megarhynchos, Oenanthe oenanthe. Distances should be from birds as young to a breeding site as adults, or adults coming back as breeding bird. I guess this information will mostly be available from capture-recapture studies with (colour)ringed young/adults? Distances will be used as a guideline for drawing buffers around species presence points in preferred habitat to check if that same habitat occurs also elsewhere within the buffer.
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 Hello Andrew, thanks a lot for your reaction. Unfortunately, although a very interesting article, this is more about flight distance to avoid predators, and a comparison between urban birds (less adapted to disturbance) and non-urban birds. 
Anyway, thanks again and succes with your research there (for us) "down under"!
Anny
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I would like to use audio recordings for determination of individuals. However what is better - to research turnover of individualls annually or for longer period (each two years)? So, main idea is - there are differences in turnover of owls among beech and pine forests? 
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Yes, your idea may work, providing you have a good point sample (e.g. 10) per each forest (I don't know if you have such a large extent of different forest in Slovakia, but I suppose so)  to be regularly checked (say at least 2 times per year) for 3 years. That's right. 
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I have a 3-dimensional NMDS of avian community composition, and I have built predictive models linking site scores to environmental covariates (one for each axis/dimension, so three models) to make spatial predictions across a landscape that estimate a given site's position within the ordination combining predictions for each dimension.  Given this, I was hoping to then be able to estimate a given site's avian composition based on it's position (sites scores) within the ordination.  I am familiar with OMI, but was hoping to use my existing models to extract or estimate community composition given that I know the site's site scores.
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Thanks Andrew and Susanne for your responses. In reading the papers on CoCA I found this:
Guisan, A., S. B. Weiss, and A. D. Weiss. 1999. GLM versus CCA spatial modeling of plant species distributions. Plant Ecology 143:107–122.
The authors used the euclidean distance from a given site's scores to a given species' centroid in sd units variance of the species scores as a means to estimate a site's habitat suitability for individual species. I am using this as a means to estimate a novel location's species composition based on a suite of environmental covariates that predict its position in ordination space.
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In Senigallia (Marche-Central Italy), we are observing many males in reproductive habit. Someone is watching the same thing? Why these individuals already show this plumage? Thank you
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I have sent in my answer
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Does anyone know the extent of sap-sucking among woodpeckers in the Mediterranean, and wich arboreal species are involved? Thanks, Guido
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Picoides tridactylus of course, I found it in Bulgaria at Picea abies.
Best wishes, André
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What are the variables/parameters to be undertaken when taking a research on acoustic monitoring of a bird species?
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If you need to detect and monitor acoustically the presence and behavior of a given species, you can setup a monitoring protocol based on acoustic recording. Depending on the vocal behavior of the species and on its density and distribution, if known, you can perform a short term monitoring or a long term monitoring. You can use short term (few days) continuous recording with a pocket digital recorder or a long term recording with an autonomous programmable recorder. If the area to be investigated is large, you can use several autonomous recorders, located where you think more probable the presence of the species. As for the scheduling of the recorder, you can choose to focus on dawn and dusk periods, or just at night if it is nocturnal, or set a regular scheduling, e.g. 10 minutes every 30 minutes 24/24h. 
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My objective is individual recognition in camera-monitoring of nest attendance by Pied Imperial-pigeons. I've tried placing cotton pads with temporary hair colour in the nest. This produced faint marks at best, sometimes no mark. Marks were hard to see, mostly hidden under the sitting bird, quickly lost in rainy weather. I'd really appreciate information on suitable color products. Also keen to get other ideas for mark application without capture. Thanks!
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The type is termed "neopastel", should be available at any arts store
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Preferably for the bill. I have read a similar question and one person suggested crayons. Does anyone have experience with this as far as durability, length of application, etc? This is for emerald toucanets during the rainy season. It only needs to last for a week or two if duration is an issue. 
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Laura:  This stain (Bigen) last for a month or more, depending on the weather.  
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Ahoj everyone, I would be interested in a very simple application where somebody (both researchers, when working and the public, when waiting on a train or sitting on a public bench) could enter 3-4 ring colors of a color-ring marked bird plus either choose a location on a Google map or let the device save the GPS position together with the time stamp and the color code. So the app should just take these data and put it in a database. Any other functionalities like allowing the observer to add a behavioural category or similar would be nice but totally optional. Thanks for any hint whether this is existing somewhere or showing interest if you think the development of such a tool is in your field and scope of activity.
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Thank you Victoria and Rien for the hints to the "zooniverse" and the "vogel het uit!", but I think "animaltrack" is so far the platform which comes closest to what could be needed for such a mobile application. Thanks also to Giuseppe Masciopinto for the offer to develop such a tool. I will most probably come back to some of you in a later stage of my brain storming process!
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Hello, I've been searching for the information on Component of Pigeon's poop for a week. I still haven't found what I want so finally i come here to ask..
I want to know what kind of compounds Pigeon's poop is consisted of. or (elements with percentage)
I would be very very pleasure if you give me the links of some publications.
have a nice evening.
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Dear Scott,
you won't find the exact data answering your question, however below I put the three studies that may help you. You should take into account that concentrations of nutrients in feces depend on concentrations of nutrients in food.
Kind regards!
MF
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Dear all,
I have a pretty basic question: I am looking for body mass measurements of ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) across its native range. I checked the available literature (see google sheet below), and although I can find some data, it is not too much.
Most papers refer to Cramp 1985 (Birds of the Western Palearctic) as source for native range body mass data, but most data I found till date point to lower weights than what is mentioned in Cramp 1985, which states: Gujarat (India): 104–139g (5 birds) (Ali and Ripley 1969); Nepal: April: 136 and 143g.
Any suggestions for data sources, or researchers who could help out are much appreciated.
Thanks in advance,
Diederik
Contact through ResearchGate or via diederik.strubbe@snm.ku.dk
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Hi,
in South Africa the species was introduced in the mid-20th century. Here is what I have from our literature: ca 125 grams from a Guide to Parrots of the World by Juniper and Parr (1998). 
Here are two ringing records from South Africa. Just contact the Animal Demography Unit (SAFRING) from the University of Cape Town, South Africa for those measurements.
The second link is to a paper but, it might not give measurements.
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I have good experience in other habitats, but have never tried this one - could it be reasonable to try?
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Hi.
In the Canary archipelago we have many banana cultivations in lowland areas of the western and central islands. The avifauna of such habitats is poor, but there are some interesting species like Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), which can breed inside this "extrange" environment. In any case, I don't know any specific paper or unpublished study on the bird fauna of our banana cultivations, but there is some general information on the subject in different books. With regards to migrants, I have seen very few species in this habitat, like some Hirundinidae (e.g. Barn Swallow of House Martin) or Motacillidae (Motacilla alba alba). When there are some artificial ponds or reservoirs linked to these cultivations you can find, naturally, more species, even ducks and shorebirds, and sometimes breeding populations of Rallidae (Common Moorhen and Coot) and of Grey Wagtail. This last species is common in banana cultivations. 
Best regards. 
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See Breeding Bird Atlas protocol for indices of confirmed breeding (i.e. food carrying, nest material carrying, fledgling sightings) 
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i agreed with Gretchen naraf answare. bird's survey techniques are not restricted to only one methodology
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I recently set up a citizen-science project where online volunteers can help to analyse images from my bird monitoring cameras at remote sites. It's working okay for people who were already familiar with that online platform. Now I need some new people to try this setup, ideally bird-aware people with an interest in science, not necessarily experts. It might take 10-15 minutes to register, view the short tutorial, and complete your first image. Ideal if your time allows for doing more images.
Sign in at http://volunteer.ala.org.au/  and then look for NestCam series.
Really great if you can give me feedback on things you found easy/difficult, interesting/boring... etc. This will help me enhance the experience for future volunteers. Very important because there's a huge number of images to be processed!
Feedback can be in this quesion, or the forum linked to NestCam, or message me here. Many thanks for considering this!
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Thanks Marcileida. People can find more information at http://www.pipwatch.net/archives/1655. The birds are in north-eastern Australia.
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Hello, I want to ask you when (day of gestation) is exactly formed Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail. I have a lot of informations about CAM formation in chicken eggs but less informations about Japanese quail.
Thanks.
Martin
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For three years we had 6 birds deployed with GPS devices that transmitted the GPS location of the birds every hour during day time. This resulted in almost 50 000 data points. From these data I calculated the distance covered by the birds between consecutive point. As these birds (shoebills) do not move a lot, more than 90% of the distances covered are between 0 - 1 km. There seems to be no transformation that can deal with this enormous inflation of values between 0 and 1. The range of distances is 0 - 48 km, the average is 0.56 km (SD = 2.5). I tried several Generalized Linear Models, and even though the outcomes make sense when looking at the data, the distribution of the model residuals show a very skewed distribution. Does anyone have experience with a similar data set and knows how to analyze this?
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The package GAMLSS in R is much more flexible in terms of error distributions than what the standard exponential family can provide. The fitDist function is very useful in this regard as it optimises the best fit distribution for your particular data. You can use one of these best fits in the gamlss model function. I found much improved diagnostics compared to using the mgcv package or glms. Hope this helps.
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So, if a bird exists in multiple populations that vary from 0-2,000m above sea level with three distinct color morphs, is there any reason to believe that oxygen availability or structure of the Hb genes would influence the mechanisms behind melanin-based plumage production? I can understand that there are differences in Hb structure from lowland and highland subspecies and there may be shifts in body mass to deal with temperature variation as well. But I'm interested in if there is any basis for wondering if attitudinal gradients may be responsible for phenotypic divergence. Thanks for any insight you may have.
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Hey John - interesting question(s).  I will take this in 2 parts.  First, if O2 can limit or influence drivers of melanin-based signals.  I have little idea if or how there could be a direct relationship, but I very much doubt it.  There are just too many other things going on.  Second, on the relationship of elevation and phenotype: yes, very clearly there are connections between physiology and phenotype and elevation - most notable are the adaptations and phenotypic plasticity observed at high elevations.  I think fence lizards (Sceloporus) show some pretty amazing differences (See Leache et al, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 630–641).  There is also going to be tremendous correlation with anything that can vary phenotypically that is related to overall metabolism and response to the difference in temperature (as you mention).  But the big answer here is: its too complicated to generalize.  The small answer depends on your system, the organism(s), and the elevational gradient.  Clearly there are many other things can can co-vary with elevation, but there are also artifacts (soil differences, humidity regimes) that might not have anything to do with elevation per se - and could skew your analysis.  If your system is birds - and they can fly, I would be very careful in how you attribute difference in elevation to any phenotypic differences, since the birds might be able to be in habitats every day that differ in elevation by >1000m.  So unless you have extremely low-motility philopatric animals, where you actually see or catch the birds might not be a good indication of the preferred habitat of the individual.  If you can make some fairly clean relationships between O2 and elevation and coloration, great.  But I reckon it is much more complicated than that and you can find much clearer relationships between say temperature and coloration.  Good luck with your research!
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There is a clear evidence in my data, but I would like to have also a statistical evidence
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Hi Salvatore,
there is no single best method (and consider that to obtain statistical evidence you need alternative models, or null hypotheses), but you can read this:
which provides a recent review of some approaches.
Hope it helps,
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For a study of nesting birds we consider using GPS tags with UHF download facility. I understand Pathtrack and Ecotone can supply them, maybe other manufacturers?
If you've used this kind of system on birds or other species:
Which system did you choose?
How easy/difficult to achieve successful download?
What distance for reliable download?
I will be grateful for your advice, warnings and recommendations, thanks!
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Hi Julia,
I have been using e-obs collars on Eurasian lynx in a montane area in Turkey. To my experience if you have severeal high hill tops ascendant to your study area it is very easy to download the data when your animals are in the inactive phase of the day. I could download data many times over more than 5kms away and once even from 16kms from a mountain slope to a hill top directly looking to each other!
I agree with Miha that if the animal is moving during the download, connection breaks very often. So, I always try around 11am to 3pm when the animals are generally inactive and resting on slopes.
As far as I know e-obs is very successful on bird tracking as well.
Cheers,
Deniz
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  • Easily kept in captivity (preferably a small granivore)
  • Plumage coloration is involved in mate choice (preferably yellow or red)
  • Courtship displays involve movement or a dancing component in addition to plumage coloration
Bonus points:
  • Native to southeastern US or otherwise able to withstand warmer aviary temperatures
  • Affordable in large quantities (for behavior studies)
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What about moorhens or coots? moorhens have the red faceplate. they are happy in a closed area with a pond.
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I am interested in the function of arthropod cocoons occurring in passerines breeding nests (sexual selection, signals, mate quality).
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Thank You for the answers :)
I know well this article about wrens, this is the only one which I know about the arthropod cocoons in bird nests.
I rather expect observations, e.g. this year I observed cocoons in the nest of red-backed shrike. I wonder how much bird species can use this nest material and what is the function of this behaviour. :)
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Any idea? Reporting 13 specimens of Tetranychus (males, females and nymphs) inhabiting a bird nest inside a citrus tree. How such phytophagous creatures be there! No contamination happened during mite separation using Berlese funnels. If we said accidentally, but 13!!
Thank you!
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Hi Mohamed,
I guess the most logical explanations are based on what we know of the behaviour of Tetranychus, and that would be (a) overwintering or near-overwintering individuals, as we know that's what at least females do, or (b) huge infestations on the leaves, which lead to numerous wandering individuals that might end up in a bird's nest. As dispersal is by wind or walking for spider mites, it wouldn't surprise me to find some roaming the trunks of trees. But failing those explanations, that just leaves unfounded but interesting speculation. One possibility would be over-summering, which isn't well documented, but in hot climates would not be a surprising behaviour to discover; another is nocturnal behaviour, which I think isn't shown for spider mites but I suspect that's because few have looked (there's a nice paper showing nocturnal behaviour in phytoseiids, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12572.x/full). Perhaps spider mites are unlikely to be nocturnal as they would have to give up feeding for a significant part of each day, thus slowing their development... but if phytoseiids do it, why not the spider mites?
Less likely is that it's a bark-feeding Tetranychus: their distant tuckerellid ancestors might do this, but I know of no Tetranychini - or even Tetranychidae for that matter - that do this.
All the best, Owen.
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I would like to youse a touch screen to record birds' (chicks') pecking behaviour.  I would be very grateful if anybody could recommend me a model or a solution that is working successfully in their research. Is there any commercially available model that has a good sensitivity to pecks or only custom made solutions are viable? Thanks!
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Hi Orsola!
I used these ones (- Intasolve touch screens) previously with Paridae - as  in  McGregor, A & Healy, SD 1999, 'Spatial accuracy in food-storing and nonstoring birds' Animal Behaviour, vol 58, no. 4, pp. 727-734. DOI: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1190
Hope that's of some help...
J
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I am studying the influence of predation danger on the non-breeding distribution of shorebirds. Raptors are the main predator of shorebirds during this period, but I wonder if there are accounts of other predators (terrestrial mammals, reptiles?).
An early inventory of anti-predator tactics (and predators) is here:
Lima SL. 1993. Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on escape from predatory attack: a survey of North American birds. Wilson Bull. 105:1–47.
Any more recent reviews or individual records of shorebird predators?
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I can confirm that Herring Gulls may be a predator. Many years ago (~1990, May-June?) I saw a Herring Gull at a high tide roost (Griend, Wadden Sea, Netherlands) standing among hundreds of completely relaxed Dunlins when it suddenly snatched one and gobbled it down on the spot.
Sorry for not publishing it.
In a dissertation by Kees Camphuysen mention is made of wader predation by gulls on page 340: 
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I am an MSc student and for my final thesis project I had set out to perform a comparative morphometric analysis between three avian families. My own dataset of one family returned results, however the dataset I was sent to perform the comparison with is unusable (none of us can work out why or how to fix this). Sadly, I do not have time to repeat any procedure and am having to settle with extremely restricted, unoriginal results. I have PCA results for all datasets, but as I am unable to run the datasets together, I cannot directly compare them.
I am struggling to write my report as no direct comparison between the groups was possible and as such I have no overall results. Is there a 'way' I can still write a decent report?
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Dear Roseanne,
If I am understanding you correctly the data that you have collected yourself plus the others from other workers are the subject of your Master thesis. For some reasons you were asked to do the comparison of three data sets: your own plus other two of other people. You write that the other two data set are not useful at all. Thus, I would suggest that you check the goals of your thesis, that are the foundation of what you are doing, and revise why you were asked for this work. It is not just to say that the other two data sets are not useful, because it is your duty to explain your reasons for saying this. It could be the case that they are not useful, but in sciences it is not just to say that others are wrong; you have to demonstrate that the data from others are wrong! You say that you do not have time now to run new analyses of those two data sets, but this is your problem not a problem of the comparative study that you were asked to perform.  My best suggestion is that you talk to your main advisor as soon as possible, and if it is needed, organize a meeting with your graduate committee about the problem that you have in hands. I strongly suggest to do this, other way you put your thesis in a risky situation.
With my best wishes,
Gloria Arratia
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Not only in Camargue.
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Dear Charlotte,
Sounds fantastic! I hope to be able to visit most of those places you mentioned. Thank you so much!
Best regards,
Indrikis
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I want to relate bird diversity and abundance with rainfall data of  7 years. I have downloaded data from 2009 to 2014. The problem is that i am not getting data for rainfall of 2015. Kindly suggest some sources. 
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here you can find rainfall data (from meteorological modelling) worldwide.
Other datasets are also available from remote sensing (e.g. GPM ). Btw, we also provide rainfall data (see my RG page).
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As we work with the endangered Puerto Rican Amazon in a Rain Forest were the rats are abundant, I will like to know if based on your experience, unpublished data, necropsy reports, publications, data from other researchers, etc. have evidence of Leptospira as official death cause in birds but my special interest is in psittacines.
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Dear Jafet
I am studyng Leptospira for a long time and never read anything about it. 
According to many researches, birds cannot develop infection. It would be a very rare event.
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I would like to know what country has the most number of endemic birds in these days? It's Indonesia with 419 species? Thanks.
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Dear Tomas,
You are probably right, Indonesia (419), Australia (317), and may be Brazil (233) are possibly the countries with the highest number of endemic birds these days
However, you should check birdlife international website, and look for country profiles:
And also thess publications:
Orme, C. D. L., Davies, R. G., Burgess, M., Eigenbrod, F., Pickup, N., Olson, V. A., ... & Stattersfield, A. J. (2005). Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat. Nature, 436(7053), 1016-1019.
Kier, G., Kreft, H., Lee, T. M., Jetz, W., Ibisch, P. L., Nowicki, C., ... & Barthlott, W. (2009). A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(23), 9322-9327.
Best regards and good luck!
Sebastian
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A recent single anecdotal observation of a drone deployed to 20m altitude for recreational photography on the beach in Maputo scaring Whimbrel up to 400m away, suggests that some birds may be very sensitive to drones.  Are there any studies of the reaction by birds to recreational drones (rather than testing of research drones).      
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Dear Gary,
Please check this PDF attachment.
Good luck
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Can anyone suggest me appropriate method or methods for random nest site selection for birds  either road side in city area.
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What do u mean by random ? and for doing what, it depends of your sample technique,
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I am looking for experimental data/papers on the salinity and pH of the faeces of a number of commensal bird species in urban environments. In particular I am looking for studies on pigeons, Common/Indian Mynahs, Silver Gulls, Starlings and Sparrows.
I am also keen to hear if people have carried out dietary experiments on these species to see what differences (if any) diet makes on the salinity and pH of the faeces.
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Dirk,
Perhaps you will find something useful in the linked article. I found this today while searching for information on the pH of pigeon droppings in the context of a project I am working on. I found your query first, and so came back to share.
Perhaps the information is not as species-specific as you would like, but I think an urban context (where the effects of deposited wastes are likely to be most severe) does not readily lend itself to obtaining the type of "pure" wastes you are trying to find evaluations for. This study also does not seem to take into consideration other possible sources of the salts and acidity in the droppings that were sampled.
Hope this helps in some way-
Kind regards,
Lorraine
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I am looking for recommendations on how to measure bird beak morphology (specifically Passer montanus) such as whether I should simply use calipers or use a computer program.
Also, what is the best morphological feature I can look at to compare the beaks with each other? (e.g. depth, length, etc.)
Lastly, what statistical test would be appropriate to show that there is indeed a significant difference?
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Measurement beak significantly different in the various groups birds. Generally accepted to measure several options for beak length. One of the most common is measuring the length of the beak to feathers by using caliper. Thus hold the bird in the hand with the little finger, nameless and middle fingers, and the the thumb and index fix beak (tip). One of calipers pressed to the tip of the beak and hold in this position your thumb and forefinger. Another part touch the tip of the feathers (bill-length to the feather) or nostrils (in the case of measuring the length of the beak to the nostrils (bill-length to the nostrils (nalospi), or to the base of the skull - in the case of measuring the length of the beak to the skull (bill- length to the skull).
Measure the height of the beak is carried out in the widest point closer to the base of the beak. Sometimes the best place one piece calipers in the corners of the lower jaw, and the other as high as possible on the upper jaw.
However, when measuring wedge-shaped beak can be difficult. In many species both parts calipers are placed on one side. In this case, the best measure to take off at an angle of 90˚ to the beak and indicate where in it is made, such as "proximal (ext.) Edge of the nostrils", "feathers", etc. (Svensson, 1992).
The width of the beak
You should avoid soft measuring angles of the beak, and measure its horn part. In carcasses beaks inelastic, so measurements of carcasses and live birds should not be compared. Measurements carried out as the height of the beak - the widest point near the base, placing a sponge calipers on each side (Svensson, 1992).
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I am looking for a paper showing that tropical forest birds perform faster and shorter maneuvers than those from open areas. Does anybody know?
Thank you very much.
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Dear Ricardo, thank you very much! 
I am writing a paper on bird-window collisions, and I was trying to explain why some birds are more likely to collide than others, besides differences in abundance. So I was wandering whether the ability to perform quick maneuvers can make the difference between crashing or not. As passerines that live in urban settlements are usually those from open areas (e.g. countrysides), then they would not perform very well fast maneuvers, and accidents would be inevitable.
best regards!
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Do the planted forests affect birds in any way?
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Indeed: the main difference is the biodiversity, high in natural ecosystems and often very low in plantations - esteem cases being monocultures. High biodiversity means many species, generally in low density; low biodiversity means both a low number of species and a few of them present in very high numbers. So that even with low biodiversity, productivity can be high.
A similar situation can be found in natural ecosystems: high biodiversity, low production in the tropics - both terrestrial as marine - vs low diversity, high production in polar regions.
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I am currently trying to find method that is suitable to be used to measure the nesting of a black naped monarch bird. It would be great if anyone can recommend to me suitable method for it. Thank you in advance.
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Thank you very much Mr. Abhishek
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Hello
I am planning to establish the quorum sensing inhibition assay and i need tester strain wither c. violeceum or V. harvei. Is anyone can share the culture with me free of cost?
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Dear Ahmed
I have CV026 and NT1 biosensors, but according the regulation of post in Iran it is impossible to post the bacteria. do you have any suggestion for it?!
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I am working on terrestrial species, Pheasant in tropical areas. Most of them tend to be high abundance in flat rather than steep terrain. These species eat mainly on insects, fruits, seeds, etc. I would like to find references about differences of physical environment or biodiversity (that can provide food for species such as insects,...) between flat and steep habitats so that I can explain for my results. I hope to have help from all of you who are familiar with this topic. Thanks so much for your help.
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Perhaps you must check extructural niche explotation. The capacity or avalability to fly in diferent complexity of habitat must be a factor. Predator detection in open areas is other factor.
Perhaps this reference could help.
Callaway, E. 2016. When chickens go wild. Nature 529: 270-273.
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I would be pleased to know if there is published information on the amount of prey a owl may consume per night
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Dear Collegue
Our result in Tyto alba in Cuba are here:
Reference: López-Ricardo, Y. and R. Borroto-Páez. 2012. Alimentación de la Lechuza (Tyto alba furcata) en Cuba central: Presas introducidas y autóctonas. Tesis de Diploma, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de la Habana. 84 pp.
Our results were that, considering MNI (minimum number of individual in remains), an owl could eat until 11 Mus musculus in one day (N=2, 1.1% of the samples). The more frequently was 4-5 individual for day (19.6 to 20.1%) from 175 pellets analyzed. The 93.3% of the pellets presented 1 to 8 house mice. see below
the tesis is in my Researchgate profile
Ratón (Mus musculus)
No. individuos, Frecuencia, (%)
1, 3, (1,7)
2, 26, (14,5) (93,3)
3, 31, (17,3)
4, 35, (19,6)
5, 36, (20,1)
6, 18, (10,1)
7, 11, (6,1)
8, 10, (5,6)
9, 3, (1,7)
10, 3, (1,7)
11, 2, (1,1)
In captivity is known that owl consume a mean of 60.5g of mice for day (it represent round 10% of their body mass. This daily consumes produce 1 to1.7 pellets (egagropilas) with a weigh of 3.2g (see reference). In wildlife the owl consume around 110g of food but depend of different variable (sex, size, season etc)(see Marti 1973 and 1974).
Martí, C. D. 1973. Food Consumption and pellet formation rates in four owl species. The Wilson Bulletin. 85(2): 178-181.
Martí, C. D. 1974. Feeding ecology of four sympatric owls. Condor. 76: 45-61.
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I saw it for the first time that a pigeon nests on a tree which I think is alistonia.
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In Algeria too we find this kind of sights, i'm working on Columbidae's family, the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and the feral pigeon (Columba livia) are full of surprises.
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There are numerous studies of the rarest species in the world, but none of the most common species. Population size is limited by resource availability. In breeding birds, it is also partly limited by maximum foraging distance from a central breeding site. Therefore, maximum size of flocks or colonies may provide important information on population regulation and the influence of diet and trophic level on maximum flock or colony size. Please provide information on species name, date, year, locality, coordinates. 
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When I was in the Platte River Valley in Nebraska a few springs ago, I was floored by the flocks of Snow Geese. The flocks of Sandhill Cranes were impressive as well. Both were in flocks numbering the tens of thousands.
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I'm studying Burrowing Owls, and can't seem to locate a supplier online. Thanks!
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I agree with Mr. Simon Foster
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I have shape files of monthly kernel areas for a group of vultures. I also have a shape file of protected areas in a country. I want to determine how much the vultures are using protected areas. I guess this could be done in terms of proportion of time spent in protected areas, or the percentage of points located in protected areas. I'd also like to see if birds are roosting in protected areas, but perhaps feeding outside them, or vice versa, so I might want to divide the data into 'daytime' and 'nighttime', and then look at whether points are inside or outside protected areas. Does anyone have any advice please on a method I could use to do this? Are there repositories somewhere with shapefiles of protected areas for different countries? Thank-you.
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Do you have just the kernels summarized by month, or do you actually have the individual occurrence data?
Summarized data may be a bit coarse. Polygon overlap extent, month by month, could be used, but would be subject to a lot of uncertainly, and more so if the kernels do not have an associated, spatially-explicit z-value associated to the probability of occurrence of the bird.
If he latter (e.g. time-stamped positions or tracks for each tagged animal, from direct observation, radio-tracking fixes, or satellite tag data), the problem should be relatively simple to tack either by frequency analysis or through Markov matrix.
A large-enough set of primary occurrence records, i.e. a set of time-stamped coordinates should be enough as long as the sample of records do cover randomly or uniformly both activity (day) and roosting (night) times. If the distribution of samples is not random (e.g. time-constrained satellite readings), corrections could be applied but still the problem boils down to no. of occurrences within protected area polygons vs. points occurring outside (frequency analysis) or recording the changes in state, e.g. how often two consecutive readings are within the polygon (or outside it) vs. changes in state, from polygon to outside or vice-versa (Markov process).
One problem you should solve first is when you consider a fix to be inside or outside a polygon, especially if fixes are averaged over time. Although protected areas do have clean limits on a map, (i) they are not so clean in the field (border uncertainty) and (ii) fixes have an implicit precision which might be low, depending on the recording system. So an individual record has a probability associated to it of belonging to the subset of interest (e.g. being recorded inside the area) that decreases with the proximity to the border and the increase in time integration.
We recently had to tackle a rather similar problem, trying to compute biodiversity occurrences within protected areas from disparate sources. In the end we defined a buffer zone around the protected area, and counted records falling within the buffer area. The width of the buffer was calculated from the average precision in the coordinates of the datasets. Here are the papers (Links below.)
Pino-del-Carpio A., Ariño A.H., Miranda R., 2014: Data exchange gaps in knowledge of biodiversity: Implications for the management and conservation of Biosphere Reserves. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(9): 2239-2258
Pino-del-Carpio A., Ariño A.H., Villarroya A., Puig J., Miranda R., 2013: The biodiversity data knowledge gap: Assessing information loss in the management of Biosphere Reserves. Biological Conservation, 173: 74-79.
Regards
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vulture ecology, conservation of vulture, migration of vulture 
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Hi
First, I agree with Igor Fefelov- long rage movements of immature vulture, ranging across hundreds of kms and more are common in various species (e.g., Phipps et al 2013 PLoS One ;-) ). These cases can be considered as dispersal movements (or exploratory movements if the same individual return to its original area). 
Second, adult vultures also show such long forays (see our 2015 AmNat). In contrast to what was suggested in a previous answer to a relevant question - i suspect that these movement are NOT motivated by resources dynamics (too expensive, too risky, no evidence for enhanced intake, etc). Instead, i think/speculate that these are long forays are motivated by social reasons, perhaps particularly in an attempt to find mates and new colonies. This explanation is likely to be more important in populations that suffer from recent reduction (i.e., almost all vulture populations...), forcing individuals to search in remote areas. Given the recent collapse in vultures populations throughout the Indian sub-continent it might be that these rare observations (or adults?) might reflect a similar behavior.
Finally, migration is usually considered as long range movements (i.e., beyond normal foraging range) with strong synchronization among conspecifics (i.e., many individuals do the same journey more or less at the same time, even if not together), with a circular route and with strong seasonal (or other temporal scales) pattern. if one wants to establish the argument that observations are a result of migration, these are points worth validating. There are some evidence that vulture migrate in flocks, but these might not be the most valualbe criteria for mirgration clssification, especially at low densiteis. 
cheers
Orr  
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I would like to perform a small research studying floral orientation and flight of free-ranging hummingbirds. I plan to use a feeder with different nectar holes resembling different floral orientation. What nectar recipe is recommended? I am considering to make the feeder as a DIY project.
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Hi Ronny
    I am also planning to do same for Sunbirds. Can you please provide me 1-2 feeders for nectar.