Questions related to Autonomous Vehicles
When will we have autonomous vehicles in use at Level 4: High Driving Automation or Level 5: Full Driving Automation?
What are the main problems? What are the road conditions? How will they adjust to different weather conditions? How will they share information with the road or with other vehicles? What technologies, algorithms, and processing detect and prevent the occurrence of accidents?
I want to perform a comparison which can be statistical to get the understanding of the severity of the accidents. What approach should I prefer to proceed with.
I am a PhD student looking to read some recent good papers that can help me identify a research topic in RL for controls applications . I have been reading through quite a few papers/topics discussing model free vs model based RL etc . Not been able to find something , may be I don't understand it yet to the extent :) .
Just for the background : My experience is with Diesel , SI engines , vehicles and controls .
One of the topics/areas that seems interesting to me is learning using RL in uncertain scenarios, this might seem to broad for most of the people .
Another possible area would be RL for connected vehicles, self driving etc .
Any help/suggestion is welcome .
I am working on the development of sensors for Autonomous vehicles that can assess road conditions, particularly traffic situations. The primary area is Optics based sensors such as LiDAR or Photonic Radar. I am looking for tools to develop the sensor and asking for recommendation on which software is helpful.
Photonic-based or microwave photonic-based Sensors are being used in combination with Ultrasonic, and Camera-based sensors for the smooth operation of Autonomous Vehicles. Many articles have been presented using FMCW techniques along with LiDAR tech to enhance the sensing capabilities of AVs.
What do you think is the future direction in this area of sensor development in a simulative environment?
We are planning to learn Apollo open source tool to simulate various scenario for autonomous vehicles. Could you please provide good learning resources for the same. Thank you.
Suppose I have and HD map, which have many segments (line, arc, spiral, …), that describe the road of the vehicle.
Now, How can I plot or get the coordinates along the spiral given the all following data:
- start coordinate of the spiral,
- the heading (orientation) of the spiral,
- the start and end of the curvature for the spiral, and
- the length of the spiral.
Sensors have played a significant role in intelligent robots and autonomous driving. While lidars and cameras have become dominant in the field, the advancements of other sensors have also promoted its developments.
MMWR is becoming promising. Its 4D imaging technology is becoming more and more mature. Even though I am not familiar with this kind of sensor and have no experience with it, as a person working in robotic and autonomous systems, I am interested in it. I hope this message can reach someone who knows about it.
1. How about the role of 4D MMWR in robots and autonomous vehicles, especially compared with lidar and cameras? or even replace them as primary sensors?
2. Is 4D MMWR robust enough for L3 or above-level autonomous driving?
3. Are there any other fields that 4D MMWR will be applied more often or promising?
Are there any available datasets of autonomous vehicles trajectories with GPS and date times specifications? if not, how would one adapt existing datasets, which are obtained from normal vehicles, to autonomous ones if possible?
A number of proprietary (and often expensive) softwares for modelling both vehicle dynamic behaviour, and the sensors for autonomous vehicles exist.
We have experience using open source solutions including Gazebo, AirSim, LG SVL (which sadly appears to no longer be supported by LG), CARLA, and a number of custom solutions bridging software like MATLAB to games engines like Unity.
Does anyone have any additional suggestions, or anyone experienced in this area have any insights / resources etc into what the future directions for coupled vehicle dynamic and autonomous vehicle simulation may be?
I am a young researcher and preparing myself for master's related to image processing, computer vision and ai for autonomous vehicle.
I have worked on various projects but confused with their publication that which one will be better in conference paper, journal or the book chapter. It will be very supportive if anyone suggest the best one?
I am studying at the minimum number of shared autonomous vehicles would need to meet all traffic demand of motor vehicles needs for a city, and considering the impact of joining rail transit to further optimize fleet size. I plan to cite the paper titled "Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility" in my paper, and compare the method of solving the minimum fleet size in this paper with my research method, so as to prove whether my research is effective. Therefore, I would like to ask if you have the source code for this article. If so, please contact me at Chengminghui@zjnu.edu.cn. Thank you very much!
I have been working on computer vision. I used datasets from Kaggle or other sites for my projects. But now I want to do lane departure warning, and real-time lane detection with real-time conditions(illuminations, road conditions, traffic, etc.). Then the idea to use simulators comes to my mind but there are lots of simulators on online but I'm confused about which one would be suitable for my work!
It would be very supportive if anyone guide me through picking up the best simulator for my works.
I am looking for clock time synchronization for autonomous vehicles network, can anyone please suggest simulation software and some good publication to start with.
For most drivers who manually control a vehicle, obeying traffic regulations like speed limits looks like a huge task for them as some overlook the importance of these strategically placed limits. Our quest is to devise ways to use AI-based technology in both autonomous and manually controlled cars to detect these speed limits on the road and for the AI technology to proceed to act on it in bringing the vehicle to a lower speed when the vehicle is travelling at a speed out of range. Issuing warning about a speed out of range is another thing and it all falls on the driver to heed to the warnings or not.
Considering the use of facial recognition cameras on autonomous vehicles, the storage of data collected, the security of the data and access, do UK data privacy laws go far enough to protect peoples rights?
Hi friends! Who knows taxi drivers? (traditional cab drivers, not Uber of Lyft). Our team is recruiting taxi drivers to participate in focus groups about technological changes in driving jobs and the future impact of autonomous vehicles on workforce. Whoever successfully particpated in the focus group can receive a $50 gift card. More information can be found at: <iframe src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2FWEAVENSF%2Fposts%2F180149620718317&show_text=true&width=500" width="500" height="737" style="border:none;overflow:hidden" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="true" allow="autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; picture-in-picture; web-share"></iframe>
I am writing my thesis regarding building trust in autonomous vehicles (AVs). I have developed 4 hypothesis from literature review and my research model contains 4 different independent variables (Reliability, Usability, Familiarity, Regulations) and a single dependent variable (trust in AVs). I am using 5 point Likert scale based on previous studies to collect data through an online survey questionnaire. Each variable has 4 items.
With limited knowledge, I am not sure which tests would be necessary and enough to see which of my IVs really impact DV i.e. Trust?
Since I am working on autonomous vehicle, I am interested in developing a path planning/navigation system for guiding in row crops. Please tell me about the type of algorithm/programme that needs to be developed for same. Also, inform me what type of camera and GPS system (Make; Model) for real time application will be the best that can identify the crop rows.
Is there any firm in India which can provide the necessary equipment/components.
Will the development of autonomous cars be correlated with the development of electric cars?
Will these technologies be developed in parallel?
In the future, will a significant part of autonomous cars also be electric cars?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I conduct the lane changing decision-making model based on stackelberg game for autonomou vehicles. However, the stackelberg game is bi-level optimal problem show as below appedix file and how to attain the stackelberg equilibrium solution that distorb me for a long time. I use SQP methond in MATLAB to get the stackelberg game optimal, but the results is terribled. Can I use SQP methon to get the soluton? And could you please indict the thinking for solve for me to solve. Thank you very much.
I have been looking into self-supervised methods in computer vision. For example
This type of pretext task for self supervision is a cross between context-based and semantic label based pretext tasks
Lane line detection in many ways is approached as a subset of the semantic segmentation task.
I am wondering if there is any way to come up with a pretext task that is specific to lane line detection?
I have seen where self supervision is used in the lane fitting task
But this is used after the lane segments have been identified.
I am working on an autonomous driving domain and my field poses multiple autonomous vehicle collision avoidances. I want to try to solve it using RL. In this case, the following statements regarding the RL method are correct or any thins complicated with the fundamentals of RL. Please explain to me.
"Through Learning Control, control knowledge of a control function can be created through the training by Reinforcement Learning. However, the conventional Reinforcement Learning method does not provide the application of more than one control function within a Learning Control System. Execution of more control functions within a Learning Control System would require the application of multiple learning processes within a control system. Methods concerning the application of learning processes in Learning Control vary depending on the application of the control device and the purpose of the system."
With the Trolley Problem being a hot disucssion with lots of phylosophical and technical papers discussed on it. It is eventually very hard to get to a final idea whether to incorporate this problem into AVs driving ethics? do they really create the dilemma ?
in 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles.
and Yet one more question : Why this comission paper, have so few references? does it mean they have cared less about other phylosophers ideas? or they have tried to found some ideas?
There are lots of relevant papers. bring them in this post to discuss it.
Autonomous vehicle, robots and rovers are finding applications in space exploration. Which tasks can Autonomous rovers and robots can take over from human (In other planets like mars, or moon or titan etc). How can an army of robots create all the infrastructure that humans needs for settlement?
I want to find accurate locations of some static objects to be used as landmarks for localizing other mobile object. As the landmarks will be used to localize other object, their own location must be accurate. Kindly suggest some practical methods for accurate positioning of static objects(landmark).
I have attached two papers, which discuss the trolley problem differently. one trying to follow the question and picture possible cases, the other, "Avoids" the unfairness of the Trolley problem, but its discussion is not long enough and gets to a conclusion fast. Which doctorine of thought do you prefer?
Anyone can suggest a dataset of scenarios/test cases that could be used to test and validate autonomous vehicles? I am interested in scenarios that are described in english or in any scenario description language that could be used for virtual closed loop testing?
I'm looking for some papers on Self driving cars that discuss the current capability and work, on how much Data processing these cars do, and what are the steps and techniques applied to improve them
We want to design a RL framework to help the autonomous vehicle decide when to lane change and how to perform the movements( the lateral and longitudinal acceleration). Can a flat DQN output the action (0,1) , 1 represent conduct lane change now, 0 represent not to conduct lane change now, while also output the action for continuous lane change movements?
I need to know about the ways to represent a path mathematically and technically in the vehicle industry based on a map which contains lanes. An initial search shows that path generally defined sometimes using some way-points, others use curvilinear coordinates and others define a network of connected segments. Which are the relevant and common ways to represent a path on map with lanes ? Any citations about the matter ?!
Hi there, im currently writing my dissertation on how autonomous vehicles will influence real estate valuation.
To define real estate value factors (factors that residents of city X find influential in determining residential valuation) I am conducting a qualitative survey to exhibit what people are most attracted to.
How can I justify my survey size, of say 100 people?
Colleagues and I are about to begin a project investigating the role of town planners and local authorities in establishing the introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs).
What views do you have on the needs of users of CAVs, particularly members of the disabled community; the usefulness of planners creating infrastructure to accommodate CAVs and join these with existing conventional forms of travel; and how these can combine to establish a 'whole of journey' approach to future transport systems?
I am pursuing my masters in Mechatronics (Germany) and currently working as a system validation intern. I am looking for some advice/guidance on possible topics in the field of autonomous driving. I am open to any sub-field but my current experience is in system validation of ADAS/ Autonomous Driving mostly in a Software-in-Loop environment. There is currently not a industry accepted standard for validation of ADAS/AD features so something along these lines would be greatly appreciated
Thanks in advance!
hi, now I am researching about these things, this is my first time to ask question at this site. I need various opinions who is expert about this topic. Please help me !!
How do you think the social environment will change in the near future when full-autonomous driving becomes the norm?
1. Future trends in the automobile market
2. Trends in technology announcements including automobiles
3.Changes in the living environment of general consumers
*English, Chinese OK:)
In my opinion, the development of the necessary infrastructure and security stabilities is of key importance for the development of autonomous cars technology, so that the development of autonomous cars technology and the increase in the number of autonomous cars does not increase statistics on the number of road accidents.
In addition, the development of autonomous cars technology can be paralleled to the development of electromobility. For the development of electromobility and the number of used electric cars, it is also necessary to build the necessary infrastructure installed on roads, urban streets and interurban arteries of communication charging points for batteries into electricity.
In some countries there are active policies for the development of electromobility, under which the state from public finance funds pays extra to purchase an electric car and invests in projects to develop the necessary infrastructure for charging points in electricity. Other power plants are also being built as part of the development of renewable energy sources, because the development of electromobility is causing a significant increase in electricity demand. Unfortunately, this pro-ecological, active policy for the development of electromobility is carried out only in some countries.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What are the main determinants of the development of electromobility and autonomous cars technology?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I am designing a model for detecting attacks launched against connected vehicles (autonomous vehicles). Where can I find a dataset having connected vehicle or connected vehicle network related attacks?
A monocular camera is to be calibrated, which is located in the area of the vehicle and looks in front of the direction of travel. During the calibration, the extrinsic parameters (position and rotation between the camera coordinate system and the origin of the vehicle coordinate system: Center of the rear axle of the vehicle) should be calculated. The camera parameters are calculated online, i.e. while the camera is taking pictures. The algorithm should automatically calculate the extrinsic parameters from driving scene images while driving.
I am looking forward to your feedback !
Do you think that artificial intelligence will be implemented in the control systems of driving and orientation in the field in autonomous cars?
What are the effects of artificial intelligence implemented in the field of driving control systems and orientation in the field of autonomous cars?
Will autonomous cars be safe?
Will autonomous cars be mostly electric cars at the same time?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
if you are you interested in research on efficient autonomous vehicles, I have something new for you.
We have just launched our new open source reinforcement learning environment. Here you can find it: https://github.com/dynamik1703/gym_longicontrol
Our new environment is in the field of autonomous driving. It offers the possibility to test and further develop algorithms for the efficient longitudinal control.
The longitudinal control problem has various challenges. One example is the trade-off between conflicting goals of travel time minimization and energy consumption. They contradict each other because a fast driving vehicle leads to high-energy consumption and vice versa.
Through the proposed RL environment, which is adapted to the OpenAi Gym standardization, we show that it is easy to prototype and implement state-of-art RL algorithms. Besides, the LongiControl environment is suitable for various examinations. In addition to the comparison of RL algorithms and the evaluation of safety algorithms, investigations in the area of Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning are also possible. Further possible research objectives are the comparison with planning algorithms for known routes, investigation of the influence of model uncertainties and the consideration of very long-term objectives like arriving at a specific time.
LongiControl is designed to enable the community to leverage the latest strategies of reinforcement learning to address a real-world and high-impact problem in the field of autonomous driving.
Have fun trying it out! If you have any questions, feel free to write.
I built a Simulink vehicle model with Dugoff's tire model that requires two parameters to calculate Fx and Fy; namely, the longitudinal stiffness and the cornering stiffness. Now I would like to verify my Simulink model by comparing the results with MSC ADAMS. ADAMS does not have Dugoff's tire model. How can I get these two parameters from ADAMS ?
Please share the link or the file. I have tried in NCAC but the website is not accessible. Thank you in advance.
I was told by a person without any reference,
Co-60 source mus be replaced after the dose rate reached 50 cGy/minute..please anyone may guide me to provide the correct reference??
I some papers, the mean square error is considered. In some other, the mse is normalized by dividing the error by the (total sampling instants x the total length of the reference trajectory).
Which solution does represent the factual error?
The challenge faced by the autonomous vehicle industry is to keep pace with the exploration of autonomous vehicles. The industrial research centers are limited and prevent them from sharing their thoughts. This in turn prevents their researchers from gaining access to other knowledge pools.
It is important for industries to come together and maintain an open relationship with various research universities in order to find the best solution for the development and evaluation of autonomous vehicles so that autonomous vehicles meet the basic safety and protection criteria.
Do we have a specific model and strategy for industry-university collaboration on autonomous vehicle products and services?
I am working on Application - Specific Radio Resource Allocation in 5G and I need to know the size of packets used for every application or use-case of 5G if possible. Applications like; Video conferencing, AR/VR, Web browsing, Wireless E-health, Industry automation, Autonomous vehicles, Smart Energy, Smart City and so on.
It is widely believed that motor drive has reached a competent level of maturity where hardly gives birth to new innovations. Would it be possible to see a revival of theoretical and/or practical innovations in this field, in a foreseeable future, taking into account the rapid progress in microelectronics, power electronics, permanent magnet materials in one hand, and demanding new applications like autonomous vehicles, drones, and fly by wire on the other?
Electric cars and hydrogen cars both run on apparently clean fuels. However, the source of electricity or hydrogen production may be based over partially clean processes. It is a question of the future, which of them will prevail.
I have designed a trajectory tracking controller for a passenger car. The output of the controller is the applied torque to the wheels. I decided to verify this controller using an IPG carmaker simulator. The operator of the IPG carmaker asked me to give the position of the accelerator and brake pedals as the control input; otherwise, he cannot perform the simulation. Is he right? Is not there any way to implement the desired torque to the wheels in IPG carmaker? If so, how can I convert the applied torque to the position of the accelerator and brake pedals? Is there any transfer function for this purpose?
I,m looking for a research topic on pedestrian safety at intersections with the advent of autonomous vehicles. I'll appreciate any suggestions
It is seen in the recent time in the news across the globe relevant to develop and deploy the autonomous vehicles on road as soon as earliest. Although, it is a step-by-step process in which we have to spend billions of dollars to develop fully autonomous vehicles. And even after the development of such FAVs, still, there are some questions remain open such as (a) What about the efficiency of the FAVs? (b) Who is the owner of the vehicle? (c) What about ethical and moral issues? and so on. In these circumstances, is it more useful to concentrate on DATs rather than FAVs?
Please share your viable opinion.
Thank you, Indeed.
The new highway, expected to be one of many, will run between Beijing and the Xiongan New Area in the Hebei province, FutureCar reports. There, a new 62-mile stretch of freeway will have two lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicles (AVs). The idea is that the infrastructure investment will give AVs access to real-world traffic conditions — but also that the separate lanes will ensure that the still-limited AV tech is tested in a way that minimizes risk for human drivers.
Will these dedicated lanes do good or harm to the safety or mobility efficiency of the freeway?
I'm looking for different concepts for determining a position of an autonomous vehicle. While researching different GPS based concepts I came across dGPS and RTK. I understand that RTK uses the carrier wave itself to determine the range between the satellite and the receiver which has a higher frequency than the code modulated on it. As far as I understand by using GPS the receiver matches his internal pseudo code to the one he receives. After matching the codes, the receiver reads the message sent. Doing that to 3 more satellites the receiver can calculate the time it took the signals to arrive and triangulate the receivers position.
RTK uses the carrier wave instead. By solving the integer ambiguity problem. The range to the satellite can be calculated by multiplying the wavelength with the number of cycles to it.
Both ways seem to me like they are just different ways to calculate the distance but apparently there is an advantage of using the carrier wave, as shown in the images under this link:
Could someone explain to me, why there is a time uncertainty? For me either there is a 1 or a 0, nothing in between..
Many thanks in advance.
Autonomous driving is a goal towards which the Automotive Industry is evolving in 5 steps now commonly recognised. Autonomous Driving is discussed under acronyms such as ADAS or CAV (connected and the autonomous vehicle).
However, is it leading ultimately towards more autonomy or more centralised supervision?
In "Simultaneous Stabilization and Tracking of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots: A Lyapunov-Based Approach", the authors stated that the nonholonomy of mobile robots allows control of the system with less control inputs. A mobile robot is underactuated in nature, and it's often controlled with less number of control inputs than the system's degree of freedom (if dynamic is ignored). How does the nonholonomy of the system helps with that?
Traditionally the driving license is issued to adults 18 years of age or older, who pass the theoretical and practical test of the issuing authorities.
However, what about if the self driven cars become more available, AND the safety for the drivers and the pedestrians become even better than the current practices...
If such High Tech / AI supported cars are there, then would you think teenagers should be allowed to operate them by their own, with their guardians approval?
If yes, what is the lowest age limit you may consider to let them get a driving license for such a future vehicle? 14 year-old? 16? 12?
I know that in some years SAE Level 5 Autonomous Cars will be sold in the market, but probably just as concept cars. When do you think they will become a competitive solution in the market at affordable price?
In your opinion, what are the main challenges currently for the design of autonomous vehicle systems? Answers can be related to hardware, software, controls, societal impact, etc.
Secondarily, what are the main considerations that can be relaxed or approximated (to save design time and cost) for systems that will not directly interface with humans?
Hello to all
Artificial intelligence is often mentioned as an area where corporations make large investments. It seems that they use AI in autonomous vehicles, face recognition, medicine, banking, financing, weather forecast, etc.
The celebrated backpropagation algorithm has wide use within academic circles. Many papers exist that discuss, analyze and apply BP. But is it actually used in any of the practical developments undertaken by large companies? If so, in which specific ones. If not, which is the preferred NN training method for these commercially oriented applications?
With cordial regards,
We are in the planning stage we want to make a self driving vehicle, maybe anybody could point us to the right company or direction.
In particular, how should autonomus vehicles be programmed to behave in the fat man trolley problem? An algorithm can instruct the machine to throw the fat man off the bridge?
I have a question about the circle of friction or Kamm circle. This circle is used in vehicle modelling, but I did not understand this well. I say my own opinion, please let me know if I am mistaken.
vehicle friction force at tire contact patch divided into two forces, lateral and longitudinal forces. As the coefficient of friction is u and the normal force is N, then the maximum of friction force is F_tot = uN. Now F_tot is the radius of the Kamm circle (?), then F_x and F_y are longitudinal and lateral forces, so ( F_x^2 + F_y^2 )^0.5 is lower or equal to F_tot.
If I was right, please tell me what is the use of Kamm circle?
Thanks in advance.
I stock in the vehicle wheel's camber modelling.
I want the main ( non-linear ) equation between vehicle's wheel camber angle and side slip angle.
The linear equation is in the form below:
alpha_star = alpha + K_camb * gamma
The book in which the linear equation is available states that the main equation is available in the following references, BUT I can't find these references...
1 - M. Mitschke and H. Wallentowitz. Dynamik der Kraftfahrzeuge. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 4. edition, 2004.
2- J. Reimpell and P. Sponagel. Fahrwerktechnik: Reifen und Räder. Vogel Fachbuch. Würzburg, 1995.
Thanks for your patience and cooperation.
I am doing my PhD in operation research in logistics. I want to create an urban logistics simulation, during which I would show how autonomous vehicles can adapt to disruptions and resilience would emerge. The theoretical approach is based on complex-adaptive systems theory.
As I understand, the routing should be made by using “reinforcement learning for combinatorial optimization”, however, I do not have experience related to RL application for route scheduling. Could anyone recommend courses or literature related to this topic?
If anyone has developed such a model, maybe could provide some insights in to the data architecture? As I understand this would be similar to supervised learning, however sequence of categories must also be taken into consideration. Should the implementation be based on graphs? Or should I have features categorizing a trip with evaluation of the cost function?
In my case, I am having a e-commerce industry with product delivery to end-consumer, during the day I am generating traffic jams, which would block the routs. The algorithm should learn from the environment and select better routes automatically by considering the goal function.
I'm studing in control engineering and I want to work on autonomous vehicles.
recently I was searching a lot but I have no idea about latest challenge in this field.
as autonomous vehicles systems has Perception, Planning, Control, and Coordination fields, I prefer to work on Control.
So, if you have any idea about latest challenge in Autonomous vehicles control system, tell me.
I am hoping to do a pilot survey of about 10 to 15 people, before employing the main survey. The survey is on obtaining public preferences and attitudes towards different levels of autonomous vehicles.
I was just wondering what exactly should I consider or include in the pilot study plan.
I wish to know whether any one is working on Radar system for autonomous vehicles. I wish to know who is the supplier of the same. I need only a few systems. Can i get any system that can be integrated with arduino for obstacle detection.
And i am looking for a low cost solution.
Commercial, industrial, and military vehicles are required to safely navigate predetermine paths in degraded visual environments (i.e., fog, snow, heavy rain, dust, ect.). Various techniques based on sensor fusion (i.e., CCD cameras, RADAR, Laser sensors, ultrasonic sensors, ect.), Machine Learning/AI, human-aided operations and other are applied.
Currently, there is plenty of literature available over user preferences or user perceptions towards autonomous vehicles. I am struggling to form a theme for my stated preference survey over levels of autonomous vehicles that is because the idea is not clear. Can anybody suggest me a theme over which I can form discrete choice experiments.
Present Levels of automation
Level 0 - No automation
Level 1 (Hands on) -Some automation modes are available.Driver and system shares the control of the vehicle.
Level 2 (Hands off) -Some automation modes with full system control over vehicle. Driver monitors driving and should be prepared to intervene immediately.
Level 3 (Eyes off ) - Full system control. Driver do not need to monitor driving and he can do other activities such as using phone or watch movie. Driver attention required in limited time specified by the manufacturer of car.
Future levels of automation:
Level 4 (Mind off) - Similar to level 3, but no driver attention is required for safety. Driver can even sleep and leave driving seat. Level 4 automation supported in limited areas only such as traffic jams. Outside these areas driver should take control.
Level 5 (Steering Wheel Optional) - Steering wheel is optional, no human intervention is required,i.e. A robotic car