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Dear helper,
I am currently busy with a project for autonomous driving of tractor semi-trailers with of axle hitching. I want to design an input-output linearizing feedback for a non-linear MIMO system. I am getting stuck on how to do so. I want to know how I can decouple my system, and how to model it in Simulink to let my tractor semi-trailer track a desired output. I hope you can help me with this. My system looks as follows:
x2dot = v*(cos(gamma)*cos(theta2) - (L1b/L1)*tan(delta)*sin(gamma)*cos(theta2))
y2dot = v*(cos(gamma)*sin(theta2) - (L1b/L1)*tan(delta)*sin(gamma)*sin(theta2))
theta2dot = (v/L2)*((L1b/L1)*tan(delta)*cos(gamma) + sin(gamma))
gammadot = v*((1/L1) - (L1b/(L1*L2))*cos(gamma))*tan(delta)) - (v/L1)*sin(gamma)
The inputs are the velocity u1 = v, and the steering angle u2 = delta. For the output I choose the articulation angle y1 = gamma between the tractor, and semi-trailer. To take an additional output to have the amount of inputs, and outputs equal I suppose to take as an additional output y2 = y. To give an idea on how the system looks like, I have added a picture of my system. My system is written for the coordinates of the rear axle of the semi-trailer, and has therefroe, the indice 2.
I know how to treat certain problems for non linear MIMO systems but I don't understand how to do this case due to the 2 inputs influencing each other. The system is not well defined if one of the inputs equals zero.
Kind regards,
Emile Biever
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You can use a PD-inverse dynamics controller. Take a look at this paper
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Has prescribed convergence superiority compared to fixed-time convergence? In light of the fact that fixed-time convergence can do so.
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1. Finite-time is not uniform with respect to initial conditions even in compact sets. See
Bhat, D.Bernstein,Finite time stability of continuous autonomous systems, SIAM J.Control Optim.38(3) (2000) 751–766.
For the homogeneous systems with negative homogeneity degrees the convergence time is growing together with the norm of the initial conditions.
A MAIN PROBLEM IN USAGE OF ADVANTAGES OF FINITE-TIME CONVERGENT CONTROLLERS WHOSE CONVERGENCE TIME IS ESTIMATED BY LYAPUNOV FUNCTIONS IS THAT ESTIMATED CONVERGENCE TIME IS VERY CONSERVATIVE.
The finite-time convergence in the bi-limit have been introduced in
A. Andrieu, L. Praly, A. Astolfi, Homogeneous approximation, recursive observer and output feedback, SIAMJ. Control Optim.47(2008)1814–1850.
2. Uniform finite-time convergence for the systems with bounded uncertainties haS been introduced in
E. Cruz- Zavala, J.Moreno, L.Fridman, Uniform robust exact differentiator, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 56(11) (2011) 2727–2733.
In this paper we proposed a differentiator with a finite-time convergence in which an upper bound of the settling time is given that does not depend on initial conditions nor from initial time moment.
3. Than this type of convergence later called fixed-type convergence in
A. Polyakov, Nonlinear feedback design for fixed-time stabilization of
linear control systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 57(99)(2012)2106–2110.
See also
A. Polyakov, L. Fridman, Stability notions and Lyapunov functions for sliding mode control systems. Journal of Franklin Institute, Volume 351, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 1831-1865, doi :10.1016/j.jfranklin.2014.01.002.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED THAT FIXED TIME IS AN ABSTRACT MATHEMATICAL PROPERTY OF THE SYSTEM, IT DOES NOT HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH CONTROL PROBLEMS.
Moreover, it cannot be used for control of real systems because of 2 main reasons:
- Any system model is valid in compact sets only, no model is valid in whole state space.
- To acquaint for the finite-time escape to infinity, actuators with infinite capacity are needed and such actuators do not exist.
UNIFORM FINITE-TIME CONTROLLERS with respect to compact sets, valid for systems models and actuators capacities, ARE SUFFICIENT for the solution of real control problems.
Design of the DIFFERENTIATORS WITH FIXED(UNFORM)-TIME CONVERGENCE is the only control problem for which the model is valid for the whole space and the role of actuators is just a computer program.
3. The next natural stage of development for fixed-time convergence based on bi-limit homogeneous convergence was to solve the following control problem: to propose a controller gain ensuring a priori defined (predefined) time of convergence.
To the best of my knowledge this is better defined in
Esteban Jiménez-Rodríguez , Aldo Jonathan Muñoz-Vázquez , Juan Diego Sánchez-Torres, Michael Defoort , and Alexander G. Loukianov. A Lyapunov-Like Characterization of Predefined-Time Stability. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 65, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2020
and references therein.
The main problems of the predefined-time convergent controllers are:
a. It is not feasible (no model in whole space, need of the actuators with infinite capacity)
b.The estimation of the settling time is very conservative.
c. Theoretically they need the knowledge of the upper bound of uncertainties (could depend on state variables)
d. Need of a special numerical methods (see Levant 2013, Brogliato and Polyakov, Maximilian Wetzlinger;Markus Reichhartinger)
4. Prescribed time convergence is based on idea of Proportional Navigation Function methodology. See
P. Zarchan, Tactical and Strategic Missile Guidance, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 2012
Song, Y., Wang, Y., Holloway, J., & Krstic, M. (2017). Time-varying feedback for regulation of normal-form nonlinear systems in prescribed finite time. Automatica, 83, 243–251.
Wang, Y., & Song, Y. (2018). Leader-following control of high-order multiagent
systems under directed graphs: Pre-specified finite time approach. Automatica, 87, 113–120.
Y. Chitour, R. Ushirobira, and H. Bouhemou. Stabilization for a perturbed chain of integrators in prescribed time. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, 58(2):1022{1048, 2020.
and an extension of the solutions for the time interval [t_0, \infty). See, for exaple
Aldana-López, R., Gómez-Gutiérrez, D., Trujillo, M. A., A.Loukyanov, Ruiz-León, J., Becerra, H. M. A predefined-time first-order exact differentiator based on time-varying gains, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control 31(1), April , 2021
A. K. Pal, S. Kamal, S. K. Nagar, B. Bandyopadhyay, and L. Fridman, Design of controllers with arbitrary convergence time, Automatica, 112, pp. 4135-4148.
The main advantages of this approach are that
- A settling time is precisely known in advance.
- To ensure prescribed-time convergence the knowledge of the upper bound for uncertainties is not needed. But it is needed to maintain the system in the sliding mode.
- They are feasible and they are really applied (see Zarchan) ensuring PRACTICAL prescribed stability in real navigation systems.
The main disadvantages of prescribed time convergent controllers are:
-Numerical problems corresponding to the fact that near to the prescribed time moment the controller gain grows to infinity even when the control law is bounded.
- In the presence of measurement noise of the state, the controller is given as the product of unbounded gain with a state that does not goes to zero. Thus, in general, solution blows up as time tends to the prescribed time, or in simplest cases, convergence to the origin is lost and only practical stability can be ensured.
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This is my industry production problem. In the air conditioner heat exchanger coil bending process, There must be a polyester film between the 2 layers of heat exchanger coil for preventing deformation of aluminum fin plate. It's inserted by a man and be removed by a man.
I'm thinking to make a foolproof system for a forgetting remove this film but can't figure out what kind of sensor would suitable for this situation. Could anyone here suggest any product or method for this situation ?
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perhaps it would be possible to make a resistance measurement with a simple digital tester, keeping one tip on a conductive part and moving the other by placing it on the parts to be investigated ....
Simple but it could work.
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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We measure VLE in a kit with automated pressure control which make it very easy to do isobaric measurements. However in many cases isothermal measurements are preferred but these take a long time. You have to set a pressure which you think will give the correct boiling point, allow the system to equilibrate then adjust the pressure and repeat until the desired boiling temperature is achieved.
I want to install an automated control system which uses the temperature as a set point and continually adjusts the pressure of the system to achieve it. This would save a lot of manual intervention and improve the rate at which we can produce data.
Does anyone have any experience of doing this? What equipment/supplier would people suggest?
Vapour Liquid Equilibria
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V. The recursive least squares algorithm (RLS) allows for (real-time) dynamical application of least squares (LS) regression to a time series of time-stamped continuously acquired data points. As with LS, there may be several correlation equations with the corresponding set of dependent (observed) variables. RLS is the recursive application of the well-known LS regression algorithm, so that each new data point is taken in account to modify (correct) a previous estimate of the parameters from some linear (or linearized) correlation thought to model the observed system. For RLS with forgetting factor (RLS-FF), adquired data is weighted according to its age, with increased weight given to the most recent data. No prior 'learning phase' is required.
VI. Application example ― While investigating adaptive control and energetic optimization of aerobic fermenters, I have applied the RLS-FF algorithm to estimate the parameters from the KLa correlation, used to predict the O2 gas-liquid mass-transfer, while giving increased weight to most recent data. Estimates were improved by imposing sinusoidal disturbance to air flow and agitation speed (manipulated variables). The proposed (adaptive) control algorithm compared favourably with PID. The power dissipated by agitation was accessed by a torque meter (pilot plant). Simulations assessed the effect of numerically generated white Gaussian noise (2-sigma truncated) and of first order delay. This investigation was reported at (MSc Thesis):
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If the data that can be observed is only the data set point or reference point and the output data from the close loop system, then the transfer function that can be identified is only the close loop system, without knowing the type of control used, is there a way to predict the transfer function of the plant??
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You should be able to observe just the behavior of the plant when you look at the transient solution of the system (plant + controller), if the initial conditions of the plant are nonzero. In control theory, the transfer function of the system (plant + controller) is usually assumed to be measured either after the transients (caused by nonzero initial conditions) have died out, or in the absence of any transients (caused by all zero initial conditions). Another way of saying the same thing is to consider solving for the behavior of the system (plant + controller) by solving the system's differential equation (DE). The general solution of a DE is the sum of the complementary and particular solutions. The complementary solution assumes no input to the system just intial conditions of the plant, while the particular solution just looks at the behavior of the system with inputs present.
Sometimes, the transient behavior of a plant can overwhelm the controller even when you employ perfect pole-zero cancellation, see .
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Hello,
I am looking for any research papers on the gap between 'Automatic window operations by Building Management Systems (BMS)' and 'occupants' window operations'.
Thank you.
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Dear Sepideh,
it's an interesting topic. As you know, there are many papers on the two topics, but unfortunately I am not aware of anyone who systematically investigates the gap between the two different scenarios.
Here you can probably find some suggestions:
Best regards
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Hi
Is there any linearized model for insulin injection pump?
The intention is to use this model for analyzing the dynamic of the pump and use it in automatic control.
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Hi Prof. Maki, My six years old daughter has a Medtronic insulin pump with closed loop feedback sensor, i will try to get info about this but based on my three year experience on using the pump it uses two modes of th injection one is Basal and one is Bolus which gives insulin on the back ground all day and night and I can send you one of her pump auto generated reports as it might give an idea about the behavor of insulin injection. when changing the canula every couple I feel but I am not sure from the movements of the motor inside the pump that is stepper motor
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I am a masters student in electrical engineering and information technology and will complete my course by end of February and is looking for a research project to do my PhD. My areas of interest are basically, electrical engineering, automation, control engineering and robotics. But 1 most important thing is my skill set is in LabVIEW programming where I have done 3 projects and on my 4th one right one which is my master thesis. So I am looking for a project in any of the above mentioned topics with skill requirement as LabVIEW programming. I would like some help in finding the same. I will attach my CV along with this.
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Dear friends:
While one can easily write an *.m file for implementing a sliding mode control,
for example, to stabilize a control system, integral sliding mode control is also
a popular scheme and used in many papers.
I like to know how to write an *.m file for implementing integral sliding mode control?
I like to kindly request Sliding Mode Control (SMC) experts to illustrate this control
and MATLAB code with a simple example of a control system on the plane (with twostates x1, x2) and how to set up the integral sliding mode control in MATLAB.
Thanks a lot!
With best wishes, Sundar
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1-IMPROVED INTEGRAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL METHODS FOR SPEED CONTROL OF PMSM SYSTEM
By: Cunjian Xia, Xiaocui Wang, Shihua Li and Xisong Chen
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Is there any direct correspondence between delay and error?
If yes, how we can benefit from one to recompense for the other?
I am waiting for your viewpoints to discuss this subject.
Thanks.
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Dear All,
This could be a solution for this delay system, however, it should be remembered that Smith's predictor is tested by the lack of robustness with respect to the uncertainty on the delay, while the robustness with respect to the parameters is less problematic. You will have to deal with this problem by choosing a particular configuration of the controller.
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I want to find PID parameters to regulate my system.
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Manual PID tuning is done by setting the reset time to its maximum value and the rate to zero and increasing the gain until the loop oscillates at a constant amplitude. (When the response to an error correction occurs quickly a larger gain can be used.
The best method for tuning PID controller parameters is depend of your system
Regards
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I want to use "adv_no_gui" functionality of ADVISOR in order to implement a new power management strategy and an optimization routine for a parallel hybrid electirc vehicle. But there is not enough information available in ADVISOR help. If anyone have experience in this field, please help me.
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Are there tutorials for this software?
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Since the methods used in industry are more reliable than the ones presented in academic papers, I need to know the most commonly used adaptive PID control ( sometimes it is refered to as self tuning PID).
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Thank you very much for your useful information. I assume that the method you are talking about performs the auto-tuning periodically (or can be done manually by the operator). I think the method is simple. and as you said most of industrial PLCs have auto tuning function.
but auto tuning in the middle of the process (not at the beginning of the process) might cause some problems such as trips.
I wonder if there is a widely used commercial (industrial) method available which performs continuous PID tuning (it could be adaptive control involving system identification)?
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Where can I find and study about the Narrow Band IoT?
Provide me with papers link and documents' link...
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A follow-up comment: looking at the family of cellular IoT (EC-GSM-IoT, LTE-M and NB-IoT), NB-IoT provides the biggest deployment flexibility. Note that EC-GSM-IoT was designed to reuse GSM infrastructure and frequency channels (200kHz bandwidth); around 300-400kbps data rates are possible, but the activity around it in the industry and academia is rather limited, to my best knowledge. On the other hand, LTE-M is to be deployed in-band with LTE, uses wider bandwidth (6 PRB) and provides higher data rates (ideally up to 1Mbps). Finally, NB-IoT is the slowest (data rates no more than ~200kbps), but it only needs 1PRB (180kHz) to operate, meaning that one can either reuse a GSM carrier for it (still preserving 10kHz guardbands), place it in-band with LTE or even allocate NB-IoT within the LTE guardband.
I think the following book is the great source of knowledge:
Olof Liberg et al. "Cellular Internet of Things: Technologies, Standards, and Performance".
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Is there any existing method, technique, or sensors to control the flow of water in a pipeline?
As i want to automatically stop and open the water pipeline after some fixed time intervals during an indoor experiment.
In other words, i want to control the pipeline valve automatically instead of manual control.
Thank you
Haibat Ali
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Researchers, Please, five minutes of your time in this survey could make a massive change in your research interest
Thanks
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Submitted
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As we are investing money in research, only fruitful research is able to generate money And loop completed. but most of us investing money on research but only for publishing paper.no income generation.
Being a researchers I wish to know how to address this issue.
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Fruitful research means that the research has already been completed. What about new research ideas?
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For controlling the field equipment, I need to circulate 24vDC from my RTU to the field equipment, and 110VAC from the other direction - For input and output.
In this case, can I use a single 2pair cable with one pair carrying AC signal and 1pair carrying DC signal. Note that the current is going to be in a very few mA (typically contributing to the resistance in the circuit) and the cable distances are not going to be more than 100meters
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If the pairs were not twisted, the AC voltage would be capacitively coupled to the DC pair, and the AC current would induce in the DC pair an AC voltage as well, caused by the changing magnetic flux. The idea of twisted pairs is to change the direction of the effect, depending on the orientation of the pair, resulting in a mean effect of nearly zero.
I never tried your setup, but I can imagine one bad case: If the two pairs have nearly identical geometry it might be that the "twisting" of the AC field and the twisting of the other pair result in a stronger coupling than in the general case. So, I feel that a cable containing one twisted and one not twisted pair would be better.
However, if you use the DC voltage exclusively for power supply it should be easy to block a possible AC component at the receiver end.
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Hello, I am looking for a commercially available industrial-like robot that allows writing your own low-level control algorithms. I want to have the ability to implement and compare the performance of the robot (motion precision, energy efficiency, etc.) using different user-defined control rules. I found this 6DOF Quanser Denso system at www.quanser.com/products/denso but I am looking for some other alternatives as well.
Your help will be greatly appreciated.
Rafal Madonski
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Hello Gunther. I could not find an off-the-shelf solution. The closest I got was working with KUKA LWR4+, but (to my best knowledge) they only allowed you to change the structure (activate/deactivate certain control terms) of their already implemented algorithm. After that, my research topics changed. Now, I would change my approach. I would just get a second-hand industrial robot (with its warranty expired), rip its built-in controller, and put my own embedded solution (based on some open-source dev boards). Although I have to admit its not the most elegant solution. Take care.
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Hello, 
I want to use multiple kinects for localizing mobile manipulator
I want to know if that is possible
Thank you  
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Hello
ROS is built to do this particular kind of integrations. Yes, it is possible to integrate unlimited number of sensors with ROS. All what you need is a node that reads this new sensor and publishes on a specific topic.
Cheers
Salah Eddine Ghamri
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Modern control in building automation and control is increasing based on electrical signals as input and having transducers that produce electrical signals as a measure of the output. These are then fed into controller which acts upon the system being controlled.
What are Feed back Control Systems?
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This type of control focuses on the outputs of the organization after transformation is complete. Sometimes called postaction or output control, fulfils a number of important functions. For one thing, it often is used when feedforward and concurrent controls are not feasible or are to costly. Sometimes, feedback is the only viable type of control available. Moreover, feedback has two advantages over feedforward and concurrent control. First, feedback provides managers with meaningful information on how effective its planning effort was. If feedback indicates little variance between standard and actual performance, this is evidence that planning was generally on target.
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Is it possible to drive a piezoelectric stack with just DC.. ie. if you want to use a piezo to move something a set distance can you just apply a constant voltage to keep the piezo "activated" at the desired length, or do you always have to drive them sinusoidally. For example with the piezo microscope stages are they AC driven with some complicated synchronising stuff to only take images when they are at the right place, or fixed in a position with a DC voltage?
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I am working on enhancement of transient stability of power system(SMIB) with MPC(Model Predictive Control) based TCSC(Thyrister Controlled Series Capacitor) controller.
My results with MPC and PID controller shows same improvement in first swing stability of machine.
So,can any one tell me that whether the first swing improvement will be same regardless of any controller?
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Hi
I plotted current and voltages swings for a case of power swing. I want to find first stability swing of these plotted figures. Can you help me that how should i do that?
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What are the best references/methods for torque estimation in automated vehicle steering?I am confronted with the problem of estimating a torque that needs to be sent to a EPS,  given that I know the necessary pinion/steering  angle that is necessary to be achieved   so that the vehicle stays in the lane, and other standard vehicle parameters.
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Hi Mihai,
After reading about your difficulty, I think you really need a thorough brush-up of the mathematical modeling skills, especially on the modeling with systems of differential equations. Without a reliable model, you probably cannot design an effective controller to achieve what you want. Although there are model-free control design methods, they may be too advanced for a beginner.
Because I don't understand how your system exactly works (from the above descriptions), and no one knows better than you do, I'd suggest you to pick up the book by Ramin S. Esfandiari and Bei Lu, as well as some Control Engineering textbooks. Please discuss about the modeling with your project supervisor. You are also advised to consult with Dr. Khan, a follower of this question and an expert in Control Systems.
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What will happen if we use same logic to programme two different types of PLC?
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Basically, Logic is Logic.
 If it is straight bit logic (N.O contacts, N.C contacts and outputs) most of the time it will transfer between any PLC. However, there are exceptions. Modicon logic doesn't scan the same way Allen Bradley does, so there are instances where the same logic will not work. One shots are very different between manufacture as well. Most of the instructions past bit logic e.g. timers, counters, shift registers, etc. are handled different by different manufactures. The concepts will remain the same but for instance, how a timer/ counter resets may be very different.
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I read a survey from Honeywell company from the year 2000, that the PID algorithm is used in 97% of industrial applications. My question is, do somebody have newer survey about this? Thanks.
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A reply to the answer of Tariq Abuhamdia · 11.34 · Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Most fancy control techniques, starting from the fullstate feedback with Kalman filtering, to optimal, robust, and MRAC adaptive control are only used on limited applications such as Nuclear Power plants, expensive military jets, Missile control, precision robots, and similar. These are small fraction of industry products. So I would say more that 95% of products that require closed loop feedback control including cars use PID controllers. 
In control literature, originating not from yesterday or the day before it, there are plenty of  pure industrial examples for implementing these so called "fancy" control algorithms,  as mentioned above. And, surprisingly,  they are not engaged with missiles, jets or robots, but with everydays technology tasks and production matters. For instance - they are applied to sophisticated control of paper machine, hot or cold rolling steel mills, fossile thermal power stations, a mirriad of chemical reactors with very stringent performance constraints and environmental requirements, and so on. Virtually, sophisticated control is implemented everywhere, where highest product quality and economy efficiency are real aims of the final results. And there are money for it! There are no options for compromises in such industrial tasks and the solutions are usually reached by "blood, sweat and tears". Let remember to the audience the old enough to be forgotten tragedy of Bopal, India. In this light, one will immediately add, that nowadays control algorithms are not a single or stand-by solution, but they are supported by a bundle of additional procedures, functional options and auxilliary sequences. For instance, these are the well-known Antireset windup procedures, some  start-up, load-change and process stop autonomous phases, automatic cascade control transfer, etc. In this light, single PID is purely a textbook fiction, but the real industrial life is much more tough and complicated.
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I'm doing some research using smartphones to help control something. I cannot explain the difference between detect a gesture (moving left and then move right) with user's activity (for simple, call moving hand left and right).
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hi
i think gesture recognition is focus on special part of body like hand or head .
in gesture recognition, we dont need to follow all of the body parts , we know gestures
and know that which part of body contains in this gesture .
but in activity detection, it is posible someone might do it differently than I do.
in fact when to use gestures to command , should do it right and i or you should do it almost the same . but in activity we do not have to do alike.
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Dear Mofedi,
Please see question posed through ResearchGate Dec 15, 2015.Here the folowing link:
-Can someone describe feedback and shunt in terms of closed-loop ...
Also see links and attached files in topics.
-Feedback Systems and Feedback Control Systems
-Closed-loop System and Closed-loop Control Systems
-Control System | Closed Loop Open Loop Control System | Electrical4u
-Electric Drives - Control Systems - Description and Applications
-Feedback Amplifier - SlideShare
Best regards
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Electropneumatic Signal Converter is used for converting direct current signal into standard linear pneumatic signal for process control system applications. It is used for converting control signal 4-20 mA or 0-20 mA etc. coming from Electronic Controllers etc. into a linear 3-15 psi or 0.2-1 kg/cm² pneumatic signal for operation of control valves and dampers etc.
Please explain the working of it and if possible add a circuit diagram also.
Thank You.
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The concept of converting electric current into force and then pressure is by means of the electromagnetic.It is so one can make a DC magnet by flowing the current into a an electric coil. Then this magnet is made to move a piece of iron . The piece of the iron is connected to spring in one end while the spring is fixed in the other end.  the piece of iron can be driven by the magnetic field of the electric current to  actuate a plunger of a valve. The other method one can exploit the principle of the DC motor where one has a permanence  magnet and then push the current in a coil in the magnetic field of the permanent, this coil is made to deflect against the restoring force of a spring. This deflection can be used to actuate a plunger.
Simply one exploits the electromagnetic effects to build current to force transducers for mechanical actuation.
Best wishes
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What kind of components or parts would you need to the drone, if you would like to communicate or oversight the third person?
Currently I used micro controller platform to see if I can connect the pins to both radio and first person view system using TX and RX.
but I was wondering if there is way to install radio system inside the drone or find the some parts i could connect to micro controller platform pins, so third person can hear when user is talking.
I was searching for the components, that could be installed, and I am vague but what to use, and it seems lots of considerations. 
Please give any advice or insights, I am vague with the concepts and hard to verify with my assumption for myself.
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ISA Automation Week 2013 Technology and Solutions Event will be held in Nashville, TN, USA, 5-7.11.2013. Seems to be a valuable site for industrial automation and control technology.
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Dear @Ganesh, my question is 3 years old. Let me bring some new info on ISA meetings in 2016.
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Since two or three months ago, the official website of OSEK/VDX has been being offline. According to Wikipedia, someone recommends to visit autosar.org instead. However, I can't find original OSEK/VDX documents, but Autosar specifications. Is the project closed or merged to another project? And where can I get OSEK documents now?
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The OSEK standard has become a ISO standard (17356-3), thus you find it at ISO's website: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=40079 (non free)
AUTOSAR in turn, has adopted 17356-3. That is the reason Wikipedia points to AUTOSAR.
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There are many controllers like arduino , pic , avr , atmel etc....... In industrial automatic machines, which control board is used?
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I think you should think only about PLCs, mainly because they are popular among industrial practitioners.  But why they are popular ? There are several arguments like : simplicity of programming them, they are scalable - you can add several modules to the CPU module, they have a lot of certificates, which are important for a service crew inside of a company.
The fact is that using several microplatforms like Arduino you can build a system with a similar functionality as in case of PLCs. In practice a problem is how fast are you able to build a whole control system and how reliable it will be i.e. what will be its average time of working without any failure. 
Based on my own experience like a integrator of control system I definitely recommend you PLC as a control platform in an industry although PLC is more expensive.   In domestic and/or laboratory applications  or if you have enough time you can build control systems based on microplatforms.
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I am using LabVIEW and NI DAQ cards. I am operating a heater using PID controller in LabVIEW. How can I tune the value of the gains so that I can get an excellent response from the heater? By excellent response, I mean the system should get to the set temperature in reasonable time, not too fast and not too slow.
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 A heater is a very slowly process. So, an on-off command with hysteresis and a PI element may be recommended.
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Could anybody point out trusty and high rank journal discuss that Multiple Model Control with hard switching is applicable to system with fast dynamics ?
Thanks.
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When you combine hard switching and speed, you are unlikely to obtain reliable performance. This is because real systems have noise which can cause plenty of mistakes in switching. However, if you have high confidence/integrity detectors, and transitioned between hybrid modes smoothly, you could guarantee good performance.  Perhaps you could even analyze the overall system in an LMI framework, or SOSTOOLS framework (for nonlinear systems) as LPV controllers, gain scheduling controllers, etc are analyzed.
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The topics of CPS and i4.0 are very interesting. The innovative implementation of CPS and IoT of i4.0 towards forming a hybrid of products and services (or PSS) leads the most advanced industry.
This is a new field of research. What are the current challenges being faced by researchers in the implementation of CPS and Industry 4.0?
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Dear sir,
The main challenges and risks in Cyber-Physical Systems related to Industry 4.0 are:
1. Data protection and data security
2. Lack of benefit quantification
3. Lack of  prioritization by top management
4. Industrial broadband structure
5. Industrial espionage/sabotage
6. Production outages due to nonavailability of data
If we analysis the influence of the main processes of controlling Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges , we will analysis:
1. Strategic Planning 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Quantification of benefits of digitization and networking in terms of optimization potentials
  • Identification of new digitization-related business areas
2. Operative Planning and Budgeting
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • New KPIs
  •  Flexible budgeting 
3. Forecasting 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Forecasts in real-time
  • Continuously up-to-date production and market data
4. Cost Accounting 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Improved basis for calculating production overheads through comprehensive transparency of information
  • Improved transparency of production costs
5. Management Reporting 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Forward-looking reports
  • “What-If” analyses
  • Use of mobile devices
6. Project and Investment Controlling 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Monitoring of production procedures in real-time
  • Investment decisions based on scenario-based simulation models
7. Risk Management 
Influence of this process of controlling due to Industrie 4.0 to the changes and challanges are in further :
  • Consideration of new risks arising from comprehensive digitization
I hope that this answers and next links will gonna help you.
Best regards,
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For a system with non-periodic disturbances (5Hz-40Hz), and assuming the disturbance can be measured before it enters the system. For example, the disturbance can be measured roughly about 3 samples ahead of time (in a discrete control system).
What would be the best control strategy to reject the disturbance when it's measurable in advance?
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As you open to explore any control strategy, I will suggest you to have a look on the non linear techniques. You may look particularly "Sliding mode control with sliding perturbation observer" (SMCSPO). The SPO can measure disturbance by itself.   (http://dynamicsystems.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1407678)
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My department is building a new molecular biology lab. We would like to automate many of the procedures however we do not have much experience in this field. I'd appreciate any user experience related to automation in biology and answers to these questions
What is your experience with automation in molecular biology?
What kind of automation do you use in your lab?
Would you say it's beneficial?
What procedures do you think are the most useful to automate?
Thanks
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It is a great question to ask at the start of the process... and it is a process that requires planning and thought...  it is too easy to get caught up in automating a task at a time and wind up with components that don't work together.  I've written a book on the subject ("Computerized Systems in the Modern Laboratory: A Practical Guide") that should be of use (www.dhibooks.com).  Feel free to contact me if you have questions (email - joe.liscouski@gmail.com).
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Hello!
          I have referred to numerous texts and literature which explains control theory in depth. However, all the texts seem to be focused on how to apply the concepts in terms of mathematics. As well as, it also has not been addressed how different mathematical operations and transforms are important, from application or practical point of view? Rarely, the discussion is focused on why the concept was brought up by control theorists (from historical point view and application point of view) or what is the intuition or insights behind the particular concept "in practical terms"? I would be extremely glad if you can point in proper direction regarding foundation, intuition and relation of mathematics (applied point of view) with control theory and more importantly, towards evolution of control theory. Thank you. 
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Hi Ankur,
 For an excellent insight into Control, video lectures of "Brian Douglas" [1] are awesome. Analysis/Design from practical perspective, I have found two books to be very helpful
(i) Modern Control Systems (12th Edition): Richard C. Dorf
(ii) Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (7th Edition) by Franklin et al.
 I taught two courses from (ii) and found it full of learning for the students. In case, you need, I will be happy to share Slides for the book made personally by me. 
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In some literature of sliding mode control, the control law is proposed as follows,
 u=u_eq +u1
Where u_eq is the equivalent control, as they named it, and u1 is the discontinuous control term.
          Is u_eq, mentioned above, the equivalent control as defined in the Utkin's sense? (see for example "Sliding Modes in Control and Optimization"). Also, how  is computed especially when considering the uncertainty and disturbances in the system model?
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u_eq is the result of low pass filter applied to the discontinuous control.
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I would like to gain knowledge on MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY for implementing it in vehicle path following problem. As being from mechanical background Is there any good material to understand the crux of this control strategy. However there are numerous good material on internet but experiencing difficulty in finding the right/effective one for me which could act as threshold for gaining my confidence and start over.
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Dear Singh, with background understanding of nonlinear control theory, it is possible to gain better understanding of MPC from the underlisted textbooks on the subject matter:
1. Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation by Liuping Wang
2. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control by Frank Allgöwer and  ‎Alex Zheng
3. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Algorithms by Lars Grüne and Jürgen Pannek
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Hello All,
I'm looking for different options for a relatively accurate XYZ positioning system, the main limitation being budget. the build area can be as small as 100mmx100mm but the positioning accuracy needs to be between 1um-5um.
on the two ends of the spectrum I'm aware of the Chinese milling routers (one example is http://www.ebay.com/itm/New-3-AXIS-Router-Engraver-Engraving-Drilling-Milling-Machine-Desktop-CNC3040T-/261496306189) which is offering ~50um accuracy(probably realisticly around 100um) however, it's definitely the cheapest option.
on the other end, there are the positioning systems by Aerotech (such as Cartesius-LM) which offer between 1um to 1nm, which are great but above my budget.
any recommendations for options in between would be greatly appreciated.
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Have you looked at 3D-printers? They often have the platform preforming the z-motion but it could be useful. They are marketed to consumers so the price is low and precision is reasonable.
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I'm trying to find information about researches related to brake testing using electrically simulated inertia in dynamometers and their control systems.
I hope you can help me.
Thank you very much.
Fernando Zacco
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I am working on a project about controlling a mobile robot via USB joystick. I need a force-feedback joystick which can be programmable and (preferably) be used with Beaglebone black and Robotic Operating System (ROS). 
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In the continuing march of production technology, any human action that is repetitive and routinized will be automated.  This is inevitable and unavoidable.  Will this global trend in task / job automation impact the industrial sectors differently ? The impact of this inevitability in automation is said to promise a greater negative effect on manufacturing (including agro-manufacturing) and agricultural processes than on services processes which is said to require more discretion, contemplation and intuition and so is more reliant on human actions and hence resistant to automation. 
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Appreciate the feedback Alcy & Fang
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Which is better in terms of performance and speed: (options 1, 2 or 3)
1: A (commercially available) hardware auto-tune fuzzy-PID controller (for example, see the link 1 below) having thermocouple input and solid-state relay (SSR) output, or
2. A PID controller programmed using softwares like LabVIEW or MATLAB/SIMULINK (link 2-4) and interfaced (by a Data-acquisition card) to thermocouples for temperature (input) and SSR for controller action (output). I want to have precise temperature control of a custom-made electrical furnace for example.
3. For implementing complex "Ramp-soak" temperature profiles, I am thinking to *program* the above hardware PID controller through MODBUS RTU/ASCII (whatever it supports) on a PC (using LabVIEW). i.e. I can read PV (process variable) and write SV (set variable) into the controller. Rest all is same as case 1. 
I have access to all options above (hardwares and licensed softwares).
Please share your *practical* experiences.
Thanks.
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You might only be interested in precise temperature control but you also mentioned ramp-soak temperature profiles in your initial query.
I would still use Matlab/Simulink for the sheer flexibility of the set-up. Also you will be able to "play" with different control strategies which you wouldn't necessarily be able to do with a hardware PID controller.
Another solution might be to use a PLC to do the control of the rig and provide a software interface to Matlab for more advanced control algorithms before implementing them in the PLC itself.
More food for thought...
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In the field of model order reduction, if all the poles lie at the same point for a higher order system, then to reduce the order of the system is very difficult. Can anyone tell me which method is suitable to reduce the system, especially in frequency domain methods?
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I think the suggestion of Prof.A. Zolotas will work best , if you are thinking of repeated stable real poles. May also try the Stability Equation method [See the Journal of the Franklin Institute]. 
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I want to know what are the newest topics in the field of using the FPGA-based MPSoC in control applications 
Is there any suggestions ?
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I need MIMO control systems whose output variances are sensitive to the controller tuning. The systems I have dealt with are such that changing controller tuning affects only 1 output variance, the other one remaining unchanged. I need a system in which variance of both (or all) outputs rise with controller tuning.
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Try the Furuta Pendulum. You can find lots of information about it, and papers, on the Internet. Another possibility is the Ball and Wheel system. In attachment I sent three papers where you can find more information on these systems.
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I designed  a controller to the cable-driven robot, and get a group of parameter Q,r and ᵨ  based on  cut-and-try method. The original parameter Q,r and p taken from a paper on IEEE transaction on fuzzy system. I try to find the best parameter Q,r and p for our controller although the cut-and-try method does works in Riccati-like equation(1).
PA + ATP – 2/rPBBTP + I/ᵨ2 PBBTP=0 (1)
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A  classical useful book with ideas on this question constrained to the linear time-invariant  case is:
Schultz and Melsa " State functions and linear control systems", McGraw 1967.
Paying  attention to chapters 9 and 8 , specifically to example 9.2 and to the indications there on previous related materrial iwithin the book.
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To deal with dynamic analysis,I need to caculate a Mass matrix for a spatial mechanism in a wholeform. kindly suggest me some tutorials and journal reference.pls waiting for ur valuable reply
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Dear Carlos Jesús Zúñiga Aguilar ,
thanks for the support
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I m working on a final year project of developing a robot which can follow a person without any human assistance. In that, I need is what can be used to uniquely identify a person it is following, and avoid obstacles.
Hardware I m using will be Raspberry Pi 2 and also camera module is not decided but mostly I'll be using USB WebCam
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Thanks a lot hiren. I was finding something related to opencv only. Thanks
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Dear Sir/Madam
I'd like to ask if someone has the dynamic parameters for an industrial Scara robot? because I need these parameters as an input for my research.
Please: provide me the module of the Scara robot and I prefer this robot has the capability to reach 700-1000 mm and has the capability to carry around 5 kg
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Thanks for your replay
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CPG-based controller generates joint angels and we don’t use dynamic model of robot. Then how can we implement the CPG-based controller on the robot? (i.e. CPG-based control doesn’t consider the dynamic model and dynamic constraints like velocity and acceleration of joints then how it can be applied to real robot with dynamic model and constraints )
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Check these seminal references:
Grillner, S., “Neurobiological bases of rhythmic motor acts in vertebrates”, Science,
228, 143–149, 1985.
Taga, G., “A model of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system for human locomotion, I:
Emergence of basic gait”, Biological Cybernetics, 73, 97–111, 1995.
Taga, G., “A model of the neuro–musculo–skeletal system for human locomotion,
II: Real-time adaptability under various constraints”, Biological Cybernetics, 73,
113–121, 1995.
Ogihara, N., Yamazaki, N., “Generation of human bipedal locomotion by a biomimetic neuro-musculo-skeletal model”, Biological Cybernetics, 84, 1–11, 2001.
Yamasaki, T., Nomura, T., Sato, S., “Possible functional roles of phase resetting
during walking”, Biological Cybernetics, 88, 468–496, 2003.
Fukuoka, Y., Kimura, H., & Cohen, A. H., “Adaptive dynamic walking of a quadruped robot on irregular terrain based on biological concepts”, International
Journal of Robotics Research, 22(3–4), 187–202, 2003.
Kimura, H., Akiyama, S., Sakurama, K., “Realization of dynamic walking and
running of the quadruped using neural oscillator”, Autonomous Robots, 7(3),
247–258, 1999.
Lewis, M. A., & Bekey, G. A., “Gait adaptation in a quadruped robot”, Autonomous
Robots, 12, 301–312, 2002.
Tsujita, K., Tsuchiya, K., & Onat, A., “Adaptive gait pattern control of a quadruped
locomotion robot”, Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference
on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2318–2325, 2001.
Aoi S., Tsuchiva K., “Locomotion control of a biped robot using nonlinear oscillators”, Autonomous Robots, 19(3), 219-232, 2005.
Here you can find works regarding bipeds as well as quadrupeds. Hope that this information helps you.
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I am trying to set up a connection between an OPC client (using the MATLAB OPC toolbox) and a PLC S7 300 as OPC server through a CP5611 Profibus card. The problem is that OPC server does not show up in the list of available servers when I type in MATLAB: >>hostInfo = opcserverinfo('localhost')
I think that I set all of the configuration of OPC toolbox in MATLAB (such as opcregister and all of security setting in Component Services on the PC's operating system), but when i want to add a host in OPC toolboc, i encounter the following error
Does anyone can help me or have screendumps or documents from the these settings ?
Thanks
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Dear Anurag, Thanks for your reply but i must do it by MATLAB.
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Are both HMI and Scada related to each other. If yes, how?
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For me , all of them are the same : Scada , HMI , MMI.
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I cant synchronize it with an external oscillator and must synchronize it with a line.
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some synchronizer have the speed and voltage control and at the time when the auto-synchroniser initiates the rate of change of frequency should be reduced and below a certain threshold. The breaker closing time should also be considered when the automatic synchroniser issues the close in advance angle to close at zero degree phase difference.
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Currently looking at Hamilton Star (current favorite) and BC Biomek 4000, but am open to other suggestions (except Tecan - they gave us an exorbitant qoute which we can't afford). Our main needs are some very complex PCR setups (a lot of sigle channel transfers plus a lot of plate-to-plate multichanel copying) and DNA extraction with magnetic beads or spin columns. Any positive or negative experience welcome.
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Thank you all for your help! We're currently getting the best offer on a Hamilton Star, and it seems the best-fitting machine for our needs. Considering your answers and other research I did they also seem among the most reliable, so it looks like Hamilton it is. :)
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Voltage regulator in power station is normally a composite feedforward and feedback regulator. This regulator has the best performace and stability at this application. Is there any theory for composite feedforward and feedback regulators? What's the difference between pure feedforward and pure feedback regulator?
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Generally, feedforwad control have faster response than feedback control because in ffedforward control we are measuring process variables before control elements. Their response is different because the zeros of the transfer function are different in both case but closed loop poles are identical. 
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From different control methodologies for active suspension control, which of them is more frequently used that considers the whole body model, (not a single wheel).
Which is being used in practice by automotive companies now?
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Tyoyta uses H infinity control.
Others more the skyhook approach
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I want to control the lateral dynamics of a car like ground vehicle for implementing automatic behavior (such as lane change, side slip control). please suggest me how to find or develop a steering actuator model in terms of state space or transfer function. How to design a genuine actuator for steering?
Any help will be appreciated.
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I agree with the answers given by N. Sharma and D.S. Pranav.
A very simple first order model can be introduced to simulate the time lag between the desired steering angle and the real steering angle. The transfer function describing this time lag is H(s) = 1/(k*s+1) (in the Laplace domain), where 'k' is the time constant. The input for this transferfunction X(s) is f.e. the desired steering angle, the output Y(s) will be the real steering angle.
Y(s) = H(s)X(s)
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Hie guys .Help please .I am trying to design a closed loop feed braking system to control the brakes using a PLC for a locomotive (10 gauge). I was planning on using a Hall Effect sensor to pick up rotational speed and also measure it, I have just been told it will not be as accurate. Some suggested I try a tachogenerator and another suggested to me to convert a PWM output into a voltage output but I don’t know where to start. Thanks you?
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Ben, I don't understand your question very well.  I gather that you have a rotating drive shaft that presumably connects a drive motor to one or more wheels.  Are you trying to control a regenerative braking system by switching the resistance in the braking circuit?  Are you trying to detect wheel slip?  What determines how much braking you need?  What is your requirement for "accuracy"?  How were you planning to use the Hall Effect Sensor--to measure the braking current?   Hall sensors are typically used to measure DC current and can be fairly accurate, but if you are just dissipating power in a resistor bank you can do the same thing quite cheaply by just measuring the voltage across the load resistors.  This solution would not give you any information about the rotational speed of the shaft or wheel slip, however.   If you need to measure the speed of he shaft/wheel, then the suggestion above about encoders is valid, although you may be able to build a more robust system by using an inductive proximity sensor to sense a keyway on the shaft or the teeth of a gear or sprocket.  Inductive sensors are typically impervious to water, dirt, grease, etc. and also much less fragile if mechanical shock is an issue than an optical encoder would be.  And many PLCs do have inputs specifically for pulse inputs from speed sensors.
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Dear colleagues, can you specify, is possible, from personal experience, the (auto)tuning methods or procedures for closed-loop control algorithms, applied to real processes? If your experience includes other algorithms other than the PID, the information is, of course, welcome. Generally each important automation hardware/software company has own self-tuning (PID) procedure, but very, very succinct described. Thank, You!
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Dear colleagues,
Thank You, for answers!
Best regards!
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for player/stage os it been used and my controller should give the output as my position and orientation which is feded to the controller and it being controlled by my pid controller  as a automated controler my feedback path in mobile robot , can it being programmed in c++ language as my library is defined in os.
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I can't parse what you've written.  Are you asking for help interfacing controllers in Linux?  C++ under Linux can do anything that C++ on any other platform can...
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I appreciate any example that explains the procedure in deriving the reaching time for a SMC solution
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Proving the Stability and finite time convergence of a SMC algorithm is really a critical issue. 
The reaching time estimation do not have any general description.
The homogeneity proves the finite time convergence effectively but if a perturbed system is assumed then homogeneity becomes a question mark.
The best and hard tool is to find a Lyapunov function for proving the stability and then by the virtue of stability analysis finding the reaching time is abvious.
However keep in mind that the reaching time must depend upon the controller parameters e.g. gain of the controller and the initial conditions.
Moreover if the system is under the effect of some non-vanishing perturbations then the concept of uniform ultimate boundedness changes the definition of reaching time. 
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Burner controller for industry boilers (thermal oil or water boilers).
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The easiest way is used solidwork software, then you can shows it in multimedia
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I am in need of an explanation on what it is used for and also, how I can work with it on projects.
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surface fitting tool - You can use it for your intergrated Design, especially to build House of Quality
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For the simplicity and convenience of the analysis of the MIMO system I want to decentralize the system into SISO systems.
But the confusion is, how can I  know, if it is applicable or not? In simple words, the analysis for SISO systems will be as reliable as of the whole MIMO system.
suppose,G=[g11,g12;g21,g22;];
If I analyse g11,g12,g22,g21 separately then can I give  a conclusion for the whole system G?
Any help will be highly appreciated
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Hi,
the answer is NO!
due to transmission zeros and input-output channels interaction, it is impossible to analysis gij separately.
1) input-output paring should be performed for example by Bristol's Relative Gain Array (RGA) method.
2) an appropriate tuning method should be considered for the paired MIMO system: detuning method (Luyben, 1986), sequential loop closing (Hovd and Skogestad, 1994), Independent loop method (Skogestad and Morari, 1989) and relay auto-tuning (Shen and Yu, 1994)
for more information read:
1- J.M. Maciejowski, Multivariable Deedback Design, Addison Wesley, 1988.
2- S Skogestad, IPostlethwaite, Multivariable Feedback Control, Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
3- P. Albertos, A. Sala, Multivariable Control Systems An Engineering Approach, Springer-Verlag, London, 2004.
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We have a pressure, level, and flow measurement instrument that burns when a surge occurs. Actually we installed Class B & C surge arrestors on the main distribution board but it doesn't protect the sensitive sensor.
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You can find the patern in 
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I have a step response of my open loop is second order and I dont have the transfer function for this. I have attached the response to this. I want to control the overshoot, settling time with the parameters. Is there any method to do this?
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One of the most practical and easy methods that I usually take in these problems is trial and error! It may seem an obvious answer, but it saves so much time!
You will easily figure out a trend a change to variation in any of the variables of your system. Then, you can select the gains such that it has the shape of the response that you desire! 
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No comments !
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Most of the time other controllers are more powerfull.
So think twice if you use it. A lot of people do not know how to design normal controllers and hope it will go better with fuzzy....
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adaptive fuzzy logic controller has been selected to solve a prediction problem - the variables are discrete - and contains time - day with other contextual data -
is it possible to use fuzzy logic controller with discrete variables and can we use it alone?
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I now understand that it is not control that you are doing it is modeling.  You want to use fuzzy logic, FL, to be able to take a person's recent experiences/situation and predict their level of stress. 
Your input variables are the separate categories of experience or situation or environment that might influence a person’s level of stress.  These factors might be “recreation”, “sleep”, “work”, “physical fitness”, “personal debt”, “number of dependents”, “support from a significant other”, etc.  But it is not a yes or no that matters for the factors, it is a quantification of aspects such as level, quality, and time since.     
First, use text and human logic to describe how the modeling relation might be done.  For example it is not the fact that a person got some sleep in the past day, but it is the amount of sleep (3 hours, 9 hours), the number of times for the sleep duration (1 sleep through, 2 sleep sections, all in 6 short catnaps) and the time duration since waking (2 hours, 18 hours) that would be the things that you would consider that influence the internal level of stress.  Inputs to the FL model would be amount of sleep in the past day (hours), number of sleeps, and time since last sleep.  These are all continuous valued or integer variables that quantify the quality/quantity/magnitude/persistence of the influence.  And, it is not the person's body weight, but the weight over or under (5 kg, 100 kg) a healthy weight for the person's height and type.  List these quantifiable attributes/influences.
One option to FL modeling would have you decide how to classify the numerical variables.  For example, any sleep duration between 7 and 9 hours might be categorized as “normal”, 5 to 7 “little”, less than 5 “very little”, 9 to 11 “excessive”, and over 11 “very excessive”.  If in 1 period “normal”, 2 to 3 “interrupted” and over 3 “poor”.  These define the memberships in each factor category (linguistic variable).  Calculate a membership value for each variable in each category.
Do the same for stress level.  Decide quantifications “low”, “normal”, “moderately high”, “high”, “very high”.  For each data point assign a membership of stress to each category.
Then use nonlinear regression to create a model that uses the input memberships to predict the stress membership.