Science topic

Autoimmune Disease - Science topic

Inappropriate immune responses of the immune system. The triggers, treatments, pathology and mechanisms of autoimmunity.
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Publications related to Autoimmune Disease (10,000)
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Article
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Methylprednisolone pulse treatment is currently used for optic neuritis. It can speed visual recovery, but does not improve the ultimate visual outcomes. Recent studies have reported that miR-125a-5p has immunomodulatory effects on autoimmune diseases. However, it remains unclear whether miR-125a-5p has effects on optic neuritis. In this study, we...
Article
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Background Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that has modified the natural history of allergic diseases. However, since its overall effect on the immune system has not been elucidated, AIT is either absolutely or relatively contraindicated in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases (RADs). Therefore, there have been no long-ter...
Article
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Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease with high morbidity and mortality characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Some studies have investigated the use of stem cells to treat SSc. Herein, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cel...
Article
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Background Using neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) for patients with myasthaenia gravis remains a challenge in perioperative management. Sugammadex has enabled the safe use of NMBDs. We investigated whether the adverse outcomes, and the treatment used for myasthaenic crises and tracheotomy, are affected by NMBD use in patients with myasthaenia g...
Article
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that selectively destroys insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. An unmet need in diabetes management, current therapy is focussed on transplantation. While the reprogramming of progenitor cells into functional insulin-producing β-cells has also been proposed this remains controversial and poorly u...
Article
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Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of 10 pattern recognition receptors (TLR1–TLR10) involved in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses besides their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). TLR10 is the least studied TLR in MS, and data for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
Article
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Among the different etiologies for fever of unknown origin in children, infectious diseases are the most frequent final diagnosis, followed by autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Autoinflammatory diseases are relatively rare among children and are frequently overlooked as differential diagnoses for fever of unknown origin. Once the possibility of...
Article
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Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint destruction that eventually induces severe disability. Inflammation is the key determinant and primary underlying mechanism leading to disability and increased mortality in patients with RA. This study aimed to correlate the hematological...
Article
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As the understanding of skeletal muscle inflammation is increasingly clarified, the role of Treg cells in the treatment of skeletal muscle diseases has attracted more attention in recent years. A consensus has been reached that the regulation of Treg cells is the key to completing the switch of inflammation and repair of skeletal muscle, whose pres...
Article
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can inhibit the occurrence of autoimmune diseases and increase the activation threshold of the immune response. Here, we present schemes for the isolation and culture of natural human regulatory T cells (nTregs) and in vitro-induced Tregs (iTregs). Appropriate concentrations of TGF-β, IL-2, retinoic acid (atRA), and rapam...
Article
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Background Bronchial asthma is considered the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide and is one of the main causes of hospitalization in the pediatric population. Serum interleukin 38 (IL-38) levels are elevated in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, its exact role in the pathogenesis of these diseases is unclear....
Article
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Connective tissue diseases (autoimmune rheumatic diseases) are a group of disorders of unknown etiology. The term mixed connective tissue (MCTD) is used when two or more autoimmune diseases occur in the same individual simultaneously, for example, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis in various combinations. Here...
Article
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Autoimmunity has emerged as a characteristic of the post-COVID syndrome (PCS), which may be related to sex. In order to further investigate the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and autoimmunity in PCS, a clinical and serological assessment on 100 patients was done. Serum antibody profiles against self-antigens and infectious agents were evaluated by...
Article
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Dysregulation of auto-reactive T cells and autoantibody-producing B cells and excessive inflammation are responsible for the occurrence and development of autoimmune diseases. The suppression of autoreactive T cell activation and autoantibody production, as well as inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production have been utilized to ameliorate auto...
Article
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Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands and other organs, associated with sicca syndrome but also with systemic involvement with varying degrees of severity. Despite their importance, these systemic manifestations are not routinely evaluated and there is no homogenous approac...
Article
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An autoimmune disease with multi-system manifestations, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has several clinical presentations varying from mild muco-cutaneous involvement to severe multi-organ involvement. We present the case 19-year old girl with a 4-year history of recurrent skin rashes along with recurrent painless oral ulcers, non-scaring alope...
Article
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Insulin replacement is an available treatment for autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). There are multiple limitations in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as T1DM by immunosuppression using drugs and chemicals. The advent of extracellular vesicle (EV)-based therapies for the treatment of various diseases has attracted much attention...
Technical Report
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The prevalence of autoimmune disorders is increasing worldwide. Whilst some treatments to manage symptoms do exist, there is a lack of effective options to stop and/or reverse the progression of the majority of these diseases. This is due in part to the fact that the causes and mechanisms of these conditions are difficult to identify as they includ...
Preprint
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Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease with unclear pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism on gene expression, providing a key angle to understand disease mechanisms. To understand the pathways involved in SLE, and to develop biomarkers for its diagnosis and treatment, we analyzed...
Article
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Most autoimmune diseases (AIDs) during childhood debut with more severe and aggressive forms, with life-threatening conditions that increase the need for intensive care therapy. This study describes the clinical, laboratory, and health outcome features of pediatric patients with AIDs admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This is a r...
Article
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The growing understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis accelerated the development of monoclonal therapeutic antibodies to specifically target multiple cancer pathways. Recombinant protein therapeutics now constitute a large proportion of yearly approved medicines. Oncology, autoimmune diseases and to a smaller degree the prophylax...
Article
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The signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) proteins are a family of Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing transcription factors. The family member STAT4 is a mediator of IL-12 signalling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. The activity of STAT4 requires binding of phosphotyrosine-containin...
Article
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Purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) is a nonselective cation channel of the purinergic receptor family. P2X7R is activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and plays a significant role in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases by triggering cellular signal transduction. More importantly, P2X7R is abnormally expressed in many tumor c...
Article
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, vasculopathy, and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Immunological response in SSc is still poorly understood. Cytokines play a significant role in this process leading to vasculopathy and fibrosis. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate...
Article
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Salivary gland tumors are an important group of pathological lesions of the head and neck and are often seen in adults. Clinically, salivary tumors are often asymptomatic and may become apparent over time. Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are not very common. The most common site of these tumors is the parotid gland, and in many studies thes...
Article
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The rising prevalence of obesity presents a world-wide challenge as it is associated with numerous comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and hypertension. Obesity-associated illnesses are estimated to cause nearly 4 million deaths globally per year, therefore there is a critical need to better understand associated path...
Preprint
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Background: Systemic inflammation and immune system dysfunction play important roles in the pathophysiology of cirrhosis. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker associated with systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation in cirrhotic patients. NLR is inexpensive and may predict decompensation and mortality in these patients. In thi...
Article
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Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease that is characterized by dysregulation of T cell-mediated autoimmunity. NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor proteins) is one of the largest inflammasomes. It is crucial for the control of adaptive immunological response, particularly T cell responsiveness. Evaluation of the NLRP3 inflammasome’s c...
Article
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. Transverse myelitis (TM) is one of the rare neurological manifestations of SLE. Here, we present a case of SLE in which TM precede other symptoms and successfully treated by Rituximab.
Article
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Several HLA allelic variants have been associated with protection from or susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. Here, we examined whether specific HLA alleles would be associated with different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes. The HLA alleles present at the ‐A, ‐B, ‐C, ‐DPA1, ‐DPB1, ‐DQA1, ‐DQB1, ‐DRB1, and ‐DRB3...
Article
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High sodium concentration alters leukocyte activation, and in particular T‐helper (Th) lymphocyte polarization, and drives the development of autoimmune diseases in mouse studies. Similar results have been obtained with human leukocytes under in vitro settings and in few observational studies. Therefore, salt has been implicated as a risk factor fo...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation that involves symmetric polyarthritis of small and large joints. Autoimmune rheumatic diseases represent a significant socioeconomic burden as they are among the leading causes of death and morbidity due to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Health dispari...
Article
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with very heterogeneous clinical behavior between affected individuals. Therefore, the search for biomarkers clinically useful for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of the disease is necessary. Here, we determined the association between PTPN22, IL10, OAS2, and CD70 mRNA expr...
Article
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Immune homeostasis is heavily dependent on the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which act to suppress the activation of many immune cell types including autoreactive conventional T cells. A body of evidence has shown that Tregs are intrinsically defective in many common autoimmune diseases, and gene polymorphisms which increase the susceptibili...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a canonical autoimmune disease that shares numerous risk factors with diabetes mellitus (DM). The production of autoantibodies is a characteristic feature in both diseases. To determine the frequency and specificity of DM-related antibodies (DMab) in RA patients and to study whether DMab associates with new DM cases in...
Article
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The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Ternopil region (western Ukraine). Serum IgA levels were measured in 240 patients aged 4–17 years with DM and in 324 children of a control group of the same age. Normal IgA level was observed in...
Article
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This cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire aimed to assess the knowledge and experience of autoimmune disease patients in Saudi Arabia of the ocular effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Among the 245 respondents, discontinuation of the drug was linked to its ocular toxicity in approximately 7.3%. Most patients had taken HCQ for a period long...
Article
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Les manifestations neurologiques centrales sont rarement une complication de la maladie de Horton (MH). Nous rapportons le cas d'une femme de plus de 50 ans présentant un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique compliquant une maladie de Horton. Les atteintes neurologiques liées à la MH peuvent en être le mode de révélation comme de complication et...
Chapter
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Autoimmune diseases have emerged as a pandemic in our modern societies, especially after World War II. There are currently more than 80 autoimmune diseases that compromise the lives of millions of patients around the world. There is a variety of factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that vary from environmental factor...
Article
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Our study aims to investigate the serum levels of anti-nucleosome antibody (ANuA) isotypes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and clarify ANuA isotypes that may diagnose and predict SLE. We detected anti-nucleosome antibodies (ANuA) in the serum from 120 patients with SLE, 99 patients suffering from other autoimmune diseases (OAD),...
Article
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Purpose of Review Pregnancy loss (PL) has been acknowledged by the American Heart Association as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. This review aims to sum up recent findings (< ~ 5 years), concerning the link between PL and CVD. Recent Findings The association between PL and risk of CVD increased with increasing number...
Article
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Memory B cells (MBCs) are an essential part of our immunological memory. They respond fast upon re-encountering pathogens and can differentiate into plasma cells that secrete protective antibodies. The focus of this review is on MBCs that lack, or express low levels of, CD21, hereafter referred to as CD21-/low. These cells are expanded in periphera...
Article
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Background: A growing literature, mostly based on selected populations, indicates that traumas may be associated with autoimmune diseases, yet few studies exist on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in the general population. Objective: We assessed cross-sectional associations between self-reported ACEs and MS among...
Article
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine belonging to a family of trimeric proteins with both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. TNF is a key mediator in autoimmune diseases and during the last couple of decades several biologic drugs have delivered new therapeutic options for patients suffering from chronic autoimmune dis...
Article
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Immunosenescence is the deterioration of the innate and adaptive immune systems associated with aging and is primarily characterized by a reduction in T cell production and accumulation of atypical subsets. Age-related immunological dysfunction leads to impaired immune protection and persistent low-grade chronic inflammation, resulting in a decreas...
Article
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Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by nonscarring hair loss. Extensive forms of AA include alopecia totalis (AT; complete scalp hair loss) or alopecia universalis (AU; complete scalp, face, and body hair loss). Limited information exists about the cost and healthcare burden of AT and AU. Methods: Using a large U...
Article
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Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils typically consist of DNA-histone complexes and granule proteins. NETs were originally identified as a host defense system against foreign pathogens and are strongly associated with autoimmune diseases. However, a novel and predominant role of NETs in cancer is emerging. Increas...
Article
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Healthy individuals are generally immunologically tolerant to proteins derived from one's self (termed self proteins). However, patients with monogenic clotting disorders, like hemophilia A (HemA), lack central tolerance to the absent self protein. Thus, when exposed to replacement therapy, such as procoagulant factor VIII, they may mount an immune...
Article
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Purtscher-like retinopathy is a rare phenomenon reported in disorders including acute pancreatitis, collagen vascular diseases, fat embolism, chronic renal failure, amniotic fluid embolism, battered baby syndrome and several autoimmune diseases. We report an atypical initial feature of rheumatoid arthritis in a middle-aged male. This case will rais...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that affects the joints and may lead to disability. Recent advances have allowed us to study the human gut microbiota in great details. Numerous studies have shown that changes in gut microbiota may be playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. In this review we summarize human and animal s...
Article
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Background: The recently published 2019 American College of Rheumatology/European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (ACR/EULAR) classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were developed to increase the reliability and identification of SLE, especially in early disease. With the emergence of several new drugs for SLE, id...
Article
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Background. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is known to be an essential endocrine disease that affects the population and may lead to hypothyroidism. This disease is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. Hypothyroid patients frequently experience signs of depression, which is prevalent among other symptoms in hypothyroidism. Data from recent research...
Preprint
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COVID vaccines against the SARS-CoV2 infection helped in reducing the devastating effects of the COVID pandemic. Many studies have portrayed the efficacy and safety of vaccines, there are people who are hesitant to get vaccines due to the fear of side effects and the fear is especially high in patients with autoimmune disorders on systemic immunosu...
Article
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease with insidious onset, high rates of disability among patients, unknown pathogenesis, and no effective treatment. Ferroptosis is a novel type of regulated cell death that is associated with various cancers and diseases. However, its relation to AS is not clear. In the present st...
Article
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Viral infection, which is one of the environmental factors, and human autoimmune diseases are often associated with each other [...]
Article
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Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease where genetic factors have been related to SLE susceptibility and disease severity. CRP polymorphisms have been associated with high C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and high clinical disease activity in SLE patients; however, the evidence i...
Article
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by demyelination and axonal loss of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its spread throughout the world, the mechanisms that determine its onset are still to be defined. Immunological, genetic, viral, and environmental factors and exposure to chemicals may trigger MS. Many studies...
Article
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During the geological eras, some fungi, through adaptation and/or environmental/ecological pressure, interacted directly and indirectly with humans, through occasionally harmful interaction interdependent on the individual’s immunological condition. Infections caused by yeasts are underreported, subjugated, and underdiagnosed, and treatment is rest...
Article
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Objective: We aimed to identify features that allow differentiation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients that suffer recurrent thrombotic events (RTE) despite anticoagulation, from the other diagnosed PAPS patients. Methods: This was an exploratory study of anticoagulated PAPS patients attending an Autoimmune Diseases Unit (1998-...
Conference Paper
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Introducción: Las etiologías infecciosas incluidos los agentes respiratorios virales, similares al SARS-COV2 se consideran desencadenantes del Síndrome Antifosfolipídico. Presentamos un caso de SAF catastrófico asociado a infección por SARS-COV2 en un paciente atendido en nuestro hospital. Caso: Paciente masculino, alcohólico, hipertenso y con ante...
Article
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Background: Almost 5% of the world's population develops an autoimmune disease (AID), it is considered the fourth leading cause of disability for women, who represent 78% of cases. The sex ratio when it comes to the most prevalent AID varies from 9:1 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to 13:1 in endemic Tunisian pemphigus foliaceus (PF). Metho...
Article
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic autoimmune disease with relapse–remission courses. A number of patients may present with a refractory disease with partial or no response to treatment. Others may present with extra-intestinal manifestations that makes the treatment with one biologic challenging. Dual target therapy (DTT), combining bio...
Article
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The autoimmune disease known as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to the deterioration of bone. Bone erosion is a hallmark of RA and is linked to the severity of the disease as well as a poor functional result. Erosion of periarticular cortical bone is a common feature seen on plain radiographs of patients with RA. This characteristic featu...