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I am on the research for studies that investigate speaker normalization in children. For example, I wonder whether children around the age of six years can already normalize acoustic differences between speakers as well as adults. Any suggestions for literature on this topic?
Looking forward to reading your suggestions.
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Isabel,
I know of many studies on when phoneme detectors develop but never thought about your question.
Are we even sure that people perform speaker normalization in the same sense that speech recognition systems do (or at least used to before deep learning)?
Since we do know that one of the early layers of human speech recognition processing produces a sequence of best phoneme guesses, and higher layers can force backtracking to try the next best guesses, it is possible to check psychophysically if there is such a normalization at lower layers by checking the processing speed, and if there is a change in processing speed after normalization takes place.
It is also an interesting question how the speaker recognition and speech recognition processes are related. Do we first recognize the speaker and then apply that speaker's phoneme recognizers? I remember reading a paper a few years ago about recognizing accents before recognizing speech (but can't find the reference).
Another clue is Hearing different accents at home impacts language processing in infants from U Buffalo (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/12/171205104127.htm ) which found that infants exposed to multiple accents before 12 months develop different recognition strategies. See also the JASA reference there and
Linguistic processing of accented speech across the lifespan (www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00479/full).
Finally Language Discrimination by English-Learning 5-Month-Olds: Effects of Rhythm and Familiarity (labfon.letras.ulisboa.pt/personal/sfrota/aeli/Nazzi_Jusczyk_Johnson_2000.pdf) may be of use.
Would love to hear what you learn!
Y(J)S
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Most of the research I've come across speaks to the compromised independence of auditors as a result of offering and delivering non-audit services to their clients, in addition to their performance of the annual financial audit.  I am, however, looking for other factors that may call auditor professional skepticism into questions, such as:
1)  lack of a defined method to document professional skepticism, but in particular,
2)  lack of validation protocols  to test the veracity of the information they receive anecdotally from executives and senior management in the interview/discussion process of the annual audit. 
Thanks in advance!
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How do we know that the missing fundamental is inferred by our brains and is not a by-product of the interference pattern caused by mixing tones of several frequencies?
Thanks for your thoughts!
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Thank you for your reply Stan Sykora! I would be even more scared if our brains were making up something that does not exist in the real world too often :).
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I am working on manuscripts related to auditory processing difficulties (SCAN-A, SCAN 3) among incarcerated adolescents.
Given some of our preliminary findings, I am looking for suggestions about resources and papers that might illuminate connections between auditory processing deficits and emotion regulation difficulties, particularly with regards to the impact on school performance. Perhaps even links with executive dysfunction (cognitive, behavioral or emotional).
There are a number of older papers on behavioral problems among school aged youth with speech and language deficits but I am not really finding anything specific on links with auditory processing problems, especially with regards to how emotion regulation and executive dysfunction are currently conceptualized. Maybe I am using the wrong search terms, but I would be grateful for any input!
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Vladimir A. Kulchitsky - thank you for the recommendation. Emotional Prosody is quite interesting, and I'll read carefully though it may be too far a stretch for emotion regulation.
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Pediatric Neurologists 
Speech language therapists
Neuropsychiatrics
Neurodevelopment specialists 
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Both terms are used frequently  to refer to developmental problems in children.
in Auditory processing disorders, children do exhibit difficulties in processing particular or specific aspect of auditory stimulus like, sequential order of two words or digits, separating noise from speech, auditory memory. These are behavioral measures and certain tests can identify these aspects. Katz and colleagues have given extensive information of this.
language processing issues are related to semantics and syntacs or pragmatic aspect of language . generally seen in LD and specific language impairment. In very young children it is often difficult to differentiate both and in some cases both issues can be present
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Usha Goswami
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Hii Christos, can you explain, How GDT help in tapping Rapid Auditory Processing, GDT assess Temporal resolution ability, If you can explain, I will be thankful for that. Thanks! 
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hello, in my experiments some participants' auditory P1 responses are below the base line. in terms of wave form I am confident that it is a P1, but below the base line, the same holds also for N1, which is sometimes above the baseline (but it is a N1, depending on latency and wave form characteristics)
what can I do for that? this leads to loss of data.
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I definitely understand what you are saying. It is quite a common site. But what we have to look for here is if they are really P1 or not based on the morphology of the wave. If you are confident about it bot worry. Just use peak to peak amplitudes. That should solve your problems. But it would be great if you could post some pics of those waveforms.
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I'm working on listed companies' auditors, but i didn't find any information on auditors' opinions, except for Spain 
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Dear Lorenzo,
The audit opinion of companies listed is a public information. Look at the paper: Determinants of going concern opinions and audit fees for development
stage enterprises. In the methodology´s section the author showed the desig research and origins of datas. Probably there are similar database of Europeans Companies.
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Hello.
I'm setting up auditory fear conditioning, and I wonder how I can measure decibel of a tone for conditioned stimulus. I want a 75-dB tone and have a decibel meter.
I am not sure where I need to place the decibel meter in the context
to adjust a 75-dB tone. near the speaker? on the bottom? in the middle? The speaker is on the right wall of a square shaped context and if I want to proceed fear extinction in a different octagon-shaped context, I need to adjust the tone again for the new context, right? In this case, where do I place the decibel meter ?
Thanks for reading and I'll be waiting for your tips.
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It would help to know more about your equipment, e.g., whether your microphone system has a probe tube on it. In essence you want to put the microphone at the position of the eardrum, which can be done with a probe tube and an anesthetized animal. Otherwise measure with the microphone at the position where the animal's eardrum(s) will be during the procedure. You also need to be sure that you are using a free-field calibrated microphone. If you change the setup you need to re-check the calibration. Make sure the space around the animal is free of hard, sound-reflecting surfaces or cover such things with soft cloth.
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I want to know about the clinical implication of ACC. Thanking You!
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In my view, the so-called ACC is simply a P1-N1-P2 complex (in adults) elicited to the second stimulus (the change stimulus) in a 2-stimulus sound. ALL P1-N1-P2 responses are CAEPs to a change in an "ongoing" sound. Under more-typical situations, the ongoing sound is the background silence or noise. However, there are many studies showing P1-N1-P2 response to a frequency change or intensity change, for example, in an ongoing tone.
The "ACC" paradigm is typically one where a change is introduced in the middle of an initial stimulus. Really not so different from the above, except that the "ongoing" sound, the initial stimulus, is a transient stimulus that also elicits a P1-N1-P2.
As for clinical applicability: The presence of an "ACC" response indicates the brain has the capacity (i.e., information) to detect the changed stimulus. This does not mean it actually detects (signals) that a change has occurred. The ABSENCE of an "ACC" response is not useful clinically. Thus, the clinical usefulness of the "ACC" is currently very limited.
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I need to know how many layers of neurons are involved in the propagation of sound information from ear to brain (i.e., auditory pathway).
I am also interested if there is any biological evidence on the kind of connectionism. For example, a feedforward network could represent well the auditory pathway? How many neurons per layer are typically considered? Are present feedback loops? (if so, what kind of feedback? Inhibitory or excitatory?).
Thanks in advance for your attention. 
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The hair cells in the inner ear transduce pressure waves into a neuro-chemical response that activates primary auditory nerve fibers. These fibers carry information from the inner ear and terminate in the brainstem auditory nuclei. There is a feedback loop from these nuclei back to the hair cells called the efferent system. 
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I have cum across loads of published research on MMN evoked by multiple deviants... Its just intruding to know if the same is applicable for P300?
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P300 is seen for both frequent and infrequent stimuli. As a motor response is expected for infrequent stimulus, sometimes it is hard to distinguish P300 from the mu response. See for more information about P300 with target and non-target stimulus. Katayama, J. I., & Polich, J. (1998). Stimulus context determines P3a and P3b. Psychophysiology, 35(1), 23-33.
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Does anyone know which webpages, Journals have articles or researches in phonological awareness?
Thank you a lot in advance!!
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Dear Katerina,
Apart from providing a few articles in the general area you are interested in (I don't know if you are interested in phonological awareness in children, or teaching, or other areas, but these are all papers in phonological awareness), I'm going to show you a few ways to access free articles.
Method A: Google Scholar
1) Go into Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) and enter your search keywords.
2) When you get your results, the ones on the right usually include links to .PDF files, etc, that you can freely access.
The link will take you to the search I tried on Google Scholar, with some articles that might be relevant for you.
Method B: Research Gate
1) Click on the icon next to the ResearchGate search bar
2) Click on the one that says "publications". That will allow you to limit your search to publications hosted on ResearchGate only.
3) Type in your search query and sift through results. This method does not guarantee free access, since researchers can't always upload their papers to this platform, but sometimes you will be able to get a full-text.
I'm attaching a screenshot so that you can see where to find this function.
Method C: University Libraries
Your library might be able to provide you with VPN access, so if they are subscribed to journals, etc, you can access them. Some libraries provide their own search engines as well.
Best regards,
Fiorella
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I think within fluently spoken language we can’t hear syllables. We find syllables only in non-natural pronounciation. I know the final-obstruent devoicing in German is said to need the syllable for it’s explanation/description. But I think another description might be possible.
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Klaus,
In my view the question is a bit ill-posed. There is a more fundamental unit of sound and that is what one should focus on, to fully understand what is going on perceptually. This more basic unit is "sub-phonemic" and it is that part of the sound that allows one to discriminate each consonant (or vowel) from another. To believe this you must experience it. We have many of perceptual experiments that deeply delve into this question.
-The demos are the place to start, at:
-And then you can read the details of how we came to all this, for example at:
-A good paper to start with might be:
-and good papers to end with (or read in reverse order):
Riya Singh and Jont Allen (2012); "The influence of stop consonants’ perceptual features on the Articulation Index model," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., apr v131,3051-3068
Toscano, Joseph and Allen, Jont B (2014) Across and within consonant errors for isolated syllables in noise, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, July 2014;
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I developed a few tests but they are too long. I am looking at alternative solutions.
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My Z-Bell Testing is a quick screening that we use with brain injured people. 6 minutes for the "quick and dirty" pass/fail which category (autonomic or central nervous system) is the culprit. 10 more minutes for a more detailed evaluation of how to remediate the auditory filtering ability.
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I have recently processed a whole bunch of ASSR data. Once I have the spectrograms how do I compare groups statistically because it is 2D data? In particular I am interested to know if there 20Hz and 40Hz ASSR differ between two treatment groups.
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I have found out how to do the analysis. I will need to average across an epoch with a specific frequency band to get the average power. From this number I can perform standard statistics. For example I can average the power from 19-21Hz over 100-200ms to get a measure of induced spectral perturbation.
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I'm trying to understand how they work generally, no need for details:
- rate code = position in cochlear / on basiliar membrane with highest sensitivity for frequency (correct me if I got it wrong)
- temporal code / volley theory = unknown (neuron fire rate)?
- ensemble code = no idea
PS: What does phase locking mean in this context?
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The only thing I found is the influence of radii ratio: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2299218/
It's really interesting, but as human's cochlear doesn't vary in radii ratio that much, this should be neglectable.
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For example, in spaces with different temperatures:
Sound speed at 10 degrees Celsius and 50% relative humidity = 337 m/s.
Sound speed at 40 degrees Celsius and 50% relative humidity = 356 m/s.
If we have a calibrated objects vibrating at 1000 cycles per second in the cool room and the hot room, the wavelengths are 33.7 cm and 35.6 cm respectively. If sound speed was a constant 343 m/s, these wavelengths would equate to frequencies of 1017.8 and 960.8 Hz, definitely a perceivable difference. However, since the temperature differs, these different wavelengths both equate to 1000 Hz at the ear. If we perceive pitch from frequency, then these conditions will be heard as the same, but if we perceive pitch from wavelength, they will be heard differently. It seems that perception of wavelength would necessarily be binaural, since at one ear, coding is only frequency dependent.
Can we hear the difference between the same tone in a cold space and a hot space?
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The sound source produces, in this example, 1000 periods per second, no more, no less, independent of the medium. The medium can only have influence on the propagation speed and as a consequence the wavelength, which is only a part of the distance between source and ear, depends on the medium as well. At the receiver side the eardrum vibrates according to the water (or air) pressure vibrations. The time of one period remains constant 1 ms. If you would hear, for example, a higher tone, where would all these extra periods come from? Not from the source, not from some 'memory' in the medium and not from alterations of the distance between source and eardrum (as would be the case of the Doppler effect). The only things that are dependent of the medium are the delay (which is a constant and which doesn't alter the frequency) and the spatial perception (which is a reverberation effect and also doesn't influence the frequency). So from the eardrum vibrations to the auditory nerves at the basilar membrane everything remains the same (even the temperature remains constant, so even the wavelength within the auditory system will not be dependent of the medium outside the ear). The time of one period remains exactly 1 ms in all circumstances because nothing produces extra periods within a certain time interval and nothing 'eats' periods. The tone will be exactly 1000Hz, in air and in water. You can test it with an (underwater) speaker and microphone if you like.
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The wavelengths of the same frequency are substantially different in air and water. Do humans utilize wavelength in auditory pitch perception? This would also apply to rooms/places with substantially different air temperatures, and has implications for understanding auditory localization.
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As said by people already: the medium only has influence on the propagation SPEED, not on the frequency of the source. The number of periods per second is defined by the source. The wavelength is dependent of the medium which follows from the constant frequency: wavelength = propagation speed / f. The sound waves in water activate the eardrums and we hear exact the same frequency as the source produces. An other story is the reverberation in water. Because the prop. speed in water is about 4 times as high as in air, the spatial impression is much smaller than the same space in air. Some people know that if you fill your lungs with helium, your speech will sound as Donald Duck then. That is caused by the fact that the sound SOURCE is altered by the higher prop. speed of helium in your throat and mouth cavities (the vocal tract). In this case the production of the sound is dependent of the gas in the vocal tract: the resonations (formants) depend on the gas present.
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I am interested in hearing screening protocols that are standard practice in developed countries. What are standard hearing screening practices in your country?
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Hi there
There have been a number of high profile debates in the literature, especially in the States about this. See the paper by Bess and Paradise (Universal Screenings for Hearing Impairment: Not so Simple, Not Risk Free, Not Necessarily Beneficial and Not Presently Justified. Pediatrics, 93 (2) 330-334.) and the ensuing debate that raged!
In my opinion, the evidence is strong that early intervention (eg hearing aids or a CI) PLUS a committed family suggests much better outcomes for children born with a sensorineural hearing loss. This is supported by good evidence, eg Early intervention after universal neonatal hearing screening: Impact on outcomes by Christine Yoshinaga-Itano et al: Early Intervention and Language Development in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing by Mary Pat Moeller, This suggests newborn hearing screening is better than say a health visitor screen at age 8 months.
To my thinking, a screening program is only as good as what happens to the children after they have failed the screen. there is loads of information about the English universal newborn hearing screening on their website, including all the protocols, and the ongoing Quality Assurance programme. The URL is http://hearing.screening.nhs.uk/ Without good diagnostic testing and appropriate remediation, then the screening process will never achieve all that it promised.
Thanks
Penny
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Is there a simple way to describe these as strategies?
What happens (birds / mammals) when hearing? What does each graph on the right side say?
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Daniel,
The bird system is simply a delay line. As the conduction speed of signals in nerves is low, much lower than the speed of electric signals in cables, a series of coincidence detectors as illustrated in the figure can code for interaural delay. The neurons in the delay line will only fire if a signal arrives at the same time from both ears, an by making the nerve fibre from one ear longer than the finbre from the other ear, the cell will fire at a preferred delay. Each coincidence detecting neuron has its own tuning curve (sinusoidal curves in b) and so cover the entire range of interaural delays.
In mammals, all delay-sensitive neurons are tuned with maximum sensitivity to delays outside the maximal possible delay between the ears and the interaural delay is thus directly coded in the level of response (straight part of curve in the purple part of the figure in d).
Coincidentally, the leading expert on this (and author of the paper) Benedict Grothe, happens to sit right across town from you!
Best regards
Jakob