Questions related to Atmospheric Pollution
Currently, it is possible to monitor air quality using chemistry transport models and calculated concentration data dissemination platforms. In a localized agglomeration of atmospheric pollutant measurement stations, is it possible to carry out a study of urban air pollution by using only the data from these models ?
How would you rate the environmental protection activities undertaken in your country? Are these actions sufficient?
Are activities undertaken in the field of environmental protection insufficient? If they are insufficient, what do you think should be done in terms of increasing environmental protection efforts?
The problem of environmental protection currently does not apply only to the reductions emitted by industry, automotive industry and developing urban agglomerations of environmental pollution. The problem of environmental protection is increasingly connected with greenhouse gas emissions and gradual increase of temperature at the Earth's surface and related climate changes, increasing scale and frequency of weather anomalies and increasingly occurring climatic cataclysms. It is necessary to develop renewable energy sources and ecological innovations in energy and other areas of green economy development. It is necessary to increase the dimension in sustainable economies as soon as possible in order to slow down the global warming process and reduce the scale of environmental pollution and to increase the scale of projects undertaken to rehabilitate a degraded environment.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
How would you rate the environmental protection activities undertaken in your country?
I invite you to the discussion
Is the ongoing global warming process or the rivers flowing into the seas and oceans pollution are the main factors generating threats to the biodiversity of the oceans and ecosystems?
Are there any other factors resulting from the development of human civilization that generate threats to the biodiversity of the oceans and ecosystems?
I'm currently monitoring air pollution in Grenada, West Indies and as part of my project I have identified four scenarios in which I would like to use a back-trajectory analysis (HYSPLIT) to determine where air parcels at breathing height are sourced from, to get a better understanding of what may be influencing air quality for people living in Grenada.The four scenarios I am interested in are: 1. During a Saharan dust event with COVID-19 government interventions implemented, 2. During a Saharan dust event with no COVID-19 government interventions implemented, 3. Not during a Saharan dust event with COVID-19 government interventions implemented, 4. Not during a Saharan dust event with no COVID-19 government interventions implemented. Is it possible to use HYSPLIT back-trajectories to determine where air parcels at around breathing height are sourced from to determine what is influencing the air quality of this particular location (Grenada) at particular dates and times that satisfy each scenario?
For example, I would expect that during scenarios 1 and 2 that back-trajectories would lead back to the Sahara/Sahel of the African continent, given the proper starting height for the back-trajectory.
Ces derniers jours nous avons remarqué de bonnes choses sur le climat et l'environnement. Par exemple, on note une nette amélioration de la qualité de l'air. Une pause planétaire de deux mois a montré la diminution des émissions de gaz carbonique et de dioxyde d’azote (NO2). Sachant que la pollution atmosphérique a un effet important sur le climat.
How should one compare the NOx emissions (where the impact on nature and mankind is mostly local) and green house gase emissions (e.g. CO2) where the Impact is mostly global?
The question is of importance, if for instance a Technology is reducing the CO2 Emission but is increasing the NOx Emission - or vice versa.
I've calculated Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing(DARF) values (W/m2) for Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar City, Gujarat, India using SBDART Model (AOD values as an input) at Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), Surface (Surf) and net Atmospheric Radiative Forcing(Atm).
Please let me know how to interpret these values and how to further analyse the data.
Trees in urban system provide a variety of ecosystem services including biodiversity conservation, removal of atmospheric pollutants, oxygen generation, noise reduction, mitigation of urban heat island effect, microclimate regulation, stabilization of soil, groundwater recharge, prevention of soil erosion and carbon sequestration. The important roles played by green spaces are social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects of sustainable development. Urban green spaces can be a comprehensive tool for long term protection of environmental sustainability through improving the quality of life and air quality, increasing property value due to their amenity and aesthetic characteristics, and reducing the energy costs of cooling buildings.
Atmospheric chemistry is very complex science with various processes work in tandem. Here, we discuss only about chemical transformations by ruling out transport and deposition processes, in the atmosphere. There are many chemical mechanisms available to choose from and work with for the chemistry and air quality studies. People work with either one mechanism for specific problem or many mechanisms as part of "intercomparison of mechanisms". A lot of such studies have been carried out so far.
Despite being it complex, one has to have kinetic level understanding of the processes in the modeling. Here, I would like to know if the atmospheric chemistry modelers have that understanding already. If so, how did they develop that skill?
According to my knowledge of remote sensing the lidar requires insitu measurements and can be interfered with and biased by the climatic conditions of the study area, are there any alternatives to this methodology for the quantification of PM 2.5 and PM 10 and what is the best type of image to quantify these aerosols?
There is a need of integrated assessment modelling for climate change impacts evaluation.
Intra-sector for agriculture (including rapid spatio-temporal changes in soil fertility, ground and surface water availability, cropping intensity hike for meeting food demand, rapid change in insects-pests dynamics).
Inter-sectoral (for agricultural impacts_- energy, health, socio-economic concerns, industrialization, atmospheric pollution, communication, etc.
Climate change on agriculture - well documented, mostly on point results & lack of regional validations
Existing Models deal with crop-weather interaction in solo, with boundary conditions for other bio-physical and socio-economic aspects fixed, in most of the studies.
Need to evolve IAM (Integrated assessment modelling) at this this stage
There should be some research group working on this aspect, or formation of a group to initiate these actions in near future
Does anyone know how frequently sand storms and dust storms that arise from middle east or north africa travel to Pakistan and North India? I was wondering, in view of the already worsening air pollution levels in North India, events such as dust and sand storms reaching the subcontinent may exacerbate the situation. How rare or common are such sand and dust storms being carried from their place of origin (usually middle east and north africa) and intermix with fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants in another far off location? Has there been any similar, possible mixing of phenomena (dust storm and smog) reported/documented/studied anywhere around the globe at any time, preferably that was also caught by polar or geostationary satellites?
I was looking at a true-color or natural color satellite image acquired on 29th Oct. 2017 by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi-National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite around early afternoon. I've attached a screenshot of the image as well as provided the full link to access the satellite imagery. These satellite images have been stitched together to create a global mosaic. Unlike MODIS, VIIRS do not show any data gaps (except sun glints!). I found this satellite image particularly compelling because it clearly shows the sand storm picking up over northern Saudi Arabia and moving around Iraq, Iran, Caspian Sea towards Afghanistan with the movement of wind. I also think the Earth's rotation from west to east has a role to play in the movement and direction of the wind laden with sand and dust. But it seems difficult to understand their dynamics. The smog over North India and parts of Pakistan can be differentiated from the sand storm over middle east in this satellite image. In North India this is the time of the year when there are intentional crop fires due to the traditional slash-and-burn agriculture practice.
Dear RG Community, I have the need to estimate the PBL height for the area of Milan (Italy) in two years (2011, 2014) as 12-hours values more or less. These data will be necessary to run a model for the estimation of airborne pollutants, removed by vegetation.
Searching in the web I found this database
but I don't know how and if it is "easily" possible to calculate PBL from them. I will be very gratefull if some collegue can help me to better deepen the problem. Thanks in advance.
Air pollutants like ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, lead cause atmospheric pollution which regards to ozone depletion, GH effect, climate change and human health effects. If anyone say the main factors of air pollution beyond of industry, means of transportation, solid waste generation and urbanization.
Secondary aerosols are becoming a huge concern during pollution episodes esp. in cities. They can make up to 50% by mass of the total aerosol loading at a given time. While it is clear that some chemical species are only known to be produced by gaseous precursors rather than being directly emitted, how do observational scientists distinguish between primary and secondary aerosol species from their measurements, or do they?
I would like to know that by comparing the periodograms for a pollutant concentration and its sources, whether it can be deduced that seasonality of the source is causing the seasonality of the pollutant?
I have observed traffic volume and an air pollutant over a time period of 12hrs during daytime for 3 consecutive days. Is it possible to check seasonality and trends, detrend and fit a Box-Jenkins model for both data?
I am trying to derive a relation with traffic volume and pollutant concentration observed during daytime for a week. It is seen that from time series of both data, the traffic volume seems to have an inverse relationship with pollutant concentration. I believe due to favourable meteorological conditions at day time, concentration is getting dispersed although the emission increases. Is it possible to remove the effect of meteorological parameters by deseasonalizing the pollutant data, so that the underlying trend between traffic and pollutant is more clear?
I want to model the dispersion of different air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NOX, SOX) of individual freight vehicles on link level (high used roads). When looking for dispersion functions, I ran always into these kind of formula (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/TEC11a/page014.html). If I understand them well, those are not considering; 1. the differences between various pollutants, 2. dispersion generated by the flow of subsequent vehicles, 3. the decrease in concentration throughout time. Is it possible to consider those three too? With which formulas? I thank you in advance.
I'm wading through Jacobson (2014), learning that the net radiative forcing from biomass burning emissions is a complex story. Does anyone know of any work that's been done to characterize the suite of products (trace gases, black/brown carbon etc.) emitted from wildland biomass burning according to fire intensity, flaming/smoldering phase, fuel component, moisture content, fuelbed/ecosystem type?
I'm imagining that while chemical soup(s) have been measured in plumes (via, say, instrumented aircraft) from wildland fires and reported in literature, there's not much to relate the chemical profiles back to fuel bed/combustion conditions etc.
thanks for any pointers
*Jacobson, M. Z. (2014), Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 8980–9002, doi:10.1002/2014JD021861.
During a field study, I found that PM10 level was as high as 234 μg/m3 at a location while at the same location PM2.5 was just 23 μg/m3. Is it possible to have that much difference between these two parameters? The sampling location was a residential area and is close to a haul road.
Pollutant particle transportation is usually slower than water itself while they look like travel together. However nutrient transportation involves too many biological interactions and sediment deposition so we often need to resort to experimental techniques.
My question is what is the theoretical relationship between this two velocities (celerity for hydrology and velocity for nutrient) from the point view of hydrodynamics without involving experiments. Any useful equations or references? Thanks a lot!!
Just a rough estimate. My idea was. First calculating Mass flow rate = air flow rate through the column / the molar volume of air at normal temperature * Pollutant concentration ppm * Molecular weight pollutant. Result will be g/H2S/min
Than I wanted to calculate Carbon bed lifetime = Media capacity for H2S * Media volume/ Mass flow rate. This shoud give me idea about capacity of my column exactly for H2S g.
Than just calculation of time. But I don´t know how, results are nonsense. :(
Total sulfate is originated from sea salt, dust, and produced by oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere.
I would like to know how to calculate the portions of sea-salt sulfate and mineral dust sulfate by using sodium and calcium or magnesium, respectively, as tracers.
in another way, how can I estimate the portion of non-sea salt sulfate?
I want to know what types of satellite imagery used and what algorithms should be used to know the concentration levels in cities of some air pollutants.
Thanks in advance
I consider to relate the air pollution to a visible parameter as the Bergerhoff model to measure dustfall, but there are another methods to make people aware of it.
I want to find methods, mainly those of easy comprehension to the people in my town and could be used to make some practical recomendations to them.
There are rough demonstrations like a plastic container with water where particles fall down and float over the fluid surface, but that method can not demonstrate some of pollutans and couldn't be used to measure and describes them and that is very important.
Please help me to find those methods and if you know about handmade methods that's better.
Jose Julio Cerro Rodríguez
When we talk about carbon Trading.Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of the European Union,or any other organisation why only Carbon emission has been pointed out not other harmfull gases
I need the measure to build six Bergerhoff Model's structures like length, width and height of each part of it and parameters to use it to measure the atmospheric dustfall.
We have the bags with various length and diameters with different compress air cleaning pressures and consumption.
I would like to know the basic rules for designing the compress air pressure and consumption with regards to bag length and air pressure and types of jet pulse diaphragm valves.
SIA (secondary inorganic aerosols) like SO4, NO3, NH4 etc. have been found to contribute significantly to PM2.5 mass in urban areas. Is there a general rule that they are predominantly a result of secondary formation from their gaseous precursors (SO2, NO2, NH3 etc)? Or are they also primarily emitted? Can we make some generalizations based on current state of knowledge?
the impact of commercial kitchens in the surrounding environment, by vapors , odor . or smoke and if there are nay methods of reducing such pollution
Is it possible to reduce the private ownership of cars by promoting the use of virtual cars summoned by cellphone apps? What public policy recommendations have been made worldwide and what government incentives have been offered to achieve this?
Background information: The use of computer apps to request taxi services has created a new industry, with companies like Uber and Ola growing at an impressive rates. However, Societies have not recognized that this new form of public services can contribute a lot to reduction of atmospheric pollution and traffic jams on the streets. It can also contribute to job creation. Visit
The contaminants in agriculture are attracting more and more attention now a days. The contribution of ammunition burning is not comprehensively addressed.
In order to identify the potential pollution sources in my receptor site, I investigated the air mass back trajectory using HYSPLIT model. How can I perform in selecting the arriving altitude of back trajectories ? This altitude should be above or below than mixing layer height?
I am working in the production of the above agricultural products but read some item that potash has a negative effects on beneficial bacteria in the soil. I would like to know if it has the same effects on this bacteria too.
I guess we have all heard about the ongoing tragic and worsening situation in Greece since 2008 for a large fraction of the population there and for refugees from Europe and elsewhere who ended up in Greece.
I am no socio-economic or political expert but I gather that the number of people living in precarity has soared there. I have certainly met benevolent social workers who shared stories of despair that are hard to forget.
Greece is afflicted by a range of natural hazards and risks of disasters. It has a recurrent and documented history of such disasters.
I am wondering to what extent it is still possible for Greek scientists and/or the international community to suitably anticipate and monitor for those potential disasters and to suitably prepare for a disaster response, considering the ongoing and arguably worsening (?) situation in Greece ?
I am thinking about large forest fires (and eg. resulting biodiversity loss and atmospheric pollution), severe thunderstorms, land erosion, flash floods and mud flows on the one hand, and of tectonic earthquake and volcanic eruption hazards that may also lead to a tsunami risk in the Mediterranean on the other hand.
With the situation in Greece, aren't the vulnerabilities and the risks of impacts from such potential disasters much greater in Greece, and for some of these hazards for the European-Mediterranean regions ?
Has anyone studied how vulnerability of the Greece population to such eventualities may have increased since 2008 ?
Has anyone studied how the risks themselves for a given disaster scenario may have increased considering increased vulnerabilities and other changes in the structure of the Greece socio-politico-economic systems ?
Tectonic earthquakes from the Aegean arc submarine faults in Greece could trigger a tsunami affecting the Mediterranean region.
Can the adequate monitoring and disaster preparedness efforts still be pursued at the present time ?
And if not, what may be the wide-ranging impacts ?
The unmonitored active shallow-marine Kolumbos Bank Volcano (6km to NE of Santorini volcano) erupted explosively in 1650 AD. If it erupts again in a similar way, what may be the risk of an impact for international air traffic similar to that which related to the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruptions ?
What may be the tsunami risks in the Mediterranean if the Kolumbos Bank volcano erupted explosively again ?
So to sum up, I am wondering if socio-economic-political changes in Greece since 2008 have affected vulnerability, resilience and risks for a diversity of disaster scenarios ? And also who may have studied aspects of this ?
I am also wondering to what extent scientists in Greece and elsewhere can continue to adequately monitor for, anticipate, research, sensitize for, , and generally prepare for such disasters occurring in Greece ?
And if it is the case that the Greek scientists have difficulties continuing their work (?), to what extent the European Commission and international negociators on debt alleviation in Greece may have taken such considerations into account ?
Is this not the sort of situation making the ground much more fertile for much-enhanced impacts of geo-disasters ? Including for some that may affect much of Europe or the Mediterranean Countries ?
Anyhow, a whole series of inter-related questions there.
I am wondering what colleagues think of all this and if some of you may have elements of answer to some of these questions ?
Many thanks in advance for any insights.
With best wishes and kindest regards,
I have one year long time series of CO2, CO and CH4 over an urban city. I want to remove their background for seeing the actual variability from their local emissions. What is the procedure for calculating the background mixing ratios of these gases on daily and monthly basis?
I am trying to analyze some filters outside from the country, but I do not know how I may send this samples without controlling the temperature. Does anyone know how to send samples that must be at a temperature below zero? at least -1C?
Dear all. There is a queatsion about aerosol bothered me. In the CAM4.0 and the previous version of CAM, the aerosols are prescribed, meaning that the model doesn't include the interaction between aerosol and cloud, and the aerosol chemsitry. IPCC AR5 reported that the radiative focing of the aerosol-cloud interactions is larger than the radiative forcing of aersol-radiative interactions. So, in the CAM4.0 and the previous version of CAM, whether the radiative forcing of aerosols will be underestimated? And in this situation, how does the the model represent the climate change well?
I am struggling to calculate the specie specific uncertainty for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Positive Matrix Factorization version 5. I was reading the guide however, could not understand how to calculate uncertainty. Below is the paragraph given in PMF guide.
"The equation-based uncertainty file provides species-specific parameters that EPA PMF 5.0 uses to calculate uncertainties for each sample. This file should have one delimited row of species, with species names (Table). The next row should be species-specific method detection limit (MDL) followed by the row of uncertainty (species-specific). Zeroes and negatives are not permitted for either the detection limit or the percent uncertainty. If the concentration is less than or equal to the MDL provided, the uncertainty (Unc) is calculated using a fixed fraction of the MDL "
Unc. Aluminium Ammonium Arsenic Barium
2 0.00419 0.0125 0.00098 0.0068
10 10 10 10 10
In above mentioned Table decimal values are MDL value of given species but I don't know that what is "10" and "2", if 10 is uncertainty then how can we calculate it?
Secondly I have 52 weeks samples (1 sample per week and 17 studied species). My question is whether I have to calculate Uncertainty of all species for all sample or I can use only one uncertainty values for all samples.
My feed stream consist of 2% CO and remaining N2 with the total feed rate of 100 cc/min. I am using a Ni-CeO2 system. Ni is in reduced form. Kindly let me know how I can calculate equilibrium conversion of CO in the temperature range of 250 to 450 degree C. thanks in advance.
I have read lot of lit. with ref. to biological indicators and preliminary analysis shows that algae are the best indicators. However, there are various groups of organisms which show varied reponses to pollution. The question is how to judge the capability of particular group as indicator. Also why to use use biological indicators when there are sophisticated sensors available.
I am getting single peak (12:00-3:00pm) for Aecetylene and propene in the diurnal plot.
(1) not consider the interannual variability (IAV) of ENSO, IPO that are strongly correlated to the IAV of global mean surface temperature (GMST).
(2) Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration contributes to the increase of GMST.
(1) Katharine & Ken (2014): Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission
(2) CDIAC, Global Carbon Budget 2014: CO2 emission rate increased by +1%/yr during 1990-1999, by +3.3%/yr during 2000-2009. It is triple rate.
Combined all these information (Presupposition+Information), can wen predict that the trend of GMST is positive during the 2010s, and may have a acceleration rate?
I need to compare results of running an air dispersion software at different scenarios (varying in the amount of the dispersed material) for 6 specific geographical locations. Which statistical significance test is suitable for comparing results of different scenarios (concentrations at these 6 locations): t-test (regular) or paired t-test?
I want to derive correlation between PM 2.5, PM 10, TSP with MODIS derived AOD. In PM 2.5 , PM10 , TSP which one correlates better with AOD?
I have been performing EC-OC analysis, using the sunset lab monitor (model 4), on atmospheric aerosols collected every 2 hours. However, in all of my samples I observe that the EC_OC split occurs before the introduction of oxygen (pre-oxygen issue) and the OCpeak1 is constantly higher than the reported thermal OC. This issue occurs for both PM2.5 and Coarse PM samples. I have tried several different temperature protocols (e.g. rtquartz, NIOSH5040, NIOSH870), but the pre-oxygen split still exists. I was wondering if anyone else has had the same issue? If so, how can this be solved? Also I want to know whether the values reported by the instrument are reliable when the pre-oxygen split occurs or not?
Health risks caused by short term exposure to ultrafine particles generated by residential wood combustion: A case study of Temuco, Chile http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014000221
Chemicals used in conventional agriculture systems pollute both the soil and the atmosphere and also jeopardize the health of both farm workers and consumers.The AM association has received attention as part of an increasingly popular paradigm that considers active and diverse soil biological community as essential for increasing the sustainability of agricultural systems . As suggested by Bethlenfalvay and Lindermann (1992), “The role of AMF may be critical if agriculture is to return to the state where luxury levels of farm inputs of fertilizers, pesticides and or chemicals are decreased to levels that are still economical, yet do not pollute the environment or pose health risk to consumers or handlers”.
We want to collect PAH samples on 47mm circular filters instead of 8x10 inch sheet filters with a fine particulate sampler having flow rate 1m3/hr.
There has been some discussion in the recent literature on trace elements in speleothems about the importance of colloidal transportation of some elements,but the transportation of Pb, Cu, and Zn from the surface to the spelothems are not realy studied.
I would like know more about this subject, I hope this helps.
We used it for generating the highly adsorptive nitric acid vapor as an alternative for the permeation tube (discussed by Karl Cammann in these topics).
It is briefly described in
Artefacts in the sampling of nitrate studied in the “INTERCOMP” campaigns of EUROTRAC-AEROSOL
M. Schaap et al
Atmospheric Environment. 12/2004; 38(38):6487-6496
In particular, I intend to make it more quantitative. Do you have particular problems and solutions you have used in class or in practice that you would like to see in this edition?
I'd like to know the photolysis rate coefficient of NO2 in formation of ozone in urban environment and want to compare it with ground based observations
It is an acrimonious debate whether there is global warming or not. In recent times several instances have been cited in favour of global warming, including the raising of sea water, the melting of glaciers in both the North and South poles, as well as in the Himalayas. There is no doubt that there is an upsurge of CO2 in the atmosphere, besides other causal gases. Can the escalation of green cover come to our green planet's rescue? Or are there any other biological or chemical tools that can solve this burning problem?
Here in Spain, commercial, residential and domestic biomass burning is officially supported for climate reasons, but in urban agglomerations the effect on air quality may be very negative.
Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are measured by various methods like field gas chromatography, apacity measurements, non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR), chemiluminescence; flame photometry, fluorescences etc but the relative contribution of sources like transportation, industrial, construction etc cannot be determined directly. What proxies are used to make such determinations?