Science topic

Atlantic Ocean - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Atlantic Ocean, and find Atlantic Ocean experts.
Questions related to Atlantic Ocean
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
4 answers
There is a difference between height of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Could it be explored for hydro energy generation using PCHs technology?
📷
Relevant answer
Answer
In principle Yes, if one can avoid conflict with transportion function. I have visited the canal and found that it is quite narrow.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
28 answers
Usually people consume Fish in winter.
But in some areas it is consumed by few people in summer weather.
While some people say that fish is not good for health in summer?
What is your opinion?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
Hi all,
In order to analyze the distribution of seabirds, I need to get information on the zooplankton in several localities throughout the Atlantic. Does this exists, as raster layers (or equivalent)?
I already explored the copepod tool (https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/copepod/toolkit/) without success.
Thanks in advance,
Fernando
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
I am interested in the Cenozoic history of surface circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the subtropical and tropical regions. However, most information I have found so far is related to the North Atlantic.
In particular, I would like to know if the main currents and countercurrents have changed their intensity, in response to climatic and tectonic dynamics during the last 66 million years. What are the evidences for these changes? What literature would you recomend for solving questions on this topic?
Many thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
2 answers
Does anyone has a seawater quality report or source for mainly False Bay area or anywhere (Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean)?
Details of the seawater quality such as nitrate concentration, salt concentration, phosphate concentration is much appreciated.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
I think some of the data you expected will be available in the following article. Please see the Figure 4-2 [Natural gradients in ocean pH (total scale) across the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins, showing the natural variation with both depth and latitude, for the period 1990-1998. Data from GLODAP (http://cdiac.esd.ornl. gov/oceans/glodap/Glodap_home.htm); after Feely et al. (submitted)] in the below mentioned article. particularly pH, salinity and carbonate ion concenration across the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
6 answers
I am currently doing an analysis of climatic effects on the reproduction of the European shag and I need to get the monthly SST averages in the northwest and north of the Iberian Peninsula. Does anyone know where this data could be downloaded? I'd be glad for any help!
Thanks a lot
David Álvarez
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks, Biplab
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
30 answers
The Southeastern region of the United States of America, including Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and the Caribbean archipelagos are being devastated by a higher number of hurricanes than ever before--Why? Are these stronger and more frequent wind and rain storms evidence of (1) global warming; or (2) climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prof. Janusz Pudykiewicz, thank you so much for the link to the paper and for the instructive talk from a specialist in Atmospheric Physics, about this very interesting topic, the link among different events such as the solar cycles and the way it influences the weather and the atmospheric behaviour on earth. Really, thank you.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
5 answers
Hi everyone!
In what free journal can I publish studies of large mammals activity patterns???, both in English and Spanish...
Thanks,
Relevant answer
Answer
Mammal Review - Wiley Online Library
onlinelibrary.wiley.com › journal2019 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics): 50/168 (Ecology)8/168 (Zoology) ... Mammal Review publishes five article types: Reviews (new analyses of published ... and Comments (responses to papers published in Mammal Review). ... rapidly than in the last 20 years, and further large increases can be expected.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
7 answers
I have found the folowing diatoms in the Atlantic ocean. Can somebody help to identify species or genera of the following specimens?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, you are right. The look identical. Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
14 answers
What is the tectonic explanation for having the African plate two spreading edges (MORB)-diverging boundary- , from the side of the Atlantic Ocean and from the side of the Red Sea?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks, Rabee, thanks, Sebastian. But the general recognition of a model does not exempt a scientist from the need to think. Can we think together? It is not that difficult. Almost everything is already there. At one time, Morgan, one of the fathers of plate tectonics, prudently created an alternative to it: plume tectonics. If we compare plume tectonics with other tectonic concepts, then it is obvious that it perfectly combines with any tectonic concept (classical geosynclinal, expanding and pulsating Earth, regmagenesis, etc.), except for plate tectonics. Indeed, the idea of ​​mantle jets piercing convective meshes, the idea of ​​"hot chains" too complicate both plate tectonics and plume tectonics, explaining only regional sequences of volcanic ages that are not linked to the global picture. So the question is: are there enough plumes to explain the observed tectonic phenomena? “Long” plumes under the boundaries of the plates, “point plumes” under the “hot spots”. Short spreading (up to 100 km) and short subduction as a process of the same scale of movement with collision and obduction. A periodic change in the intensity of plumes brings the entire system into an oscillatory regime. Isn’t such a picture simpler than the hardly imaginable multi-story convection in a solid?
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
2 answers
Hello,
During an expedition in deep-sea southwestern Atlantic Ocean, we found some samples but we don't know what they are. They have a thick wall and they are “hard”, as if they were made of plastic. They seem to be a mass with several egg capsules, but looking at the content under the stereoscopic microscope has lead as up to nothing… Does anyone have an idea of what this can be?
Thanks in advance,
Relevant answer
Answer
I have been playing with ideas of what the animal could be and in addition to my previous mentioned suspects it just might have come from a chambered chaetopterid worm species. If you look at some of the species then you could see the resemblence.
Regards,
Dr. Abhishek Mukherjee
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
11 answers
Hi!
I'm currently arguing with a Muslim friend about a part of the Coran that says the Atlantic ocean's waters and the Mediterranean sea's waters are separated by a invisible barrier and thus never get mixed with one another.
This do kind of make sense for me at the macroscopic level. But it does not make any sense for me if looking at the microscopic level. I think that at a microscopic level there is an exchange of ions and a mixing between both waters with a transition area which proprieties are a mean of both. The fact that the proprieties of the Mediterranean sea and the Atlantic ocean are different would be due to the fact that this process is slow and dependent of waves, turbulence and the surface of contact between the two.
As I am not specialist is marine sciences...could anyone enlighten me? Maybe one of you could suggest articles that would help me understand!
Thank you very much
Relevant answer
Answer
Some species of fish, living before only in the Indian Ocean, are now found in the Mediterranean Sea. Obviously, they travelled through the Suez canal like the ships that visit several harbours and connect all seas around the globe without meeting any barrier (visible or hidden).
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
1 answer
This rock was dredged in the Atlantic Ocean
Relevant answer
Try Globorotalia.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
8 answers
I am sorting mollusks from coral habitats (sediment samples in 450 - 600 m water depth) off the Great Bahama Bank, off western Florida and off northern Yucatan. I struggle with a large number of unknown species as I am unfamiliar with the region and do not have access to many historical papers with imaged species. I am looking for an authority from the region who would be willing to help out. The molluscan material looks very promising in terms of rare and unknown species with potential for publication in 2019-2020.
For more information, please refer to my update on the project on NW Atlantic Mollusca.
Grateful for any help, Leon Hoffman
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Leon,
Will you be posting photos? I can try. I have many books and reprints to access. It is just a matter of seeing what you are trying to identify
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
5 answers
I have a different research-related question
Relevant answer
Answer
Conway (2012) created the most up to date keys for most zooplankton in two parts: 1. Non-crustacean zooplankton and 2. Crustacean zooplankton. They are the best keys in the NE Atlantic for quick ID! Both parts can be downloaded from the National Marine Biological Library website - http://www.mba.ac.uk/NMBL/ from the “Download Occasional Publications of the MBA” section.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
4 answers
An explanation or any clearly written articles would be much appreciated. Thanks!
Jena
Relevant answer
Answer
OK thanks. Yes I'm picking up that the rainfall is related to both Atlantic and Pacific conditions and evapotranspiration over the forest itself. Perhaps the exact mechanisms haven't been worked out yet.
Jena
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
16 answers
Does anyone know of a site where I can find the pH of ocean waters in various oceans and at various depths?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Alistair,
yes, the reason is not too difficult, but it has two parts.
The first part is pure carbonate chemistry: the pH really is mainly a function of two quantities, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and Alkalinity (Alk). With rising DIC, at constant Alk, pH decreases, and with rising Alk at constant DIC, pH increases. The deep Pacific has a higher DIC, compared to the deep North Atlantic, hence its pH is lower; the tendency is somewhat moderated by the fact that Alk is also higher in the North Pacific, compared to the Atlantic, but not as much as DIC.
The second part is: Why is DIC higher in the deep Pacific than in the deep Atlantic? This has to do with the pattern of the deep ocean circulation, the overturning: Deep water is mainly formed (i.e. it had its last surface contact with the atmosphere) in the North Atlantic (North Atlantic Deep Water, NADW) and around Antarctica (Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW). From there it spreads slowly through the worlds oceans in a somewhat complicated patter, which is best described in a paper by Lynne Talley in Oceanography Magazine in 2013. The upshot is that water in the deep North Pacific is the 'oldest' water in the sense that is has been away form the surface longest.
And on its long travel towards the North Pacific, there has been a constant rain of organic particles into that water, which has been remineralised by bacteria and animals, releasing CO2, i.e increasing DIC (and also nitrate, phosphate and silicate), and reducing O2. In the Atlantic, the water simply hasn't had enough time to accumulate the breakdown products of the constant rain of organic particles.
There is of course more that can be said on that, but to first order that is the explanation, I think.
Cheers, Christoph
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
5 answers
Am working on taxonomic identifications of sampled coastal marine benthic macroinvertebrates from Atlantic ocean (Gulf of guinea / bight of Benin). Am in need of basic taxonomic keys in the identifications to species level of the sampled benthos.
Relevant answer
Answer
For bivalves you can use the different papers from Van Cosel. For mollusks in general, you also can use the book of Nickles but it is a little old (1950) and many names have actually actually.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
1 answer
I have generated Mg/Ca data of G. Tumida and Uvigerina species.
Relevant answer
Answer
I'd have a look at Elderfield at al., 2012, Science for Uvigerina. I don't think there is a species-specific calibration for tumida but have see Cleroux et al 2007 G3 and 2008 Paleoceanography for deep dwelling planktonic foraminifera.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
2 answers
Good afternoon community, I was wondering if there were algorithms used to calculate the environmental preferences (pH, Oxygen, etc) on marine organisms based on the results of temperature preferences and temperature scopes obtained in laboratory. I recognize that this question couldnt make much sense, take into consideration that I have never worked with the ecophisiology of organisms before, but  if they exist, what data do I need? What I want to do, is to apply a bioclimatic envelope model with the temperature preferences obtained in laboratory, but as I read more and more papers, it doesnt seem that the temperature alone is going to work very well. I could always infer the preferences of the environmental variables overlapping it with the presence/absence data , but im aiming for something more realistic. Thank you!
Relevant answer
Thank you for your answer Chris, the problem is that im using published papers as inputs in my model. Fortunately for me, I know most of the researchers so I think that im gonna ask them if they have that data.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
Hi all,
I was really intrigued yesterday after I fished this... bowl?
I first thought it was a sponge, but the structure does not fit at all. Today I asked some colleagues of mine, the idea came about a sea cucumber. But I am not that convinced. 
What do you think ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Found it, it is a Turnicate ! :)
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
In the upper 100 meters of the waters south of Cape Verde (Eastern Atlantic Ocean) I collected a number of pyrosome speciments. Can anybody confirm the identification for Pyrosoma atlanticum?
Relevant answer
Answer
This looks like a small specimen of Pyrostremma agassizi.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
2 answers
I want to determine light intensity profiles at different depths (down to 1000m) in the North Atlantic ocean. Is there any databases which provide this information ready available?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Peter,
You may find other indications in Paulson and Simpson (1977) JPO 7, 952-956 and in Prieur and Legendre (1988) in "Toward a theory on biological-Physical interactions of the world ocean" (Elsevier, New-York). But the best for you is the climatology of mean optuical properties of Simonot and Letreut (1986), JGR, 91, 6642-6646 that will provide you the Jerlov's coefficients for the North Atlantic basin
Best
G.C.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
Temporal series analysis
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Marcello,
For the equatorial Atlantic basin, I recommend to use the freely accessible dataset at the following adress (Brasilian site):
We recently published a paper with Jacques Servain (the father of the data set) dedicated to the SST time series trend derived from this product. The series begins in 1964 and so covers a nice 30 year period. (see Servain, J., G. Caniaux, Y.K. Kouadio, M.J. McPhaden, and M. Araujo, 2014: Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic: a role for ocean dynamics? Clim. Dyn., TACE Special Issue, doi 10.1007/s00382-014-2168-7.).
We analyzed the SST series covering the whole tropical Atlantic basin. In this paper you can also get some  ideas for analyzing the data series. I recently further investigated the trend of the series. If you wish, I can provide you some further details on this anaysis (my email: guy.caniaux@meteo.fr).
Regards
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
1 answer
There are several studies documenting temporal trends in marine productivity (e.g. plankton biomass or commercial fisheries landings). However, I am looking for studies that show whether there are differences in contemporary levels of marine productivity (i.e. biomass, not species numbers). 
Relevant answer
Answer
this kind of subject could be of interest for a project-proposal to be submitted to ERANET-LAC program...
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
3 answers
Material will be used for drawings.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. We have some Lembos websteri and Jassa pusilla from Northeast Atlantic. I have to confirm this and the specific sampling point. We have several species (but not the ones you asked) of Microdeutopus and Leucothoe, and other other species of Amphipoda. All specimens belong to Northeast Atlantic (several points between Norway and Marroco). Let me know if you are interested in something.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
10 answers
The Pacific ocean mid ocean ridges are considered fast spreading ridges, while those in the Atlantic are slow.
Relevant answer
Answer
see below -
PLATE TECTONICS: RULES OF THUMB CRScotese 12/19/93; updated 081312 Rule I. Plates Move only if they're pushed or pulled, not dragged. • The mantle plays a passive role. o The pattern of flow in the mantle is largely driven by lithospheric motions. • The motion of the mantle does not drive the plates (by mantle drag). o The idea of organized convection cells upon which the plates ride is wrong (though intuitively attractive - unfortunately!). • Oceanic plates move faster than continental plates. o Oceanic plates tend to have ridges (pushing) and attached subducting slabs (pulling). o At the base of oceanic plates in the LVZ (low velocity zone), a region of partial melting that provides 'lubrication" at the base of the plates. • Plates with a large area of continent move slowly (e.g., Eurasia) because they have a deep continental keel connected to the mantle. o For this reason continental plates more likely to be affected by mantle flow. • Plates (oceanic or continental) that are surrounded by ridges tend to move slowly (e.g Africa, Antarctica). o The push from the encircling ridges "cancels out". • Plates that are not driven by ridge push or slab pull do not move (Caribbean plate, Scotia plate). • In all cases plate motion can be understood and predicted by "balancing the forces" that drive and resist plate motion (driving: slab pull & ridge push, resisting: mantle drag). Rule II. Subduction Rules. • Slab Pull is more important than Ridge Push (80% vs 20%?). • Fast moving plates (>5 cm/yr), are attached to subducting slabs (e.g. Pacific, Nazca, Cocos, Indian) • The Phanerozoic speed limit is ~20 cm/yr (India, 65 Ma) o Convenient yardstick: 10 cm/yr = 1° per million year = 111 km/my • Where there is subduction, there is spreading or rifting. (The converse is not true.) Rule III. Ridges are Passive Features. • Ridges are there because the crust breaks when it is pulled. o Continental crust breaks first, because at the same depth it's closer to its melting temperature. • Oceanic crust rarely breaks; when it does it breaks where it has been weakened by a hot spot or subduction realted volcanism. • Ridges tend to align parallel to trenches. • One ridge is all you need. You'll never see two ridges side-by-side. • Fracture zones point to the trench. Rule IV. Subduction is Forever. • Collision only way to stop it. o You need big, gob-stopping continent-continent collision, otherwise subduction zone will "jump over" the colliding terrane. (e.g Capricorn trench in Central Indian Ocean). • Subduction is hard to start. o Most likely mechanisms: terrane collision or subduction virus.  A subduction zone that enters a new ocean can act as a trigger or focus for the start of subduction along an old, cold, heavily loaded passive margin (e.g. Puerto Rican trench and Atlantic passive margin). Rule V. Pacific versus Tethyan Subduction Systems • Pacific Subduction Systems(PSS) are characterized by a ring of subduction with a spreading ridge in the middle (e.g. Ring of Fire).  PSS are stable and can continue subducting for hundreds of millions of years. (As long as the central ridge doesn't get too close to a trench and gets subducted!)  They generate long-lived Andean-style margins or margin back-arc basins. • Tethyan Subduction Systems (TSS) are asymmetric or "one-sided".  There is only one subducting margin (like Tethys). On the other side of "Tethys" is a passive margin.  The ridge in the middle of Tethys must move towards the trench and is eventually subducted. • Because there is no longer a ridge in the subducting ocean, a new rift must form. • The rift forms in the continental plate that is now being "pulled " towards the Tethyan trench. o These new slab pull forces either tear a chunk of continent away from the margin (India), or break the continent apart (breakup of Pangea).  The latter in more likely to happen if the continent is weakened by old collision zones or new hot spots. Rule VI. Plates Subduct Normally. • Oblique convergence is more work; orthogonal least work. o Displaced terranes originate in areas of oblique convergence. o The highest mountains along Andean-style margins are in areas of oblique convergence (In NA that's Mt. McKinley). Rule VII. The Style of Convergent margin depends of the absolute motions of the plates. • Andean margins - net convergence (~10 cm/yr) • Western Pacific margins - net divergence (roll back 1-2 cm/yr) Rule VIII. Island Arcs don't ride their trenches across oceans. • Back arc basins never evolve into wide (>30,000 km) ocean basins. o You'll never find an continental island arc in the middle of an ocean. o There is always a continent nearby. • 90% of all ophiolites originally form in back-arc basins Rule IX. Slab Rollback Can Create Odd Intracontinental Ocean Basins • Oceanic lithosphere can become trapped (encircled) by continents (e.g. Mediterranean, Arctic, Tethys north of Alps). • Ssmall, short-lived subduction zones can consume this ocean floor creating intracontinental extension and small "odd " ocean basins (e.g. Tyrhennian Sea, Pannonian Basin, Makarov Basin). Rule X. Mantle Plumes (i.e. Hot Spots) are Important (Sort of) • Hot Spots are derived from the core/mantle boundary (mostly). • They provide a "good enough" reference frame for absolute plate motions. o Some Hots are Fixed; Some Aren't  Hot Spots are organized in "proper groups" • The Indian-Atlantic Proper Group has been fixed to spin axis since Triassic. • The Pacific Hotspots (Hawaii) have moved about 200 km in 100 my. • Hot Spots "help" break apart continents. o They create areas of weakness in the continental lithosphere. o Thermal uplift associated with mantle plumes causes uplift which help to give the a little "push" (like ridge push).  Important: Mantle Plumes and hot spots do not break apart continents. They just make the job easier. The heavy lifting is done by slab pull forces. o Hot spots under moving plates speed them up, a bit.  They thin the continent's "mantle keel" that usually slows plate motion.  They "grease the skids" by melting the base of the lithosphere (decreasing mantle drag forces). • If mantle plumes and hot spots did not exist, the plates would still move, continents would still break apart, move across the globe and collide! • But the things would be less interesting. Rule XI. Continental Collisions are Important (Really) • Continental collision zones (sutures) provide long-lived zones of weakness in the crust that are likely to become future sites of continental rifting. • A continent with many sutures will be weak and easily deformed (e.g. Asia following collision with India). Last Rule. Plate Tectonics is a Catastrophic System (not chaotic). • Plate motions are generally gradual; but every once and a while "WHAM"! o "Long periods of boredom interrupted by short moments of terror" o Because plate boundaries are metastable. Geometries can interact in unpredictable ways to produce global plate tectonic "events".  2 important instabilities: continent-continent collision & ridge subduction. • Continental collisions can cause new trenches to form. • India's rapid northward flight & the breakup of Pangea were due to ridge subduction. • both of these events cause rapid, global falls in sea-level o continental collision increases volume of ocean basins because the area of continental lithosphere o ridge subduction increases the volume of ocean basins by decreasing the average age of the oceanic lithosphere • Suprecontinents form and break apart because of the metastable nature of plate evolution. o Ridge subduction both breaks supercontinents apart and brings them back together (Wegener or Wilson Cycle).
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
2 answers
I've been looking for some historical maritime traffic data for Canada. Anything I have come across is quite expensive. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Lloyd's Register of Shipping recently launched an online archive starting from 1764, which includes ships registered in Canada.
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
5 answers
There is an evident positive trend in the EA index computed by noaa ncep. Could it be related to climate change dynamics or is natural variability?
Added: I think the question should deserve investigation, as was viewed more than 70 times and still no-answered.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Adrián,
thank you for your reply.
You well catched the intention of my question.
I have the feeling that such Atm pressure modes, at least the first ones, can be likely influenced/linked by the changing climate in a non-linear manner, hardly detectable by deterministic or even hybrid deterministi statistical models.
This is just a speculation of course.
I will go through the post u suggested.
Cheers,
Antonio
  • asked a question related to Atlantic Ocean
Question
4 answers
I have searched for a data center that provides freely available daily sea surface temperature (SST) for the North Atlantic Ocean. I will need both past (preferably back to 1900), present (2013) and future (preferably up to 2100) data, and if these could be downloadable from the same site with the same resolution (the higher the better) it would be great. Thanks for any suggestions.
Relevant answer
Answer
this does it:
SST 4km pathfinder AVHRR data, see here for 1km version
but I would use 4km. this meets your date requirements.
Future just model from past to presen to future ......
Grass has a very simple module that fetches the data and does all the required processing.