Science topics: Space ScienceAstrophysics

Science topic

# Astrophysics - Science topic

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behavior.

Questions related to Astrophysics

Dr. Hans-Otto Carmesin is a prolific theoretician who wrote among other things, these two books:

Modeling SN1a data:

Data H0_20210424.pdf

That said, he leads a field where a lot of unsupported claims are tossed around without anything to support it. That is why they are unsupported..:)

As Dr. Carmesin professed, scientists should follow the teachings of Aristotle and always use the simplest possible model that is consistent with Reality.

Dr. Carmesin's model has nonlocality, dimensional transitions, the usual suspects (Dark Matter and Dark Energy), and an epoch-dependent Dark Energy (figure 8.15 on the first book above).

It is a fantastic work and from my point of view, unnecessary and incorrect.

Unnecessary because there is HU which is capable to explain everything Dr. Carmesin explained without the need for a Big Bang, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, epoch-dependent Dark Matter, Polychromatic Vacuum. Because of that, Aristotle and Occam's Razor would support HU and rebut Dr. Carmesin's work.

Attached is my summary of the problems I found on Dr. Carmesin's claims that SN1a distances support his work.

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This is an ongoing discussion.

Dr. Carmesin provided a reply to my objections and

**confirmed that he is not sure if his model can predict the SN1a distances**.In fact, he said:

**"My theory does not fail to predict these distances. I just did not calculate these distances yet for a good reason: I tested my full theory by calculating the measured Hubble constants of the Hubble tension."****First, that is not a good reason. Second, I calculated the distances according to his model and the model failed. See the plot and the attached python script.**

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My plot of his model showcases that the model fails to predict the observed distances.

I also drive home the fact that Dr. Carmesin's model modifies the meaning of H0 (the Hubble Constant). Because of that comparison of results are not straightforward and seems to not have been considered before.

The plots also show that HU model predicts the observed distances without any parameters.

This is to understand how the concepts of statistical mechanics is applied in astrophysics.

Dear Researchers in the field :

Does anyone know what the KAGRA Gravitational Waves Observatory it's been up to ?

KAGRA announced at the end of last year (2019) that they were ready for the kick off. And that in February this year (2020) they were turn to the sky for the first (real) observations and be ready to joing the efforts of the LIGO-Virgo collaboration.

But I haven't hear anything about KAGRA since that time.

I'm sure they had to close due to the COVID-19 pandemic, probably since March.

But, now in December, almost the end of the year, I would have expected to hear news about Observatory.

Does anyone know what is it status nowadays ? Maybe the explanation is that the facilities kept shut down almost the whole year since the pandemic.

If someone know fresh news, I'll appreciate the sharing.

Best Regards all ! :)

I would like to publish my Scientific Preprint Paper free-of-charge in an international Astrophysics journal with a satisfactory Impact Factor. Can you please suggest such a journal?

I have published my Research Results on a New Orbital Model for Moving Bodies in the Universe that I am asserting as a result of my scientific analysis, which can be found below:

"Everything Is A Circle: A New Model For Orbits Of Bodies In The Universe"

(Paperback Book) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B08NYG14X8

(Kindle eBook) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B08PVS2FBW

I will be presenting this work to the general scientific community at #COSPAR in Sydney, Australia, which will be broadcast Live according to Congress schedule on February 2, 2021

and will be available as Video-On-Demand in more detail.

To provide an introductory idea for readers and scientific community in general, here is a short video giving an overview description of the main and most significant findings:

**A Cosmology based on a**

**Chaos-borne Hubble Law**

Otto E. Rossler

Division of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen, F.R.G.

**Abstract**

A recent classical-mechanical finding, Fermi deceleration, implies a classical Hubble-like law. While its exact size is still open, it is bound to co-determine empirical reality. Some old and new questions concerning the size and the age of the cosmos arise. The current enigma of early old galaxies supports the prediction of a potentially much larger and older cosmos. So does Riccardo Giacconi's finding of ultra-high-redshift x-ray point sources.

(October 8, 2004)

Recently, a classical-mechanics based Hubble-like law was described [1,2]: Light rays

negotiating galactic clusters that are in random motion with up to 1 percent the speed of light (as is realistic) suffer a distance-proportional redshift through "Fermi deceleration." The latter phenomenon was discovered by Loskutov et al. [3] on a chaotic billiard: A fast-moving, low-mass billiard that is subject to random grazing-type collisions with slowly moving highmass boundaries suffers a distance-proportional loss of momentum called Fermi deceleration [3]. The repelling grazing-type boundaries of Loskutov et al. can be replaced by attracting high-mass point centers - with the same grazing-type interactional effect. The slow attracting centers may be galaxies or clusters of galaxies and the billiard may be a light ray. The size of the effect depends on the density, mass and speed of the attracting centers.

The size of the effect appears to be neither too large nor too small to accomodate the empirical Hubble law [1]. If this preliminary result is taken as a cue, the implied lack of cosmic expansion re-opens the age-old question of the size of the cosmos. Fortunately, perhaps, a general-relativistic size limitation remains in charge if the mass density in the cosmos is uniform. In this case, not too much is changed compared to the standard paradigm: The cosmos can still be a pulsatile cosmos, for example, albeit so on a longer time scale.

If the assumption of a uniform mass density is dropped, on the other hand, the general

relativistic bound is no longer finite. This stationary solution to the original Einstein equations was discovered by Benoit Mandelbrot [4], a fact which is not very well known. If the fractal dimensionality of the mass distribution is assumed to be unity (so that twice as large a radius contains not eight times but only twice as much mass - as in an

*ultra-light*hole ridden Swiss cheese), the Schwarzschild radius which limits the size of the cosmos becomes infinite. For twice as much mass by definition has twice-as-large a Schwarzschild radius (and so on), so that no finite limit is reached in the present case. An exactly 1-D Mandelbrot cosmos is both stationary and unbounded. Peebles almost immediately found that the empirical fractal dimensionality of galaxies is about 1.2 up to large distances [5]. This and subsequent data can be re-evaluated by dropping the original assumption of a progressive lack of volume as the remaining distance to the primordial fireball shrinks toward zero. The validity of Peebles' near-unity result will thereby be extended to covering the greater part of the visible universe.If this prediction is correct, a "Brunian cosmos" (in honor of Giordano Bruno) of potentially unbounded extension in both space and time becomes an option again- But would not the other "pillars of the big bang" automatically preclude so far-reaching a conclusion? Surprisingly, this is not the case. The cosmic background radiation -- the strongest ally -- would assume the role of "mean cosmic temperature" in the sense of Assis [6]. The also observed large-scale fluctuations in the WMAP would reflect a giant honeycomb structure that lies beyond the range of current telescopes (although some infrared and x-ray sources may already be pointing the way). The three other major pillars - primordial nucleosynthesis, inflation and accelerated expansion - would have to wait in line until the gross features have been straightened out. The third (large-distance dimming) may, by the way, prove reducible to Peebles' little-known (1+z)--4 formula [7], cf. [8].

But how about the riddles newly imported by a modern Brunian cosmos? First, in the absence of a far-from-equilibrium big bang, the persistent far-from-equilibrium state of the observable universe becomes incomprehensible. A gravitational effect partially anticipated by Einstein in 1912 [9] may possibly solve the mystery: Any particle in rectilinear motion inside a Newtonian (or Einsteinian) void enjoys a forward acceleration [10], cf. [11]. If this is so, gravitational energy gets "recycled" into kinetic energy in a Carnot-like manner. The same mechanism, by the way, could explain - jointly with Hawking radiation [12] - the second major new riddle that arises: the empirical "non-devouredness" of almost all matter by age-old black holes.

The main asset of a classical explanation of cosmological redshift, when held against the backdrop of the standard model, seems to lie in the fact that it introduces no hypotheses. lt only uses facts that are implicit in classical (post-Newtonian) mechanics and special and general relativity anyhow. lts predictions are irrefutable once their size has been correctly determined. What is surprising is only how many accepted hypotheses suddenly lose their hard-won plausibility.

Nevertheless it would be nice to have direct evidence as well. Very faint distant x-ray point sources appear to possess redshifts in excess of 30. This is because, on the one hand, the sensitivity ofx-ray telescopes is presently 1000 times greater than that of light telescopes [13]

- so that they can look 30 times (squareroot of 1000) deeper into space in principle - and, on the other, x-ray point sources continue to pop up at the lowest brightnesses [13]. This empirically suggested, two-tiered conclusion is incompatible with the big bang scenario (which leaves no room for redshifts beyond about 10 for massive objects). lt is about tobe decided by direct redshi:ft measurements in progress [13]. A hard - if weaker - fact is the recent optical discovery of strongly redshifted old galaxies 12 billion light years away, which has put cosmology into a full-fledged crisis [14,15]. While almost any way out appears acceptable at the time being, the above explanatory scenario was arrived at independently.

To conclude, the classical-mechanical finding of Fermi deceleration has upset the decades old belief that only a relativistic mechanism can account for the Rubble law. By coincidence, an empirical crisis holds cosmology in its grip in which fiddling with the usual culprits (like the star formation rate in young galaxies) seems insufficient to rescue the big bang model. In

,.:;uch a situation, even an at first sight alien, chaos-borne ray of light can acquire a warm glow.

**Acknowledgments**

I thank Christophe Letellier, Heinrich Kuypers, Dieter Fröhlich, Normann Kleiner, Peter Weibel, Erwin Wendling, Hans Diebner and Florian Grond for discussions. For J.O.R.

**References**

[1] O.E. Rossler, D. Fröhlich and N. Kleiner, Time-symmetric Hubble-like law: Light rays grazing randomly moving galaxies show distance-proportional redshift.

*Z. Naturforsch.*58 . 807-809 (2003).[2] O.E. Rossler, Cosmic shear's temporal fluctuations generate a distance-proportional redshift in both time directions: Minibang theory.

*Chaos,**Solitons**&**Fractals**1335- 1338 (2004).***12**,[3] A. Loskutov, A.B. Ryabov and L.G Akinshin, Analysis of billiards with time-dependent boundaries.

*Facta Universitatis Series Mechanics, Automatic Control and Robotics 11,*99- 116 (2001).[4] B.B. Mandelbrot,

*CR. Acad. Sci. Paris*A 280, 618 (1975).[5] M. Seldner and P.J.E. Peebles,

*Astrophysical J*215, 703 (1977).[6] A.K.T. Assis, "Relational Mechamics." Montreal: Apeiron 1999.

[7] P.J.E. Peebles,

*Principles of Physical Cosmology*. Princeton University Press 1993, p. 226.[8] O.E. Rossler, "Darkness intensified: Existence of a nonlinear threshold in redshift induced dimming."

*Z. Naturforsch.*54, 453-454 (1999).[9] A. Einstein, Does there exist a gravitational effect analogous to electrodynamic induction?

"Collected Papers," English Translation edition, Vol. 4, pp. 126-129. Princeton University

Press 1996.

[10] O.E. Rossler, A morphogenetic instability in gravitation.

*Physica*D 2004 (invited paper submitted).[11] The term "Fermi acceleration" was already reserved by Loskutov et al. [3] for a different mechanism (the heating-up of billiards subject to repetitive head-on collisions with moving boundaries). Thus, a new term (“Einstein acceleration”?) will be needed for the present mechanism which has nothing to do with billiards and, by the way, does not extend to light, provided it is going to be confirmed.

[12] S.W. Hawking, Particle creation by black holes.

*Commun. Math. Phys.*33, 323 (1973).[13] R. Giacconi,

*Kepler lecture*, held at the University of Tübingen, July 2003.[14] J.-M. Bonnet-Bidaud, Le big bang face à ses contradictions,

*Ciel&espace*No. 412, 42- 44, September 2004.[15] Editorial: Mature galaxies in young universe at odds with theory,

*Scientific**American*online, September 2004.Remark added in 2020: Since this paper was written in 2004, Cryodynamics – explaining cosmology causally for good – got discovered; so this text remains just a step on the road.

If the Earth going through space would be close to a black hole, it would be gone to the center of it. Perhaps it is surrounded by low-density air

My questions are:

1. Could exist a black hole there without eating Earth surrounded perhaps by vacuum?

2. If it is possible that the black hole generates a lot of energy in the out border of the event horizon that could explain that the Earth heating is about twice the received sun power?

3. If it could explain the Earth magnetic field

4. It's mass

5. How to detect it

6. If it is true, perhaps earth temperature is higher than several million years before. It is known what was the Earth temperature then?

I make these questions because I am worried about the danger of generating a stable black hole in a scientific test. If one of them were created, it would go to the center of the Earth eating earth generating a thin tunnel.

Physics is one of the physical sciences. The two other physical sciences are chemistry and astronomy. Astrophysics is the branch of physics that deals with space and celestial bodies.

Carroll and Ostlie in An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, second edition at page 1099 remark: “Cosmological redshifts are caused by the expansion of the space through which the light travels, so for extremely large distances the total elongation of the wavelength depends on how the expansion of the universe has changed with time.” The 4/3 laws are based on dimensional capacity and imply a distance in 3 dim space stretches by 4/3 compared to the same distance in 4 dim space-time. Is there a connection?

It may be a binary black hole accretion disk or an AGN.

Can anybody please share the IDL source code for Hapke photometric modeling?

Thank you,

Dear Sirs,

I think many knows the ideas due to Jules Henri Poincaré that the physics laws can be formally rewriten as a space-time curvature or as new geometry solely without forces. It is because the physics laws and geometry laws only together are verified in the experiment. So we can arbitrary choose the one of them.

Do you know any works, researchers who realized this idea. I understand that it is just fantasy as it is not proved in the experiment for all forces excepting gravitation.

Do you know works where three Newtons laws are rewritten as just space-time curvature or 5D space curvature or the like without FORCES. Kaluzi-Klein theory is only about electricity.

Dear Sirs,

I would like to find out more precisely whether the 2nd Newton law is valid or not in wide range of masses, accelerations, forces. Particulary I have a question whether the inertial property of body (inertial mass) is able to stop the body for small external forces or not. I have found in the Internet the fresh articles with tests of the 2nd Newton law for small accelerations (10^-10), small forces (10^-13) and SMALL masses (about 1 kg). The articles deal with the question of dark matter and MOND theory in astrophysics.

But I am interested in BIG masses. Could the test be carried out in planetary scale? Maybe for the Moon or asteroids? Or for masses like 1000 kg? Thank you very much for any references.

astrophysicst

What is the role of anisotropy in the dynamic modeling of star. For realistic modeling of star what should be the trend of anisotropy from center to boundary.

Some petroleum and geophysics companies use controlled-source seismology for Mineral Inspection and cavity detection. These methods based on impulsive source controllers such as (dynamite, air gun seismic source, etc.). More efficient techniques use a Seismic vibrator for seismic wave generator such as chirp, sine or square seismic waves.

I wonder if recents detections of Gravitational Waves coming from earth or space using optical interferometry, and how to distinguish between each of them, especially when seismic wave have a same chirp form such as Gravitational Waves?

Example of Seismic Source: http://seismicsource.com/html/index.php

If global warming cannot be resolved by controlling/minimising gas emissions, then extraordinary measures may be the only viable options, one of such ideas is placing a solar shield between the sun and earth at the L1 lagrangian point to obtain a reduction in solar insolation . It may sound crazy, more like science fiction to know that a disk of 2000km in diameter would be necessary to reduce solar radiation reaching earth by 1.7%. I wonder about the sort of stresses that would be experienced by such an enormous body. Also, what sort of materials' properties would be required to withstand the conditions at L1, for example solar radiation, other rays. While it is possible to calculate the disk's orbital velocity around the sun, its angular velocity (around its axis) is difficult to calculate. I would be grateful if those with relevant experience could share their thoughts about how such calculations could be achieved.

Hi everyone,

I am studying MSc Astrophysics and my supervisor informed me last year that I would need to know Python to create plots in order to analyse data.

So I had started watching Python videos but when it came to using it for Astrophysics it turned out I still had not learnt anything. Being new to Python I had been 'learning' it in the ways of building a website and not for Astrophysics.

It's not applicable to what I am working on.

Long story short, I have been given some code to work with for analyzing chemical abundances in dwarf galaxies in the MW Galaxy. I feel I am learning by trial and error and ideally I would like to replicate scatter plots that I have seen in research papers but using my own data.

Is it possible to 1.) Know what programming software/language a scientist has used in their paper and 2.) Is it possible to get the code (the structure/layout) more than anything else?

I'm teaching myself Python and whilst everyone says it's easy compared to other programming languages, this is my first and therefore no comparison: just a lot of libraries that do many different things. I am finding it rather frustrating and need a "all you need to know" book on Python for Astropysics.

Equally if anyone knows any helpful resources I would be very grateful. Thank you!

What we actually mean by "Dark Matter Energy" in layman language?

Dear Colleagues,

I am a liaison (informal) at my university between science and the arts. I have family in planetary astronomy but this is far afield.

LINK to VIDEO: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/01/largest-gaseous-structure-ever-seen-in-our-galaxy-is-discovered/

A question or two:

What does this newly-reported Radcliffe Wave of gaseous proto-stars tell us about how our galaxy originated?

Is there any chance that this wave will make some difference in our own sun's behavior?

I was once told that stable isotopes of lighter elements such as H, N C , etc are found in stars, planets, etc. Can anyone suggest any literature which talks about the formation of these isotopes?

Does the New Astronomy Journal charge fees for publishing accepted papers? Are there any page charges?

Or is it totally free like Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics Journal of IOP or Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy of Springer?

There are some Computational fluid dynamic numerical simulations available like John Hopkins CFD numerical simulations database is available to use. Is that can be used for Astrophysics purposes?

What are the

**major unsolved theoretic problems**on the astrophysical dust molecular clouds and their evolutionary dynamics?We can direct this question to astrophysics scientists, theologians, philosophers, scientists thought and civilizations!

**why?**Astronomy shows that the universe is very wide and the distances between the planets are very far away, especially those distances between solar groups or between galaxies. So, for now, humans can not get out of the earth and settle outside.

Nor have we found references in religious beliefs about the possibility of humans coming out of the earth.

As well as philosophy scholars did not deviate from the geographical framework of the Earth!

It was amazing to see the very first image of a black hole. I'm not expert in the field of astrophysics, but in the interest of AI, I think the image is worth to be discussed more. I have made a blog to explain my point of view:

Agree? Disagree?

Astrophysical S-factors for thermonuclear reactions that produce electron neutrinos.

To publish a Unified Theory of Everything, which includes a series of papers describing and proving its Astrophysics, Electromagnetics & Optics, Gravitation, Weak Force, and Strong Force counterparts, what would be the best Scientific Journal to publish it altogether, or is it better to publish it as a book with chapters covering individual proofs in different physics disciplines? If submitting to a Journal, how can the intellectual rights be protected in the peer-review process? If published in a book, what would be the pros and cons in comparison to being published as an Academic Journal Paper?

Dear all,

in accordance with Friedmann-Lemaitre-Equation there are three different possibilities of space curvature which can be described mathematically and imparted graphically or analogously (Closed, Openend or Flat Universe). In the attached poster a fourth graphic representation is shown, which is however only graphically derived.

Is this sketch describable within Friedmann-Lemaitre-Equations? How can we interpret this sketch? A Universe that is truly infinite, although it has a defined start and a defined end point?

What would be a 3-Dimensional mathematical object to describe the plot (closed hypertorus, while closed means without a connection in the center?). And what numbers for curvature parameter k and density Parameter Ω make sense for this sketch?

I have created this plot purely graphically and wonder whether a mathematical interpretation of such a shaped space-time is possible, or whether it inevitably leads to paradoxes and is thus a graphic that can be drawn abstractly, but ultimately makes no mathematical sense.

Thank you!

the gravitational waves are travels through the universe with the speed of light and it is the disturbances/ ripples in the fabric of space-time. as observe in the electromagnetic radiation light is decays/redshift, similarly in the case of gravitational waves curvature of any massive astrophysical objects affects or deacay it???

Kepler-186f is the first earth-sized planet located in the habitable zone of another star that has been discovered. With this discovery, the search for life on other planets has entered into a new zone of discovery.

This question relates to naturalistic explanations, because they can approach to the reality or retreat from it with time.

A three-dimensional (3-D, nonplanar) geometrical configuration of astrophysical fluids could be conveniently visualized.

What is a justified way to visualize

**in astrophysics?***one-dimensional (1-D, planar) geometrical configuration of dust molecular cloud fluids*What is well represented by the single spatial variable, x, in this context?

The constitutive dust grains in astrophysical environments are partially ionized. What should be the most appropriate (effective) form of dust-dust interaction in astrophysical environments? In a broader sense, how should we improve the existing models in the above light?

Astrophysical fluids are nonthermal in nature. Could you please provide a list (preferably, tabular form) of various nothermal distribution laws for the constitutional particles relevant in large-scale astrophysical fluids?

Can any body name some astrophysical fluid instabilities still lacking theoretical explanation?

Paranomal Research should be considered research, we all understand that, but what kind of research? What branch?

At the dawn, of the 21st century during a reign governed by money and greed the buzz in the economic and technological race was to build an economy based on hydrogen. A couple years later with the financial internet crisis of 2001 all this buzz disappeared and we entered a reign of terror and war governed by a different type of ethics…

Now, we are facing a different challenge: the climate change due to the over consumerism and accumulation of pollution since the 19th century. After decades of foolish hard geo-engineering experiments scientists, engineers and technologists have to come up with all kind of ineffective “solutions” (some are doing worse than good) to master the astronomical forces involved in order to control the effects of climate change and continue business as usual…

Hydrogen is seen as a non-polluting way to store renewable energies and nuclear energy since its recombination with oxygen produce only pure water. It is a transportable fuel for vehicles and other tools and devices running on electricity.

Further, some scientists fascinated by the solar nuclear energy (

*“illimited source of free energy”*) have convinced uneducated deciders that the ultimate goal was to master the nuclear fusion and build an experimental international power plant called ITER.Please, justify your position by sound arguments.

Thank you in advance for your esteemed expert contributions and for your understanding.

Kind regards.

No personal attacks, insults, pollution of the answers with popular press clippings from other discussion will be accepted.

The derivation of orbital velocity is presumably well understood. One method is to set the centripetal force equal to the gravitational force and solve for v.

Mv^2/r = GMm/r^2

for which orbital velocity becomes v = sqrt(GM/r)

Now let's assume we have a spacecraft in stable orbit around a body at some distance r(1) and want to move the craft to a higher orbit r(2), to do this it must fire it's engines, i.e. accelerate the craft (a) for some time (t), and presumably increase its velocity as ∆v = at, however Newtonian theory tells us that the velocity has indeed decreased as r(2) is larger than r(1).

So I would like to know what kind of Hokus Pokus is normally applied to explain this problem.

For example:

In astrophysics, in the theory of black holes, when it is said that an in-falling body will appear to “freeze” (stop) at an event horizon of a black hole (originally by Oppenheimer & Snyder) there is a misconception: The radiation from such an object will have already fallen far below the visible spectrum of an observer stationed at a safe distance from the horizon, and the quantity of radiation emitted will approach zero as wavelengths approach infinity. What will be seen of a falling object still relatively high above the horizon is a fading and flickering – then nothing. And to be clear, so long as an object is visible, its

*acceleration*will be observed to increase (it is falling in an intense gravitational field!) as its*clock*and*emissions*slow.See my Black Hole Physics.pdf

What are the observational and practical evidences to support the fact that there exist strongly correlated astrophysical fluids in galaxies?

Suggested reading materials are welcome.

This post, written by Thomas Boisson for the group Astrophysics, Astronomy, Quantum Physics on Facebook, summarizes all the major problems of quantum physics, nuclear physics, cosmology, particule physics and astrophysics that are still to be solved.

You can propose your solutions, ideas, for each of the mentioned problems. The goal is to make this discussion a rigorous scientific debate.

Hi All!!
I have recently completed my PhD in theoretical astrophysics with work on accretion flow around black holes. Now I want to venture into some observational studies. I would like to know how I can make use of the VIRTUAL OBSERVATORIES to start some good quality research work in observations. I would be very glad if you could share some useful links or documents. Thanking you all...

Astrophysical objects stability in their own state.

Spherical waves are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments. Can someone provide some useful references on spherical wave analysis in spherical gravito-magnetized fluids?

*Normally, people apply plane-wave analyses even in a curved geometry, often irrespective of wavelengths. It is mostly encountered in the area of astrophysics and space sciences, even without considering any inter-dependency between the perturbation wavelength and the radius of curvature. What is the main justification?*

*Can I get some references on the planar-nonplanar wave connectivity and inter-transitional behaviour?*I will be very grateful if anyone can give the examples for both in astrophysical and laboratory perspectives.

I wonder about the source of the formula at internet

[((z+1)

^{2}-1) / ((z+1)^{2}+1)] c / H_{0}H

_{0}– Hubble’s constant, c – speed of light.“

*Comparing Hubble calculated distances and brightnesses with Pan Theory calculations of distances and brightnesses.*"I have checked the formula against 100 galaxies with [0<z<=1]. The correlation was ca. 99%. Somebody knows where the formula stems from? JM

It is well-known that the ground velocity of a plane or helicopter does not depend on relatively fast Earth rotation (~2000 km/h). But a rocket's ground velocity at the high enough altitudes does it increasing if the flying direction is close to the direction of rotation and vice versa.

What is the dependence of such a shifting on altitude?

-Up to now we usually use the

*classical mathematics*the origin of which is at the end of the 19^{th}century and/or at the beginning of the 20^{th}century. Even the contemporary quantum physics, astrophysics, and AI of the 21^{st}century are still using that*classical mathematics*! In von Neumann's quantum mathematics there is no any*anomaly*whatsoever in Thomas Kuhn's 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions': why?-Thanks for your answers! Marc

**Hawking's Legacy**

Black hole thermodynamics and the Zeroth Law [1,2].

(a) black hole temperature:

**T**_{H}= hc^{3}/16π^{2}GkMThe LHS is intensive but the RHS is not intensive; therefore a violation of thermodynamics [1,2].

(b) black hole entropy:

**S = πkc**^{3}A/2hGThe LHS is extensive but the RHS is neither intensive nor extensive; therefore a violation of thermodynamics [1,2].

(c) Black holes do not exist [1-3].

Hawking leaves nothing of value to science.

**REFERENCES**

[1] Robitaille, P.-M., Hawking Radiation: A Violation of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics,

*American Physical Society*(ABSTRACT), March, 2018, http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/NES18/Session/D01.3[2] Robitaille, P.-M., Hawking Radiation: A Violation of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics,

*American Physical Society*(SLIDE PRESENTATION), March, 2018, http://vixra.org/pdf/1803.0264v1.pdf[3] Crothers, S.J., A Critical Analysis of LIGO's Recent Detection of Gravitational Waves Caused by Merging Black Holes,

*Hadronic Journal*, n.3, Vol. 39, 2016, pp.271-302, http://vixra.org/pdf/1603.0127v5.pdfDear All,

not only in our university, but almost in all well known to me lectures about Dark Matter, MACHOs (Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects) are rather incidentally discussed while candidates as WIMPs, Axions or Sterile Neutrinos dominate the talks.

Is this - with nowadays knowledge and theoretical assumptions - justified?

With the description of a great abundance of primordial black holes MACHOs do serve a hypothetical answer for almost any questions like rotation curves, radial velocitiy, intermediate black holes, missing-satellite-problem, too-big-to-fail-problem, ...

Of course it is a highly speculative topic. BUT the WIMPs are too (if not even more). So shouldn't we - in accordance with the Principle of Occam's razor - favor MACHOs instead, because they are able to solve a lot of problems at once and at the same time we don't need to extend the Standard Model for introducing them?

Why do WIMPs and particle-like entities dominate? Did i miss a hint (for example some fundamental advantages of this models?). Or is it a general problem ultimately based on ignorance to a great extent?

Thank you

Dear all,

In the framework of a special issue of a French magazine that I am co-directing, I am looking for researchers working on Africa in different research fields, for short interviews about the future of Africa.

Women and African researchers are highly welcomed to apply for a better representativity of genders and countries.

Targeted fields, about Africa only (this list in non exhaustive):

- literature/linguistics

- physics/astrophysics

- terrestrial/marine biology

Thank you for your suggestions and applications,

Julie Morin-Rivat, PhD

This project aims to determine laser frequency on-board a Spacecraft. The Spacecraft will be launched with a Space Qualified Stabilized laser device as a payload. When the Spacecraft goes beyond the ‘Sphere of Gravitational influence’ of the Earth (having approximately a radius of 1,500,000 km), the laser device will be operated remotely, so as to determine its frequency during the later part of its journey.

We would like to get some advice about recommended type/model of a miniaturized/ compact Space Qualified Stabilized laser device that will be a good choice as cost and weight are the limiting factors for a cost-effective Space experiment.

The miniaturized/ compact Space Qualified Stabilized laser device will be like those developed by Prof. Robert L. Byer of Stanford University. What will be the most suitable type/model among those presently available from manufacturers, and that are at present being utilized by Principal investigators (PI) for similar Space experiments.

The recent findings in terrestrial laboratories (viz., the PTB Lab. at Braunschweig, Germany, the European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy {LENS}, in Firenze, the Italian standards Lab. in Torino, the NIST Lab. at Boulder, Colorado, USA, and the Quantum Metrology Lab., RIKEN, Japan), indicate that the differences of the frequency shifts of a particular type of clock/ laser between labs are in ~10's of Hz, while the current laser/ clock measurement precisions are in the milliHz domain; whereas, the frequency shifts due to the strong solar gravitational potential are of the order of MHz.

Takano T., et al, (Referenced below) have reported measurements (having precisions in the milliHz domain) of fractional frequency shifts between two laser (87Sr) clocks located at two terrestrial laboratories.

Whereas, the proposed Space experiment can be conducted utilizing any Space Qualified Stabilized laser/ clock having even lower measurement precisions than the ones belonging to milliHz domain.

However, the final choice of chosen model of the Laser device will depend on the availability of such Space Qualified Stabilized laser devices and also on cost considerations.

Why does the emission wavelength directly proportional to its duration?

I would like to change the preference of my research interests. How do I achieve that?

I am interested in astrophysics and astronomy

May be, just this problem is the central problem for cosmology and cosmologists.

Suppose there is a spherical mass that is *almost* a black hole. It should be possible to measure the distance from the center of the sphere out to an imaginary spherical surface a long distance R away from the center. If we measured the surface area of that imaginary sphere, would it equal 4*pi*R^2?

I have a follow-up question, based on the answer.

Cosmologist are puzzled by the small value of the cosmological constant. Why don't they accept my non-singular model of the universe based on the back-reaction of quantum fields.

hallo,

lets assume, intelligent life on exoplanets is connected with a variety of factors which must be given on this planet:

- right Star Class (e.g. G)

- planet formation

- right rotation speed (to minimize thermal stress on biology)

- planet with magnetic field to protect the planet

- occurance of water (origin: e.g. comets)

- temperature zone, comparable to the earth (e.g. water is liquid...)

- oxygen

- biological cell development

- formation of "higher" living organism

- formation of intelligent organisms

- formation if creative organisms

- lots of others imaginable.

I consider 10 independent factors and each factor has a probability of 10^-3 to occur. Then the result is 1 out of

**10^30 planets**has human-life.The visible mass of the universe ia 10^53 kg. The mass of the earth is 6*10^24 kg. The total visible mass of the universe matches

**10^29 times**the mass of the earth.Conclusion: if the entire mass of the Universe would be planets, then statistically another earth would be present (unfortunately there is no mass left over to form suns).

Is this reasonable?

Regards

Lothar

The goal of this question was for e to provide a proof that the Absolute Peak Luminosity of type 1A Supernovae have a G^(-3) dependence.

The argument is correct but it seems to be too complex.

There is a simpler argument that people can understand better. Just follow these links.

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Supernovae distances are mapped to the Absolute Peak Luminosity of their light profiles. This means the the only two measured values are luminosity at the peak and and 15 days later (to measure width).

Supernova explodes through a nuclear chain reaction:

1) C+C->Mg

2) Mg+O->Ca

3) Ca+O->Ni

4) Ni->Co->Fe

Luminosity is equal to the number of Ni atoms decay per second or dNidt.

So the peak Luminosity is the Peak dNidt.

There are TWO considerations that together support my approximation:

a) The detonation process accelerates 2-3 reactions (in comparison with equilibrium rates prior to detonation).

b) The detonation process adds a delay to photon diffusion. The shock wave originated in the core will travel to the surface. When the shock wave arrives at the surface, reaction 1-3 should (in principle) stop. Ejecta (non burned residues) are then eject and the photons resulting from the Ni decay have to diffuse through the thick ejecta cloud.

If you look into the Light/[C]^2 curve, you will realize that is has a small delay with respect to Light curve. The constraint of having a finite star size forces the maximum absolute peak luminosity to synchronize itself with the maximum peak Magnesium rate dMgdt, which happens at the maximum radius. So, the Physics of a finite star and a shockwave nuclear chemistry process forces the Peak Absolute Luminosity (dNidt) to match the maximum rate of Magnesium formation (dMgdt). Implicit in this conclusion is the idea that the pressure and temperature jump expedites intermediate fusions.

My contention is:

a) Light has to go through a diffusion process while traveling from the core. The motion of the detonation curve might synchronize light and [C]^2

b) The model in the python script contains a parameter associated with the light diffusional process leading to the peak luminosity.

I would love to hear about the chosen rate values (I used arbitrary values that would provide a time profile in the order of the observed ones). I would appreciate if you had better values or a model for rewriting the equations for the nuclear chain reaction.

**I see the detonation process as a Mg shock wave propagating through the star. Light would follow that layer and thus be automatically synchronized with [C]^2**

**Under these circumstances, volumetric nuclear chemistry depicted in the python script would have to be replaced by shockwave chemistry. That would certainly be only dependent upon the Mg content on the shockwave and thus make light be directly proportional to [C]^2!!!**

**In Summary:**

**HU see the Supernova Light process to be proportional to [C]^2. This assertion has support on two mechanisms:**

**Detonation temperature increase will increase the rate of equations 2-3****Detonation process should be modeled as a nuclear chemistry shockwave where Mg is being consumed as fast as it is being created. Light is following this shockwave and will peak by the time the shockwave reaches the surface of the Star. So, the shockwave mechanism ties together light diffusion and Carbon nuclear chemistry.**

Since I wrote this, I followed up on my own suggestion and considered the shockwave nuclear chemistry approach. You can download all my scripts at the github below.

The shockwave model considers that the amount of light on a cell along the shockwave is is the integrated light created through its evolution. It is developed as a unidimensional process since the observation (billions of years away from the supernova) can be construed as having only contributions from all the cells along the radial line connecting us to the Supernova.

So, the model is unidimensional. That said, it contains all the physics of a tri-dimensional simple model. All rates are effective rates since during the Supernova explosion nuclear reactions are abundant (one can have tremendous variations on neutron content).

The physics is the following:

a) White Dwarf reaches epoch-dependent Chandrasekhar mass. Compression triggers Carbon detonation A shockwave starts at the center of the White Dwarf

b) That shockwave induces 2C->Mg step. The energy released increases local temperature and drive second and third equation to the formation of Ni. Ni decay releases photons.

c) Photons follow the shockwave and diffuse to the surface where we can detect them. The shockwave takes tc to reach the Chandrasekhar radius (surface of the White Dwarf).

d) Luminosity comes from the Ni decay from the element of volume plus the aggregate photons traveling with the shockwave. They diffuse to the surface

e) Two diffusion rates are considered. One for light diffusion within the Star and another for diffusion in the ejecta.

# Diffusion process with two rates 0.3 for radiation created before the shockwave

# reaches surface and 0.03 for radiation diffusion across ejecta

kdiff=0.3*(t<tc)-0.03*(t>tc)

f) I considered tc to be 15 days, that is, it takes 15 days for peak luminosity. Changing this value doesn't change the picture.

g) The peak luminosity is matched to the peak Magnesium formation at t=tc or when the shockwave reaches the Star surface.

This means that Physics makes the Absolute Luminosity Peak to be also the peak of Magnesium formation and that takes place at the Star surface.

what are measured Stark broadening parameters for Mn I = 460.53 nm and Fe I 413.46 nm?

I have observed rotation curve data of a galaxy, and I want to know what is the best and simplest mathematical model to find the galactic rotation curve and dynamical mass of such galaxy.

Your help will be appreciated

Pioneer-V was 5.2 x 10^6 km (or 863Re) on Sun-Earth line on March 31, 1960, when first engulfed by solar plasma, but the peak of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was only measured six hours later, after it was measured by Honolulu station. This study shows the IMF was produced 12.5 RE from the earth, but the question is where the IMF was produced? (Given by one page of section “2.1 Re-Visiting the Historical Experiment” with related Fig.1 at: http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/Solar_or_Interplanetary_External_Magnetic_Field.pdf)

The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) as of solar origin was endorsed mainly due to the final report of the Pioneer V experiment on March 30-31, 1960. After reading point 3 in the poster you can decide for yourself (3. Weak Points in Pioneer-V Results Interpretation).

Hi, dear American cowboys! Has anyone tested the secondary aberration effect (i.e. v^2/c^2) at the conventional group delay model with geodetic VLBI?

Is there a chance for cryo-pycnonuclear reactions to take place in the degenerate core of a white dwarf, affecting this way its stability?

How can answer my kid 5 years old who asked me (who is On/Off the moon night and morning?

Observations of spectral lines of metal, helium and hydrogen in solar flares and prominences show that their profiles contain narrow emission component which corresponds to the very strong magnetic fields (10

^{ 3}- 10^{ 4}G) and very low temperatures, approximately an order of magnitude lower than that outside the regions of strong fields (see. eg. Lozitsky V.G. Advances in Space Research, 2015, 55, 958; Lozitsky V.G. et al., Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies., Suppl., 2000, No 3, 449). Because of the limited spectral resolution of observations, the exact value of the lower limit of temperature and the turbulent velocity remains unknown. And what says about this the theory?If spacetime is like a liquid—a concept some physicists say could help resolve a confounding disagreement between two dominant theories in physics—it must be a very special liquid indeed. A recent study compared astrophysical observations with predictions based on the notion of fluid spacetime, and found the idea only works if spacetime is incredibly smooth and freely flowing—in other words, a superfluid.

If it is true that spacetime is a superfluid and that photons of different energies travel at different speeds or dissipate over time, that means relativity does not hold in all situations. One of the main tenets of relativity, the Lorentz invariance, states that the speed of light is unchanging, regardless of an observer’s frame of reference. “The possibility that spacetime as we know it emerges from something that violates relativity is a fairly radical one,” Jacobson says. It does, however, clear a potential pathway toward rectifying some of the problems that arise when trying to combine relativity and quantum mechanics. “Violating relativity would open up the possibility of eliminating infinite quantities that arise in present theory and which seem to some unlikely to be physically correct.”

If spacetime is a superfluid, then what is the role of gravitons?

In my opinion, x-ray photometry works but I'm looking for the best method and other methods.

There are several material which light in weight and transparent also they won't allow cosmic radiation to penetrate to it. I'm looking for that kind of material.

According to Darwinian Evolution it is accepted that all life on earth has derived from a single source of DNA from which all life has evolved. If extra-terrestrial life has a completely separate source, and unimaginably different attributes, would we be able recognize it as life if we found it.

Dr Carol Cleland from NASA's Astrobiology Institute has pointed out that all 'life on Earth has a common origin,' and all 'terrestrial life represents only a single case'. (Astrobiology Magazine Staffwriter, 2003)

Professor Gerald F. Joyce is widely reported as having formulated NASA's working definition of life, and has stated the definition depends upon life being 'maintained by Darwinian evolution.' However, he has also suggested there may be 'another way,' and that it 'would be a huge breakthrough, if there was some paradigm other than Darwinian evolution that gets you what Darwinian evolution gets you.' (Leslie, 2013)

References:

Astrobiology Magazine Staffwriter (2003) ‘Life’s Working Definition: Does it Work’, Astrobiology Magazine. Available at: http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/lifes-working-definition/ (Accessed: 13 July 2016).

Leslie, M. (2013) Forming a Definition for Life : Interview with Gerald Joyce, Astrobiology Magazine. Available at: http://www.astrobio.net/interview/forming-a-definition-for-life-interview-with-gerald-joyce/ (Accessed: 23 March 2016).

There is a chance that since the moon's gravity is strongest at that point this will minimize the orbital decay. The satellite could also be placed to periodically pass through the high tide to reduce on orbital decay.

Can my idea work?

When considering general relativity and special relativity, the time for an observer dilates when falling into a black hole. The closer the observer reaches the event horizon, the times dilates more. This means that 1 hour for the observer will be 100000000 years for a person on earth. This should continue and beyond the event horizon, the observer should see the universe without the phenomenon called time (the phenomenon that prevents different events from happening at once). This means that, for an observer living inside the black hole, the universe doesn't have any beginning or end. Every event in the universe happened simultaneously. The big bang and the possible big crunch occured simultaneously. Aren't me right?

This question is directed to observational astrophysicists. I am working on the radiation problem associated with massive star formation. I want to know if the opacity of the gas in molecular does vary with distance from the center of a molecular clouds. I see that in the literature this opacity is assumed to be a constant taking a value of about 20 m^2/kg. I will be happy to get an answer from you!

See attachment!

It was suggested many years ago by Jacob Bekenstein that the rotation parameter of a black hole should be quantized as in usual quantum mechanics: J=n * hbar.

Assume that the inner event horizon r_ = m - Sqrt[m^2-a^2] is greater than the Ring singularity radius a. That is, a^2 < (m - Sqrt[m^2-a^2])^2 which for positive mass leads to imaginary a. We therefore must have the event horizon inside the Ring, and a < m or J < m^2.

Note that if we further consider the inner ergosphere radius with respect to the Ring and upon demanding cos^2[theta] positive definite we get at the boundary a restriction on the angular momentum: J = m Sqrt[2m-cos^2]

This defines a band for J and M : m Sqrt[2m-1] < J < m Sqrt[2m].

See attached plot

The energy-momentum tensor of a black hole, or what curves the Schwarzschild geometry?

H Balasin and H Nachbagauer

Using distributional techniques we calculate the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild geometry. It turns out to be a well defined tensor distribution concentrated on the r=0 region which is usually excluded from spacetime. This provides a physical interpretation for the curvature of this geometry.

Red planet: blue sunset

Blue planet: red sunset

Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering or other effects, which one is dominant effect?