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Astronomical Processes - Science topic

The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.
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Publications related to Astronomical Processes (46)
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Article
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We present an overview of the National Science Foundation’s Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), its instruments, and support facilities. The 4 m aperture DKIST provides the highest-resolution observations of the Sun ever achieved. The large aperture of DKIST combined with state-of-the-art instrumentation provide the sensitivity to measure the...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to formalize long-term trajectories of human civilization as a scientific and ethical field of study. The long-term trajectory of human civilization can be defined as the path that human civilization takes during the entire future time period in which human civilization could continue to exist. Design/methodology/approach...
Article
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The history of the transatlantic flights began in 1919 when Albert C. Read’s team flew between Newfoundland and Lisbon, with a stopover at Azores, for fuel and repairs. The flight was made following a chain of 60 U.S. warships in order to guide it along its route and to provide assistance if needed. Two weeks later, John Alcock and Sir Arthur Whitt...
Conference Paper
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The history of the transatlantic flights began in 1919 when Albert C. Read's team flew an NC-4 flight between Newfoundland and Lisbon, Portugal with a stopover at Azores Islands, for fuel and repairs. The flight was made following a chain of 70 US warships in order to guide it along its route and provide assistance if needed. On Two weeks later, Jo...
Article
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Se presentan en este trabajo algunos juegos de plaza, considerados como módulos didácticos para imaginar procesos astronómicos, a partir de la concepción de que el aprendizaje en Astronomía debe desarrollarse fortaleciendo la relación del propio cuerpo con el espacio tridimensional y con el tiempo, tal como se vive al observar el cielo, construyend...
Article
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A Lagrange multiplier-based damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter (W-T) dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics (AO) is tested with a breadboard system. We show that the algorithm can complementarily command the two DMs to correct wavefront aberrations within a single optimization process: the woofer DM correcting the high-s...
Article
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Photochemical/thermal retinal damage that results from unprotected solar eclipse viewing has vague presentations and sometimes misleading diagnosis, especially in cases with unclear history. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique useful in differential diagnosis that can reveal characteristic fovea...
Article
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Many biological processes such as reproductive and migratory behaviours have been associated with moon cycles. In this study, the nocturnal light levels associated with lunar cycle (INT) were correlated with daily catch rate of lobster P. argus, during seven lunar months of 2002 fishing period, to determine a possible relationship between these var...
Article
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The mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 µm. These features, formerly referred to as the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) Bands, are now generally thought to originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and closely related species. In addition to dominat...
Article
Full-text available
The heterogeneous reactions of NO3 on NaCl and KBr salt were studied at room temp. using a Knudsen reactor equipped with dual detection, namely Laser induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. The uptake coeffs. of NO3 were g=(4.9+-3).10-2 onto NaCl and g=0.16+-0.08 onto KBr. In the case of NaCl, HCl was the sole product obsd. However, there is in...
Chapter
If X-rays sample enegetic astronomical processes, gamma rays sample even more energetic processes. One of their main “uses” is to help us to find the sources of cosmic rays, which as we will see in Chap. 9 are sub-atomic particles with extreme energies. This is because gamma-rays are produced in sources which also produce cosmic rays, but they are...
Chapter
The Chankillo Solar Observatory is comprised of the Thirteen Towers and two observing points to the West and East, from which the profiles of the towers spanned the annual sunrise and sunset arcs, respectively. The towers were unquestionably an observing instrument: unlike the architectural alignments upon a single astronomical target (as in many a...
Article
Laboratory astrophysics is a rapid developing field studying astrophysical or astronomical processes on a high-power pulsed facility in laboratory. It has been proved that with the similarity criteria, the parameters in astrophysical processes can be transformed into those under laboratory conditions. With appropriate experimental designs the astro...
Article
A Fourier analysis of the magnitudes and timing of the Phanerozoic mass extinctions (MEs) demonstrates that many of the periodicities claimed in other analyses are not statistically significant. Moreover we show that the periodicities associated with oscillations of the Solar System about the galactic plane are too irregular to give narrow peaks in...
Book
In this updated version of his classic on deep-sky imaging, astrophotographer Greg Parker describes how the latest technology can help amateur astronomers process their own beautiful images. Whether you are taking your own images from a backyard system or processing data from space telescopes, this book shows you how to enhance the visuals in the "...
Conference Paper
Photonic integrated circuits are established as the technique of choice for a number of astronomical processing functions due to their compactness, high level of integration, low losses, and stability. Temperature control, mechanical vibration and acoustic noise become controllable for such a device enabling much more complex processing than can re...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the sources for the study of Greek calendars, the interpretations of those sources, the forms and functions of the calendar, and its variety and change over time. Because the origins and management of those calendars were related to astronomical processes, the chapters on astronomy, meteorology, agriculture, and time-telling...
Conference Paper
La actividad astronómica en Chile había sido acotada y parcial, hasta que, a comienzos del siglo XX, una expedición proveniente de California decidió instalarse en el país, para completar sus investigaciones relativas al “problema sideral”. Para ello, exploraron y desarrollaron técnicas relativas a la astrofísica, e instalaron un espectrógrafo de v...
Presentation
The chemistry that occurs in space is very different from that on Earth, but it is necessary to understand these differences in order to comprehend many astronomical processes. In order to study the astrochemistry that is taking place, radioastronomy can be used to observe transitions between rotational energy levels of the molecules and ions. The...
Chapter
This introductory chapter discusses the Gaia hypothesis as well as two other competing hypotheses. Gaia, the idea that life moderates the global environment to make it more favorable for life, was first introduced in 1972 in an academic paper by James Lovelock titled “Gaia as Seen through the Atmosphere.” The Gaia hypothesis proposes planetary regu...
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have been the focus of intense astrochemical interest in recent years. PA(N)Hs account for up to 20\% of the interstellar carbon budget and are believed to play key roles in many chemical and physical processes in the ISM. Evaluation of the extent to which...
Article
The 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting opened with a talk by Brian Schmidt, who shared the 2011 physics prize for the shocking revelation that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Fifteen years after Schmidt's initial discovery, the 'dark energy' invoked to explain this cosmic acceleration is still a mystery.
Chapter
The central themes of archaeoastronomy are the relationships that people have seen between themselves and the heavens and the ways in which these relationships have been reflected in archeological remains. The related study of ancient astronomy needs to be integrated with all available relevant information on myths and religious practices in as cle...
Article
Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended...
Article
An overview on the current status of the census of the early universe population is given. Observational surveys of high redshift objects provide direct opportunities to study the early epoch of the Universe. The target population included are Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAE), Lyman Break Galaxies (LBG), gravitationally lensed galaxies, quasars and gamma...
Article
An improved synthesis of a compound of potential astrochemical interest, allenylisocyanide (H(2)C═C═CHNC), is reported together with its microwave spectrum, which has been investigated in the 8-120 GHz spectral range to facilitate a potential identification in interstellar space. The spectra of the ground vibrational state and of five vibrationally...
Article
The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet i...
Article
Heliogeophysical parameters of the environment at the time of realization of suicidal behaviours using the data of four independent cohorts from different Ukrainian regions, separately for men (totally 7585 cases) and women (totally 4023 cases) for interval of 1989-2008 were analysed. A suicidal behaviour of men is actualized when geomagnetic activ...
Article
The activity concentration of terrestrial (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K) and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclide (137Cs) have been analyzed in 48 soil samples collected from Gilgit, a famous city for mountaineers and tourists in northern Pakistan, at an average altitude of 1,550 m, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The data analysis includes descriptive...
Article
This document describes two specific areas of enabling technology development in the area of computationally-intensive observational radio astronomy that are critical to meeting the science goals of large survey telescopes currently planned or proposed for the coming decade. Theses two areas of technology development are: i) scalable radio astronom...
Article
We provide a historical perspective on the rainbow, with a review of early research and observations regarding the rainbow's origin and a discussion of some of the major contributors to our current understanding of what the rainbow represents. An overview of the various types of rainbows is undertaken. We conclude with a discussion of the rainbow's...
Article
A study of the Earth’s rotation in space reveals a complex pattern of variations in its orientation, the excitation mechanisms of these variations, and their manifestations in various natural processes. The Earth’s rotation rate is not constant but exhibits complex fluctuations that account for some fraction of 108 (corresponding to variations of s...
Article
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will catalog billions of astronomical objects and trillions of sources, all of which will be stored and managed by a database management system. One of the main challenges is real-time alert generation. To generate alerts, up to 100K new difference detections have to be cross-correlated with the huge histo...
Article
Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that...
Article
Grid infrastructures can be beneficial to many applications, including astronomical and astrophysical ones. One of the main issues in Grid computing is data sharing and distribution. In the case of astronomical applications this is a crucial point, since astronomers process large amounts of data that come from observations and numerical simulations...
Article
Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that...
Book
This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provide...
Article
Integrating Java with AIPS++ can provide many advantages that cannot be realized with AIPS++ alone. Beyond simplifying architecture and code, use of Java in astronomical processing is promising because of its standardized nature, widely available tool packages and its exceptional GUI rendering abilities. We have implemented a Java Database Connecti...
Article
This paper presents a novel method for redshift determination of quasars. Firstly, a group of redshifts were determined using the emission line info extracted from the observed spectrum; Secondly, the template was redshifted according to the candidates, and the correlation between the observed spectrum and the redshifted template was measured. Fina...
Article
We have developed the four-dimensional digital universe theater at which we can visualize the observational data and theoretical models of astronomical objects stereoscopically. The astronomical objects cover all scales of the universe from the solar system to the large-scale structure of the universe. We have also produced the three-dimensional mo...
Article
The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in 2007, is a NASA mission designed to observe gamma rays from the most energetic objects in the Universe. The NASA Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Group at Sonoma State University is the lead institution for GLAST E/PO. Given the size of the mission itself, we have planned and ar...
Article
Presently there are six interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the commissioning or construction phase in North America, Europe, and Japan. Once completed this worldwide network of detectors will be capable of detecting gravitational waves with unprecedented detail and sensitivity. Their ambition reaches well beyond the first direct detect...
Conference Paper
Presently there are six interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the commissioning or construction phase in North America, Europe, and Japan. Once completed this worldwide network of detectors will be capable of detecting gravitational waves with unprecedented detail and sensitivity. Their ambition reaches well beyond the first direct detect...
Article
The world's largest astronomical antenna for the entire mm-range, the IRAM 30m telescope, is operated in the Spanish Sierra Nevada by the Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM). IRAM is sponsored by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional, the German Max-Planck Gesellschaft and the French CNRS. The antenna is located at an altitude of al...